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International Journal of Veterinary Science and Research
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2640-7604
Published by Peertechz Homepage  [75 journals]
  • Wound healing by brand new product

    • Abstract: Eggshell Membrane (ESM) has been used as an alternative natural bandage to cure wounds and is available in large quantities from egg industries. This study is based on the use of natural resources for skin tissue reconstruction. It needs to understand regeneration of tissue with Extracellular Matrix (ECM). Wound healing is a complicated and continuous recovery process of damaged tissues by replacing dysfunctional injured cellular structures. The wound healing process recruits some different phases: the first phase for hemostasis, the second phase for inflammation, the third phase for proliferation, and last phases for maturation/tissue remodeling. Each process needs an appropriate surrounding to achieve accelerated healing. Because the skin is in contact with the outside, injuries occur and therefore the surface is often injured. Due to the different types of wounds, as well as the advancement in medical technology, various products have been developed to repair different skin lesions. We investigate the wound healing effects which are measured by dividing into the Exture® group, the commercially available wound dressing group (positive control), and the untreated group (negative control). We induced wounds and measured the healing process for 20 days for a comparison experiment of collagen membrane wound healing. As for the wound, the decrease in wound area using external photographs, the healing process within the tissue, and the immune response were measured through hematology analysis. We confirmed some differences through comparison of blood cell analysis and wound healing process but did not find statistical significance. There was no significant difference between treated collagen wound dressing film and commercial wound dressing film. Thus, this study reveals that the possibility of use natural source-based wound healing products brings sufficient wound healing results.
      PubDate: 23 Feb, 2023
  • The impact of manipulation phase feeding system on the broiler performance
           and carcass lipid profile: A review

    • Abstract: This article intended to include the effect of manipulation phase feeding systems on broiler performance and carcass-serum lipids. The results of many different research studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of different phase feeding. The result showed that broiler performance was not affected but fat deposition and cholesterol, total feed intake was significantly reduced by the different phase feeding programs. So, we can conclude that phase feeding is one of the methods to reduce fat deposition and cost by controlling the amount of feed intake.
      PubDate: 01 Feb, 2023
  • Surgical management of the urogenital problem in male cattle

    • Abstract: Obstructive urolithiasis is urine retention due to the calculi lodgment in the urinary tract. Thus, treatment of urolithiasis is basically to establish normal urinary passage, which can be accomplished in various ways depending on the severity of the condition. This case report describes surgical management of urolithiasis through penile amputation in a five-year-old local breed bull that was brought to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the Addis Ababa University, Bishoftu Ethiopia with a complaint of difficulty in passing urine that had developed certain days before presentations. Upon presentation, the animal was found to be dull and depressed, and tail wringing, stamping the feet, kicking at the abdomen, and stretching were observed. On clinical examination per rectal palpation, the urinary bladder was distended. Based on the history and rigorous clinical examination the case was tentatively diagnosed as obstructive urolithiasis. Then penile amputation was performed through a post-scrotal approach after aseptic preparation and controlling of the animal in the appropriate position. Fortunately, after surgery, the animal was urinated continuously and postoperative follow-up and complications were recorded. Finally, the bull was uneventfully recovered and the skin suture was removed on the 15th day of the operation.
      PubDate: 31 Dec, 2022
  • Pacific bioscience sequence technology: Review

    • Abstract: Pacific Biosciences has developed a platform that may sequence one molecule of DNA in a period via the polymerization of that strand with one enzyme. Single-molecule real-time sequencing by Pacific BioSciences’ technology is one of the most widely utilized third-generation sequencing technologies. PacBio single-molecule real-time Sequencing uses the Zero-mode waveguide’s ingenuity to distinguish the best fluorescence signal from the stable fluorescent backgrounds generated by disorganized free-floating nucleotides. PacBio single-molecule real-time sequencing does not require PCR amplification, and the browse length is a hundred times longer than next-generation sequencing. It will only cover high-GC and high-repeat sections and is more accurate in quantifying low-frequency mutations. PacBio single-molecule real-time sequencing will have a relatively high error rate of 10%-15% (which is practically a standard flaw of existing single-molecule sequencing technology). In contrast to next-generation sequencing, however, the errors are unintentionally random. As a result, multiple sequencing will effectively rectify the bottom deviance. Unlike second-generation sequencing, PacBio sequencing may be a technique for period sequencing and doesn’t need an intermission between browse steps. These options distinguish PacBio sequencing from second-generation sequencing, therefore it’s classified because of the third-generation sequencing. PacBio sequencing produces extremely lengthy reads with a high error rate and low yield. Short reads refine alignments/assemblies/detections to single-nucleotide precision, whereas PacBio long reads provide reliable alignments, scaffolds, and approximate detections of genomic variations. Through extraordinarily long sequencing reads (average>10,000 bp) and high accord precision, the PacBio Sequencing System can provide a terribly high depth of genetic information. To measure and promote the event of modern bioinformatics tools for PacBio sequencing information analysis, a good browse machine is required.
      PubDate: 29 Mar, 2022
  • Risk factors influencing the occurrence of anthrax outbreaks at the
           Livestock-Game interface in Katunguru, Rubirizi district, Uganda

    • Abstract: Anthrax outbreaks are very frequent and recurrent in the Rubirizi district in landing sites along the Kazinga channel in the Queen Elizabeth National Park in Uganda. This has persistently caused huge losses of domestic and wild animals and increased public health risks to communities. A participatory disease search (PDS) was thus conducted to identify risk factors that influence the recurrent occurrence of the outbreaks. Using PDS tools, including, Focus group discussion, Mapping, Seasonal calendars, Timelines and Pairwise ranking, local communities were engaged to recall detailed information regarding previous anthrax outbreaks. The number of persons that participated in focus group discussions ranged from 16 in Kazinga landing site to 22 in Katunguru, 18 in Kashaka landing site and 20 in Kishenyi landing site The findings revealed anthrax outbreaks had been reported previously in Katunguru, Kyabakara, Katera, Kingu and Ryeyu sub-counties of Rubirizi district that lie within or adjacent to the Queen Elizabeth National Park. The last anthrax outbreak occurred in 2014. Death of goats and sheep and wild animals, especially, hippopotami was reported in the landing sites of Kazinga, Katunguru, Kishenyi and Kashaka in Katunguru Subcounty. Uganda Wildlife Authority (UWA) established burial sites for carcasses of dead hippopotami in Kazinga and Kishenyi landing sites. Key risk factors associated with anthrax outbreaks (see attached ranks) in Rubirizi district included: (1) Frequent droughts and associated floods (2.5); (2) Dwelling in landing sites normally used as burial areas for carcasses of dead animals by Uganda Wildlife Authority (2.8); (3) Free movement of goats and sheep and intermingling with wildlife at landing sites along Kazinga channel (3.0); (4) Community habit of eating the meat of dead wild or domestic animals (3.8); (5) Communities eating not well-cooked meat (4.0); (6) Ignorance among communities regarding anthrax and its mode of spread (4.8); (7) Frequent migration of communities from landing sites with low to those with a high risk of anthrax disease (6.5); (8) Grazing domestic animals in close proximity with wildlife in the Game Park (6.8); (9) Communities consuming game meat (8.0); and (10) Frequent occurrence of anthrax outbreaks and spread of anthrax spores through floods and existing water bodies (8.3). In conclusion, the PDS case study successfully identified risk factors associated with anthrax outbreaks in Katunguru Subcounty of Rubirizi district in Uganda. Sensitization of communities on anthrax, its mode of spread and effective and sustainable control was recommended in order to contain anthrax outbreaks.
      PubDate: 29 Jan, 2022
  • Nutritional Intervention with Bacillus subtilis strain PB6 in Early Days,
           enhances Performance without affecting Carcass Characteristics of Broiler

    • Abstract: The objective of the study was to evaluate the combinational effect of Bacillus subtilis strain PB6 along with vitamins (V), minerals (M), and amino acids (A) on performance, growth, and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens during the early days and compare with commercially available combinations of V+A, and M+A without probiotics. An in vivo trial was conducted for a period of 35 days with day 1 Cobb 430 broiler chicks, randomly allotted to one control and four treatment groups namely T1 (PB6+VMA-1 g/L), T2 (PB6+VMA-2 g/L), T3 (V+A-1 mL/L) and T4 (M+A-2 mL/L) using a completely randomized design. Each group had 7 replicates and 12 birds per replicate. The performance parameters such as body weight (BW), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were monitored throughout the trial. At the end of 7 days, BW was significantly higher for T2 (174.71 g) in comparison with T1 (173.99 g), T3 (174.41 g), T4 (173.39 g), and control (173.35 g, p < 0> 0.05). Similarly, at the end of 35 days, T2 (1842.15 g) showed the highest BW compared to control (1818.36 g), T1 (1839.39 g), T3 (1833.20 g), and T4 (1816.73 g) and significantly least FCR (1.53, p < 0> 0.05). The gut health of the birds was assessed by evaluating the dysbacteriosis and total mean lesion score at the end of 35 days and a score of less than one was observed for all the groups. Furthermore, return on investment (ROI) was analyzed and T1 showed an ROI of 2.21:1, followed by T2 which showed an ROI of 1.72:1, and no ROI was seen for T3 and T4. The results from this study suggest that supplementation of PB6 along with essential nutrients has a positive impact on the performance of broiler chickens, without affecting gut health and helps poultry producers for profitable farming.
      PubDate: 28 Jul, 2022
  • Review of bacteriophage and its applications

    • Abstract: The most prevalent and ubiquitous organisms in the world are bacteria-killing viruses called bacteriophages. The aim of this paper is to highlight some application areas of bacteriophages. There are both virulent and temperate bacteriophages in the environment, but only virulent bacteriophages are used for treatment, known as phage therapy. Since their discovery, bacteriophages have been considered a vital weapon to fight human and animal illnesses of bacterial origin. Currently, the emergence of growing microbial resistance to antibiotics and attention to bacteriophage use in treatment has all but grown up again. Correspondingly, the applications of bacteriophages for biocontrol purposes have become a remarkable opportunity in a number of fields, including farms and food production. Despite their treatment effects, bacteriophages also maintain a vital relationship with their hosts through moderating microbial populations and promoting their evolution by horizontal gene transfer. Additionally, they serve as vehicles for the transfer of vaccinations, the detection of dangerous microorganisms and systems for displaying proteins and antibodies. Bacteriophages are a varied collection of viruses that are simple to handle, making them suitable for use in treatments and biotechnology research. Hence, the expansion of various phage companies for phage production and the use of phage cocktails for the treatment of various bacterial diseases at different stages is recommended.
      PubDate: 27 Sep, 2022
  • Characterization and identification of bacterial flora from infected
           equine hooves

    • Abstract: Background: The aim of this study was to characterize and identify the bacterial flora associated with a specific hoof infection in a population of horses in the Rochester NY area.Methods: Samples taken from horses showing symptoms of infection were first grown on a Brain-Heart Infusion (BHI) solid medium. Forty different bacterial colonies were obtained and characterized microscopically and biochemically. The identity of these bacteria was also confirmed by 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing.Results: We have identified normal inhabitants of the skin such as Staphylococcus epidermidis as well as bacteria of the genus Bacillus commonly found in soil. In addition, bacteria such as Enterococcus gallinarum and Lactobacillus normally found in the intestinal tract of mammals were recovered.Interestingly, Corynebacterium xerosis, which is known to cause animal diseases was also isolated from infected horses.Conclusions: Our results indicate that the infection affecting the horses is likely the result of the presence of multiple bacterial genera including members of the normal skin and gut flora, as well as soil bacteria.
      PubDate: 27 Apr, 2022
  • Role of pet animals (dogs, cats) for emerging and re-emerging zoonoses
           disease: Review

    • Abstract: A pet has been shared in the environment many times and also they are bringing major psychological well-being to society. However, dogs and cats were a carrier of microorganisms that are pathogens for human infection, like viral, bacterial, parasitic, and others. From those pathogens are the emerging or re-emerging viral zoonoses for a human being, such as rabies, cowpox, rotaviruses, and others. Bacterial infections include scratches, pasteurellosis, Staphylococcus aureus, Leptospira, and tuberculosis leading to severe cases for people because of the different factors which occur in pet animals. Similarly, parasitic infections including hydatidosis, and leishmaniasis, are also recalled as pet-related zoonotic diseases. Lack of Veterinary care, good personal hygiene and pet hygiene, and absence of health education are the factors such as a risk of zoonotic infection.
      PubDate: 26 May, 2022
  • Epidemiology and diagnostic methods of lumpy skin disease: A Short Review

    • Abstract: Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a severe viral disease that is having an impact on the cattle industry. The disease is now widespread in the majority of African countries, and it has lately expanded beyond the continent into the Middle East area. The disease’s symptoms include an initial period of fever, followed by swollen lymph nodes, circumscribed firm skin nodules, and ulcerative lesions. It occurs in all agroclimatic situations, although it is more common in low-lying areas and beside watercourses. It is transmitted by insect vectors among cattle that share comparable pasture and watering sites and gather in the same barn. In this article, the lumpy skin disease virus, its epidemiology, and diagnostic methods are reviewed.
      PubDate: 25 May, 2022
  • Study on tapeworm infection in bovine calves of Bardibas Municipality,

    • Abstract: A study on Tapeworm infection in Bovine Calves of Bardibas Municipality, Mahottari district of Nepal was conducted during March – April 2021. A total of 100 fecal samples were collected from Ward No. 1,4 and 7 and examined in the laboratory as described by Soulsby, (1976). The laboratory examination was conducted at the Parasitology Laboratory of Himalayan College of Agricultural Sciences and Technology (HICAST). The overall prevalence of Moniezia spp. in bovine calves was found to be 5% (5/100). Based on the result, the prevalence of Moniezia spp. infestation in buffalo calves was found to be higher 8% (4/50) in comparison to Moniezia infestation in cattle calves 2% (1/50). The prevalence of Moniezia spp. according to the age group was found to be higher 5.56% (4/72) in the age group of 1-3 months compared to the age group of 0-1 month 3.57% (1/28). According to the location, the prevalence of Moniezia spp. the infestation was higher in Kisannagar at 6.38 % (3/47) in comparison with the Ratmata 4% (1/25) and Sunaulo Basti 3.57% (1/28).
      PubDate: 25 Feb, 2022
  • Surgical management of rectal prolapse in ostrich chicks (Struthio

    • Abstract: Out of 300 ostrich chicks imported from South Africa, five chicks of age two months faced rectal prolapse problems at once in the Ostrich Farm Private Limited Rupandehi, Nepal. The feather around the red protruded mass was removed and the protruded mass was cleaned with normal saline. The protruded mass was pushed with gentle pressure and corrected through surgical correction. A blood sample was taken for the analysis of the Hematological profile and the fecal sample was observed under the microscope through floatation and sedimentation techniques. On the fecal examination, no parasites were found. Feed management was done for the first day and Calcium with vitamins and other minerals was given. On the next day, two birds having small protruded masses were recovered. The protruded mass of the next three chicks was restored. Local anesthesia was given with 2ml 2%xylocaine solution around the vent region. Purse string suture is done with silk thread around the anal orifice. Blood serum examination reveals that severe low level of calcium i.e. 6.7,7.1,6.5,6.8,6.9 respectively in all 5 ostrich chicks which should be in the normal range of 9-24. As per my case study, the main cause of this prolapse is the low calcium level, the low fiber in the diet and cold stress due to the winter season.
      PubDate: 23 Aug, 2022
  • Acremonium species skin infection in a female French bulldog

    • Abstract: Currently, the role of opportunistic pathogenic microflora in the total number of dermatological patients in veterinary clinics has increased significantly. As the author’s personal experience shows, the clinical significance of fungal opportunistic microflora is often underestimated by veterinary professionals. The article considers a case of successful treatment of Acremonium spp skin infection in an 11-year-old female French bulldog. A course of therapy using itraconazole, terbinafine, probiotics, and topical treatment of the skin with an aerosol product containing 8-oxyquinoline (C9H7NO) stopped the infection within 8 weeks. A follow-up examination of the dog after 3 months showed 90% hair regrowth and no evidence of infection.
      PubDate: 23 Apr, 2022
  • The relationship between the naked mole-rat and hyaluronic acid, as
           mediated by its receptor CD44: A Mini-Review

    • Abstract: The life expectancy of the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is longer than that of other rodents. In NMR cells, the hyaluronic acid concentration is at a higher level. The extracellular matrix’s primary constituent is hyaluronic acid, and CD44 and RHMM are the receptors for hyaluronic acid in the cells. Hyaluronan synthases (HAS); HAS1, HAS2, and HAS3 are located in the plasma membrane and produce hyaluronic acid. Moreover, there are six types of hyaluronic degradation enzymes (Hyal-1, Hyal-2, Hyal-3, Hyal-4, and PH-20). Hyaluronic acid is known to have anti-cancerous effects and acts as a double-edged sword promoting cell senescence and protecting against cellular aging at the same time. NMR’s lengthy lifespan may probably be due to the high molecular weight of hyaluronic acid. INK4 isoforms (P16ink4a/b and pALTINK4a/b) and p27kip1 conferring on NMR a 2-way (early and regular respectively) defense mechanism make NMR more resistant to cancer cells than, humans and mice with only regular contact inhibition (regular (p27kip1). This study, therefore, aims to examine the existing molecular interactions within the NMR-HA-CD44 axis and the ability to confer cancer resistance to mammalian cells through INK4 isoforms gene transfer using the CRISPR method. A lot of potential thus exists in studying these relationships and the prospects for answering the yet unknowns in this area.
      PubDate: 22 Apr, 2022
  • Prevalance: Bovine mastitis and its predisposing factors in and around
           Holeta Town, Oromia, Ethiopia

    • Abstract: The dairy sector is threatened by mastitis, the most prominent and complicated infectious illness in the world for dairy cows. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of mastitis and potential predisposing factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out from November 2016 to April 2017 in and around Holeta town. A total of 316 lactating cows were purposefully selected and diagnosed for mastitis by physical examination and using the California mastitis test. The total prevalence of mastitis at the cow level was 74.05% (95% CI = 0.69-0.79). At the cow level, the prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis was 18.35% and 55.7%, respectively, whilst at the quarter level, it was 9.26% and 35%. Of the 1264 quarters inspected, 47 (3.72%), which correspond to 39 (12.34%), were discovered to be blind teats, while the other 1217 (96.28%) were found to be in use. The intrinsic factors significantly related (p 0.05) with the presence of mastitis in the multivariable logistic regression model were breed (AOR = 0.003, CI = 0.0003-0.335, in local cows (AOR = 0.003, CI = 0.0003-0.335, p = 0.000), age, in adult cows (AOR = 16, CI = 3.072-83.293, p = 0.001) and in old cows (AOR = 20, CI = 1.031-388.39, p = 0.048) and stage of lactation, in mid-lactation stage (AOR = 0.08, CI = 0.028-0.211, p = 0.000) and in late lactation (AOR = 0.1, CI = 0.033-0.288, p = 0.000). Semintensive management system (AOR = 16.85, CI = 5.484-51.824, p = 0.000) and extensive management system (AOR = 0.14, CI = 0.059-0.320, p = 0.000), milking hygiene (AOR = 9.43, CI = 3.443-25.805, p = 0.000), and previous mastitis exposure (AOR = 2.7, CI = 1.036-7.022, p = 0.042). This study revealed that subclinical mastitis had a high prevalence rate relative to clinical mastitis. This reveals that the disease lacks strategic preventative and control measures and that mastitis is economically significant in the studied area. According to this study, in order to reduce the economic loss of dairy farms, there should be stringent hygienic milking practices and a consistently sanitary conditions of the farms. Additionally, it would be helpful to promote awareness about routinely checking for subclinical mastitis and culling old and very often infected cows.
      PubDate: 21 Dec, 2022
  • Effect of camel milk and its derivatives on triglycerides and cholesterol
           level in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits

    • Abstract: This trial aimed to find out the effect of camel milk and its derivatives on triglycerides and cholesterol levels in Alloxan-Induced diabetic rabbits. Diabetes was induced by intravenous injection of Alloxan solution. The diabetic rabbits were treated with fresh and fermented camel milk and colostrums for 60 days. The results demonstrated that triglycerides and cholesterol levels were reduced throughout the experimental period when using camel milk and its derivatives and the levels were kept within the accepted ranges.
      PubDate: 20 Jan, 2022
  • Characterization and grading of Black Bengal goat skin based on coat color

    • Abstract: The research was conducted to study physical parameters and histological structural patterns based on the coat color of Black Bengal goat skins. Five hundred skins were randomly selected, and measured using scientific instruments and the Haematoxylin-Eosin staining method was used for histological study. Black coat color skin was found the highest (58%), the mean weight, length, and width of Black Bengal goat skin was 998.80 gm, 29.24, and 20.91 cm, respectively but there were no significant differences among the groups. The mean thickness of the skin was 1.97, 1.43, and 1.96 mm in the butt, bell, and shoulder regions, respectively, and significantly different between the groups in all categories. All slaughtered goats were flayed using the “Muchki” (Hoisting and fisting) method. The average flay cut length, depth, and mechanical and parasitic damages were 20.2 mm, 1.50 mm, 6.11, and 1.50 %, respectively. No significant difference (p> 0.05) was found in inedible fleshing by-products, but significant differences (p < 0.05) were found in trimming by-products production and salt required for curing. Salted skins were preserved for an average of 3.5 days. Hair follicles, sebaceous glands, erector pili muscles, collagen fibers, and fiber bundles were more regular in the butt region than shoulder and belly regions in the black, brown, white, and mixed coat color of Black Bengal goat skins.
      PubDate: 19 Jul, 2022
  • Aspergillosis in peacocks – Case Report

    • Abstract: The work describes two cases of Indian peacocks (Pavo cristatus) originating from extensive breeding, in which pulmonary aspergillosis and aerosacculitis were diagnosed. A clinical examination revealed difficult breathing with an open beak, gradual apathy, decreased appetite, and weight loss in both affected individuals. During the endoscopic examination, a yellow, caseous mass was diagnosed in the area of ​​the margo caudalis of the lung. Pathological autopsy in both cases revealed a granuloma in the area of ​​the left lung parenchyma and aerosacculitis. Fungal hyphae were detected in the granulomas by pathological-histological examination, and Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus parasiticus were diagnosed by mycological culture.
      PubDate: 15 Nov, 2022
  • Seroprevalence and its associated risk factors of Bovine Neosporosis and
           Bovine Viral Diarrhea in cattle of Tilottama municipality, Rupandehi,

    • Abstract: Background: Bovine Neosporosis (BN) and Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD) are economically significant livestock disease that causes reproductive and respiratory problems in cattle and buffalo caused by protozoan parasite Neospora caninum and Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) respectively. The burden of production and economic loss due to infectious reproductive diseases are still unknown in the various location of Nepal. Objectives: To overview the prevalence of bovine neosporosis and bovine viral diarrhea infection in a commercially important livestock herd from Tilottama Municipality, Rupandehi, Nepal. Methods: A cross-sectional purposive study was conducted through a questionnaire survey to collect demographic and farm characteristics information. In total 92 serum samples from jugular veins were collected from a different herd of Tilottama Municipality of Rupandehi, Nepal. The antibody against BVDV was tested using the competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (c-ELISA). Results: The individual animal-wise apparent prevalence was 9.78% with a true prevalence of 9.70% (5.09 - 17.57) and 3.26% with a true prevalence of 3.10%; CI (0.93 - 9.06) for BN and BVD respectively. The risk factor history of abortion was associated significantly with BN and BVD seropositivity (p < 0.05). Animals in the mixed farming system and contact with dogs were associated significantly with the occurrence of bovine viral diarrhea and bovine neosporosis respectively at (p < 0.05). Conclusion and recommendation: The stuy indicated the circulation of Neospora caninum and bovine viral diarrhea in dairy herds of the study area. It is suggested that the stakeholders in the study area should be sensitized to the impact of Neospora caninum and bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in dairy herds and include both diseases in the regional and national surveillance system.
      PubDate: 14 Sep, 2022
  • Review on Listeriosis in small ruminants and public health significance in

    • Abstract: Listeria monocytogenes is a bacterium mostly transmitted to man through food and it can cause mild gastroenteritis or severe infections of the bloodstream and/or the central nervous system, or abortion, depending on host susceptibility. Listeriosis is a serious illness caused by eating food contaminated with the bacterium Listeria, which is a Gram-positive psychotropic, facultatively anaerobic, none sporulating, motile, small rod. It displays characteristic tumbling motility that is facilitated by the presence of peritrichous flagella. Motility is temperature-dependent, showing high motility at 20-30°C when the flagellar expression is maximum. L. monocytogenes is ubiquitous in the environment and can be found in soil, water, feces, silage, effluent foods, and sewage. It has the ability to form biofilms which can contribute to its ability to colonize food processing facilities. The primary mode of transmission for Listeria is through soil contamination and ingestion of contaminated feed. Calves that develop the septicemic disease may acquire infection from contamination of the cow teat from the ingestion of milk containing the organism or from a cow with subclinical bacteremia, through the navel from the environment and also as congenital infection. Infection with Listeria. monocytogenes usually follow ingestion of contaminated feed and may result in septicemia, encephalitis, and abortion. There are few clinical features that are unique to listeriosis. Therefore, clinicians must consider a variety of potential causes of infection, including viral infections (influenza) and other bacterial infections that may cause sepsis or meningitis. Cook thoroughly raw food from animal sources, such as beef, pork, or poultry. Wash raw vegetables thoroughly before eating. Keep uncooked meats separate from vegetables and from cooked foods and ready-to-eat foods. Avoid raw (unpasteurized) milk or foods made from raw milk. Wash hands, knives, and cutting board and can contact with before and after handling cooked foods.
      PubDate: 12 Jul, 2022
  • Microbial quality and handling practices of raw cow milk in North Shewa
           Zone, Oromia, Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Background: Milk is universally accepted as a complete diet that plays a key role to ensure food security. However, the quality of raw cow milk is affected at various stages due to inadequate dairy infrastructure and limited knowledge of hygienic handling practices. Thus, the study aimed to evaluate the microbial quality of raw cow milk and handling practices in the North Shewa zone, Oromia, Ethiopia.Methodology: Purposive sampling was used to select study districts and participants based on the available dairy production potential, milk market, and collection center. Four hundred participants were selected; 50 raw cow milk samples were collected from households and collection spots in study areas.Results: Microbial analysis indicated that the mean values of total cell counts were higher in households (4.836±0.206 in log10 CFU/ml) than 4.391±0.15 at collection spots. Similarly, the mean values of Staphylococcus aurous were 2.470±0.038 at the household level and 2.249±0.093 at collection spots. The mean values of E.coli, yeast count and mould count were however, higher at collection spots (5.414±0.100, 3.372±0.091, 2.670±0.037) than household level (3.343±0.122, 2.944±0.074, 2.479±0.039), respectively.Conclusions: The higher total counts and mean values of microbial loads of economic and public health significance; like Staphylococcus aurous and E. coli at household level and collection spots indicated poor hygienic raw cow milk handling practices. Therefore, awareness should be created among the dairy cattle producers and milk collectors to minimize economic losses through milk spoilage with soil microbes and the risk of consumer safety due to zoonotic pathogens.
      PubDate: 11 May, 2022
  • Potential for silvopastoral systems to control nematode burden in
           livestock farming in winter rainfall areas of South Australia, Australia

    • Abstract: Gastrointestinal nematode infections cause significant production losses in ruminants. In southern Australia, the estimated annual cost of internal parasites in sheep, cattle and goats are $436million, $82m and $2.54m, respectively. An over-reliance on anthelmintic treatments has resulted in anthelmintic resistance becoming an increasing concern for producers. Reducing the need for chemical anthelmintics is desirable to lower producer costs and limit the development of anthelmintic resistance. Condensed tannins found in many trees and forages are a plant secondary compound receiving considerable interest as an alternative anthelmintic strategy. Direct anthelmintic effects from condensed tannins are associated with the binding of larval proteins; slowing egg hatching, larval development and exsheathment. Indirect effects are associated with improvements to protein metabolism and immune function within the animal. Several native Australian tree extracts have demonstrated anthelmintic properties, but further research is required to assess their suitability for silvopastoral systems in South Australia.Lay SummaryGastrointestinal nematodes or ‘worms’, significantly lower both the physical well-being and economic profitability of livestock such as cattle, sheep and goats, in South Australia. There are concerns about parasite resistance with current chemical treatments and consumers are demanding chemical-free, sustainably produced food. Silvopastoral systems, where animals are grazed underneath or alongside trees, have many potential benefits to the animals and the environment. This review explores the potential effects of condensed tannins on worm burden and protein metabolism. Condensed tannins are found in the leaves of several types of plants, including trees and show considerable potential to reduce nematode burden in ruminant livestock by slowing parasite lifecycle, with a particular focus on egg and larval stages. Condensed tannins may also improve livestock protein metabolism or excretion. Several native Australian trees contain condensed tannins with the potential to reduce nematode burdens when used in silvopastoral systems.Teaser TextCondensed tannin ingestion by allowing access to tree forage in silvopastoral systems, has the potential to reduce gastrointestinal nematode burden in livestock by slowing the parasite lifecycle.
      PubDate: 09 Sep, 2022
  • Perineal herniorrhaphy along with anal sacculectomy in dog: Case report

    • Abstract: A perineal hernia may occur unilateral or bilateral to the perineum. This may be due to the weakening and disassembly of the pelvic floor muscles, leading to abdominal visceral herniation to the perineal region and needing surgical reconstruction of the pelvic floor. The purpose of this case report is to describe the surgical correction of unilateral perineal hernia along with anal sacculectomy using transposition of internal obturator muscle. After aseptic preparation of the surgical site, an elliptical skin incision over the hernia swelling was performed. From there, the presence of the sac, contents, and adhesion were evaluated, the contents were relocated and the opening was closed with a layer. In the same manner, the anal gland was excised by surgical means. Clinical outcomes including postoperative complications and recur are assessed. Upon regular follow-up, for two months the case didn’t recur and suddenly died later for unrelated reasons.
      PubDate: 07 Apr, 2022
  • A multivariate analysis of veterinary preferences for NSAIDs in Nigeria

    • Abstract: Vultures are obligate scavengers known to accomplish incredible ecological feats unmatched by other birds of prey. However, the role of animal health specialists in vulture conservation is under-emphasized in Nigeria, despite vulture’s explicit dependence on the carcasses of domesticated livestock under the regime of veterinary caregivers. In our research, we evaluate the perception of animal health specialists on vultures and the veterinary use of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) for livestock treatment in the study location. Data collated from a semi-structured questionnaire were analyzed using correspondence analysis to produce a simple visual display of the complex count data matrix. The prevalence of 10 NSAIDs was analyzed along 3 column attributes namely; Not-in-Use (NU), Rarely-Used (RU), and Frequently-Used (FU). The NSAIDs were statistically under the significant influence by the column attributes at 0.05 alpha-level (X2≤64.35;P<0.0000), with the principal axis accounting for 74.33% of the total inertia. Ketoprofen aggregated close to the centroid, while diclofenac and Ibuprofen were strongly associated with FU. Aspirin and Indomethacin inclined significantly towards the NU and RU axes, respectively. Despite the global consensus on the toxic influence of some NSAIDs on the vultures, about 90% of the research respondents were unaware of the hazards toxic NSAIDs are likely to impose on the vultures. Diclofenac has received less than enough focus, despite its extended use for livestock treatment in Nigeria. Future conservation interventions should therefore be designed to involve, engage and educate the veterinary practitioners in Nigeria.
      PubDate: 06 Apr, 2022
  • Review on the epidemiology of Bovine Rotavirus and its public health

    • Abstract: A literature review was made to assess the epidemiology, public health importance, diagnostic and control methods of bovine rotavirus. Rotavirus is the genus name under the family Reoviridae which is characterized by segmented genome. The emergence of new serotypes of the virus is related to the segmented nature of the viral genome which allows reassortment during mixed infections. The rotavirus genome consists of 11 double-stranded RNA gene segments encoding 6 nonstructural (NSP1–6) and 6 structural (VP1–4, VP6–VP7) proteins. Rotavirus A is a zoonotic disease and in children less than five years old, human rotavirus is reported to be the most common cause of gastritis. In animals, rotavirus infection usually affects calves within four weeks of age, causing huge economic losses due to death, reduction in weight gain and treatment costs. Bovine rotaviruses are globally distributed and cattle strains have been classified into 12 G types and 11 P types and among them G6, G8 and G10, and P [1], P [5] and P [11] are commonly prevalent bovine strains. However, the presence of 14 G type and 17 P type serotypes from human have reported in different surveillance studies worldwide. Among these, combinations of G1P [8], G2P [4], G3P [8], G4P [8], G9P [8] and G12P [8] are the most common human strains which are responsible for majority of human Rotavirus diseases. The virus is primarily transmitted by fecal-oral route or by direct contact. The excreta from infected animals and humans, excreta contaminated food; water, pasture and air are the potential source of infection for both animal and human rotaviruses. Age, seasonal pattern, strain diversity, poor herd management and housing system, host nutritional and immunological factors are important risk factors associated with rotavirus disease occurrences. The widely used diagnostic methods for detection of rotavirus antibody in human and animals are Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and immune-chromatography while the presence of the rotavirus/antigen is identified by Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA). Electron Microscopy (EM), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and nucleic acid hybridization. Vaccination is the primary strategy to prevent and control of bovine and human rotavirus infections. High level of antibody in pregnant animals is achieved through live attenuated and inactivated vaccines when administered at the late stage of pregnancy. In human, the two currently used vaccines are the RV5 vaccine (USA) and the RV1 vaccine (Belgium) types.
      PubDate: 05 Jan, 2022
  • Effect of fresh and fermented camel milk and colostrums on body weight and
           blood glucose level in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits

    • Abstract: To study the effect of fresh camel milk, fermented camel milk and colostrums on blood glucose levels 30 Alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits were taken. Diabetes was induced in rabbits using Alloxan, the diabetic rabbits were then treated with fresh camel milk, fermented camel milk and colostrums as well as insulin for 60 days. The results demonstrated that the body weight of rabbits treated with camel milk and its derivatives found to be kept within the accepted body weights range of 1.8- 2.5 kg. The lowest serum glucose levels were recorded by Group 1 (control), Group 3 (diabetic-treated with colostrums), Group 4 (diabetic-treated with milk), Group 5 (diabetic-treated with gars) and Group 6 (diabetic-treated with Insulin16 mg/kg body weight daily for 8 weeks) and the levels found to be within the normal level range of 75- 140 mg/dl, the highest level of serum glucose level was recorded by Group 2 (diabetic-non supplemented) and it was higher than the upper limit of the normal range.
      PubDate: 04 Jan, 2022
  • Seroprevalence of Brucella infection in sheep and goat in two Woreda, in
           Arsi Zone, Oromia, Ethiopia

    • Abstract: The cross-sectional research study was conducted from November 2015 up to April 2016 in order to assess the prevalence of Brucella infection in shoats in two woredas in the Arsi zone, Oromia region, Ethiopia. The study was conducted in six Peasant Associations (3 PAs from each district). A total of 397 sheep and goats were sampled to be studied. Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) was used as a Screening test for Brucella agglutinins, while Complement Fixation Test (CFT) was used to confirm the reactors by Rose Bengal Plate Test. The statistical analysis of the data was run by Fisher’s exact test and the comparison of proportion was carried out too. Out of the 397 sera samples, 1.51% (n = 6) were seropositive for Brucella infection by RBPT; however, the CFT test indicated that only 0.5% (n = 2) sera were positive. Overall point estimation of 0.2% ovine and caprine Brucella infection was observed. High prevalence has been observed in aborted, parity one (1-5 kidding or lamping), female and in goats than non-aborted, parity two (> 6 lambing or kidding), male and sheep respectively. Especially high Seroprevalence in aborted goats indicates the presence of the illness in the two woredas’. The brucellosis presence in goats and sheep is significant as the infected animals can act as reservoirs of infection and may transmit the infection to human beings by several routes. So, Control measures should be designed and implemented by focusing on the prevention of further illness expansion in the study area by using an appropriate control practices approach.
      PubDate: 02 Sep, 2022
  • Prevalence of ovine fasciolosis and its associated risk factors: The case
           of in and around Bedele Town, Bunno Bedele Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Background: Ethiopia is rich in sheep and goats, accounting for 63% of the income from financial production and 23% of the cost of food. However, this immense wealth potential has not been well exploited for the support of farmers and their contribution to the economy as a whole due to various factors such as diseases. Among these, fascioliasis is one of the most economically important parasitic diseases of farm animals, especially in sheep.Objectives: To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with ovine fasciolosis in the study area.Methods: A cross-sectional study design was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with ovine fasciolosis in four randomly selected peasant associations in and around Bedele town by using standard fecal sedimentation techniques. Results: Out of a total of 384 sheep faecal samples processed and examined, 85 (22.1%) were positive for fasciolosis. Risk factors such as origin, age, sex, and body condition were also assessed for the occurrence of the disease. Accordingly; Shebe (26.4%) had a higher sheep fasciolosis, followed by Yabella (22.5%), Dabena Daru (20.8%), and Bedele 02 (17.5%) with no significant differences in peasant associations (p> 0.05). The prevalence rate under different body condition scores was recorded as poor (38.6%) compared to medium (22.3%), followed by good (16.3%). Similarly, infection was found to be among female (23%) and male (21%) sex groups; but had a statistically significant association (p < 0.05).Conclusion and Recommendations: Current research suggests that fasciolosis affecting sheep was a common parasitic disease in the study area, so control strategies should be developed to reduce the spread of infection.
      PubDate: 02 Jun, 2022
  • Review on milk production performance, challenges, and opportunities of
           dairy cows production in oromia regional state, Ethiopia

    • Abstract: This review was conducted to review the information on milk production performance, challenges, and opportunities of dairy cattle production in Oromia. Supported management practices, marketing situations, feed sources, and feeding systems the foremost milk production systems are identified as rural milk production, peri-urban, and concrete milk production. Ethiopia holds large potential for dairy development mainly thanks to an acceptable environment and large cattle number that contains 65.35 million cattle populations. While there is a large milk cow population and favorable climatic conditions, self-sufficiency in milk production is low. The mean values of daily milk yield (DMY) range from 1 to2.8 liter/day with lactation length (LL) of 6.78 to 9.13 months for indigenous breeds, 6.5 to fifteen liters/day with lactation length of 7.52 to 11.67 months for crossbreed cows respectively. Both DMY and LL were significantly stricken by breed, parity, and year of calving. Challenges for dairying vary from one location to a distinct one. The foremost challenge that affects milk production performance of cattle in Oromia includes feed shortage, high feed cost, land shortage for farming of improved forage, insufficient veterinary services, no operational breeding strategy and policy, and low productivity of the indigenous cattle breeds are the foremost important factor limiting dairy products within the region. Therefore, to enhance these milk production performances of the dairy cow to determine genetic improvement policy, strategy, and breeding program and implement well management practices.
      PubDate: 01 Jul, 2022
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Heriot-Watt University
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