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Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1607-3894 - ISSN (Online) 2071-1255
Published by U of Mosul Homepage  [20 journals]
  • Multi-drug resistant phenotypes of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli from
           layer chickens

    • Abstract: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is recognized as a growing and emerging public health problem worldwide. This research determines the occurrence of ESBL E. coli and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Escherichia coli on eggshells from selected layer chickens. The shells of 270 egg samples were swabbed to detect the presence of E. coli. Seventy-three (73/270) 23% out of the 270 isolates were phenotypically E. coli. The isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing using six (6) panel antibiotics (Ampicillin, Tetracycline, Sulphamethoxazole-Trimethoprim, Gentamicin, Imipenem, and Ciprofloxacin) using the disk diffusion method. The isolates showed highest resistance to Ampicillin (95.9%), closely followed by Tetracycline (89%), Sulphamethoxazole-Trimethoprim (72%), Gentamicin (41.1%), and imipenem (1.4%). Also 78% of the isolates were multi-drug resistant. Fifty-six (56/73) 76.7% out of seventy-three isolates were screened as presumptive ESBL-E. coli by culture on ESBL CHROM agar and 42/56 (75%) of the isolates yielded ESBL-producing E. coli based on the production of ESBL by double disc diffusion method. The results of the questionnaire survey showed that all farms used antimicrobial agents either for therapeutic or prophylactic purposes. Also, not all the farms had good biosecurity measures. The findings of this study indicated that eggshells are potential reservoirs for multi-drug resistant E. coli and ESBL-Producing E. coli.
      PubDate: Tue, 02 Aug 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • Use of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) prepupae amino acids as anti
           Aeromonas hydrophila ...

    • Abstract: Aeromonas hydrophila is an opportunistic freshwater. These bacteria cause gastroenteritis and septicemia in animals and humans. Hemolysin and aerolysin, are important in the pathogenesis of A. hydrophila. Prepupae Black soldier fly (BSF) can be used as an antibacterial using its active substance against hemolysin and aerolysin. This study aimed to determine how the interaction of prepupae BSF amino acids with A. hydrophila enterotoxin in silico and protein level in various substrates in vivo. The study consisted of BSF larva of T1 (fed fruit waste), T2 (fed fermented fruit waste), T3 ((fed tofu waste), T4 (fed fermented tofu waste), and T5 (fed fermented fruit waste and tofu waste). Data on the difference of protein level of prepupae among groups were analyzed statistically using the ANOVA test. The study showed that the highest protein content of BSF prepupae was found in treatment T3 dan T4. Protein docking analysis showed that L-arginine had the most hydrogen interaction (11 H-bonds) with aerolysin and 10 H-bonds against hemolysin, indicating an antibacterial role. The most favorable interacting residues of 17 amino acids against hemolysin were ARG73, ASP74, THR541, ALA523, and ASN483, while the residues of the active site against aerolysin were ASP92, ARG394, SER354, TYR348, ARG356, VAL396, PRO395, and ASP350. Amino could inhibit the hemolytic toxin of Aeromonas by interacting with binding site residues. The better the nutritional value of the substrate given to BSF larvae, the higher the protein content of BSF prepupae. Proteins from BSF prepupae can be antibacterial candidates against A. hydrophila.
      PubDate: Tue, 02 Aug 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • Microscopic and PCR-based detection of Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina
           in camel females from ...

    • Abstract: This study was carried out to identify the etiological pathogens responsible of protozoal-like disease conditions occurred in camel females from Al-Diwaniyah Province, Iraq. For this reason, 125 camel females (one blood sample per animal) that showed signs of weakness and pale mucus membranes were considered for the study. The samples of blood were explored microscopically and via the use of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method that the targeted glutamine-dependent carbamoyl phosphate synthase (CPSII) gene for identifying Babesia bovis and 18S rRNA gene for detecting B. bigemina. The results of the microscopic technique uncovered the occurrence of babesia spp. in 76 (60.8%) of the examined samples, which encourage the use of the PCR to identify the protozoal species. The PCR findings demonstrated that B. bovis and B. bigemina were detected in 8 (8.9%) and 11 (12.22%), respectively, of the positive microscopic samples. The study findings reveal that weakness and paleness of mucus membranes in camel females can be attributed to the presence of infections by blood protozoa, mainly Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina.
      PubDate: Tue, 02 Aug 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • Curative and protective potentials of decoction of Moringa oleifera leaf
           on the ...

    • Abstract: The present study was designed to investigate the protective and curative potentials of Moringa oleifera (MO) leaves powder against streptozotocin (STZ) induced type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in rats. Fifty adult Wistar male albino rats were randomized divided into five equal groups: The normal control group, the Moringa group, The diabetic group, the therapeutic group, the diabetic rats (3 days after STZ injection) were received MO for successive 8 weeks and the prophylactic group, the rats were received MO for 2 weeks before STZ induced diabetic rats and lasted for 8 weeks. The protective or treated oral administration of 1 ml freshly prepared aqueous leaf decoction of MO revealed a significant upregulation on the mRNA expression of PDX-1, Ngn3, VEGF, IGF-1 and GLUT-2. Additionally, it induced a significant downregulation of FBG level in comparison with that of the diabetic group as well as a significant reduction in the level of MDA and a significant elevation in the TAC level. Furthermore, the histopathological observations of pancreas, liver and kidneys tissues affirmed the improvement in treated and prophylactic groups in comparison with STZ-diabetic groups and the improvement in prophylactic group was most distinct than treated group.MO aqueous leaf extract can treat and protect against STZ-induced T1DM, via its antioxidant action (increase the TAC and decrease MDA). Thus, it has the potential for utilization as a prophylactic against diabetes.
      PubDate: Tue, 02 Aug 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • Molecular Evaluation of E198A SNP in the iso-type 1 β – tubulin gene of
           Haemonchus contortus ...

    • Abstract: This study investigated the benzimidazole resistance in Haemonchus contortus parasitic nematodes from sheep from October 2021 to December 2022 in AL-Diwanyiah city/Iraq and samples were processed at the laboratory of Parasitology in Veterinary Medicine College of Al-Qadissyiah University through the detection of E198A mutation and SNP polymorphism of the β-tubulin gene at this codon position. A total of 90 adult H. contortus samples collected from abomasum of sheep (n = 400) and then tested by qPCR and tetra-primer ARMS-PCR. Of these, three different genotypes have been found for E198A SNP: heterozygous (RS), homozygous (SS), and homozygous resistant genotype (RR). The frequencies for these genotypes were 31.11% heterozygous, 57.77% homozygous, and 11.11% homozygous resistant. The current study indicated for the first time the spread of benzimidazole resistance for H. contortus of sheep in Iraq / AL-Diwnayiah by utilizing qPCR and tetra-primer ARMS-PCR. It is speculated that the BZ-resistance is due to excessive and irregular H. contortus drug abuse and inter-species transfer between ruminants at the commonly grazing pastures and from imported sheep as well.
      PubDate: Tue, 02 Aug 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • Molecular Evidence of Schmallenberg Virus Associated by Ovine Abortion
           with Fetal Anomalies in ...

    • Abstract: In late of 2011, Schmallenberg virus (SBV) was observed in Germany using genomic analysis. The virus is transmitted through haematophagus insect vectors and vertically from females to their offspring across the placenta. In adult sheep, the virus causes a short viremia followed by lethargy, abortion, and dystocia when giving birth to malformed lambs. RT-PCR for virus detection and commercial ELISAs for antibody detection were rapidly developed. There have been no previous studies to detect SBV in sheep in Nineveh province. Thus, this study was therefore intended to investigate the presence of SBV in ovine aborted fetuses and to describe the macroscopic lesions that associated with it. Fifteen aborted lambs, aged between 70 to 135 days, between October 2021 and January 2022 were collected. Brain stem, spinal cord, spleen, liver, lung, and abdominal fluid were collected and stored at -20ᵒC for molecular analysis. Viral RNA was extracted from these collected samples and reverse transcription was performed in one step. RT-PCR was applied to amplify the SBV gene (S segment). Three of fifteen lambs showed marked malformations in vertebral column, arthrogryposis, hydranencephaly, cerebral and cerebellar hypoplasia and porencephaly. SBV was detected in malformed aborted lambs by RT-PCR with 474bp product size. These findings indicate that SBV causing abortion with malformations. Further studies on this topic should be conducted and include isolation and characterization of virus and SBV epidemiology.
      PubDate: Tue, 02 Aug 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • Subtype analysis of Cryptosporidium spp. in goat in Babylon province,
           middle Iraq

    • Abstract: The study aim is to investigate zoonotic potential and diversity of gene of Cryptosporidium species and subtype of C. hominis & C. parvum in goat in Babylon province. A one hounerd samples fac were obtain from four location in Babylon province. It was tested by modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain, 50 positive samples were taken for the Nested PCR reaction. Five species (C. parvum, C. hominis, C. ryana, C. xiaoi and C. bovis ) were detected based succession test of the heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70). After molecular phylogenetic analysis the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene sequence for 10 C. parvum, and 10 C. hominis isolates. two subtype were established IIdA21G1 & IIdA19G1 belong to C.parvum . For C.hominis three subtypes were detected which: IbA21G2, IbA13G3 & IbA19G2. From the current results, we conclude that goats perhaps a reservoir for zoonotic Cryptosporidium species, which cause infection for animals and humans in this region.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Jul 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • ISOLATION AND MOLECULAR DETECTION OF SOME VIRULENCE ASSOCIATED GENES IN
           AVIAN PATHOGENIC E. COLI

    • Abstract: At least 13 virulence-associated genes are commonly seen in APEC colibacillosis isolates. A total of ten non-repetitive E. coli isolates from various Iraqi poultry epidemics are being studied as part of this research. Six virulence-associated genes (iroN, iucC, frz Operon, iucD, papC, and R4) were examined in the isolates. Eighty percent of the isolates had both virulence-associated genes. Two APEC separates carried just one gene, iroN or iucC. According to preliminary evidence, the iroN and iucC genes may express their pathogenicity independently. All of the strains had the same iroN gene, making them all pathogenic. The ten strains were confirmed to have the six pathogenic genes: 80% positive for iucC, 50% positive for iucD, 100% positive for ironN, 10% positive for frz operon, 10% positive for papD, and 0% positive for R4. APEC strains with high pathogenicity are examined in the context of primary infections. Some stress was produced by strains with less pathogenicity, such as the presence of other diseases or stressors in the environment, while others were caused by advancing age. The research was finished. Virulence-associated six genes were discovered in varying percentages, and iroN was found. Some virulence genes were present in Escherichia coli strains, but not all of them were. It appears that iroN and iucC genes are displaying their pathogenicity separately from each other.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Jul 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • Molecular Detection of mecA gene in Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus
           aureus isolated from ...

    • Abstract: Staphylococcus (S.) aureus is the main aetiologic cause of dairy mastitis universally. Additionally, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major pathogenic bacteria in both veterinary medicine and public health. Sixty-six cattleʼs milk samples were collected randomly from different areas of the Nineveh Province from November 2018 to February 2020. In this study, the classical and molecular biology methods had used to identify the MRSA and detect the target genes. The results revealed that S. aureus was isolated and identified based on classical methods such as catalase, clumping factors, and coagulase test. In addition, the nuc gene was detected in all the positive S. aureus isolates 23 (34.8%), while the mecA gene was detected in 12 (52.2%) MRSA isolates by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. The present work emerged that the results of classical methods and the PCR technique were similar. In Iraq, MRSA is regarded as a major causative agent of various types of bovine mastitis and it has the ability to resist all types of beta-lactams. MRSA isolated from different regions in Mosul city. PCR assay is a major method for detecting the different genes based on the target sequence of the specific gene.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Jul 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • Coprological detection of Toxocariosis in domicile and stray dogs or cats
           in Sulaimani ...

    • Abstract: Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati are ascarid nematodes, belong to the Toxocaridae family and genus Toxocara, causing toxocariosis in dogs and cats. The disease is mainly transmitted between animals and humans through ingestion of contaminated food with the embryonated eggs of the parasite. In addition, vertical transmission of the Toxocara larvae from pregnant bitches to their offspring through placenta and milk had been reported. Nowadays, stray dogs and cats, which are unvaccinated or not treated against the parasites, play a significant role in introducing the disease and seem to be a common public health concern. The study aimed to identify the rate of Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati infection among the domiciliary and stray dogs and cats that presented to the veterinary clinics, using direct fecal smear and fecal floatation techniques. The results showed that stray cats were highly infected (47.62%) in comparison to domiciled cats (5.56%). While the T. canis infection among domiciled and stray dogs was about 11.11% and 11.76% respectively. Adult cats and dogs were found to have a higher infectious rate (cats; 30%, dogs; 14.81%) compared to younger age groups (cats; 27.58%, dogs; 8%). There was a moderate and highly significant positive correlation between the lifestyle and infectious rate in cats (r = 0.466*, P < 0.001, n =78). In conclusion, stray cats and dogs are the main risk factor in transmitting the disease.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Jul 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • Assessment of multiplex PCR for detection of FMDV, BVDV, BTV and possible
           co-infection with ...

    • Abstract: Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) assay is a nucleic acid amplification method that is considered reliable and practical mean for several pathogen detection in a single reaction, especially when multiple pathogens are suspected. In this study, a novel mPCR assay was validated for detection of four notifiable diseases in cattle incuding Foot and mouth disease (FMD), Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD), Blue tongue (BT) and Hemorrhagic Septicemia (HS). The assay was operated into two-steps procedure, first one was reverse transcription of viral RNA then mPCR of viral cDNA and bacterial DNA. The optimized mPCR was applied on blood (26) and vesicular epithelium (10) samples collected from 26 clinically infected animals from three governorates (Qalubia, Sharkia and Gharbia). mPCR was able to detect at least 10 pg of microbial nucleic acid extracted from the local isolates. The mPCR results showed that of 22/26 (84.6%) of clinically infected animals were positively infected by single or dual infection. Mixed infection of FMDV and Pasteurella multocida was recorded in 11 animals (42.3%) while single FMDV infection was recorded in 5 animals (19.2 %). Single BVDV infection was detected in 5 animals (19. 2 %) and in dual infection with FMDV in 1 animal (3.8%). Notably, BTV was not detected in any of the clinical samples. The assessed mPCR was a rapid, accurate and sensitive test for diagnosis of single and mixed infections in cattle and could be used for screening of the notifiable diseases affecting cattle.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Jul 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • Histological and Histochemical Features of the Esophagus in Local Breed
           Dog (Canis familiaris)

    • Abstract: A total of eight samples of esophagus of local breed dog were used to investigate the histochemical features of the esophagus. The specimens were processed according to the protocol of paraffin embedding technique and the tissue sections were stained by hematoxyline and eosin stain, massons trichrom and combine alcian blue (pH2.5)-PAS stain. The oesophagus had folded mucosa that covered by keratinized to non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium which contained numerous excretory common ducts of esophageal glands. The epithelial thickness of cervical, thoracic and abdominal parts of oesophagus were (221.95±3.41µm, 212.46±5.38 µm & 173.15±4.09 µm) respectively. The lamina propria of the cervical part of oesophagus was lacked the muscularis mucosa, while at thoracic part the smooth muscles of muscular mucosa appeared as scattered interrupted bundles. The esophageal glands were compound tubular mucoserous type constructed of the predominated mucous alveoli and little of serous acini. With combine Alcian blue (pH2.5)-PAS stain the esophageal glands denoted strong acidic mucoploysaccharid within the mucous alveoli and light blue color within serous acini that denoted weak acidic zymogen granules. Tunica muscularis was striated muscle fibers in cervical and thoracic parts and smooth in abdominal part of oesophagus. The thickness of tunica muscularis of cervical, thoracic and abdominal parts were measured (568.76±6.90 µm, 703.29±7.54µm, 338.98±7.26 µm) respectively.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Jul 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • Molecular Identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in meat at Mosul city
           retails using PCR technique

    • Abstract: Pseudomonas are recognized as a unique meat spoiling organisms , the proliferation of these spoilage organisms might influence the organoleptic qualities of meat and meat quality , therefore the current investigation is being carried out to detect pseudomonas associated with meat displayed in Mosul city retails . A total of 150 meat samples of beef ,mutton and chicken meat (50 for each ) were collected from meats in Mosul city retails during the period from November till February.Molecular identification of pseudomonas aeruginosa in meat is performed targets 16S rRNA gene and rpoB gene. Fifty three isolates of pseudomonas species were obtained from all types of meat (35.33%) included 23 (46 %) for beef meat ,11 (22%) for mutton and 19 (38%) for chicken meat . Enumeration of pseudomonas species in beef and mutton were 1.47*104 , 1.92*104 cfu/g respectively while counts was 2.13*105 cfu/g in chicken meat . polymerase chain reaction results revealed the presence of 16S rRNA gene in all tested isolates 53/53 (100%) . Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated (39.62%) from meat samples according to the detection of rpoB gene. In conclusion the prevalence of pseudomonas in meat at Mosul city retails had a detrimental impact on meat quality and consumer confidence. Also, PCR approach aids the rapid detection of pseudomonas as spoilage organism in meat to reduce financial loss therefore, hygienic measurements should applied during meat production and preservation to reduce meat spoilage and conserve consumer health.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Jul 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • Anticonvulsant and Antioxidant Activities of Crude Flavonoid extract of
           Matricaria chamomilla L. ...

    • Abstract: In the current study, crude flavonoid extract of Matricaria chamomilla L. (MC) was used to evaluate anticonvulsant and antioxidant activities on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced convulsion in chicks. The biochemical estimation was done by measuring brain tissue neurotransmitters (gamma aminobutyric acid GABA and glutamate), oxidative stress biomarkers in serum (catalase CAT, glutathione reductase GR, malondialdehyde MDA, and 8-isoprostane), serum electrolytes (potassium Ka+, sodium Na+, chloride Cl-, ionized calcium iCa2+, total calcium TCa2+), pH of serum, and glucose level in serum. 72 broiler chicks (2 weeks old) were randomly divided into six groups (n=12): (1) Negative control received the normal saline subcutaneous injection, (2) Positive control received PTZ 90 mg/kg subcutaneous injection, (3) treated with sodium valproate (SV) 200mg/kg orally, (4-6) treated with 20, 40, 80 mg/kg of crude flavonoid extract of MC orally for 6 days before PTZ injection. The chicks in groups (3-6), thirty minutes post-treatment of the last dose received PTZ. The results showed that the crude flavonoid extract of MC attenuated the convulsion signs and mortality dose-dependently. The pretreated crude flavonoid extract at the dose of 80mg/kg showed a significant increase the serum level of Na+ and iCa2+, and a decrease in 8-isoprostane. In conclusion: the crude flavonoid extract of MC 80mg/kg possesses mild to moderate anticonvulsant and antioxidant effects.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Jul 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • The Histologic Effects of High Doses of Botulinum Toxin A on The Rabbit's
           Salivary Gland

    • Abstract: The exact mechanism of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A)on submandibular salivary gland(SMG) regarding its function and histology remains unclear. The goal of this work is to clarify the histological effects of BTX-A (at high doses) in SMG in rabbits after one week. Thirty adult male rabbits were used in this study and they arranged as :Group 1.includes rabbits which received any treatment and kept for one week duration. Group 2. includes rabbits which received 8 Units of BTX-A. Group 3: includes rabbits which received 16 Units of BTX-A. Animals were euthanized with ether after one week. Specimens of SMG from all rabbits were taken to perform a routine histological preparation and examination .Sections of rabbits of Group2 and Group 3 showed an evidence of edema that is surrounding striated ducts , congested blood vessels ,and even necrosis of both serous and mucous acini .Some sections exhibited features of degeneration of mucous acini. Hemorrhage was noticed in some sections. Injection of either 8 or 16 units of BTX-A induces several alterations in the submandibular glands histology
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Jul 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • Acute toxicity events of ivermectin in chicks model

    • Abstract: Ivermectin is a very safe drug however; there are many studies on its toxic effects in different types of animals due to sensitivity, misuse or accidental overdose. The aim of this study was to further characterize the neurotoxic effects of ivermectin in chicks and to identify possible therapeutic strategies for use in cases of ivermectin toxicity. The LD₅₀ of ivermectin was determined by Dixon method. The acute toxicity signs of ivermectin were induced at doses 131.5,2629,and 394.5 mg/kg orally. The therapeutic effect of flumazenil on ivermectin poisoning was also studied. Administration of repeated doses of ivermectin for five consecutive days was recorded to measure the neurobehavioral within the open field and tonic immobility test. The oral LD₅₀ of ivermectin was 525.9mg/kg. The acute signs of poisoning that appeared on ivermectin-treated chicks were lethargy, ataxia, tremor, diarrhea, recumbency, and then death. Flumazenil at dose 0.1mg/kg significantly reduced the toxicity signs induced by the ivermectin in chicks, especially tremor and ataxia, and also prevent the incidence of death. The administration of ivermectin at 26.3, 52.6, and 105.2mg/kg doses led to a significant decrease in motor activity through a significant increase in the time of starting the movement and a decrease in the number of cross lines. We concluded that ivermectin, has a neurotoxic effect in chicks when used in high doses; the results also indicate a potential clinical application of flumazenil for treatment side effects and toxicity of ivermectin, as well as ivermectin has depressant effect in chicks represented by open-field activity
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Jul 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • Effects of ProbChick® on immunological response after New Castle
           virus using LaSota stain ...

    • Abstract: The vaccination process and immunological status of chickens during their life period have great importance in the poultry industry. We aimed in the current study to evaluate the effect of ProbChick® on the immunological status of broiler chickens after vaccination with Newcastle vaccination using the LaSota strain. A total of 200 one-day-old chicks were divided randomly into five groups. The first group is considered a control group. The second group consumes ProbChick® with drinking water. The third group was vaccinated with the Newcastle vaccine (LaSota strain). The fourth group was vaccinated with the Newcastle vaccine the after 7 days the ProbChick® was consumed. The fifth group was vaccinated with the Newcastle vaccine and consumed ProbChick® on the same day. The result showed that ProbChick® enhances the weight gain, food conversion ratio, and relative weight of bursa of Fabricius and spleen, in addition to that ProbChick® will enhance the antibody titer if it's added to drinking water on the same day of vaccination and give good antibody titer in compare to control groups and in comparison to a group where it is added to drinking water after 7 days of vaccination. We conclude that adding ProbChick® to the broiler at 1 g/litter of drinking water at the same of vaccination by Newcastle vaccine using the LaSota strain will enhance the immune response during vaccination and after vaccination, this will improve the efficiency and titer of antibody production.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Jul 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • Prevalence and Some Risk Factors with Therapeutic Trial of Sheep
           Dermatophytosis in Egypt

    • Abstract: Dermatophytosis is a fungal disease that affects superficial skin layers and hair of farm animals with worldwide distribution including Egypt with great public health concern and devasting economic losses in form of skin and hide damage and long course of treatment in spite of self-limiting nature of the disease in addition to loss of body weight. This study was undertaken to determine the most prevalent species of dermatophyte in sheep, identification of incriminated species both microscopic and culture methods with assessment of animal and environmental risk factors moreover, evaluated the effectiveness of three antifungal compounds (Ticonazole cream and clotrimazole spray and fluconazole capsule), on twenty-four naturally infected sheep were employed. Out of one hundred and three examined sheep with clinically suggestive lesion from Sharkia and Dakahalia Governorates during 2018 to 2019, 47.6% was proved to be positive of dermatophyte infection either by clinical signs, microscopic or culture or both with great infection rate was registerated in male, young age ˂ 6 months and in winter season. Three antifungal medications were used for 1st time in treatment of ovine dermatophytosis and were successes to subside of skin lesion with hair growth and return to normal clinical picture with 100% curative rate with preferable and easily applicable of topical ones especially ticonazole cream was highly curative in short time with easily applicable and good alternative to usual antifungal medication in sheep. Consequently, minimize the role of animal source in spread of infection and may allow adaption of efficient control measures.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Jul 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • Neurobehavioral Toxicity of Copper Sulfate Accompanied by Oxidative Stress
           and ...

    • Abstract: The aim is to investigate the sub-acute neurotoxic effects of copper sulfate in chicks on motor and neurobehavioral activity and its relation to oxidative stress and histopathological changes in chick brain tissue. Thirty chicks were employed in this experiment, randomly separated into 5 groups of 6 chicks. They were given the following concentration 2.5 %, 5 %, 10 %, and 15 % of LD50. Each of the chicks is put through the following behavioral tests response to tonic immobility test, righting reflex, testing the motor activity of the chicks inside the open field box. Orally LD50 was 772 mg/kg, Recording an inhibition in the animal's movement in the open field, and an increase in the chicks' dormancy duration. The effects are in direct proportion to the increase in the chicks' dose. Copper sulfate in 2.5%, 5%, 10, and 15% of the LD50 showed a significant increase in the concentration of malondialdehyde while 15% of LD50 recorded a significant decrease in glutathione and cholinesterase activity. All doses had a substantial decrease in total antioxidant capacity in brain and liver tissue. Chick brain of copper sulfate 15% of LD50 shows in the cortex of cerebrum severe gliosis, satellitosis, perivascular and periaxonal edema, necrosis (karyorrhexis) of neuron, and apoptosis. The rest of the concentrations had histopathological alterations that were proportionate to the rise in the given dose. We concluded from this work that high concentrations of copper sulfate in the brain generated oxidative stress and histopathological alterations,
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Jul 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • Morphometrical and Histochemical study of glandular stomach
           (Proventriculus) in local domestic ...

    • Abstract: Present study intended to explore the morphometric and histochemical foundations of the wall of proventriculus in adult domestic male ducks. To achieve this study, six healthy adult ducks were purchased from local vendors at Mosul province. All of the birds were sedated and their stomachs were removed after they were dissected to achieve the gross description and measurements of proventriculus which include the length and diameter of (cranial, middle and caudal ) regions of the proventriculus. Small tissue pieces 6-8 mm length from three regions of proventriculus were processed for histomorphological studies by using Hematoxyline and Eosin stain,, combined (PAS-ABph2.5 ) stain, Toluidine blue and Masson's Trichrome stains. The finding showed that the proventriculus connects with esophagus from cranial side and with muscular stomach from caudal side, it was thin elongated oval tubular organ. Histologically, the mucosa of proventriculus revealed presence of folds and sulci like structures which covered by simple columnar epithelium, tunica submucosa consist of many and large of simple and profound sub-mucosal glands that were supported by connective tissue septa and extended from the base of the branched tubular gland through the lamina propria, which was organized in a conical manner ( adenomere ). Tunica Muscularis appeared as double layer coordinated in form of inner longitudinal one and outer circular one. Finally the serosa consists of connective tissue, blood vessels, adipose tissue and nerve plexuses covered by mesothelium.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Jul 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • Effects of hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress on the plasma
           concentration and ...

    • Abstract: The aim was designed to determine the impact of oxidative stress (OS), induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), on the ketorolac plasma concentration and pharmacokinetics in the chicks. A significant decrease was observed in the total antioxidant status (TAS) measured on day 7th, 10th, and 14th of chicks age by 39, 29, and 41%, respectively in comparison to the control (H2O) group. By measuring the analgesic median effective dose (ED50), Ketorolac’s analgesia has been amplified 16% in the stressed (H2O2) group. Ketorolac concentration in plasma was investigated at multiple measured times of 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 24 hours after the administration (14 mg/kg, IM) to 110.38, 181.46, 66.24, 13.08, 10.11, and 4.12 µg/ml at the H2O group and significantly elevated in all times measured except 0.25 and 24 h after ketorolac administration by 24, 38, 54, 199, 93, and 59 % to be 136.45, 250.88, 102.03, 39.13, 19.55, and 6.55 µg/ml in the H2O2 group, respectively. The values of AUC0-∞, AUMC0-∞, Cmax, and Kel in the stressed chickens that were administered ketorolac were elevated by 59, 19, 38, and 43%, respectively, whereas other parameters like MRT, t1/2β, Vss, and Cl were reduced by 25, 30, 56, and 37% respectively compared to H2O group. The results showed the H2O2-induced OS amplified the analgesic action of ketorolac in a chick model; besides its modification of the plasma concentration and pharmacokinetics of ketorolac.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Jul 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • Molecular description of melatonin receptor 1A gene in Iraqi buffalo

    • Abstract: The water buffalo has a seasonal reproductive pattern with reduced sexual activity during the longer photoperiod. The goal of this study was to identify the single nucleotide polymorphism of melatonin receptor 1A gene in Iraqi buffalo cows and 3D structure of its protein and phylogenic with other sequences around the world. The 824 bp fragment of exon II of the MTNR1 A gene was amplified from 190 buffalo cows (4-5 years old) genomic DNA belonging to local breeders in Al-Chibayish Marshes, Southern Iraq. Amplified PCR products underwent custom sequencing at the two end. Five separate polymorphism sites, the 1st included 52 animals with 19 mutations (12 missense), the 2nd included 39 animals with 18 mutations (11 missense), the 3rd included 35 animals with 18 mutations (12 missense), the 4th included 32 animals with 18 mutations (12 missense) and the 5th included 32 animals with 14 mutations (8 missense). These polymorphic sites with accession numbers LC565046, LC565047, LC565709, LC565710 and LC565711 respectively were registered in gene bank. The phylogenetic tree reveals that in some of the Iraqi buffalo, the sequences of gene has identical to the Italianbuffalo (GU817415), and the Brazilian buffalo (JN689386). Data revealed a marked variance of the fifth polymorphism sites' 3D protein structure because of the mutations. In conclusion, as a result of mutations, the gene MTNR1A in Iraqi buffalo has polymorphisms; these polymorphisms may be linked to gene function, Therefore, further studies are needed to connect the polymorphisms of this gene with the productive and reproductive traits
      PubDate: Sat, 11 Jun 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • Comparing efficacy of the platelet rich plasma and advanced platelet rich
           fibrin on tibial bone ...

    • Abstract: Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of platelet rich plasma (PRP) and advanced platelet rich fibrin (A-PRF) on regeneration of induced tibial bone defects in dogs. A 7mm circular tibial defect and 10mm depth was performed at the proximal extremity of the right and left tibiae of 12 adult apparently healthy male mongrel dogs. The animals were divided into control group, PRP group and A-PRF group. Regeneration of the tibial defect was evaluated by radiographic, computed tomography (CT), gross and histopathological examination at 6 and 12 weeks postoperatively (PO). At 6 weeks PO, the tibial defect was partially filled with fibrous tissue and appeared radiolucent radiographically in the control group and were partially closed with newly formed bone and appeared more radiopaque in PRP group than the control group while tibial defect was completely closed with newly formed bone and appeared more radiopaque in A-PRF group than the PRP group. At 12 weeks PO, the tibial defect was partially filled with newly formed bone and appear more radiopaque in control group and completely closed with newly formed bone and appeared radiopaque in PRP group. Interestingly, the tibial defect of the A-PRF group was completely closed with newly formed bone and cannot be differentiated from the neighboring normal bone tissue. In conclusion, using of PRP and A-PRF improved bone healing. However, A-PRF improved early regenerative ability of the tibial defect in comparison to PRP.
      PubDate: Sat, 11 Jun 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • Multivariable binary logistic regression model to predict risk factors of
           Peste des petits ...

    • Abstract: Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious illness that affects both domestic and wild small ruminants, causing significant economic losses. The goal of this study was to use a multivariable logistic regression model to determine risk factors for PPR. A total of 113 apparently healthy non-vaccinated goats and sheep (63 goat and 50 sheep) more than 5 months (1st group from 5-12 months,2nd group above 12 months), subjected to a seroprevalence study by competitive ELISA which used to detect antibodies against PPRV antibodies is serum sample during the period between April 2018 and March 2019. The incidence of PPR in autmun was significantly increase when compared with the spring. Additionally, animals had 4.08 more likelihood of being infected with PPR in the autumn when compared with the spring season There was a significant difference between male and female groups, The female group had 5.236 times increased the odds of being infected with PPR than male group. Moreover, Old age group had 2.771 times increased the odds of being infected with PPR than young age group. The test model, on the other hand, found no evidence to support any significant differences between sheep and goat species. PPR is more common in female and mature small ruminants, according to the findings. Furthermore, throughout the spring season, the incidence of PPR was significantly reduced. Indeed, the current study may help planning an effective vaccination program against the PRP disease in Egypt.
      PubDate: Sat, 11 Jun 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • Protective effect of propolis on liver and kidney injury caused by
           methotrexate in chicks

    • Abstract: The contemporary reading was deliberated to explore the valuable responsibility of propolis, a biologically brisk flavonoid, in opposition to methotrexate- (MTX-) caused hurt of the liver and kidney in chicks. Chicks customary a multiple intraperitoneal gaves of MTX (40 mg/kg) moreover unaided or in mixture with verbal propolis (100 mg/kg). Serum was second-hand to gauge tissue hurt scores, although the hepatic and renal tissue sections were taken for point histopathological inspection. Propolis cure rearranges the MTX-caused altitude of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), urea, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase (AP), and uric acid; additionally, propolis doses ameliorated MTX effects contrast to the MTX-intoxicated cluster. Histopathological inspection confirms that propolis notably lessens the MTX-caused histological variation and practically renew the typical style of hepatic and renal. In conclusion, propolis may be a hopeful driving force for the guard in opposition to MTX-caused cytotoxicity in chicks. Histopathological inspection confirms that propolis notably lessens the MTX-caused histological variation and practically renew the typical style of hepatic and renal. In conclusion, propolis may be a hopeful driving force for the guard in opposition to MTX-caused cytotoxicity in chicks.
      PubDate: Sat, 11 Jun 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • The Potential of Kebar grass extract on histopathological changes in
           kidney of mice offspring ...

    • Abstract: This aims of this research is to know the potential of kebar grass extract (Biophytum petersianum) in reducing the impact of kidney damage in mice offspring during lactation period from parent exposed to carbofuran. Carbofuran, kebar grass extract, and vitamin C are exposed orally postnatal day 1st until 14th postnatal day after delivery. 42 mice adult in lactation period were randomly into seven groups. This group consisted of K (aquadest control), P1 (carbofuran ¼ LD50 0.0125 mg/day), P2 (carbofuran 1/8 LD50 0.00625 mg/day), P3 (kebar grass extract 3.375 mg + carbofuran ¼ LD50), P4 (kebar grass extract 3.375 mg + carbofuran 1/8LD50), P5 (vitamin C 0.2 cc + carbofuran ¼ LD50), and P6 (vitamin C 0.2 cc + carbofuran 1/8 LD50). On the 15th days of experimental, offspring were randomly selected and dissected and the kidney was taken to made histopathology sample. The result of this study carbofuran caused increased tubular degeneration, necrosis, and inflammation (p
      PubDate: Sat, 11 Jun 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • Food safety and sanitation practices survey in very small halal and
           non-halal beef ...

    • Abstract: To determine the level of food safety and sanitation practices and make comparisons between very small halal and non-halal beef slaughterhouses in the United States, we conducted two web-based surveys by using a similar questionnaire and similar data collection methods. Among the 80 halal slaughterhouses included in this study, 56.25% (45 out of 80) participated, while 63.75% (51 out of 80) participated in the non-halal slaughterhouse survey. The results of this study showed that there were no significant differences between halal and non-halal slaughterhouses in term of food safety and sanitation practices and food safety technologies and microbiological testing practices. All halal and non-halal slaughterhouses conducted generic E. coli (100%) for beef carcasses. The most common interventions used in halal slaughterhouses were a combination of treatments (cold water + hot water (180 °F) + organic acid) (31.1%). Whereas the most common interventions used in non-halal slaughterhouses were hot water (180 °F) only (33.5%). The findings of this study can be used to describe food safety and sanitation practices in the halal meat industries and find areas for the improvement.
      PubDate: Sat, 11 Jun 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • Molecular identification of Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) isolated
           from meat and meat ...

    • Abstract: The aim of study is to diagnose diarrheagenic Escherichia coli from meat and their products by conventional polymerase chain reaction technique using uidA gene for confirmation the bacterial isolated as E. coli and used multiplex PCR technique to detect the virulence genes of these bacteria by using two groups of primers (stx1, stx2, aggR, esth, eae) and (invE, daaC, estp, elt, bfpA). In this study these primers applied on a total of 100 E.coli strain isolated from 782 samples of meat and meat products included fresh meat , minced meat ,burger , pastterma and chicken in the period of February to November 2020. The results showed that all isolates of Escherichia coli were positive to gene uidA and showed bands with a molecular weight of 147 base pairs. also in this study, we detect 95 ( 12.15%) pathogenic species related to virulence genes by using multiplex PCR . The highest percentage of pathotype is ETEC , at a rate of 46.32% and the lowest percentage is due to the DAEC type at a rate of 1.05% , while the percentage of the other pathotypes were 20.05, 14.74, 6.32, 6.32 and 5.26% for each of STEC , EHEC , aEPEC , EAEC and EIEC respectively. The high contamination rate with DEC that was seen in this study is associated by poor hygiene conditions during the slaughter process, and poor food storage in the shops, which may pose societal health risks to people when consumption of these products .
      PubDate: Sat, 11 Jun 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • Molecular and Serological detection of Toxoplasma gondii in three species
           of wild birds of ...

    • Abstract: Birds are intermediate hosts that play a significant role in Toxoplasma gondii epidemiology and infection transfer to humans by eating their raw or undercooked meat.The aim of this study was to diagnosis the Toxoplasma gondii infection in three species of wild birds (Columba livia, Streptopelia senegalensis and Passer domesticus) in the province of Babylon from May 2021 to August 2021, using a latex agglutination test and molecular diagnosis with Nested-P.C.R for SAG1 gene identification. Results showed that antibodies were detected in 56/144 (38.88%) samples. Furthermore, results of the Nested PCR technique for detection of SAG1 gene revealed that 41 (73.21%) of the samples positive for the latex test were only found in three species of birds. These three species of birds were found infected with T.gondii with possible transmission to human beings. For the first time, it was recorded that the species, S. senegalensis, was infected with the T. gondii in Iraq.
      PubDate: Sat, 11 Jun 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • HISTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF THE HEPATIC METACESTODES IN INFECTED SHEEP WITH
           HYDATIDOSIS

    • Abstract: This study aimed detection the liver histopathological changes of hydatid cysts sheep infestation. Seventeen infested liver's sheep with hydatid cysts were gathered from the local butchers. The specimens sectioned, processed, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin and some special stains such as Gomori's aldehyde fuschin, Van Gieson, Toluidine blue, Alcian blue, Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) and Mansso's trichrome. The results of hematoxylin and eosin stain of infected groups revealed presents of the laminated membrane of hydatid cyst in a different area of hepatic tissue surrounding by infiltration of inflammatory cells, and increase fibrous tissue and between severe necrotic hepatic tissue. The special stains firstly as in Gomori's aldehyde fuschin stain revealed the protoscolex in green colour and elastic fibres of connective tissue surrounding hydatid cyst with its laminated membrane in purple colour. Van Gieson stain showed dark brown-purple colour of the elastic fibres reduplication of connective tissue surrounding hydatid cyst, while Toluidine blue stain sections revealed the dark blue stain of acidic components of hydatid cyst laminated membrane and necrotic hepatocytes. Alcian blue stain revealed the blue colour reactivity of the proteoglycans of the connective tissue surrounding hydatid cyst. PAS reaction stain revealed the magenta colour reaction of the intact hepatocytes in the control group comparing with depletion pf magenta colour in necrotic hepatocytes surrounding hydatid cyst. Masson's trichrome stain revealed increased collagen fibres of the connective tissue. The findings revealed that infection with hydatid cysts causes a variety of histopathological alterations that appeared through several tissue stains
      PubDate: Sat, 11 Jun 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • Amelioration activity of vitamin E in rabbits with brain histological
           alteration induced by ...

    • Abstract: The Zinc-oxide in the form of nanoparticles suggested to be one of the crucial nanoparticles due to its expanse implementation in many industries, like electrons, food supplements, and maquillage and makeup this led to more exposure of the individual to ZnO NPs through inspiration, and skin penetration. This study object or designed to estimate the toxic impact of ZnO NPs on cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum in male rabbits by studying the gross and histological changes by using the light microscope. 24 adult male rabbits divided randomly to 4 groups, each of them comprising six animals. Control group left without treatment; second group treated with 100 mg / kg B.W. of vitamin E orally, third group treated intraperitonially with ZnO NPs 600mg/kg B.W., Fourth group treated with I/P 600mg/kg B.W. of ZnO NPs in addition to 100mg/kg B.W orally of vit. E twice weekly for twenty-one days. The histological results showed degenerative, necrotic with vascular and inflammatory response in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum in 2nd group of rabbits treated with ZnO NPs while the treated rabbits with ZnO NPs and vitamin E revealed slight improvement in histological picture of brain layers. Also, there was alteration in the level of acetylcholine in all groups in comparing with control group.
      PubDate: Sat, 11 Jun 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • The impact of Nano Zinc oxide particles on the histology of male
           reproductive system of adult ...

    • Abstract: The goal of our research is evaluating histological impact of nano ZnO particles (NZnO) on the testis and epididymis of adult male rabbits treated with intraperitoneal of 600mg/kg B.W. of nano ZnO particles twice a week for six weeks and illustrate the protective effect of vitamin E versus the effect of nano zinc oxide particles. Twenty-four adult male rabbits have been used in this research divided to four groups, control group injected intraperitoneal distal water, second group injected with 600mg/kg B.W of nano Zno particles intraperitoneal twice a week for three weeks, third group injected 600 mg / kg B.W. of nano Zno particles intraperitoneal and co-administrated with 100 mg / kg B.W. of vitamin E orally, while fourth group received 100mg/kg B.W of vitamin E orally. The histological results showed that the nano ZnO particles treatment cause obvious changes in testis and epididymis characterized by thickening of tunica albuginea of testis, degenerative and necrotic changes of germ cells lining the seminiferous tubules, arrest of spermatogenesis, giant cell formation also observed, degeneration and necrosis of epithelial cells lining epididymis canals, the canals are free from sperms is observed. As for the group of animals treated with nano ZnO particles co-administrated with vitamin E showed improvement in the histological changes compared with control group and group treated with vitamin E only which showed normal architectural of testis and epididymis, moreover there is decreased in the level concentration of testosterone of the animals treated with nano ZnO particles compared with other groups.
      PubDate: Sat, 11 Jun 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • Osteocranium Anatomy of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell 1822)
           from Cultured Pond ...

    • Abstract: To date, information related the skeletal morphology of fish in Indonesia is still limited. Therefore, we firstly described the morphology of the cranium of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) collected from aquaculture pond in Aceh Province, Indonesia. In the present study, research methodology included the preparation of cranium, photographing, editing images and identifying the terminology of cranium. The cranium was prepared physically and chemically. Each part of the cranium was documented using a Canon EOS 700D camera and edited using Adobe Photoshop CS6. The cranium nomenclature was determined by comparing the similarity of the shape and location of each part of the fish cranium that has been studied previously. The cranium of African catfish was divided into two major parts, namely neurocranium (ossa neurocranii) and splanchnocranium (ossa splanchnocranii). Neurocranium had four regions belonging to etmoidal, orbital, otic and occipital, while splanchnocranium had five regions belonging to maxillaris, mandibularis, arcus mandibularis, arcus hyoideus, and apparatus operculare. The African catfish had a strong and thick neurocranium structure. However, orbital, arcus hyoideus and apparatus operculare regions were not well developed. The results of this study could be used as a basic for further research, especially in the field of taxonomy and phylogeny of fish.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 May 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • The role of adding Hyaluronic Acid in the grafting process for the repair
           of experimentally ...

    • Abstract: Abstract The study was designed to determine the role of adding hyaluronic acid as a supportive filling material to improve grafting process of experimentally defective tibial bone in dog model. Eighteen local breed dogs of both sexes weighted 18± 0.4 kg and aged (12± 0.6Months) were randomly allocated in two equal groups. In the first group, twelve dogs underwent experimental tibial bone defect (2.5×0.7 cm ) and replaced with deprotenized lamb ribs. The second group were treated as that for the first, but supported by adding 1% hyaluronic acid, to their grafts. The bone in both groups was firmly fixed by cerclage wire. All dogs were; followed-up clinically, radiologically and macroscopically at (14, 30 and 60 days after the intervention. In all study dogs the systemic infections, signs of seromas, hematoma and sever lameness were not developed along the period of the study . Grossly, dogs in the second group at 60 days showed an increase in the size of the filler of bone at the edges and in the mid of the defect, improvement and acceleration in the bone healing, and formation of bone bridges compared to the first group. Radiological finding exhibited complete healing of the fixated bone segment with the surrounding area; however, some cortical irregularities denoted chronic periosteal reaction and callus formation in the treatment with hyaluronic acid. In conclusion, the study indicated that hyaluronic acid with xenograft materials exhibited remarkable beneficial effects on improvement of the tibial bone defect augmentation
      PubDate: Tue, 31 May 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • Evaluation of Fracture Healing After Thyroidectomy in Rabbits Model

    • Abstract: This research aims to investigate the fracture healing effects caused by thyroidectomy. The experiment involved sixteen matured male rabbits of local breed which divided into 2 equal groups (control and treated). Rabbits anesthetized by premedicated atropine sulphate, then 15 minutes later, a mixture of Xylazine Ketamine was used. The control group rabbits were induced with mid-shafted femoral fracture, with that, the fixation by intramedullary pinning was considered Meanwhile, the treated group rabbits were induced with same method mentioned above, but fracture were fixed after thyroidectomy and measurement of thyroxin a week after thyroidectomy. Results which were obtained from the clinic revealed signs of severe inflammatory reaction in control group which were higher comparing to treated group. These sings were disappeared within 4-5 days in treated group, while, it took 5-6 days in control animals. Also, radiological results of 2 groups showed that a periosteal reaction was observed towards the end of the 2nd week in the control group, whereas, the treated group showed its reaction at the end of fourth week, there was an invisible fracture line for both control and treated groups at the end of fourth and seventh week, respectively. In addition, bony bridge in the control groups became remodeled into a lamellar bone earlier than treated group. The results of measuring thyroxin hormone before and after the thyroidectomy confirmed the essential role of this hormone in fracture healing. To conclude that the fracture healing maturity was greater in control group than in treated group.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 May 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • Renal ameliorating effect of resveratrol in hydrogen peroxide induced male
           rats

    • Abstract: The study aimed to investigate the potential effect of resveratrol (RS) supplementation in attenuating kidney injury induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in male rats. Forty adult male rats were randomly assigned into four groups (10 each). The control group was orally supplemented with distilled water, and group G1 was orally supplemented with tap water containing 0.5% of H2O2, G2: was orally supplemented with tap water containing 0.5% of H2O2 and RS 87 mg/kg BW, and G3 was orally supplemented with RS 87 mg/kg BW. Blood samples were obtained before treatment and after 45 days of daily treatment. Serum concentrations of creatinine (Cr), urea nitrogen (UN), and total bilirubin were assessed. On day 45, male rats were euthanized, and kidney samples were taken to estimate malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) concentrations, and other samples were obtained for histopathological examination. The results showed a significant increase in creatinine and BUN concentrations accompanied by a significant increase in MDA and a decrease in SOD in kidney tissue in G1 group male rats compared to other groups. Resveratrol partially restored the studied criteria related to renal functions by modulating the histopathological changes in the kidney induced by hydrogen peroxide. It could be concluded that supplementation of resveratrol to oxidatively stressed rats maintains the antioxidant defenses mechanism and could be helpful in the prevention of renal oxidative stress.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 May 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • In vivo study of Impact Transplantation Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells on
           Induced Cutaneous ...

    • Abstract: The goal of this study was to assess the effects of the Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells (HSCs) on full-thickness cutaneous wounds healing in rabbits. Twenty clinically healthy adult New Zealand White rabbits were used in this study; under aseptic technique and general anesthesia full-thickness excisional cutaneous wound; 20 mm x 20 mm were made on the back. The rabbits were randomly partitioned into two. In first group (control group), the wounds were treated with 3ml of saline solution. In second group (Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells- group); wounds were treated with 5x106 (Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells). The result of molecular evaluation along the interval of following-up recorded a significant differences (P<0.05) of the level Fibroblasts Growth Factor (FGF) and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) recorded at 7, 14 and 35 day post-surgical operation in (Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells- group) compare than control group. These outcomes were parallel with the finding of the clinical and histopathological assessment showed that Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells- group reduces inflammation and promotes epithelialization during 3th weeks with increased vasculature than those in untreated wounds. This study confirms that local implantation of Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells leads to enhance and develop of cutaneous wound healing in rabbit model.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 May 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • Rapid diagnosis of leishmania spp. in blood samples using gold
           nanoparticles.

    • Abstract: There are many methods to diagnose Leishmania spp. a microscopic, serological or molecular methods. However, finding a fast and accurate diagnostic assay is a necessary and urgent requirement nowadays. here, we improved nano detection method to diagnose Leishmania spp. In blood samples. In this study, we used a probe of oligonucleotide sequences associated with AuNPs (20 nm) to diagnose different Leishmania spp. in blood samples of dogs. For this purpose, three series replicates of 10 μl of 23 ng / μl of Leishmania spp. DNA are used. A change in the solution colour to red is an indicator of a positive result, while the change to purple is a negative result. Then we compared these results with the molecular assay of (IST1) gene. The overall relative sensitivity of the result is (90%). The result shows that 10 out of 10 samples of visceral Leishmania are positive with relative sensitivity and specificity (100%). Eight out of 10 samples of cutaneous leishmania are positive with relative sensitivity and specificity (80%). The present method is a fast and accurate method for detecting small amounts of DNA, and it is easy to distinguish by visual inspection.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 May 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • A study of primary ossification centers in the hind limbs of Awasi sheep
           fetuses by double ...

    • Abstract: Forty Local Awasi sheep fetuses were collected from several areas in Ninevah Governorate, further than local slaughterhouse. Their estimated ages calculated depending on crown-rump length with the aid of Richardson formula. The study aimed to detect the site and the time of appearance of ossification centers in the hind limb bones of Awasi sheep fetuses by using modified double staining method to demonstrate cartilage and bone , or by using radiography. The first ossification centers appeared in the hind limb bones was the primary center of the tibia and femur ,metatarsus with ilium then ischium at 45 , 46 , 48, 50-52 days of fetal age respectively. The ossification centers of pes phalanges appeared in the following sequence ; distal phalanx ,followed by the proximal phalanx and end by middle phalanx , at 58 ,60, 64 days respectively. Ossification centers of tarsal bones began to appear in calcaneus at 64 day , talus at 77 day , central & 4th tarsal bones at 96 day ,, followed by centers of 3rd & 2nd tarsal bones at 100 day while, the center of 1st tarsal bone appeared lastly at 105 day.Femur , tibia and metatarsus studied statistically by follow up the relative increase of their total lengths and length of their ossified part of diaphysis , the results show high significant variance in their growth and ossification of the three bones in first studied period (46-60 days) in comparison with the next sixth successive fortnightly periods
      PubDate: Tue, 31 May 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • Molecular Detection of uidA gene in Escherichia coli Isolated from the
           Dairy Farms in Nineveh ...

    • Abstract: Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a gram-negative environmental micro-organism- which causes intramammary infections in mammals, In addition, to cause food poisoning in human. Four hundred samples were obtained from various areas of the dairy farm . Fifty samples from each of bedding, soils, feces, feed, milk, water, workers hands, and flies were randomly collected from different regions located around Nineveh Governorate between September 2020 and January 2021. E. coli isolates were identifed using the classical methods based on the morphological and biochemical methods for the detection the E. coli isolates and PCR had been used to detect the uidA gene in it. The results of our study revealed that out of 400 samples collected from different dairy herds, 140 (35%) of E. coli were positive. The percentage of E. coli isolated from flies, bedding, feces, milk, soils, feed, water, and worker's hands was 76% (38/50), 46% (23/50), 38% (19/50), 34% (17/50), 28% (14/50), 28% (14/50), 18% (9/50), and 12% (6/50), respectively. All the positive E. coli isolates have been possessing the uidA gene which is the species-specific gene .The results of classical methods had concurred with the results of the PCR test. The current study showed that milk, workers' hand, and flies played an important role to spread E. coli in the dairy farms. The PCR technique is a rapid method that helps to give the suitable drugs in the treatment of the cattle suffered from mastitis and prevent E. coli from distribution among the dairy herds.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 May 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • Histological and histochemical observations of the prostate gland at
           resting and stimulating ...

    • Abstract: The present investigation was done to clarify the histological and histochemical characteristics of the well-developed prostate gland in the adult local dogs (Canis familiaris). The tissue specimens were taken from the prostate gland, the samples were processed by routine histological techniques and stained. Histologically, the body of the prostate in resting was characterized by abundant amounts of fibrous tissue with little glandular lobes that were surrounded by a very thick fibromuscular capsule. Each lobe was composed of numerous variable size lobules that contained several alveoli lined by simple cuboidal cells. While in stimulating status, the gland is characterized by much amount of glandular tissue, thin fibro muscular capsule and thin interlobar connective tissue. The disseminated part of the prostate gland was composed of little scattered small size glandular lobules within the subepithelial cavernous tissue of the urethra about (1-2) cm post body of prostate. Histochemical, the stimulating prostate showed marked intense magenta colour which referred to the presence of both acidic and neutral glycoprotein secretory products when stained with Combine Alcian blue (2.5 pH) + PAS stain. In conclusion, this study showed the differences between the prostate glands in the resting and stimulating status in local breed dogs.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 May 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • Expression of Ki67 in submandibular salivary glands of rabbits after BTX
           injection: ...

    • Abstract: This study aimed to examine the possible histological effects of local injections of BTX in rabbits submandibular SGs and to find the dose-dependent and time relationship between injections and study immunohistochemistry expression of Ki67. Thirty male rabbits randomly divided into 3 groups (10 rabbits for Each) 1st group: control (without treatment), 2nd group treated with 5U of BTX and 3rd group treated with 10U of BTX, five animals of each group were sacrificed in 1st week of treatment and another five animals sacrificed in 4th week of treatment. The rabbit was anesthetized then injected with the BTX in the gland. The histopathological changes in Group 5, 10 Unit BTX (1st week) were vacuolar degeneration of mucous acini cells, degeneration of serous acini cells, while the lesions showed hyperplasia and necrosis of epithelial cells lining striated ducts, necrosis of serous acini epithelium. The Diameter of mucous acini were found to be significantly increased in 10 Unit BTX groups. During the 1st and 4th weeks, the surface area of the striated ducts in the 5- and 10-unit BTX groups increased significantly, and the number of striated ducts in the 10 Unit BTX group decreased significantly when compared to the 1st week period of the same group. BTX groups revealed moderate to weak positive cytoplasmic reactivity for Ki67 protein in the parenchymal tissue of the glands. We conclude that BTX causes histological changes in the salivary gland as well as affecting Ki67. This data could be used in a future study to investigate the usage of BTX in cancer treatment.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 May 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • Prediction of the ovulation time in estrus mares by different methods

    • Abstract: The study aimed to evaluate the prediction of ovulation time by three different methods body temperature, Dramineski estrus detection apparatus, and observation of the mature follicle daily by ultrasonography in mare’s estrus. Sixteen mature cycling mares were used during the breeding season in15 March and15 June of 2021, aged 5-6 years old, at the Nineveh Equestrian club in Mosul city, Iraq. Mares were examined daily by rectal palpation and ultrasound with a 5.5-7 MHz linear-array transducer probe to scan the ovaries and uterus. The mare's follicle diameter and body temperature were recorded daily in the Dramineski estrus detection apparatus to predict ovulation when the data was up to 400 degrees. The result showed that the body temperature was increased significantly from the 1st day to the third day of estrus at P
      PubDate: Tue, 31 May 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • Radiographic and ultrasonic study of pelvic bones in awassi ewes and local
           she goat and ...

    • Abstract: Thegoal of this study is to find out the age of sexual puberty in Awassi sheep and native black she goats by examining pelvic bone development which is obtained from measuring the transverse and vertical diameters of the pelvic bone in the two species using portable X-ray machines American origin.in addition, the length and width of the ovaries were measured with an ultrasound rectal probe. To achieve the goal of this study, six Awassi sheep and the same number of local goats were used. Radiographs were taken of each animal in the ventro-dorsal position, then the mean and standard error of each measurement in the two species were extracted. The rectal probe of the ultrasound machine was also used by inserting it into the rectum, taking vertical and transverse ovarian measurements, and then extracting the mean of each measurement along with the standard error. The mean transverse and vertical diameter measurements at the first instances of sexual puberty in Awassi sheep were 7.70±0.09 cm and 10.61±0.03 cm, respectively, and the mean ovarian length and width were 1.20±0 .08, 0.80±0.06 cm respectively. While the average distance to the transverse pelvic inlet and the pelvic inlet vertically in local black goats at age of sexual maturity were 7.15±0.06 cm and 10.55±0.10 cm, respectively, and the average length and width of the ovary was 1.66±0.03, 1.24±0.02 cm respectively. The results in both species showed that the age of sexual maturity is earlier in Awassi sheep than in local black goats. 
      PubDate: Tue, 31 May 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • Histological effects of the interaction of some food additives on the
           kidney of pregnant rats

    • Abstract: Many studies are still the subject of food additives to know their positive and negative effects, primarily as they are widely used globally. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the histological effects of sodium nitrite and monosodium glutamate on the histological structure of the kidney in pregnant rats. Twenty-four pregnant rats were used to achieve the aim of the study. The rats were classified into four groups, the first being the control group, the second treated with monosodium glutamate at 10 g/kg, the third injected with sodium nitrite at 115 mg/kg, and the fourth for interaction between the two substances and for the same concentrations. The results showed the occurrence of many lesions in the kidneys of experimental groups rats. The second group included interstitial tissue hyperplasia and necrosis of the glomeruli, infiltration of inflammatory cells, congestion of blood vessels, hydropic degeneration of some tubules, and necrosis of some of them. The third group included congestion, hemorrhage in the pulp area, degeneration of some urinary tubules, necrosis, and deformation of the glomerulus. However, degeneration of some tubules and necrosis were seen in the fourth group, such as glomerulus hyperplasia, reduction of Bowman's space, an increase in acidity of the cytoplasm of epithelial cells tubules, hyperplasia of the fibroblasts, and the desquamation of some tubules. The study concluded that these substances have harmful effects on the kidneys in pregnant rats, especially when they are overlapped, so they must be avoided during pregnancy to maintain kidney health.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 May 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • Classical and molecular identification of Staphylococcus aureus isolated
           from infestation ...

    • Abstract: Thepresent study was carried out to describe some epidemiological facts of myiasis infestations in cattle; therefore, Staphylococcus aureus was isolated and identified from various infested sites with maggots from February to September 2019. It involved three districts (Shatt-Alarab, Al-Qurnah, and Al-Dyr) north of Basrah Governorate/Iraq. A total of 54 herds/owners were visited, with 150 cattle were found to be infested with maggots and diagnosed from different sites of the animal body. The result was indicated that 31% (95%Cl, 26.9-35.4) of examined animals were infested with myiasis, and there were no significant differences detected between sex and ages of the animal groups under study. Staphylococcus aureus was diagnosed using classical methods as morphological characteristics, physiological (coagulase tube method), biochemical tests, and growth on selective medium as Mannitol Salt Agar (MSA) at a percentage of 32% (48/150). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to amplify the nuc gene in this isolated species, indicating the presence of nuc size (423) bp compared with a ladder used. The study clearly states that myiasis is a severe threat to cattle populations and that veterinary and agriculture authorities must recall control measures. These measures should be forged to include using a trapping/catch system, applying effective treatment, spraying pesticides, and sterilizing male flies with radiation to inhibit producing offspring.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 May 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • Detection of Campylobacter fetus in aborted ewes in Sulaimani province by
           PCR

    • Abstract: Abortion is one of the most critical factors affecting lambing rates and, as a result, sheep farm profitability. It is also significant from a zoonotic viewpoint, in addition to financial losses. In sheep flocks, Campylobacter fetus causes infectious infertility, embryonic death, and miscarriages. The study investigated C. fetus from aborted fetuses and vaginal swab samples collected from sheep flocks in the Sulaimani province by the polymerase chain reaction. Thirty-eight aborted fetuses and 70 vaginal swabs were collected from sheep flocks in three districts of Sulaimani province (Kalar, Said Sadiq, and Chamchamal) from March 2018 to June 2019. The pathogen was identified in clinical specimens using conventional PCR. C. fetus was isolated in 16 of 38 aborted fetuses (42.1%) and 13 of 70 vaginal swabs from aborted ewes (18.6 %). The C. fetus gene 16S rRNAwas sequenced and received the accession number MW694741 in NCBI GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences designated that the C. fetus isolates formed a separate branch displayed the highest similarity and clustered with MN203686.1 and EU773268.1 accessions in a specific clade. A lower degree of affinity of C. fetus was revealed with Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 May 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • Indicative parameters for liver fascioliasis at pre-clinical and clinical
           phases in cows from ...

    • Abstract: The current work emphasized understanding the liver functions while having pre-clinical or clinical fascioliasis accurately detect the disease phase from cows in Al-Diwaniyah City, Al-Qadisiyah Province, Iraq. The experimental design included the use of 30 cows in Al-Diwaniayh province divided into ten clinically healthy cows (control group), ten acutely infected cows with no apparent clinical signs (pre-clinical group), and ten chronically infected cows with observed clinical signs (clinical group), such as yellowish discoloration of the mucus membranes. Blood samples were collected from each cow for performing the following tests: Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), serum levels of pyruvate, lactate, and Cholesterol. The results showed that all the enzymes from the pre-clinical group were significantly (P<0.05) higher in their serum levels compared with those from the control group to elevate to significantly (P<0.05) higher levels in the clinical group in comparisons with those from the control and pre-clinical groups, excluding the ALT that revealed no significant (P>0.05) difference between the pre-and clinical groups. A significant (P<0.05) increase was seen in the pre-clinical group compared to those from the control group, with no significant (P>0.05) difference between the pre-and clinical groups. No significant (P>0.05) differences were recorded between all study groups at serum pyruvate and lactate levels. The present study reveals that the fascioliasis, dependent on the infestation phase, can progressively change the serum levels of the parameters mentioned above and may feasibly be used together as indicators for the accurate detection of the disease stage.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 May 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • Control of biofilm-producing Aeromonas bacteria in the water tanks and
           drinkers of broiler ...

    • Abstract: In a drinking water distribution system, biofilm-producing bacteria are considered an alarm bell for increased emergence of waterborne pathogens. This study aims to monitor the prevalence of biofilm-forming Aeromonas species in the drinking water distribution systems in different broiler chicken farms. The antimicrobial activity of thyme essential oil (TEO), thyme essential oil nano-emulsion (TEO-N), chitosan (CS), chitosan nanoparticles (CS-NPs), and both CS and CS-NP-based coating TEO against the different Aeromonas spp.was evaluated using the broth microdilution and agar well diffusion assay. The overall prevalence rate of Aeromonas spp. was 49.3% (74.0/150). The highest rate of Aeromonas isolates was noted in water drinkers and tanks 75.0% (30/40) and 62.5% (25/40), respectively) followed by feedstuff 40.0% (12/30). In contrast, the highest percentage of biofilm-producing Aeromonas spp. was Aeromonas hydrophila 70.0% (14/20) followed by Aeromonas caviae 30.0% (6/20). The fatal effect of CS-NPs against all isolated Aeromonas spp. was achieved 100% at 1.5 and 2.0 µg/mL. Moreover, chitosan nanoparticles coating thyme essential oil (CS-NPs/TEO) verified the lethal effect 100% on both A. hydrophila and A. caviae at the ratio of 1:1 and 1:0.75 µg/mL. In conclusion, the main source of Aeromonas spp. in the drinking water distribution system was the unhygienic status of water tanks and drinkers that allowed biofilm to produce due to aggregation of Aeromonas bacteria on the inner surface of that equipment. Both CS-NPs and CS-NPs/TEO could be applied as a sanitizer and/or disinfectant for Aeromonas biofilm control.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 May 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • Evaluation of histological changes induced by prednisolone and
           cyclophosphamide in some organs ...

    • Abstract: Prednisolone is a synthetic corticosteroid used to treat various diseases. It is known to be used to treat many conditions such as autoimmune diseases and asthma. Cyclophosphamide is a type of nitrogen mustard therapy that works by alkylation of DNA and is used as an immunosuppressant in rheumatoid arthritis and the treatment of many cancers as well. Due to the wide use of these two drugs, the study aimed to evaluate the histological changes in the liver, kidneys, and small intestine of mice. Seventy-five adult mice aged 8-12 weeks were used which were divided into three groups, the first group was orally dosed with 0.1 mg/kg prednisolone, the second group was orally dosed with 0.1 mg/kg cyclophosphamide, and the third group received orally distilled water for 30 days daily. After 24 hours of the last treatment, the animals were sacrificed and the organs (liver, kidney, small intestine) were taken out and placed in 10% formalin solution until histological techniques were performed. The results of the study showed a statically significant difference at P>0.05 of histological changes in the studied organs represented by necrosis, fibrosis, cell degeneration, congestion, and hemorrhage of blood vessels and inflammatory cells when compared with the control group, and that the highest significant difference for these changes was at grade 1 and 2. Our study confirms that these drugs cause histological changes that differed in severity between organs as well as within a single organ when compared to the control group and that cyclophosphamide causes more histological changes than prednisolone.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 May 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • Abortion in ewes in Nineveh governorate, Iraq: A systematic review and
           meta-analysis

    • Abstract: The current study was designed to examine the evidence and knowledge gaps in studies investigating abortion in ewes in Nineveh, Iraq, and quantify the overall incidence of abortion and the prevalence of potential infectious etiology of abortion. PubMed, CABI, and GoogleScholar databases were used as search engines to track pertinent peer-reviewed studies. Additional relevant articles were identified by reviewing the reference lists of identified full-text articles and contacting colleagues who worked on pertinent topics. Identified studies were divided into two main groups, including studies that reported the abortion rate in ewes and studies that reported the potential infectious etiology of abortion. A meta-analysis was performed for each group.A total of 17 studies were qualified for review, including six studies that reported the abortion rate. All of the 17 studies examined the prevalence of potential etiology of abortion. The overall incidence of abortion was 7.32%, and the pooled prevalence of potential infectious etiology of abortion indicated that 51.43%, 31.92%, and 6.83% were for Toxoplasma gondii, Brucella spp., and other pathogens, respectively. In conclusion, it is essential to identify epicenters of abortion in Nineveh, the association between the incidence of abortion and parity, the effect of pregnancy season on the incidence of abortion, and confirm the prevalence of T. gondii in aborted ewes is high.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 May 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • Study the role of KSper current for controlling the Ca2+ influx and
           intracellular pHi in mouse ...

    • Abstract: This work was aimed to explore the details of the ion channels gating and there physiological role in sperm in the future.Mouse spermatozoa express a pH-dependent K+ current (KSper) thought to induce hyperpolarization to enhance Ca2+ influx via alkaline-activated calcium channel (Catsper) to initial a so-called sperm capacitation by NH4Cl during travelling in female genital tract for fertilization. However, the regulating mechanism of the Ksper and Catsper channels by membrane potential and pHi remains uncertain, because the complexities of two channel kinetics in sperms is hardly to be overcame at this stage. Here we show that difference of the intracellular [Ca2+]i between the wild type (Wt) and knockout (KO) Ksper (or Slo3/) mice in the application of the Slo3 blockers, Guinidine (QD) and Clofilium, and NH4Cl, indicating that Ksper channels, encoding Slo3 gene, dominates the membrane potential of mouse sperms to increase the intracellular [Ca2+]i and [pH]i during the capacitation process to play a vital role in fertility. Furthermore, a HH model sperm built directly with the native Ksper and Catsper currents in sperms reveals two functions of membrane potential and intracellular pHi, allowing us to calculate the intracellular pHi by NH4Cl, based on membrane potentials recording from current-clamp experiments. During modeling, we found a caton channel with Vrev= +20 mV in mouse sperm from the double-KO (i.e. Catsper-/- and Ksper-/-) mice, which is definitely necessary for a model able to match the data.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 May 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • The histological effect of the injection of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory
           drugs on sciatic ...

    • Abstract: The ongoing work aims to compare the effect of extraneural and intraneural injection of therapeutic doses of meloxicam and diclofenac sodium on the sciatic nerve of rats. Six groups of adult albino rats were used with five animals per group. Control group (A), group (B), and group (C) received a single extraneural injection of normal saline (NS) 0.25 ml/kg/rat, meloxicam (M) 0.11 mg/kg/0.25ml/rat and diclofenac sodium (V) 1.1 mg/kg/0.25ml/rat respectively. In contrast, control group (D), group (E), and group (F) received a single intraneural injection of the same doses of normal saline, meloxicam, and diclofenac sodium, respectively. Histological evaluation reveals an increased thickening of epineurium, dilatation, congestion of epineurial blood vessels, intrafascicular edema, axonal degeneration, myelin degeneration, and vacuolization in group (C) which was higher than those in the group (B). These changes were also greater in group (F) compared to groups (D) and (E). The histopathological changes of the sciatic nerve were greatest in the case of intraneural injection of saline, meloxicam, and diclofenac sodium, which means that the damaging effect of intraneural injection of the drug was greater than the extraneural injection of the same drug. It is concluded that extraneural and intraneural injections of therapeutic doses of meloxicam cause less damage to the sciatic nerve compared to diclofenac sodium. Thus it is considered to be more secure than diclofenac sodium after intramuscular injection. Sciatic nerve injury can occur following intramuscular injection into the gluteal region, particularly if the needle hits the nerve.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 May 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • Prevalence of avian influenza in humans and different bird species in
           Indonesia: A review

    • Abstract: Avian influenza, commonly called bird flu, is highly contagious and pandemic zoonosis of global importance, primarily affecting birds and other mammals, including humans. The present review is intended to highlight a report on the prevalence of avian influenza in humans and different bird species of Indonesia.The study is based on 27 scientific articles from 2004 to May 2021 in which the prevalence of avian influenza is determined mainly by the following molecular, virological, and serological tests: polymerase chain reaction (PCR), hemagglutination inhibition (HI), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and ®Rapid antigen detection test. A vast divergence in the prevalence of avian influenza was observed due to the diversity in sensitivity and specificity of the tests applied. The prevalence of avian influenza varies due to spatial and temporal factors, bird species, and breed differences. An average maximum prevalence (25%)) was found in poultry (domestic and commercial birds) as compared to ducks (20.13%) and other birds (10.66%). An average documented prevalence (16.3%) was found in humans. Birds sold in live bird markets showed maximum prevalence due to different geographical distribution. The already published studies dissection illustrates that avian influenza infects all types of birds and humans in Indonesia. A proper surveillance system, effective vaccination plan, and segregation and culling strategy regarding avian influenza-infected birds are desperately needed to eradicate avian influenza in Indonesia.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 May 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • Histopathological and histochemical study of mastitis in sheep

    • Abstract: Ovine mastitis is considered one of the problems that cause economic losses through its impact on milk production, which is unfit for human consumption. The current study aimed to shed light on mastitis in sheep in different areas of Mosul city. The results of the recent study showed the presence of mammary macroscopic and microscopic changes. Macroscopic changes were represented by the large size of the udder and changes in the color and texture, as well as clarity of sloughing and desquamation of the skin with clear exudation, especially in advanced cases. On the other hand, other samples showed the presence of hard nodules on the udders. In contrast, the histological changes represented by degenerative and necrotic changes 3.5%, and 21.4% of the sample appeared to suffer from liquefactive necrosis and abscesses infiltrated with inflammatory cells, 25% of the samples infected with granulomatous mastitis (nodular mastitis), other models showed that the udder infected with atrophy and metaplasia in the rate of 21%, thickening of the blood vessel wall with clot represented 14.2% and the deposition of calcium salt was 14.2%. The current study concludes that mastitis in sheep is widespread in sheep raised in different areas of Mosul city.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 May 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • Comparative morphological and morphometrically study of the adrenal gland
           in adult males' ...

    • Abstract: Given the physiological significance and the need for further physiological and morphological knowledge of the adrenal glands, the objectives of the current study were to compare morphometric data between the right and left adrenals of male squirrels and hamsters. The study was conducted on five squirrel males and five hamster males. The glands in both animals were removed and fixed in neutral formalin solution. It was found that the squirrel contains two brown-colored right and left adrenal glands connected anteriorly and medially to each cranial pole of the kidney, and the right adrenal gland had a longitudinal shape, while the left gland had an oval shape. Hamsters had two pairs of brown adrenal glands located anteriorly attached to each kidney's cranial pole. The right adrenal gland was round in shape, while the left was oval. The statistical results showed a significant difference between the left and right suitable adrenal glands in both animals, as well as a significant difference between the squirrel gland and the hamster gland, where it was found that the right and left squirrel glands are larger more significant, heavier, longer and thicker than the adrenal gland in hamsters after the following measures were adopted: weight, length, thickness, width, and size. 
      PubDate: Tue, 31 May 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • Molecular investigation of feline calicivirus in cats in Mosul city, Iraq

    • Abstract: The study included 200 cats of different ages, genders, types of breeding, source, vaccination programs, and health status. They were examined clinically and traditionally and recorded clinical signs appearing on them, and swabs were collected from the eye's conjunctiva and the pharyngeal area. RNA was extracted from the swabs and then converted into a cDNA molecule to investigate viral nucleic acid from collected swabs. Then, the open reading template gene two was detected using the primer for this within the applied polymerase chain reaction technique. The Molecular method found the highest infection rate in the oropharyngeal compared with conjunctival swabs. It was found in the highest percentage of infection in the age group more than six months, and the rate of infection decreased with age and in cats outdoors management and imported ones. While nonvaccinated cats recorded the highest rate of infection with the feline calicivirus. In conclusion, feline calicivirus affected the cats in Mosul, Iraq.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 May 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • Comparative anatomical, histometrical, and histochemical study of
           esophagus between ring-necked ...

    • Abstract: The present study aimed to investigate the esophagus's anatomical, histometrical, histochemical aspects in the Ring-necked parakeet and Black-shouldered Kite. The esophagus in the parakeet was shorter and narrower than the kite esophagus. The crop was a well‐developed sac shape in the parakeet, while the crop was hardly recognizable in the kite. Histological study shows that the esophagus in both species was composed of four layers arranged from inner to outer (mucosa, submucosa, musculosa, finally serosa). These layers showed variances in the height of the fold, the glands number, and the wall layers’ thickness. The mucosa in the esophagus of the kite consisted of non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium, while in the parakeet, mucosa consisted of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. The esophageal glands were compound tubuloalveolar in the parakeet, while in the kite, there were simple alveolar glands. The folds in the kite were longest and contained more esophageal glands, while the parakeet glands were more prominent and had fewer numbers within the submucosa. The submucosa layer in the parakeet was thicker than that of the kite. The histochemical results showed a positive reaction of esophageal glands with Alcian blue (PH 2.5), while reacting negatively with Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) stains due to the acidic mucopolysaccharides secretions nature.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 May 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • Gonadotropin profile in experimentally induced hypothyroid and
           hyperthyroid cyclic female rats

    • Abstract: The current study examined the association of thyroid disorders with reproductive dysfunction by determining its effect on gonadotropin secretion in cyclic female rats. Sixty cyclic females were assigned to three groups (20 each) and supplemented, for 30 days plus two consequent estrous cycles, with drinking water (control), methimazole in drinking water (0.02% w/v) (hypothyroid group), and thyroxine in drinking water (0.002% w/v) and gastric gavage of 200 μg/kg body weight (hyperthyroid group). At late proestrus, ten females from each group (for each cycle) were anesthetized and dissected. Blood samples were obtained to assess thyroid-stimulating hormone, free and total triiodothyronine, free and total thyroxin, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and prolactin concentrations. Ovarian and pituitary tissue samples were obtained for molecular analysis of ovarian thyroid receptor genes and pituitary TSH, FSHβ, and LHβ genes. In comparison with control, the Hypo group revealed increased serum concentrations of TSH and PRL and the expression levels of pituitary TSH and ovarian TRsTRs genes and significant decrease of FT3, TT3, FT4, TT4, FSH, and LHLH concentrations and the expression levels of pituitary FSHβ and LHβ genes. In contrast, the Hyper group showed increased serum FT3, TT3, FT4, TT4, and LHLH concentrations and the expression levels of pituitary LHβ and ovarian TRsTRs genes and decreased serum TSH FSH and PRL concentrations and pituitary FSHβ and TSH gene expression levels. It is concluded that thyroid dysfunction is associated with altered serum gonadotropin secretion and reproductive failure. 
      PubDate: Tue, 31 May 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • The beneficial effects of resveratrol supplementation on parasitemia,
           oxidative stress and ...

    • Abstract: This study investigated the effect of resveratrol supplementation on parasitemia, oxidative stress and serum biochemical changes in the Trypanosoma brucei infected dogs. The mean pre-patent period (MPP) of infection was 5.75±0.96 (5-7) days and 9.00 ± 0.82 (8-10) days between infected un-supplemented and supplemented respectively, which differed significantly (p<0.05). There was a significant increase (P<0.05) in the activities of malondialdehyde (MDA) post infection (pi) on the infected untreated group compared with the infected treated groups and the control. The mean serum alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were significantly (P>0.05) higher than the infected treated groups. The mean ALT of infected treated with both resveratrol and diminazene aceturate (DA) was significantly (P<0.05) lower than other infected treated groups. The mean creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels were significantly (P<0.05) higher in the infected untreated group. The creatinine level of the infected treated with both resveratrol and DA was significantly (P<0.05) lower than other infected treated groups, whereas the BUN did not differ significantly (P>0.05) within the infected treated groups when compared with the control. The mean albumin and total protein were significantly (P<0.05) higher in the infected untreated group, but the infected treated groups did not show any significant (P>0.05) difference. However, the total protein was significantly (P<0.05) higher in the infected treated with resveratrol than in other infected groups. It was concluded that pretreatment with resveratrol is beneficial in managing T. brucei infection, as it delays the onset of parasitemia and restores damages done to the liver and kidneys when combined with diminazene aceturate. 
      PubDate: Tue, 31 May 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • Secondary bacterial infection of hydatid cysts infected livestock animals
           (In vitro study)

    • Abstract: Isolation and identificationof the bacteria-infected hydatid cystsof livestock animals were carried out. The study lasted for five months. A total of 302 slaughtered livestock were checked to find hydatid cyst naturally infected livers and lungs of sheep and goat at local Mosul abattoir/ Nineveh/ Iraq. Each cysts' aspirated fluid was cultured separately on blood or nutrient agar at 37C for 24 hours then detected secondary bacteria. Each bacterium was incubated independently with 1000 viable protoscolices in a culture tube containing tryptic soy broth at 37°C and examined every two hours for 6 hours, followed by 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours afterward.The degeneration rate of protoscolices resulting from treatment with bacteria isolated depending on viability was studied in vitro.The results were revealed that the liver was the preponderant affected organ in sheep and goats. About 57.1% of sheep and 50% of goats harbored fertile cysts. Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria were observed in the infected cysts. The most common bacteria infect the cyst was Escherichia coli. The protoscoleces treated with the bacterial isolates had completely deteriorated, whereas 97% of protoscoleces throughout the control groups were still alive and intact even after completing the incubation time. The experiments detect a significant time-dependent scolicidal effect on decreased viability of protoscolices in vitro study. This could pave the door for more research into the scolicidal validity of bacteria or their by-products as protoscolices both in vitro and in vivo.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 May 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • Studying an outbreak of inclusion body hepatitis in broilers in Nineveh
           governorate, Iraq

    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to provide field outbreaks data with FAdVs in Ninevah governorate to emphasize the importance of the disease due to high mortality and production losses. A total of 729,500 broilers collected from 64 flocks at 14 different locations in Nineveh governorate during the second half of 2020. were included in this study. Histopathological changes of the liver in infected birds have been studied. Molecular identification of FAdV was accomplished by DNA extraction from liver samples using DNeasy Tissue Kit. Results reviled that there were 51892 mortalities representing 7.11%. It was noted that the broiler flocks were infected during their 2nd-6th weeks of age, being the highest in the 5th week of age. Decreased mortality was detected from July to December. being 11.3, 7.91, 7.08, 6.38, 5.94 and 4.95%, respectively. Microscopical examination of the liver manifested the pathognomonic presence of eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies related to the disease. PCR findings revealed positive results of FAdVs. It could be concluded that the environmental stress and immunosuppressive agents could contribute to the percentage and duration of mortalities in broiler flocks. 
      PubDate: Tue, 31 May 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • Psychrotrophic count influence on oxidative stability and aflatoxins in
           milk and cooking butter

    • Abstract: Milk and butter are among the precious foods susceptible to spoilage and rancidity due to psychrotrophic microorganisms' activities, which grow in abundance due to the richness of milk and butter in the nutrients and their ability to resist the cold environment milk and butter are stored. In this study, the total psychrotrophic bacterial and fungal counts were recorded. The rancidity represented by the Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances value and aflatoxins B1 and M1 levels were also measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The results reflected a strong correlation between the total number of psychrotrophic bacteria, the rate of rancidity and the total number of molds, and the levels of the aflatoxins in the milk and butter. In conclusion, the psychrotrophic bacterial and mold counts in the milk and butter must be monitored carefully and be added as a routine examination to the list of the butter examinations. 
      PubDate: Tue, 31 May 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • The macroscopical and microscopical characters of the trachea in different
           avian species: A ...

    • Abstract: This study aimed to explain and compare the anatomical, histological, histochemical and histomorphometrical analyses of the trachea in different species of birds. This study includes 21 healthy birds from geese (Anser anser domesticus), cattle egrets (Bublucus ibis) and house sparrows (Passer domesticus), 7 seven from each species. Anatomically, the trachea of the goose (the proximal and distal parts) was the longest of all the studied species, yet it had fewer cartilaginous rings than those of the cattle egret. Also, the tracheal length, beside the tracheal muscle in geese plays an important role in the phonation process. Histologically, the trachea is composed of four distinct tunicae: mucosa, propria submucosa, fibrocartilaginous, and adventitia. The epithelium that lined the trachea was ciliated, pseudostratified columnar epithelium (respiratory epithelium) with simple mucous tubuloalveolar glands in either proximal or distal parts depending on the species. The proximal part is made up of overlapped hyaline cartilaginous rings that partially ossified in geese and cattle egrets but did not ossify in sparrows. In the distal part, the overlapping faded in three investigated species.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 May 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • Transabdominal ultrasonographic determination of pregnancy and fetal
           viability in mares

    • Abstract: The study was designed to evaluate the efficiency of transabdominal ultrasonographic approach for pregnancy diagnosis and monitoring the viability of fetus in mares as an alternative approach to the transrectal ultrasonography to minimize the opportunity of misdiagnosis and prevent the deleterious effect of transrectal invasive. Forty-five mares were scanned by transrectal and transabdominal ultrasonography. Results showed that 26 mares were pregnant and 19 mares were non-pregnant. The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, the positive and negative predictive values of both approaches were 100%. Transabdominal approach required less time in comparison to transrectal ultrasonography to reach the final decision for non-pregnant mares 5.26±0.27 vs. 8.11±0.31 min, mares at second trimester 4.36±0.49 vs. 5.57±0.29 min and third trimester 4.12±0.51 vs. 5.86±0.26 min, respectively. Both methods recorded no significant correlation between the scanning time and the gestational age. The positive predictive values for determining fetal viability were 26.9% for transrectal and 80.8% for transabdominal ultrasonography. A significant variance was reported between the positive predictive values obtained by transrectal and transabdominal ultrasonography. In conclusion, the transabdominal is an effective, practical, and often essential approach of ultrasonographic for determination of pregnancy and fetal viability in mares, especially at the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. We recommended transabdominal ultrasonographic scanner as the first examination for mares presented for pregnancy diagnosis, if this approach does not accurately diagnose, the mares can be scanned transrectaly. So, we can minimize the stress and hazard of the transrectal examination.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 May 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • Antidiabetic of Hylocereus polyrhizus peel ethanolic extract on alloxan
           induced diabetic mice

    • Abstract: Diabetes is a disease characterized by high blood glucose due to the abnormal response of the cells in the body on produced insulin or insulin resistance. Indeed, the treatment for diabetes mellitus lasts for a lifetime and causes various side effects, such as headache, hypoglycemia, vomiting, and gastrointestinal symptoms. Interestingly, Dragon fruit has potent antidiabetic activity and without side effects. Thirty Wistar mice were included in the study. Alloxan with a dose of 150 mg/kg was injected intraperitoneally to all groups except the standard control group. Mice with blood glucose levels higher than 200 mg/dL were considered diabetic and employed throughout the study. Mice were divided into five groups: standard control group without alloxan, diabetic control group with alloxan, treatment group of 100 mg/kg and 300mg/kg H. polyrhizus peel extract, and positive control group with 600 µg/kg glibenclamide. All treatments were given orally. Blood glucose level was checked on day 1, 7, and 14 on all groups using Accu-check instant glucometer. This study revealed that administration of alloxan to the diabetic control group significantly increased blood glucose level compared to the normal control group on day-1, 7, and 14 (P < 0.05). In addition, administration of H. polyrhizus peel extract and glibenclamide effectively decreases blood glucose levels, especially on day-7 and 14 compared to the control group (P<0.05).
      PubDate: Tue, 31 May 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • Assessment of the analgesic effect of Alpha-lipoic acid by three acute
           pain models

    • Abstract: Alpha-lipoic acids are Known as a good analgesic in neuropathic pain, especially in diabetic patients. This research aimed to assess the analgesic activity of ALA by three acute pain models using broiler chicks. We used electrical stimulation, hot water test, and formalin test to elicit acute pain. The up and down method was used to calculate the median effect of the analgesic dose. The ED50 of ALA was 45.18 and 74.56 mg/kg intraperitoneally by electrical stimulation and hot water test, respectively. We demonstrated that the peak of analgesic effect was after one hour by using different doses and different times. ALA at 0, 75, 150, 300 mg/kg intraperitoneally produces a dose-dependent analgesic effect by formalin test. In conclusion: ALA induced analgesic activity, probably by closing voltage-gated calcium and or voltage-gated sodium channels. These outcomes show that therapeutic doses of ALA can affect pain and may mask or reduce nociception induced by acute pain models.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 May 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • In vitro study of curcumin calcium carbonate phosphate nanoparticles
           (Curcumin-NPs) impacts on ...

    • Abstract: Nanoparticles biosynthesis has an essential and increased role in delivering medical compounds. Calcium carbonate phosphate nanoparticles (CaCO3-NPs) were prepared as a stabilized amorphous and incorporated with herbal curcumin extract as an anticoccidial agent in vitro. CaCO3 - NPs were tested against local meriz goat coccidian oocysts. Concentrations were used 2, 4, 8, 16, 30 and 50 mg/ml shows oocysticidal effects and sporocystidal effects at concentration of 100, 200, 400, 800 and 1000 µg. Sporulation inhibition assay was used for 24 and 48 hours. Results of significant oocysticidal effect were seen to inhibit in the concentration of 30 - 50 mg/ml and able to inhibit the sporulation of meriz coccidian parasite oocysts at a rate of 92.54±3.51%. The sporocysticidal effect was also significant with a curcumin nanoparticles concentration of 400-1000 µg/ml with a rate of 98.1±2.11%. The stability of prepared curcumin nanoparticles was examined against various pH levels 4.01, 7, and 9.21 at multiple temperatures 4, 25, 60, and 100°C. Investigation after 1, 6, 12, and 24 hours of treatment occurs according to various treatments. Stability was assessed by spectrophotometric indicated significant reductions for pH 4 and 9 after one hour of treatment and at the temperature of 60°C and 100°C after 12-24 hours of treatment. These results reflect promising hopes of exploiting CaCO3 curcumin nanoparticles to eradicate coccidiosis as they are composed of and prepared from natural substances.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 May 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • Effect of dietary BHA supplementation on certain physiological values in
           broiler chicken

    • Abstract: Butylated hydroxyl anisole (BHA) is manufactured from a mixture of two isomeric organic compounds, 2-tertiary-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole and 3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole, and is widely used in poultry feed as a phenolic free radical scavenger. The current search investigated the impact of different doses of BHA on some hematological and hormonal features of broiler. Fifty-four one-day-old birds were utilized in this study randomly divided into three groups, the control group was given a standard ratio, the 2ed group was given a standard diet filled up with BHA at a rate of 2.5 mg/kg feed, and the 3rd group was given a standard ration fill up with BHA at a rate of 5 mg/kg feed by 18 birds/group, each with three replicates (6 birds/ repeated cycle). The study included three age stages (15, 30, and 45) days. The results showed a significant rise in RBC, WBC, lymphocytes, MCH, SOD, and CAT for the two groups of BHA during 30 and 45 days of treatment compared with the control with a significant improvement in the stress index, as well as a significant decrease in MCV during the three periods of treatment. Supplementation with BHA in both doses caused a significant rise in T3 and T4 during 45 days of the study compared with the control group. We deduce from this research that adding BHA to the poultry diets improved physiological and hormonal characteristics due to its ability to scavenge free radicals. It promotes significant health and growth.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 May 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • Detection of the nuc gene in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from swamps
           and ponds in Mosul city ...

    • Abstract: In most developing countries, rainwater is considered a significant water source for drinking, washing, bathing, and cooking. On the other hand, this water is the medium for transporting microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi to humans and animals. Most domestic and wild animals drink this kind of waterborne illness that leads to various types of diseases, which causes enormous economic losses. The current study was aimed to isolate Staphylococcus (S.) aureus from the swamps and ponds in various areas, including (Qawseat, Kukagle, Besan, Al-Arabi, and Al-Shlalat) that surrounding the Mosul city during the rainfall season. One hundred rainwater samples were collected from swamps and ponds in various Mosul city areas. The classical method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique had used to identify S. aureus isolates. The present study showed that the prevalence rate of S. aureus isolated from swamps and ponds was 12% (12/100) based on the classical and PCR methods used. All the positive S. aureus isolates possess the specific-species nuc gene. In addition, the results of the classical methods are similar to the results of the PCR technique. The present study concludes that the water of swamps and ponds is formed by rainwater exposed to contamination by S. aureus, which posed in the ground and is not fit for the drinking of animals and humans. 
      PubDate: Tue, 31 May 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • New surgical model to induce irreversible liver fibrosis by surgical
           closure of major duodenal ...

    • Abstract: This study was conducted to induce and evaluate irreversible hepatic fibrosis in dogs by surgical closure of the major duodenal orifice. The study was performed on six healthy local adult dogs. Irreversible hepatic fibrosis was surgically induced in all animals by surgical closure of major duodenal papilla using non-absorbable suture material for 60 days. Induced hepatic fibrosis was evaluated by clinical, ultrasonographical examination, laboratory and histopathological methods. The clinical manifestation of the jaundiced dogs showed reduced food intake, pale-yellowish mucus membrane, inflammatory signs of wound site and severe post-operative pain. Biochemically, there was significant increased values of the aspartate aminotransferase ,  alkaline phosphatase , alanine aminotransferase , indirect bilirubin, direct bilirubin and total bilirubin especially during first two days after surgery followed by a gradual decrease of these values until the end of the but still higher than normal values. Ultrasonographic examinations showed abnormal change in the liver tissue such as increase in both size and wall thickness of the gall bladder and mottled heterogeneous appearance of the liver during the first two weeks following the surgical induction of the hepatic fibrosis and lasted until the end of the study. Histopathological evaluation of liver samples revealed necrosis of hepatocytes and deposition of eosinophilic material, infiltration of inflammatory cells, recent thrombus in the hepatic vein, fatty change. In conclusion, surgical induction of irreversible hepatic fibrosis in dogs was feasible technique by surgical closure of major duodenal papilla and the results were confirmed by the clinical, ultrasonographical, laboratory and histopathological examination.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 May 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • Morphometric and molecular characterization of Moniezia species in sheep
           in Mosul city, Iraq

    • Abstract: The current study examined 100 small intestines collected randomly from sheep slaughtered in the abattoir and butcher’s shops from different Mosul city / Iraq areas of both sexes (55 females, 45 males) and different ages. Moniezia expansa was diagnosed in 9 samples of intestines by studying the morphometric characteristics of these tapeworms, especially the mature segments, in which both the ovaries and vitelline glands appeared in the ring shape on either side of the body segments and the rosette-like shape of the interproglotidial glands. No significant difference was noticed between males and females of sheep in our study, and the infection rate was 10% in sheep less than a year old and older than two years, with no significant difference between the age groups. The results of the molecular analysis by using conventional polymerase chain reaction technique confirmed the diagnosis of these worms, which belong to the genus Moniezia, with a product reaction of 700 base pairs. The sequencing result shows two strains of Moniezia expanza, which isolated from Iraq (Moniezia expansa-Iraqi one and Moniezia expansa-Iraqi 2) were similar to each other had a significant distance to other strains. The study also showed that Moniezia expansa is different from the same species in other countries.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 May 2022 19:30:00 +010
       
  • Relationship between the leptin, progesterone, body weight, and onset of
           puberty in ewe lambs

    • Abstract: The aim of the current study was to find out the relationship between leptin, progesterone, bodyweight with the onset of puberty in the ewe lambs. Eight healthy weaned local breeds of ewe lambs at the age of 90 days were introduced in the study, Body weights were recorded, blood samples serum was collected and stored at -20°C until hormonal assays. ovaries and ovarian follicles were checked by ultrasound used to measure follicular diameter every two weeks until estrus was detected. The result showed that the earliest estrus behavior was noticed at age 202 days. Significantly increased body weight was recorded during the trial times at p ≤ 0.05 Moreover leptin level elevated significantly coinciding with the age of puberty at p ≤ 0.05. Also, progesterone level was elevated significantly as the age of puberty at p ≤ 0.05. In addition to that the follicular diameter record a significant increase from day 160 till the end of the trial. Studying the correlation among, leptin, progesterone, and follicle diameter revealed a direct correlation with puberty and total weight body at pre-puberty days. In addition, a close positive direct correlation was observed between the level of progesterone and the diameter of the follicle with the level of the leptin as progressing age of puberty, and the increase in the diameter of the follicle with a rise in the level of progesterone. The study concludes, was found a strong positive correlation among the studied parameters with a time of puberty in ewe lambs.
      PubDate: Sun, 20 Mar 2022 20:30:00 +010
       
  • Estimation of gestational age in Shami goats based on transabdominal
           ultrasonographic ...

    • Abstract: The study was aimed to estimate the gestational age of Shami does by transabdominal ultrasonographic measurement of fetal parameters. Thirty-three Shami does aged 2-2.5 years with confirmed conception dates were used. The does were examined in standing position using a transabdominal 3.5 MHz convex sector probe of real-time ultrasonography. The does were examined weekly starting on 21 day of pregnancy until parturition. Measurements of the fetal parameters that includes; the crown rump length, head diameter, chest diameter, trunk diameter were obtained from the ultrasonographic images using the software Screen Calipers. Results showed that the gestational sac and embryos were observed first on 21 and 35 day of pregnancy, respectively. The litter size of pregnant does ranged between two and three kids. Crown rump length ranged between 24.68±1.32 - 71.71±1.84 mm on 41-60 day, head diameter was 15.63±0.82 - 45.04±0.92 mm on 41-120 day, chest diameter was 11.52±0.84 - 56.35±0.93 on 51-110 day, trunk diameter was 10.69±0.85 - 57.38±0.85 mm on 41-130 day of gestation. The highest positive correlations were obtained between the gestational age chest diameter (r=0.935), crown rump length (r=0.917), head diameter (r=0.917) and trunk diameter (r=903). In conclusion, is a practical method for pregnancy diagnosis and monitoring of embryo in Shami goats. Also, it is reliable to estimate gestation age starting on 41 day of pregnancy. The chest diameter was the best fetal parameter, but trunk diameter can be used for longest period to estimate the gestational age of Shami goats.
      PubDate: Sun, 20 Mar 2022 20:30:00 +010
       
  • Clinical and Molecular Detection of Sarcoptes scabiei in Iraqi Camels

    • Abstract: Sarcoptes scabiei var cameli is the most frequent zoonotic species of mites causing mange in camels worldwide. The prevalence of camel’s mange in Iraq is still little studied. Thus, this research was conducted to detect S. scabiei from camels distributed in four provinces of the Middle-Furat area which includes; Al-Muthaana, Al-Diwaniyah, Najaf, and Babil, beginning from January 2020 until December 2020. The Molecular technique depending on the conventional polymerase chain reaction (cPCR) was performed for direct detection of S. scabiei based on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COX1) gene from skin scrape lesion samples. The results revealed that 125 out of 425 samples (29.41%) of examined camels were infested with S. scabiei. According to sex of the infested animals, the infestation rate was high in females compared with males, where it was 85 (30.91 %) and 40 (26.67%), respectively. In addition, the age 1.5 years old showed the highest number of infestation (83 out of 85) with a percentage 97.65%, while the percentages were 21 out of 60 (35%) and 4 out 68 (5.88%) in animals with 2 and 7 years old, respectively. The results also recorded that infested animals found in Najaf and Al-Diwaniyah had the highest number of infestation, with percentages 36% and 35%, respectively. The finding also demonstrated that the highest infestation percentage was in winter months (January and February) with percentages 92.31% and 80%, respectively. The sequencing and phylogenetic analysis showed that the local isolates of Iraqi camels were consistent with isolates recorded in China.
      PubDate: Sun, 20 Mar 2022 20:30:00 +010
       
  • Pregabalin potentiates the analgesic effect of tramadol, diclofenac and
           paracetamol in chicks: ...

    • Abstract: The study aimed to reveal the median effective analgesic dose (ED50) of pregabalin and to determine the type of analgesic interaction with each of tramadol, diclofenac, and paracetamol in chicks. Methods: The electrical stimulator device was used to detect pain before and after treatment and through ascending and descending in doses and depending on the up and down method, the median effective analgesic doses were determined for all drugs used in the study, and then the interaction experiment was conducted at a fixed ratio 0.5:0.5 of pregabalin with each of tramadol, diclofenac and paracetamol of their individual ED50 values, the results were subjected to the isobolographic analysis to determine the type of interaction. Results: ED50s for pregabalin, tramadol, diclofenac and paracetamol in chicks were 156.5, 0.82, 5.65 and 10.74 mg/kg respectively. Concomitant administration of drugs (pregabalin: tramadol), (pregabalin: diclofenac) and (pregabalin: paracetamol) at a fixed ratio 0.5:0.5 of their individual ED50 values reduced their ED50s to (36.2: 0.18), (64.3: 2.3) and (64.3: 4.3) mg/kg respectively. Isobolographic analysis showed synergistic analgesic effects of both drugs interaction. The calculated interaction indexes were 0.45, 0.81, and 0.81 respectively. Conclusion: We conclude from the outcomes that the analgesic interaction was synergistic between pregabalin and tramadol significantly, while the analgesic interaction of pregabalin with both diclofenac and paracetamol was also synergistic, but to a lesser extent.
      PubDate: Sun, 20 Mar 2022 20:30:00 +010
       
  • The Impact of Various Antioxidant supplementation on Ram's Sperm Quality,
           Fertilization, and ...

    • Abstract: The in vitro embryo production (IVEP) is very stressful for gametes. Gametes are subjected during in vitro manipulation to many different types of stress; oxidative stress is the most prominent one, which will cause damage or alter the genetic material of the sperm and reduce the quality of the oocytes, and has a crucial impact on the possibility of developing embryos even after implantation. This study aimed to determine the influence of antioxidants on the achievement of In vitro culture (IVC) and sperm's ability to adhere to and penetrate further into In vitro maturated oocytes. For this purpose, we have incubated ram sperm using four different treatments in terms of antioxidants: melatonin, cysteamine, vitamin C, and vitamin E. They were incubated by the standard methods of maturation and capacitation of sperm. The oocytes were fertilized by spermatozoa that had been capacitated with two groups of fertilization media, the first group containing melatonin and the second group containing cysteamine. Compared with other groups, sperms treated with melatonin demonstrated hyperactivity, and the fertilization rate was significantly increased. As for the IVF medium containing melatonin, it was superior to cysteamine in embryo development rates. In conclusion, melatonin could be a promising tool for improving sperm competence for fertilizing oocytes and embryo development in sheep.
      PubDate: Fri, 18 Mar 2022 20:30:00 +010
       
 
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