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EUREKA : Health Sciences
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2504-5660 - ISSN (Online) 2504-5679
Published by Scientific Route OÜ Homepage  [8 journals]
  • Evaluate the importance of giving antenatal corticosteroids in respiratory
           distress syndrome in preterm neonates

    • Authors: Adarsh Reddy, Vanaja Reddy, Gottam Archana Reddy, Niveditha Reddy Nimmala
      Pages: 3 - 15
      Abstract: Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is one of the leading causes of early neonatal morbidity and mortality in late preterm infants (LPIs) worldwide. The aim: The study is intended to evaluate the importance of giving antenatal corticosteroids in decreasing respiratory distress syndrome in preterm neonates. Materials and methods: Prospective cohort study done in all preterms delivered in the hospital attached to those admitted in our neonatal intensive care unit during the study duration are taken as the source. All preterm babies are admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. Results: The overall incidence of RDS in this study was 30 (15 %), among which 7 (7 %) were exposed to steroids, and 23 (23 %) were not exposed to steroids. Antenatal corticosteroids were significantly associated with reduced incidence of RDS in preterms (neonates born between 28–37 weeks of gestational age). The overall incidence of TTN (transient tachypnea) was found to be 46 (28 %) in this study, among which 14 (14 %) were exposed to steroids, and 32 (32 %) were not exposed to steroids. Antenatal corticosteroids were significantly associated with reduced incidence of TTN in preterms. Antenatal corticosteroids significantly reduce the need for supplemental oxygen, NICU admission, need for CPAP and mortality rate. The dose of antenatal corticosteroids was significantly associated with the incidence of RDS and TTN. 2 doses of steroids reduced RDS and TTN significantly compared to the single dose, which was just significantly associated. This study found no significance between RDS and TTN with gestational age, mode of delivery, birth weight and RDS among steroid-exposed babies. Conclusion: The use of antenatal corticosteroids should be promoted because they successfully lowered morbidity and mortality among premature newborns in the population studied. In order to optimise proper and timely prenatal corticosteroid treatment, this study underlines the necessity for quality improvement initiatives.
      PubDate: 2023-05-31
      DOI: 10.21303/2504-5679.2023.002964
  • To study the correlation between severe oligohydramnios with perinatal
           outcome along with histopathology of placenta

    • Authors: Peripydi Nirmala, Kuthadi Swarupa, Kavitha Kurakul
      Pages: 16 - 27
      Abstract: The aim: To study the correlation between severe oligohydramnios with perinatal outcome and the placenta's histopathology. Materials and methods: comprised of 100 patients with oligohydramnios diagnosed after 28 weeks of gestation, admitted on an emergency basis, both booked / unbooked, who were willing to cooperate, were chosen. All patients with oligohydramnios (AFI<5 %) were included in the study. Results: 3 cases came with intra-uterine death. All three were totally unbooked cases. 2 preterm babies died neonatal intensive care unit after 4 days due to meconium aspiration syndrome. Thus the perinatal mortality was 5 %. 44 % of neonates required admission into the neonatal intensive care unit. In our study, it was found that neonatal mortality and morbidity increased significantly when oligohydramnios was associated with complications like IUGR and pregnancy-induced hypertension in mothers. All the cases associated with these histopathological changes had adverse perinatal outcomes. Hence estimation of the amount of liquor is important in the antenatal period because oligohydramnios gives insight into the associated maternal complications or fetal anomalies and has a significant bearing on the perinatal outcome. The placental examination will illuminate all the conditions affecting the perinatal outcome. Without associated complications, oligohydramnios does not have adverse perinatal outcomes. Conclusions: Thus, in cases of oligohydramnios with no associated complications, expectant management can be tried for a better fetal outcome. Only oligohydramnios may be the first sign of placental insufficiency and an independent manifestation of the placental-related complications spectrum.
      PubDate: 2023-05-31
      DOI: 10.21303/2504-5679.2023.003006
  • Prevalence and major risk factors of non-communicable diseases: a machine
           learning based cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Mrinmoy Roy, Anica Tasnim Protity, Srabonti Das, Porarthi Dhar
      Pages: 28 - 45
      Abstract: The aim: The study aimed to determine the prevalence of several non-communicable diseases (NCD) and analyze risk factors among adult patients seeking nutritional guidance in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Participants: 146 hospitalized adults of both genders aged 18-93 participated in this cross-sectional research. Methods: We collected the demographic and vital information from 146 hospitalized patients in Dhaka, Bangladesh. We checked the physical and vital parameters, including blood sugar, serum creatinine, blood pressure, and the presence or absence of major non-communicable diseases. Then we used descriptive statistical approaches to explore the NCDs prevalence based on gender and age group. Afterwards, the relationship between different NCD pairs with their combined effects was analyzed using different hypothesis testing at a 95 % confidence level. Finally, the random forest and XGBoost machine learning algorithms are used to predict the comorbidity among the patients with the underlying responsible factors. Result: Our study observed the relationships between gender, age groups, obesity, and NCDs (DM, CKD, IBS, CVD, CRD, thyroid). The most frequently reported NCD was cardiovascular issues (CVD), which was present in 83.56 % of all participants. CVD was more common in male participants. Consequently, male participants had a higher blood pressure distribution than females. Diabetes mellitus (DM), on the other hand, did not have a gender-based inclination. Both CVD and DM had an age-based progression. Our study showed that chronic respiratory illness was more frequent in middle-aged participants than in younger or elderly individuals. Based on the data, every one in five hospitalized patients was obese. We analyzed the comorbidities and found that 31.5 % of the population has only one NCD, 30.1 % has two NCDs, and 38.3 % has more than two NCDs. Besides, 86.25 % of all diabetic patients had cardiovascular issues. All thyroid patients in our study had CVD. Using a t-test, we found a relationship between CKD and thyroid (p-value 0.061). Males under 35 years have a statistically significant relationship between thyroid and chronic respiratory diseases (p-value 0.018). We also found an association between DM and CKD among patients over 65 (p-value 0.038). Moreover, there has been a statistically significant relationship between CKD and Thyroid (P<0.05) for those below 35 and 35-65. We used a two-way ANOVA test to find the statistically significant interaction of heart issues and chronic respiratory illness in combination with diabetes. The combination of DM and RTI also affected CKD in male patients over 65 years old. Among machine learning algorithms, XGBoost produced the highest accuracy, 69.7 %, in comorbidity detection. Random forest feature importance detected age, weight and waist-hip ratio as the major risk factors behind the comorbidity. Conclusion: The prevalence study helps to identify the future risks and most vulnerable groups. By initiating and implementing control plans based on the prevalence study, it is possible to reduce the burden of NCDs on the elderly and middle-aged population of Bangladesh.
      PubDate: 2023-05-31
      DOI: 10.21303/2504-5679.2023.002896
  • A clinicoepidemiological study of geriatric dermatoses

    • Authors: Shalini Eslavat, Deepthi Vemu, Shankar Kunti, Prasad Naik NM, Kuna Ramadas
      Pages: 46 - 57
      Abstract: Skin diseases are a common and inevitable consequence of ageing. Moreover, the clinical presentation is not as classical as they do in the younger population. A lifetime of solar exposure, along with intrinsic changes in the dermal structures, predisposes to a variety of skin diseases. The aim: to study the spectrum of various geriatric dermatoses among our patient population at the Department of Dermatology, Venereology, and Leprosy at Kamineni Academy of Medical Sciences and Research Centre. Materials and methods: in this study, a total of 200 patients aged 60 years and above attending the DVL OPD of Kamineni Academy of Medical Sciences and Research Centre were included. Results: maximum number of patients in this study belonged to 60-65 years (60 %), Male to female ratio was 1.86:1. Most of the males had agriculture work, and most of the females were housewives. Diabetes mellitus was the commonest associated systemic disease seen in 68 cases (34 %), and generalised pruritus was the commonest symptom seen in 64 (32 %) cases, of which 42 cases (65.6 %) were associated with xerosis. Pathological skin disorders and eczematous conditions were seen in 56 out of 200 cases. Of this, asteatotic eczema was the common finding among the eczematous conditions seen in 14 cases (7 %). Psoriasis was seen in 32 (16 %) and lichen planus in 10 cases (5 %). Infectious diseases were seen in 78 cases (39 %). Of these, fungal infections were common, seen in 28 cases (14 %). The benign tumour was seborrheic keratosis in this study, seen in 61 cases (30.5 %); among the malignant tumours, 4 cases (2 %) of basal cell carcinoma and 2 cases (1 %) of squamous cell carcinoma were seen. Among 16 cases of bullous disorders, bullous pemphigoid was seen in 12 (6 %) cases. Among 22 cases of psychocutaneous disorders, delusional parasitosis was seen in 10 cases (5 %), and perforating folliculitis in 15 cases (7.5 %). Loss of luster was the commonest nail change seen in 182 cases (91 %), followed by nail plate thickening in 54 cases (27 %). Greying of the hair was seen in all cases. Out of 70 females, diffuse hair loss was seen in 58 cases (82.9 %), and out of 130 males, androgenetic alopecia was seen in 72 cases (55.4 %). Conclusion: skin diseases cause considerable morbidity in the elderly, particularly if associated with other comorbid conditions. Health education on proper skin care, avoidance of irritants and self-medication etc., would help to reduce the incidence of common dermatoses.
      PubDate: 2023-05-31
      DOI: 10.21303/2504-5679.2023.003007
  • Prenatal gender selection: medical, ethical and psychological aspects

    • Authors: Olga Kovalyova, Dmytro Mykytenko
      Pages: 58 - 66
      Abstract: The aim: to summarize the methodology of prenatal gender selection and the ethical aspects of its implementation. Materials and methods: the authors conducted the review in the database of scientific periodicals PubMed. Results: based on scientific publications, the principal techniques to determine sex in the pre-implantation period, in the embryo and fetus, are presented. Invasive and non-invasive procedures of prenatal diagnosis are described. Invasive procedures include examination of the fetus by chorionic villus sampling karyotyping of cells obtained by amniocentesis. Non-invasive techniques related to pregnant women's blood biochemistry and ultrasound markers of Down syndrome are given. Fetal blood DNA testing is a more sensitive diagnostic parameter that reduces the indication for invasive procedures. The newest and most effective method of sex determination in the pre-implantation period is sperm separation screening. Medical and non-medical reasons for prenatal gender determination, such as prevention of X-linked genetic disorders in a child, a couple's choice to balance the sex of children in the family and social gender preferences are shown. Gender selection for the prevention of X-linked disorders is justified. Ethical issues regarding the balance of children in the family, giving preference to certain sex with the help of advanced diagnostic techniques, and selective abortion are discussed. The bioethical principles for preventing selective abortion resulting from gender reasons are established. Conclusion: for preventing prenatal gender discrimination is highlighted more strongly by the need legal regulation and the ethical control of scientific technologies in reproductive medicine.
      PubDate: 2023-05-31
      DOI: 10.21303/2504-5679.2023.003005
  • COVID-19 transmission in dental practice: risks and prevention –
           narrative review

    • Authors: Pavlo Ostrovskyi , Valentyna Smirnova, Svitlana Boitsaniuk, Orest Kochan, Mariana Levkiv
      Pages: 67 - 72
      Abstract: Dentists are on the frontline of infection, especially regarding respiratory viruses like the new coronavirus. The production of aerosols and droplets accompanies many dental procedures. The emergence of severe acute air-droplet disease, respiratory syndrome, or SARS, warrants a revision of the infection control procedures for aerosols. The aim. In this article, we aim to raise awareness of the potential risks of COVID-19 transmission in dental practice and discuss and suggest some preventive measures. Methods. This study reviewed the published research articles and the guidelines of international healthcare institutions on dentistry and COVID-19. We searched Pubmed, Web of Science, and SCOPUS electronic databases using MESH terms. Results. The main way of transmission of the SARS CoV is air-droplet. Thus, healthcare professionals that perform aerosol-generating procedures, i.e. dentists, need to be updated about the origin of the disease. The patient and the dentist often share close contact while ongoing dental treatment; thus, knowledge about the disease and necessary preventive measures is required. In addition to the standard precautions, some special preventive measures that should be implemented during an outbreak of disease have been raised in this review. Conclusions. Following the protective protocols in the COVID-19 crisis is of utmost importance in a dental setting
      PubDate: 2023-05-31
      DOI: 10.21303/2504-5679.2023.002941
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