A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 220 journals)
The end of the list has been reached or no journals were found for your choice.
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1607-3894 - ISSN (Online) 2071-1255
Published by U of Mosul Homepage  [20 journals]
  • Antibacterial activity of Proteus spp. isolated from the rice-fish farming
           system cultivation area against A. hydrophila

    • Abstract: Proteus spp bacteria is one of the bacteria that have antibacterial activity. Bacteria that produce antibacterial can suppress the growth of pathogenic bacteria such as A. hydrophila. This study aimed to determine the antibacterial activity of several strains of Proteus spp. against A. hydrophila from the rice-fish farming system cultivation area in the Banyumas district. Research stages included isolating bacteria from a sample, preparing the test bacteria, and testing the inhibition power of Proteus spp. in agar-well diffusion dishes. The results showed that the identified Proteus strains included Proteus mirabilis strain MRKMSEC 72 (BA1), Proteus penneri strain CPrp_RA24 (BA3), Proteus mirabilis strain BN7 (BA7), Proteus mirabilis strain BN7 (BU4), and Proteus vulgaris strain Siii (BS11). All strains obtained had an antibacterial activity that could inhibit Aeromonas. It was also found that most Proteus spp. Species are sensitive to antibiotics, especially amoxicillin. Proteus species with high levels of antibiotic sensitivity are expected to be able to fight A. hydrophila in cultivation environments and be used as biocontrol agents.
  • The effect of levofloxacin ointment against imiquimod
           induced–psoriasis in mice model

    • Abstract: The goal of this study was to prepare levofloxacin as a topical ointment for evaluating its anti-psoriatic activity in imiquimod-induced psoriasis in mice. Sixty mice 24 – 30 grams were randomly divided into six groups of 10 mice each. The first group was a control group, in which the baseline ointment was application to the shaved back. The second group received imiquimod (5%) cream for 6 days on back in the same way as the remaining four groups to induce psoriasis of skin inflammation. The 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th groups were treated with application of imiquimod daily clobetasol, levofloxacin 10, 20 and 40% ointment. At the end of the experiment, blood was obtained to prepare serum for measuring inflammatory biomarkers, while skin samples were used to study histopathological changes. Levofloxacin ointment dramatically reduced the scores of erythematous, scaling, and epidermal thickenings, as well as the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-8, IL-17, and IL-37. Levofloxacin ointment has strong anti-psoriatic and anti-inflammatory activities.
  • Pathological detection of nutritional muscular dystrophy in dromedary
           camel calves in Palestine

    • Abstract: Nutritional muscular dystrophy (NMD) is a nutritional condition associated with selenium and/or vitamin E deficiency affecting several animal species. Selenium and vitamin E function together as antioxidants that protect cell membranes from oxidative damage. The current investigation was conducted in a herd of fifty-eight dromedary camels with an outbreak of NMD for the first time in Palestine with a mortality rate of 8.6%. Five calves died after several hours to a few days of the onset of clinical signs such as recumbency, stiffness, and muscle weakness. Necropsy was performed on three dead calves that were evaluated grossly and tissues were collected for histopathology. After the routine tissue processing, samples were stained with H&E and examined under the light microscope. The examined calves exhibited clinical symptoms as well as microscopic and gross lesions compatible with cardiac muscle necrosis and degeneration. The use of Vitamin E and Selenium therapy reduced clinical symptoms and terminated the mortality. The findings show that NMD occurs in Palestine in calves of camels. This study describes clinical and pathological findings related to the death of calves. Further research is needed to determine the prevalence and impact of this disease on the health of camel herds in Palestine.
  • Effects of local nandrolone decanoate on TGF-1β and IGF-1 in the
           healing of the muscle wound

    • Abstract: Identifying the appropriate therapy for the problem of exposure to muscular wounds is an essential issue in people and in animals, especially racing animals such as horses, in whom muscular function is part of life. This study investigates the hypothesis that local application of the steroid nandrolone decanoate to the masseter muscle accelerates the healing as combined with pathological repair. The rabbits were split into two equal groups at random. The first group (ten rabbits), known as the control group, had surgery and received distilled water injections. The second group (ten rabbits) had surgery and received intramuscular injections of nandrolone decanoate 10 mg/kg once daily from the first day after surgery to day of sacrifice. Five rabbits from groups A and B were sacrificed on the third and seventh days. All animals were euthanized, and then masseter muscle tissue was removed for histological analysis. Three days following the surgical wound, a microscopic inspection of the control group's muscular wounds revealed severe myositis with inflammatory exudate cells, hemorrhages, and necrotic myofibrils. Acute myositis wound site with inflammatory exudate cells, atrophy and increase in connective tissue was present after seven days. Three days following the surgical wound, a microscopic examination of the treated group's muscular wounds revealed mild myositis with inflammatory cells, vitreous degeneration, and muscle fiber atrophy. Following seven days, mild myositis with inflammatory cell infiltration, muscle fiber atrophy, and hyaline degeneration manifested at the site of wound. On the 3rd day of treatment period, the levels of serum TGF-1β and IGF-1 in the groups of study indicated a highly significant difference, however on the seventh day; there was no difference between the groups. Local Nandrolone decanoate helps hasten the healing of muscle wounds.
  • Comparison of fibroblast-growth factor-23 level between males and
           female’s broiler using HPLC technique

    • Abstract: Animal public health is crucial concern when considering the role of fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) in regulating phosphate metabolism. FGF-23 has been associated with to various diseases in animal, such as chronic kidney and cardiovascular disease, making it a crucial factor to consider for maintaining the well-being of animals and ensuring public health. This study aimed to measure the levels of FGF-23 protein in broiler chickens and compare them to a standard level of 375 pg/ml. Blood samples were collected from 10 female and 10 male broiler chickens, and FGF-23 protein levels were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed significant gender differences in FGF-23 protein levels, with males having a higher level of FGF-23 protein than females. Females had a mean level of 256.12 pg/ml (SD = 86.02), while males had a significantly higher mean level of 1508.71 pg/mL (SD = 1113.85). However, the study is limited by the small sample size and the use of a single population. Further research with larger and more diverse samples is needed to confirm the generalizability of these findings. Conclusion, this study provides important insights into the role of gender in FGF-23 protein metabolism in broiler chickens, and may have implications for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases associated with FGF-23 protein dysregulation in poultry.
  • Effects of autologous bone marrow on the healing of long bones fractures
           reduced by external skeletal fixators in goats

    • Abstract: This study aimed to assess the effect of autologous bone marrow on metacarpal and metatarsal fractures in goats presented to the indoor surgery clinic at the University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (UVAS) in Lahore, Pakistan. A total of 20 female Beetal goats weighing 20-22.5 kg and aged 8-12 months were allocated into equal groups of five animals each: G1, G2, G3, and G4. Animals in G1 were fixed with a linear external skeletal fixator, and animals in G3 were fixed with a circular fixator and treated with multiple aspirates from the bone marrow, while animals in G2 were fixed the same way as G1, and animals in G4 were fixed the same way as G3 and treated with normal saline on days 0, 14, and 28. The radiographic union scale (RUS) and weight-bearing score (WBS) were used to evaluate the post-treatment rate of repair, and sero-biochemical changes were observed on days 0, 7, 14, 28, and 45. The results showed a significant difference (P<0.05) in bone healing among groups treated with bone marrow aspirates (BMA) and groups treated with normal saline. RUS and WBS scoring in G1 and G3 animals were significantly higher (P<0.05) than in G2 and G4 animals on days 7, 14, and 28. Moreover, animals in G1 and G3 had significantly (P<0.05) greater levels of alkaline phosphatase, total hydroxyproline, and free hydroxyproline than animals in G2 and G4, respectively. In conclusion, the application of BMA at the site of fracture aids in the healing of fractured metacarpal and metatarsal bones aligned with external (linear and circular) fixators in goats.
  • A comparative histopathological study of pancreas, intestine, and liver of
           experimentally induced diabetes in rats

    • Abstract: For several decades, experimentally induced diabetes has been a cornerstone in the research field of this syndrome. Various methods have been applied to induce diabetes, such as chemical induction (by alloxan or streptozotocin), surgical induction (by pancreatectomy), special high-carbohydrate diets, and genetically diabetic animals (such as ob/ob mice). However, few studies have investigated the histopathological changes associated with different induction methods and compared these approaches. Therefore, we aim to investigate the common induction methods (alloxan, streptozotocin, and special diets) in adult male rats and compare the histopathological changes resulting from each method. Serum glucose monitoring confirms the induction of diabetes, and histopathological studies reveal a wide range of lesions in the pancreas (a significant reduction in the diameter and number of Langerhans islets), liver (necrosis, acute cell swelling, the presence of cellular debris, karyolysis, and vacuolar degeneration), and intestine (a significant reduction in the length and width of intestinal villi, and a diminished number of goblet cells). In conclusion, various approaches to induce diabetes in rat result in a wide range of histopathological lesions. Further investigation is needed to determine the most suitable method to induce diabetes and to assess the implications of these histopathological changes on the efficacy of treatments for diabetes.
  • Study the effect of isoproterenol to visualize cerebral blood flow by
           using a laser speckle imaging system in Neonatal rats

    • Abstract: The severe stress in Neonatal rats causes hemorrhagic cerebral infarction, provoking the appearance of venous insufficiency and reduced outflow of blood from the brain. These changes in blood flow precede intracranial hemorrhage and the risk of stroke in Neonatal rats, which is an actual and acute problem of modern neonatology. we studied the contribution of the mechanisms of adrenergic vasorelaxation in impaired venous blood flow in Neonatal rats with stress-induced cerebral infarction. Neonatal rats were divided into three groups (control, pre-stroke state, and after developing a stroke). Blood flow changes were measured using laser speckle imaging systems, one of the most advanced techniques in measuring cerebral blood flow. The pharmacological stimulation of the beta-2-adrenergic receptors by the introduction of isoproterenol to the groups, the pre-stroke group revealed a higher sensitivity of animals to this effect, where the vein diameter in that group increased by 36% after injection of the isoproterenol which is 1. 5 times greater than in the control and perfusion in this group under the influence of isoproterenol decreased by 27%. This indicates that adreno-related vasorelaxation mechanisms play a major role in disturbances in venous blood flow, Adrenergic vasorelaxation plays a major role in the critical expansion of intracranial veins and in the formation of cerebral hypotension, which gives us an indication to prevent hemorrhagic cerebral infarction in the neonate.
  • Effect of methotrexate on neurobehavior and cholinesterase in chicks

    • Abstract: This reading aimed to determine the therapeutic index of methotrexate (MTX) with a note on the consequence of methotrexate in chicks on neurobehavioral in addition to calculating the activity for cholinesterase in plasma and brain in chicks. Two groups with 10 chicks each were utilized once. The untreated and methotrexate groups were given saline and MTX at dose 40 mg/kg for 5 days, respectively. The methotrexate group obtained considerable amounts of methotrexate 9th day of the start of the experiment for five days. All chicks were exposed to open-field activity and tonic immobility tests. Brain tissue with blood samples were collected to evaluate cholinesterase levels in chicks. ED50 and LD50 for methotrexate in the chicks were 14.36mg/ kg and102.63 mg/ kg, correspondingly. In addition, Therapeutic index of methotrexate was 7.15. The methotrexate group explained an important enhance in latency to move and tonic immobility evaluated with an untreated group, there is a significant decline in lines crossed, and escape jumps compared with untreated group, and the cholinesterase activity showed a significantly reduced in plasma and brain samples treated with methotrexate and inhibition expressed significantly increased evaluated through the control group. Our findings conclude that methotrexate has a depressant action on the nervous structure and an inhibitory action on the cholinesterase level in the chick’s model.
  • prevalence of some species of flies in cowsheds in Mosul city

    • Abstract: The flies of different families that the flies which act as the main sources of annoyance to both humans and animals, as well as being direct vectors of many pathogens, its indeed need to do this study to check for the presence of these flies within the animal environment near the sources of food and water, in addition to their presence close to animals or on their bodies. As indicated from the results of the present study of morphological or formal specification for Musca, Lucilia, Chrysoma, Stomoxys, and Parasarchophaga, which were collected from cowsheds from AL-Saada and Baawyza and Al-Shalalaat areas in Mosul city. The current study focused on the morphological features of flies collected to achieve guideline evidence with images taken under the stereoscopic dissecting microscope. Three families and seven species of dipteran flies' morphological specifications have been revealed in this research with the help of taxonomic keys particularly; wing venation, number of strips on the thorax, color of head, thorax, and abdomen with colored hairy of the flies and antennae, as well as an activity note of flies during the day and peak of this activity in the noon hours, especially in the warm months in which the study took place, like April and May and the daylight time (sunrise at 4:52-5:57 am, the sunset at 6:29-7:17 pm) characterized encouraging for light action of flies families.
  • Morphology and immunohistochemistry analysis of broiler intestine treated
           with immunostimulant agents

    • Abstract: This study aims to examine the effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a probiotic, mixing them on the intestine layer represented by (heights of the epithelium, depth of the crypts, width of villus and length of villi), and to observe the histopathological and immunohistochemical effects in broilers during 1-35 days. A total of sixty birds 1-day old broilers are randomly divided into four groups each with fifteen replicates, where G1 as a control group, G2 treated with 3 g/kg of S. cerevisiae, G3 treated with 200g/1000L of probiotics with water and G4 treated with a mixture of both probiotics and S.C. All broiler chickens are euthanized at days 7, 21 and 35 for histopathology and at days 7, 35 for immunohistochemistry. Results show a significant variation increase in the intestine layer of all groups in contrast to the control group, especially at G4 (the mixture of S. cerevisiae and probiotics). The administration of S. cerevisiae and probiotics significantly increases the permeability of the intestine via IL-6 proteins for cytoplasm and cell membrane and the gene expression is equal in intensity during the first and the fifth weeks of killing. From these results, we conclude that the materials used in G4 has given intense response of IL-6 in broiler chickens, which is a good indicator; therefore, they are proposed for stimulating innate and adaptive immunity.
  • Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in Bothriocephalus acheilognathi cestoda
           and the definitive host, Cyprinus carpio (L. 1758)

    • Abstract: Concentrations of three heavy metals as Manganese, Nickel, and Cobalt were estimated in two levels in the food chain; the omnivorous Cyprinus carpio fish and its intestinal cestode Bothriocephalus acheilognathi as end consumer (endoparasite) using atomic absorption technique. The study was performed in two locations in Tigris River, Al Rashedia and Sherikhan villages/Mosel City/ Nineveh Province between June 2022 to October 2022. The concentration of the three chosen metals: Mn, Ni, and Co, was estimated in the liver, gills, intestine, and skeletal muscles in both infected and uninfected fish and added to tissues of the cached Cestoda. Manganese concentration was the highest in the gills of both infected and uninfected fish 14.597, 21.773 µg/gm fresh weight, nickel concentration was the highest in the liver 4.44 and 8.10µg/gm fresh weight, and cobalt concentration was the highest in the intestine 2.467 and 7.79 µg/gm fresh weight. The difference in values was significant at P≤0.05 in the infected and uninfected fish, respectively. Accumulation of the three metals Mn, Ni, and Co was the lowest in fish skeletal muscles. Mn had the highest accumulation mean in fish organs 11.846 µg/gm fresh weight, Ni was the next 4.094 µg/gm, and Co was the lowest 2.616 µg/gm. The concentration of Mn and Ni in the cestode B. acheilognathi tissues 22.53 and 10.45 µg/gm was about two folds of that found in its host fish C. carpio. The concentration of Co was approximate in the worm tissues and its host fish. In conclusion heavy metals in C. carpio didn’t exceed the WHO and the FAO set permissible levels. B. acheilognathi cestoda could be a useful bioindicator for heavy metal contamination in aquatic ecosystems.
  • Effect β glucan extracted from Candida albicans on pathological changes
           produced by Penicillium chrysogenum infection in mice

    • Abstract: This research aims to evaluate the effect of β glucan extracted from Candida albicans on the pathological effect of P. chrysogenum isolated from subclinical bovine mastitis from Abu Ghraib area in Baghdad by California mastitis test in winter 2020 on some internal organs such as (bone, brain, lung and intestine) by intramammary injection for two weeks then the beta-glucan extracted from the yeast Candida albicans was used for treatment of P. chrysogenum infection at two concentrations 50 and 100 mg/kg by two methods of injection (intramammary and intraperitoneal). The present study findings demonstrated different degrees of inflammation in these organs especially in the bone and brain, in addition, treatment with beta-glucan extracted from C. albicans showed a strong recovery response at a 50 mg/kg concentration by intraperitoneal injection in all organs from a 100 mg/kg concentration intraperitoneal injection was better than intramammary injection. Additionally, the results showed that the concentration of IgG was determined in serum samples of mice infected with P. chrysogenum using radial immunodiffusion plate, which showed different diameters of precipitation rings in the gel of plate with an increase in IgG concentration in all mice compared to the normal value of the concentration of IgG.
  • Risk factors and genetic diversity of border disease virus in small
           ruminants in Nineveh province, Iraq

    • Abstract: Gathering information about the status of the Border disease virus (BDV) would limit its propagation and make monitoring efforts more effective. Numerous BDV genotypes are globally widespread, according to various reports. In Nineveh province- Iraq, the phylogenetic analysis and some associated risk factors of BDV virus in sheep were the subjects of this groundbreaking work. Blood samples from 264 sheep were collected in different regions of Nineveh province from the period between June till December 2022. The analysis for the sequences of BDV Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) was performed using the online GenomeNet multiple sequence alignment tool (CLUSTALW). Following that, the sequences were blasted against other available BDV virus strains in the GenBank using NCBI BLAST (BLASTn) of NCBI. Neighbor-joining (NJ) mode was used to create the phylogenetic trees. The result revealed that 15.9% (42/264) of sheep tested positive for BDV, and the associated epidemiological aspects, including herd size and interspecies management, had a significant impact of (P<0.05) on this rate. Forty-two 5' UTR sequences were subjected to individual sequence analysis, which identified the genotypes of BDV in Nineveh province for the first time. This finding could be potentially benefit future studies and management of this disease status in the study zone.
  • Effect of estrogens level on the fracture healing of tibia bone after
           ovariectomy and ovariohysterectomy in female dogs

    • Abstract: This study aimed to find out how estrogen affects fracture healing. Thirty adult bitches were employed, and they were put into three groups at random: First, second, and third. A mixture of ketamine and xylazine has been used to anesthetize experimental animals. Electrical drilling in the distal part of the tibial bone with a 10 mm diameter was done on the first group to create a hole in the tibia. The Tibia hole was created after ovariectomy in the second group but after ovariohysterectomy in the third group. Clinical, estrogen assay and histopathological characteristics were assessed in all groups. During the first week after surgery, clinical results showed that symptoms of inflammation in the surgical region were substantial in the first group, while the inflammation symptoms in the second group were similar to those in the first group; however, it was milder in the third group. In the second group, estrogen levels reduced modestly; however, in the third group, estrogen levels declined significantly in the fourth week after surgery. According to histopathological findings, the proliferation of osteoclasts and osteoblasts at 15 and 30 days after surgery is much more pronounced in the first and second groups than in the third groups. Osteocytes are also more common in the first group than in the second and third groups. According to the results of this study, fracture healing in the third group is much less quantitative and qualitative than in the other groups.
  • Anatomical and morphological study of the petrous bone in camels (Camelus

    • Abstract: The present study presents a detailed anatomical description of the petrous bone of the camel skull. The petrous temporal bone in camels has a distinctive shape. Not all parts were visible. This work gives a detailed gross anatomical description of the petrous bone in the camel’s skull. The skulls were prepared by using boiling and maceration techniques. The study showed that the petrous part is the main part of the temporal bone in the skull and forms part of the lining of the cranium. The study showed that the petrous temporal bone consists of the following parts: the mastoid process, the external auditory meatus, the muscular prominence, and the styloid process, as well as the petrous part. The petrous part has a base, an apex, three angles (cranial, caudal, and ventral), and three surfaces: the medial, the lateral, and the ventral surfaces. The lacerate sulcus was described in this study as a groove that runs the ventrally basilar part of an occipital bone side to the pterygoid canal. The results obtained from this study were important in enriching comparative anatomy in different animals.
  • Effect of aspartame in bone formation of young female rats

    • Abstract: Aspartame is a popular artificial sweetener with a few calories and is widely used, it is used in over 90 countries around the world. The current study was aimed to assess the effect of different doses of aspartame 0.4, 0.8, and 1.2 g/kg on the bone formation of young female rats. Twenty-four female rats aged 1.5 months and weighing 90-100 gm were grouped as the following: control group (G1), group treated with 0.4 g/kg (G2), group treated with 0.8 g/kg (G3) and group treated with 1.2 g/kg (G4). After 30 days of treatment blood samples were drawn and serum separated for estimation the biochemical parameters rat-vitamin D, rat-Insulin like growth factor-1 (rat-IGF-1), alkaline phosphatase, calcium, inorganic phosphate, and albumin. For bone histopathological examination the left femur of rats was taken after the animals were killed. The results revealed a significant elevation in serum vitamin D, IGF-1, ALP, and albumin in all treatment groups comparison to the control group. However, calcium in serum showed a significant reduction after being treated with 0.4 g/kg and 0.8 g/kg, but a significant elevation was noticed after treatment with 1.2 g/kg of aspartame. High doses of aspartame at 1.2 g/kg exhibited histopathological changes in bone sections. We concluded from the current study that excessive doses of aspartame have an unfavorable effect on bone formation and structure of growing rats.
  • Utilization of lactoferrin to inhibit E. coli and S. aureus isolates from
           milk and kariesh cheese

    • Abstract: This study aims identify E. coli and its β-lactamase encoding genes, S. aureus and its enterotoxin genes isolated from milk and Kariesh cheese. Moreover, we evaluated the antibacterial effect of lactoferrin against these pathogenic bacteria. Sixty samples in total (30 each of raw milk and Kariesh cheese) were collected from various retail-markets in Kafrel-Sheikh Governorate. The percentage of E. coli isolates found in raw milk and Kariesh cheese reached 43.3% and 36.6%, respectively, while S. aureus isolates were recorded at 50% and 23.3% (from raw milk and Kariesh cheese). Twenty-four strains of E. coli were serogrouped, of which 3 strains out of 24 were O17, O91 and O159, 6 strains were O127 and 9 strains were O26. PCR analysis for β-lactamase encoding genes in E. coli indicated that all eight isolates were 100% positive for blaTEM and blaSHV genes while 5 (62.5%) S. aureus isolates were positive for enterotoxin production. Five (62.5%) isolates produced Seb, 2(25%) produced Sec while the Sea gene was not detected in S. aureus isolates. The results indicate that lactoferrin 5% had a significant inhibitory effect on S. aureus and E. coli when they were inoculated into Kariesh cheese. The findings show that dairies didn't take enough hygiene precautions, and we advise following stringent hygiene procedures when dairy products are milked, processed and distributed. To control the growth of E. coli and S. aureus in dairy products,lactoferrin is thought to be a potential strategy.
  • Detection of positive mecA Staphylococcus aureus isolated from meat and
           butchers’ shops by using PCR technique in Mosul city

    • Abstract: Methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) can harm to public health as they can cause widespread food poisoning and resistance to multiple antibiotics. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the percentage of S. aureus and MRSA among meat and butcher shop tools, utensils, and workers' hands by detecting the presence of the nuc and mecA genes in S. aureus and MRSA isolates, respectively using PCR technique in Mosul city. In this study, we randomly selected 300 samples from meat and various butcher shop surfaces in Mosul city between September 2021 and January 2022. The findings confirmed that S. aureus carried the nuc gene in meat 64% and other samples, ranging from 36% in machines to 82% in knives. Additionally, out of 178 positive S. aureus isolates in this study, 94 samples showed a positive mecA gene for S. aureus. Significant differences were observed among the meat and various utensils of butcher shops. The meat had a higher prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates reach 75% more than the other tools and utensils (machines 38.9%, tables 36.7%, worker hands 38.5%). Further research is necessary to evaluate the existence of enterotoxin genes in Staphylococcus aureus of different meat products.
  • Traditional, histopathological and molecular diagnosis of sarcocytosis in
           slaughtered sheep in Al-Diwaniyah province, Iraq

    • Abstract: The presented investigation was performed to identify Sarcocystis species, in an intermediate-host parasite with zoonotic importance, infection in slaughtered sheep identified by traditional, histological, and molecular methods in Al-Diwaniyah Province, Iraq. Here, 70 intercostal and esophageal muscle samples 10-40 gm/each were collected from slaughtered sheep. The samples were examined for detection of the Sarcocystic bradyzoites using microscopic, histological, 18S rRNA gene-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and PCR-product-dependent gene sequencing methods. The results of the microscopic method revealed that 65 (93%) of the muscle samples contained bradyzoites. The histopathological picture showed the presence of two microsarcocysts with different morphological thin or thick wall sizes. The PCR demonstrated that 68/70 (97%) of the samples were positive for the occurrence of the parasite DNA. According to the NCBI-based websites, the Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolates from the current study were closely similar in their nucleotide sequences with isolates from Norway, Egypt, and Iran. The present data indicate high infection levels by Sarcocystis spp. in slaughtered sheep, which could bring alarm for public health importance.
  • Seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis and its incidence in human in Thi-Qar

    • Abstract: Brucellosis is a contagious bacterial disease that causes public health problems and financial losses in animal productions. This study aims to describe the incidence of human brucellosis, seroprevalence of brucellosis in cattle, and risk factors of disease spreading. The total incidence cases of human brucellosis in Thi-Qar province are estimated at 5.4% per 100,000 people for eight years, and the highest number of 43 patients are observed in 2019. The number of the positive samples using the Rose Bengal test (RBT) are 32 (21.8%) from a total of 147 blood samples assembled randomly from cattle populations. The seroprevalence of brucellosis is estimated as 3.4% (95%Cl:1.1-7.8) through employing the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The questionnaire interview with the animal owners revealed that the large proportion neither handle aborted animals properly nor dispose of the waste materials of abortions. Besides, the majority of the owners prefer lending bulls for mating or breeding purposes rather than artificial insemination. The study concludes that brucellosis is an endemic disease in Thi-Qar Province and that it is important to abide by the One Health Approach for the management of disease control in animal population and minimize human incidence rates.
  • Molecular characterization of the 3'-UTRsequence of the interferon-gamma
           gene and its expression profile in the ocular conjunctiva of amazon

    • Abstract: Interferon-gamma is an important innate immunomodulatory inflammatory cytokine, whose molecular characterization can demonstrate how this gene may or may not be conserved in populations throughout the evolutionary process. Thus, the study aimed to characterize the 3'-UTR of the Interferon gamma gene and determine its expression profile in the ocular conjunctiva of Amazon buffaloes. For this, blood and ocular conjunctival tissue samples were collected from two hundred and five healthy slaughtered buffaloes in the State of Amapa, Brazil. For the conventional polymerase chain reaction, primers for the 3'UTR region of the Interferon-gamma gene were used and the products were purified, sequenced and edited by comparing the corresponding sequences from buffalo species and other domestic, wild and human mammals. They were aligned and compared using genetic similarity analysis and phylogenetic analysis, using Network 5.0 program and MrBayes, version 3.1.2, respectively. Conjunctival samples were submitted to mRNA quantification of the interferon-gamma to profile gene expression relative to the endogenous gene GAPDH and β-ACTIN. The study demonstrates high-level interferon-gamma genetic similarity between ruminants, with a network of haplotypes forming groups of ruminants, primates, carnivores, bats, cetaceans and isolated individuals such as suiformes and rhinos. Ruminants and cetaceans have a close phylogenetic relationship, while there were different evolutionary distances between buffalo and other mammalian species. The interferon-gamma gene was expressed in all animals in relation to endogenous genes. The results served to better understand the immune system of Amazonian buffaloes and to determine the evolutionary profile in relation to other mammalian species.
  • Evaluating the toxic oral doses of iron oxide nanoparticles in mice

    • Abstract: Iron nanoparticles (α-Fe2O3) are used in a wide range of biological and medicinal applications, including the delivery of specific drugs, other pharmaceutical and agricultural ones. Its toxic effects, risk assessment and safety are still being researched. Hence, in this investigation, 28-day repeated doses for assessing the acute and sub-acute oral toxicity were conducted on (α-Fe2O320-40) nanoparticles with special reference to target histopathologically, the neurobehavioral and alteration in mice brain and liver. The acute LD50 was 14.74 g/kg orally, using Dixon’s method, as well as recording the toxicity signs, such as lethargy, rapid respiration, subcutaneous hemorrhage, plioerection, tremor, and itching. Oral repeated doses for 28 days of α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles (75 and 150 mg/kg) led significantly to decrease head pocking, considerable lengthening of negative geotaxis performance, and to a significant decline in open-field activity, compared to the control group. α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles at dose 300mg/kg orally in the 7th and 14 days of treatment led to significantly increase mice body weight compared to the control group. The nanoparticles α-Fe2O3 at dose 75, 150 and 300mg/kg after 28 days of treatment cause in liver vacuolar degeneration of hepatocytes, congestion of sinusoids, central vein, and necrosis, while in brain, it causes necrosis, gliosis, congestion of blood vessels, thrombus formation and neuronophagia. We conclude that the higher doses and longer exposure to nanoparticles α-Fe2O3 show significant toxicity effects represented by neurobehavioral and histopathological changes.
  • Effects of imidacloprid contaminated feed exposure on the spleen, lymph
           node, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues of adult male rabbits
           (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    • Abstract: Pesticide is one of the top chemical substances that pose a serious risk to public health. Imidacloprid (IMI) is a widely used broad-spectrum insecticide over the past decade. Here, oral IMI-contaminated green grass (at the dose rate of 100 mg/liter and sprayed) was fed to adult male rabbits (n=6), every alternate day for up to 90 days. The control rabbits (n=6) were fed pesticide-free green grass, wheat bran, and water ad libitum. For gross and histopathology, spleen, lymph nodes, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues were collected by ventromedial opening. No evident gross changes were found during the collection of the organs. Histopathologically, lymph nodes showed atrophy and degenerative lymphoid follicles. The cortex and medulla of the lymph nodes were less differentiated. The size and number of the lymphoid follicles in the cortex were also reduced in IMI-exposed rabbits. The spleen exhibited atrophic changes in the white pulps. The white pulp revealed degenerative changes with the depletion of the lymphoid tissues. As for the red pulp, it showed an irregular and depleted mesh network of reticular fibers in IMI-exposed rabbits compared to the control. The trachea and esophagus of IMI-exposed rabbits showed infiltration of the mononuclear cells in the propria-submucosa and tunica adventitia, respectively. The infiltration of mononuclear cells population was loaded in the core of the villi, tunica mucosa, and propria-submucosa of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of the IMI-exposed rabbits compared to the control. The present study findings suggest that IMI has toxic effects on the lymphoid organs and tissues of adult rabbits.
  • Histopathological and immunohistochemical assessment of the using
           platelets rich fibrin to reinforce ventral hernioplasty in the sheep model

    • Abstract: The guidelines for this experiment were designed to assess the histopathological and immunohistochemical parameters after the topical application of plasma-rich fibrin during hernioplasty in sheep. Twenty-four rams enrolled into two groups, 12 of each. In the control group, hernioplasty was done with polypropylene mesh and a modified sub-lay technique; in the treatment group done the same as the control and reinforced with plasma-rich fibrin (PRF). Tissue samples were collected for histopathological and immunohistochemical investigations. The clinical investigation results indicated developing seroma at the lower region of the surgical site that continued 25 days post-surgery in the control group as a comparison of group PRF which indicated mild seroma. The histopathological examination at 30 days in the control group indicated the presence of focal infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells around the mesh and hyperplasia of fibrocytes, deposition of collagen with edema as compared with the treatment group at 15th days post-surgery; there was a high number of new blood vessels, deposition of collagen fibers. Immunohistochemistry indicated a strong positive reaction at seven days post-surgery in control, and the PRF group with IL-6 appeared as golden-brown granules in the cytoplasm of cells around the surgical mesh. At seven days post-surgery, the reaction of VEGF antibody IHC indicated negative and strong positive reactions with VEGF appearing as golden-brown granules in the cytoplasm of cells in the treatment group. In conclusion, using PRF to repair the hernia reduces the incidence of inflammation, and histopathological and immunohistochemistry investigations emphasize an improvement in the healing process of hernia.
  • Prevalence and risk factors associated with subclinical mastitis in
           peri-urban bovine dairy farms of Ouagadougou and Bobo Dioulasso in Burkina
           Faso, West Africa.

    • Abstract: Subclinical mastitis is an insidious infection of the mammary gland that results in an inflammation of one or more quarters of the udder, generally due to a bacterial infection, a physiological disorder, or local trauma. They have a negative impact on dairy cow production. The current study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of subclinical mastitis in peri-urban farms in Ouagadougou and Bobo Dioulasso (Burkina Faso). In total, 305 lactating cows, including 150 from the peri-urban area of ​​Ouagadougou and 155 from ​​Bobo Dioulasso, were tested using the California Mastitis Test. Also, a questionnaire survey has been carried out to collect data about farm management and selected animals. The overall prevalence was 42.9%, with 45.3% and 40.6%, respectively, in farms in the peri-urban area of ​​Ouagadougou and Bobo Dioulasso. The biostatistical analysis identified the breed, former cases of mastitis on the farm, and diarrhea as risk factors associated with subclinical mastitis. In conclusion, this study demonstrates evidence of mastitis in peri-urban farms in Burkina Faso. Further investigations are needed to identify pathogens associated with these infections to select better control actions.
  • Infection and genetic detection of Hysterothylacium spp (Ascaridida:
           Raphidascaridinae) infesting Saurida tumbil (Bloch, 1795) and
           Platycephalus indicus (Linnaeus, 1758) fishes, Iraqi marine water fishes

    • Abstract: Hysterothylacium spp Larvae encysted within the mesenteries, peritoneum, and viscera, which is the perfect place to complete their life cycle. More than 4123 larval stages were isolated from 595 Saurida tumbil and Platycephalus indicus fish. This is a simple fact that these two species are feeding greedily. The prevalence of infection was 95.3- 100 %. Internal transcribed spacers (ITS) gene of nuclear rDNA (rDNA) were amplified by conventional PCR, using the primer sets NC5/NC2. The ITS sequences determined were compared using the algorithm BLASTn with those available in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database. Multiple sequence alignments (MSA) were performed by ClustalW. The result showed that there are 22 distinct taxa within the genus Hysterothylacium, followed by 4 common ancestors, with 6 clades grouped. The study showed Sequence heterogeneity in the ITS gene within Hysterothylacium spp. of nematode parasite collected from Saurida tumbil and Platycephalus indicus fish. Moreover, genetic homogeneity between the population of the Arabian Gulf and other regions seemed different through the high levels of gene flow observed somewhat in this qualitative diversity. The most important of which may be the impact of climate.
  • Reliable and highly specific techniques for the detection of Brucella spp.
           antibodies in camel milk

    • Abstract: Brucellosis is one of the most serious zoonotic diseases in human and farm animals caused by Brucella species. This study aims to: (i) estimate the current prevalence of Brucella among camels in Erbil Governorate; (ii) evaluate the milk ring test as a diagnostic tool for screening of brucellosis in camels; (iii) study the association between months and percentage of positive samples to Brucella. During the period, January - June 2021, a total of 250 raw camel milk samples (130 samples from farms and 120 from sale points) were randomly collected. The brucellosis is diagnosed using the Milk Ring Test (MRT), indirect ELISA, and bacteriological isolation of Brucella species. The prevalence of Brucella antibodies in camel milk samples is 11.6% and 10.4% according to MRT and ELISA, respectively. The overall isolation percentage of Brucella species is 8.4%. The detection rate of isolates in sale points is higher 10.0% than the isolation rate from farm 6.9%. The results also reveal that 4.6% and 5.8% of isolates are Brucella abortus; while, 5.8% and 4.2% are Brucella melitensis from the milk of farm and sale points, respectively. The highest rate of brucellosis according to MRT is observed in February 18.6%, while the lowest rate is documented in May 7.5%. We recommend using MRT for the diagnosis of Brucella spp. in routine screening of brucellosis in milk collection centers, dairy factories, and farm. Customers are also recommended to heat the milk adequately to eliminate this milk-borne pathogen before drinking milk or manufacturing processes.
  • Ameliorative effect of nano chromium on some hematological values and
           GLUT-2 in rabbits fed a high- Fat diet

    • Abstract: Nano-chromium has an anabolic effect when used in low concentrations and boosts nucleic acid synthesis in the liver; it is also termed a glucose tolerance factor (GTF) because it regulates the ' 'insulin's metabolic action. It is used in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. This study was carried out on 20 local white male rabbits (aged two months), which were randomly assigned into four groups: the first was a control group fed on a standard diet, the second was a group fed on a high-fatty diet (HFD), the third was a group fed on a standard diet which has was given Chromium at a concentration of 2 mg/L with drinking water, and the fourth was a group of nano chromium fed on a fatty diet who were given chromium 2 mg/ L of drinking water. The fatty diet group had higher levels of erythrocytes, leukocytes, Hb, hematocrit, lymphocytes, neutrophil, glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, GLUT-2, insulin, and insulin resistance with a decrease in HDL. In comparison, the two groups of chromium nanoparticles showed lower levels of erythrocytes, leukocytes, Hb, hematocrit lymphocytes, neutrophil, glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride GLUT-2, insulin, and insulin resistance but higher levels of HDL. Our objective is to investigate the deleterious effects of the HFD on hematological values, GLUT-2 levels, and insulin levels, as well as the potential for nano-chromium to enhance these qualities.
  • In vitro study of the relaxant effect of doxazosin in the activity of
           smooth muscles in isolated goat renal artery

    • Abstract: Doxazosin is a competitive, short-acting, selective alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist. Selective alpha 1-blockers dilate blood vessels in the veins and arteries. The specificity for alpha-adrenoreceptors causes the smooth muscle of the blood vessels to relax. The findings of the recording and analysis demonstrate that doxazosin generates an endothelium-dependent relaxation of renal artery rings that had been pre-contracted with a high amount of KCl (60 mM) or phenylephrine (PE) (10-5 M). Additionally, doxazosin shows strong inhibitory effects on PE and weaker effects on contractions induced by KCl. Pre-incubating renal artery rings with 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), indomethacin, potassium (K+) channels blocker (TEA), barium chloride (BaCl2), prostaglandin I2 (PGI2) inhibitor (Indomethacin), and nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor (L-Name), significantly affects the relaxation brought on by doxazosin. Contrarily, neither glibenclamide (GLIB) nor clotrimazole, show any effect on the relaxation caused by doxazosin. Doxazosin’s role suggests that a Ca++ channel-blocking mechanism has a relaxing impact on the smooth muscles of the renal artery. The relaxing effect of doxazosin is thus concluded from these findings to involve both potassium and calcium channels, potentially through the blockage of KV, KCa, KIr, endothelium/NO, PGI2, and voltage-dependent calcium channels.
  • The anti-inflammatory effect of allopurinol and diclofenac in
           chicks’ model

    • Abstract: No studies have been conducted on the anti-inflammatory effect of allopurinol; eight-day old chicks are used. The aim of this paper was to study the anti-inflammatory action of allopurinol on a chemical pain model, both when administered alone or in combination with diclofenac sodium in chicks; additionally, we sought to determine the therapeutic index for allopurinol and diclofenac sodium in chicks. The median analgesic dose (ED50) of allopurinol and diclofenac sodium for inducing analgesic effects from electric stimulation in the chickens was 8.16 and 6.3 mg/kg, respectively. The median lethal dose (LD50) of allopurinol and diclofenac sodium in the chicks was 556.58 and 92.63 mg/kg, respectively. The therapeutic index for allopurinol and diclofenac sodium was calculated to be 69 and 15, respectively. This study identified the therapeutic index in chicks for the first time. It demonstrated that allopurinol is safer than diclofenac in chicks. Applying holographic analysis, we determined that the interaction between allopurinol /diclofenac sodium was synergistic when given at a ratio of 0.5:0.5. The anti-inflammatory efficacy for allopurinol alone, diclofenac sodium alone, and the two drugs combined were 52, 57, and 67% respectively. In conclusion, our study suggests indicating that allopurinol has analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects on formalin-induced inflammatory pain in chicks.
  • Measures of parasitism of the hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting goats
           Capra aegagrus in Basrah province, Iraq, with remarks on ecology

    • Abstract: Goats are one of the essential economic animals in Iraq. Many species of ticks parasitize goats, and cause systemic diseases worldwide. The study was designed with a total of 240 goats in Basrah province, southern Iraq, from January to June 2021. 110 of 240 (45.83%) examined goats were infested with ixodid ticks. Samples of ticks identified to the species based on morphological features, using the taxonomic keys. Several phenotypic features performed the diagnosis. Six species of ixodid ticks were identified: Hyalomma anatolicum, Hyalomma excavatum, Hyalomma dromedarii, Hyalomma scupense, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, and Rhipicephalus turanicus. The species H. scupense was recorded in the South of Iraq for the first time. Goats have recorded a new host of the species H. dromedarii in Iraq. The species H. anatolicum recorded the highest rates in prevalence, mean intensity, and relative density, while H. dromedarii was the lowest. The number of female ticks was higher than that of males; the total number of ticks collected was mostly engorged females, while, the larvae were the lowest. The concurrent infestation of goats with ixodid ticks' species ranged between single and quadruple infestation. The highest numbers of ticks were isolated from the face, ear, udder, tail, testes, thighs, and axilla on the body of infected goats.
  • Risk factors affect prevalence of diarrheal enter- pathogens in children,
           calves and broiler chickens in Assiut, Egypt

    • Abstract: Diarrhea is a complex syndrome causing colossal economic losses. The objective of the current study was to diagnose Enter-pathogens in children, calves, and broiler chickens by a serological and molecular diagnosis of Rotavirus, evaluate Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Salmonella spp. with bacteriological examination beside conventional diagnosis of Cryptosporidium in addition to studying risk factors affecting these pathogens in Assiut Governorate. From February 2021 to April 2021, a total of 60 samples were collected from the stool of children (n=20), feces of calves (n=20) in addition to liver and pool intestine of broiler chickens (n=20) were examined by Immuno Chromatographic Assay (ICA), Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR), microbiological examination and modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain smears. The prevalence of Rotavirus infection by ICA was 55% (11/20), 10% (2/20), and 5% (1/20) of examined children, calves, and broiler chickens, respectively. Two (18.18%) of serologically Rotavirus positive stools of children were positive molecularly by RT-PCR, while serologically positive fecal and pool intestines of calves and broiler chickens, respectively, were negative molecularly. There was no significant variation between Rotavirus, E. coli, and Cryptosporidium infections with gender and age of investigated children and between these enteropathogens with sex, age, and species of examined calves. In addition, there were no significant differences between Rotavirus, E. coli, Salmonella, and Cryptosporidium with the age of investigated broiler chickens. It is concluded that these enteropathogens in livestock and chicken living close to the human population necessitate better surveillance and control measures to protect vulnerable animal and human populations.
  • The role of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to alleviate copper sulfate toxicity
           in Cyprinus carpio

    • Abstract: This study aimed to determine the role of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in alleviating copper sulfate toxicity in carp fish and by evaluating Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and histopathological alteration in gills and brain with determined the severity of lesions in the gills by semi-quantities analysis. Sixty fish were divided into four groups first was a control group fish in the second group were exposed to CuSO4 0.53 mg/L, in the third group fish were treated with yeast 5 g/ kg ratio and the fourth group fish treated with yeast and exposed to CuSO4. At the end of the experiment (56 days) it was observed that there was a significant decrease in the AChE activity in the second group, while this activity was improved significantly in the fourth group. The histopathological alteration in the brain was variable in the severity from infiltration of inflammatory, edema, and central chromatolysis of neuron cell bodies. At the same time, the lesions in the gills include edema, congestion, hydropic degeneration, hyperplasia in the mucus cells with shortening in the secondary gill filaments shaped like a drumstick, necrosis, and cartilage disruption. The semi-quantities lesions analysis in the gills classified them as mild, moderate, severe, and irreversible lesions. These lesions in both brain and gills were mild in severity in fish of group fourth. These studies conclude that the activity of AChE is a biological indicator for copper sulfate neurotoxicity and also causes damage to the brain and gills, and yeast is a bio adsorbent agent for copper
  • Potential neurobehavioral toxicity of sulfur in mice

    • Abstract: Sulfur is one of the crucial elements in animal nutrition and has an influential role in forming amino acids. It is a common toxic element and does not significantly threaten human and animal health. The current study aimed to examine the potential neurobehavioral toxicity of sulfur in mice by studying its effects on animal behavior and locomotor activity. The 24h median lethal dose- (LD50) of sulfur in mice, as determined by the up-and-down method was 33.22 g/kg; orally, whereas its approximate lethal dose (ALD) was 36 g/kg, within 24 h. Signs of sulfur poisoning in mice were depression, gasping, Straub tail, Piloerection, tremor, dyspnea, muscle fasciculation, and convulsions followed by death. Sulfur at 4 and 8 g/kg doses, after 4 and 24 h, caused significant changes in the neurobehavioral performance in mice. It appeared as a significant decrease in motor activity within the open-field test (number of crossed squares and number of rearing within 3 minutes), with prolongation and increase in the time required to complete the negative geotaxis test with a significant reduction in the number of head pocking and a slight decrease in the swimming test scores. Repeated administration of sulfur at doses of 1, 2, and 4 g/kg; for 7 and 14 consecutive days also led to significant decrease in the motor activity inside the open-field with a prolongation of the time required to complete the negative geotaxis with a significant reduction in the number of head pockings and a slight reduction in the swimming endurance test. Using a pharmacological challenge with xylazine and ketamine, sulfur induced a delay and prolongation in the onset of time of sleep and shortened the sleep duration. This study concludes that sulfur, despite its low toxicity, is a potential neurobehavioral toxicant.
  • Impact of sorbitol and l-carnitine on stimulating thyroid hormone,
           triiodothyronine and adenosine triphosphate level in broilers

    • Abstract: In order to provide more significant physiological benefits for the poultry sector, our research sought to assess the effectiveness of the two metabolic products, Sorbitol and L-carnitine, for energy production. In April and May, after three days of adaptation, 60 broiler chicks were partitioned into three groups (20/group). The regular food was given to the control group, while sorbitol 100 g/kg diet and L-carnitine 80 mg/kg diet were given to the second and third groups, respectively. After data analysis, the following conclusions were drawn: sorbitol and L-carnitine considerably increased TSH and T3 levels, but L-carnitine had superior benefits for ATP generation over sorbitol. On the other hand, sorbitol and L-carnitine significantly raise glucose levels while lowering triglyceride and cholesterol levels, except for L-carnitine, which does not affect cholesterol levels. The two products also positively affect growth efficiency by significantly increasing ultimate and earned body weight with only chest muscle from other organs weighted in the experiments. However, any treatments did not affect blood parameters estimated in this experiment. Histological variables of the intestine of broilers provide reliable indications of feed additive absorption. As a result, my data showed a positively influenced villi heightening by two treatments, while L-carnitine is more efficient in terms of villus width, villus surface area, and goblet cell number. In conclusion, L-carnitine was more efficient than Sorbitol in energy production, either of effects on thyroid production, ATP generation, growth-enhancing, and boosting absorption from the intestine.
  • Molecular characterization of circulating strains of the
           peste-des-petitis-ruminants virus in Sulaimani province, Iraq

    • Abstract: Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) are caused by a Morbillivirus that belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae. Peste des petits ruminants are an acute, highly contagious, and deadly disease that mainly affects goats and sheep, with subclinical infection occurring in cattle. Peste des petits ruminants occur in many countries, with morbidity and fatality rates as high as 90 percent. Peste des petits ruminants’ outbreaks occurred annually in Sulaymaniyah; this study aims to determine genetic variation and the global relationship of circulating strains in the area. RT-PCR was primarily used to identify the virus from mouth epithelial samples. The direct sequencing and subsequent analysis of amplified PCR products for the (N and F) genes revealed the presence of PPRV lineage IV in the study areas. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis revealed N gene (OL702851/PPR/H/SUL/sheep, OL702852/PPR/H/SUL2/Goat) cluster with (china-KP319027.1) strain with identity 98%, while the F gene (PPR/H/SUL3/Sheep, PPR/H/SUL4/Goat) has a cluster with (Turkey-MG744218 and Saudi Arabia-MK922470.1) strains with identities 97 and 98% respectably. Furthermore, phylogenetic tree field virus isolates heterologous with the current vaccine strain (Nigeria 75/1) were used for the mass vaccination program, and the divergence rate was 10%-13%. These variations between vaccines and field isolates could compromise the antibody responses induced by the vaccines in the hosts.
  • Morphology of the gastrointestinal tract of cascadura fish (Hoplosternum
           littorale) and its pathogenic fauna

    • Abstract: Cascadura, (Hoplosternum littorale) is a delicacy in some countries; however, literature on this species is limited. This study aimed to identify gastrointestinal and hematological parasites and their potentially associated pathological effects in wild and farmed Cascadura in Trinidad. Samples of forty (40) wild and farmed Cascadura fishes were collected for this study. Morphometric measurements of whole fish and gastrointestinal tracts (GIT) were recorded. Blood smears were processed and stained with Wright’s Giemsa and GIT sections stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) and Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS). The gross anatomy and histological features of the GIT of the Cascadura were consistent with the fish belonging to the Callichthyidae family. Hematological parasites were found in 13 out of the 40 (32.5%) fishes (nine wild; four farmed): 6 of 13 belonged to Alternaria spp. (15%), 6 of 13 were protozoa (15%) and 1 of 13 (5%) was a blood fluke belonging to the family Aporocotylidae. Three gastrointestinal nematodes were found in three wild fish, one identified as an anisakid. Gastric and intestinal structures appeared normal; however, inflammatory cells were found in one wild fish with damaged villi and degenerated epithelium of the intestine.
  • Detection of the compounds produced from Rhizopus oryzae

    • Abstract: Rhizopus oryzae is classified a one of the Mucorales which belong to the zygomycota. This microorganism is a filamentous fungus can produce various substances such as ethanol, fumaric acid, lactic acid, ragi, and temph. R. oryzae has been occupied important role in the producing benefit metabolites such as organic acids. Enzymes. and antimicrobial compounds. In the current study, potato dextrose agar (PDA) and malt extract agar (MEA) were used for growing R. oryzae that the fungus was identified depending on the morphological parameters and conventional PCR. The fungus was cultured in two synthetic media were corn steep liquor (SCL) and conocarpus leaves (CL) at 25°C. R. oryzae produced abundant growth in both media and the growth was greyish white. GC-MA analysis appeared several different compounds in the crude extracts of R. oryzae using these fermenting synthetic media; however, some compounds were reported to be similar in their structures. The similar compounds were (pyrrolo [1,2-a] pyrazine-1,4-dione, hexahydro-), (1-nonadecene), (pyrrolo [1,2-a] pyrazine-1,4-dione, hexahydro-3-(2-methylpropyl),) methyl stearate), (hexanedioic acid, bis(2-ethylhexyl) ester), (bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate), and (1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid, (bis (2-ethylhexyl) ester). This study aimed to evaluate CL medium in comparison with CSL one for detecting the natural compounds produced from R. oryzae.
  • Evaluation the combination of chlorpheniramine and tramadol at a level of
           thermal and visceral antinociceptive in a mouse acute pain model

    • Abstract: The possible benefits of employing combination treatment include the ability to increase antinociceptive effects while minimizing the occurrence of unfavorable side effects. As a result, they are combining drugs that provide analgesic synergism allowing for a reduction in needed dosage as well as lowering the occurrence of unwanted side effects. In the current study, we evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively the type of drug interaction between tramadol (a typical opioid analgesic) and chlorpheniramine (an H1-antagonist) at the level of thermal (hot plate) and visceral (writhing reflex) nociceptive stimuli in mice model. The 50% antinociceptive effective dose (ED50) of intraperitoneal administration for tramadol and chlorpheniramine was 12 and 18.4 mg/kg respectively, using the up and down approach and hot plate apparatus. The treated animals showed signs of sedation and immobility. At 0.5:0.5 and 1:1 ED50 ratios of each, the kind of pharmacological interaction between the two medications was synergism at the level of acute antinociceptive impact, using hot plate apparatus and isobolographic analysis. The reduction in ED50 value was significant for tramadol and chlorpheniramine by 58.8 and 58.8 % at 0.5:0.5 ratio while 53.5 and 53.5 % at 1:1 ratio respectively. The synergistic interaction between the two drugs was also confirmed using the double ED50 dose of each drug as simultaneously i.p. injected of these doses producing a synergism antinociceptive effect at visceral (writhing reflex) test. Which represented as prevent 100% writhing induced by i.p. injection of acetic acid compared to the control group and that with each drug alone at the same double doses. The present results concluded that simultaneous injection of tramadol and chlorpheniramine produced synergism, a potent and safe antinociceptive effect even at low doses which may be clinically useful in treating pain in the veterinary clinic.
  • The protective effect of bosentan on methotrexate-induced oral mucositis
           in rats

    • Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of bosentan as a protective agent on the rats cheek mucosa for Methotrexate-induced oral mucositis. Twenty-four Wister-albino rats, about 12-16 weeks and weighing 300-400 g, were used. The animals were divided into three groups. In the first control group, the second group was treated with methotrexate (80 mg/kg), and the third group was treated with methotrexate and bosentan 60 mg/kg. The microscopical parameters were estimated, the pro-inflammatory marker (TNF-α) and intercellular adhesive molecule-1(ICAM-1) measurement in the buccal mucosa. The animals were sacrificed on day 15, and the buccal mucosa was dissected for histological and immunohistochemical analysis. Bosentan decreased the severity of the Methotrexate-induced oral mucositis by a significant decrease in the histological score and a significant decrease in TNF-α and ICAM-1 immune histochemical expression at day fifteen. Bosentan at a concentration of 60 mg/kg/day produced protection against Methotrexate-induced oral mucositis by its anti-inflammatory action and reduction in the histological score and, therefore, can be used as a protective agent against Methotrexate-induced oral mucositis.
  • Physiological and hematological reference values of wild caucasian
           squirrels (Sciurus anomalus pallescens) in northern Iraq

    • Abstract: Wild Caucasian squirrels are commonly seen in the mountain forests of the northern Iraqi and are sometimes kept as pets. However, no hematological or physiological reference values are set for these animals, even though they are often taken to private veterinary hospitals in the region. So, setting these values is necessary. A selection of hematological and physiological parameters is measured in 24 wild Caucasian squirrels (20 males and four females) in the mountain areas of Pshdar district, Sulaymaniyah, north of Iraq. The hematological parameters included the leukocytes, erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelets, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and examination of blood smears stained with Giemsa. The vital signs included the heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation (SpO2), and rectal temperature. The physiological parameters were scored, and blood was taken from the animals without being sedated or anesthetized by immobilizing them using a specially designed jacket. Most values were as expected compared to other rodent species, and no significant differences were observed between the sexes. All squirrels are successfully rehabilitated and released after the experiments are conducted.
  • Detection of mutton meat fraud with beef meat as a genetically related
           species using multiplex PCR and GC/MS/MS

    • Abstract: Food safety and forensic applications rely seriously on identifying meat samples of unknown species. Mutton meat is delicious and high-priced meat. Its tallow is a flavoring precursor to being authenticated by using different meat species. Mutton authenticity by beef meat that is genetically related to each other makes it difficult to detect fraud of products, mainly if the substitution is applied with fat, not only meat. So, accurate methods for detection must be applied to evaluate meat fraud based not only on protein but also on fat substitution. This work aimed to evaluate the mutton meat substitution by meat and fat of beef using multiplex PCR and Gas Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS/MS). Multiplex PCR detects cytochrome b in mutton meat adulterated with different concentrations of beef meat, even with 0.5%. PCR products amplified at 274 bp for mutton and 271 bp for beef. Fatty acid profile of pure mutton meat (tallow) samples and mutton authenticated with beef meat by GC/MS/MS. It was found that it contained 39.48 mg/100 g of total saturated fatty acids (TSFA), 60.48 mg/100 g of total unsaturated fatty acids (TUSFA), and 3.4 mg/100 g of trans-fatty acids (TFA). While after being authenticated with beef, these results changed to 49.58, 49.57, and 6.37 mg/100gm for TSFA, TUSFA, and TFA, respectively. In conclusion, Multiplex PCR and GC/MS/MS evidenced to be accurate and applicable for the recognition of mutton meat authentication.
  • Gross, histological and electron microscopical features of the hard palate
           mucosa in the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius)

    • Abstract: The purpose of the current work is to study mucosa of the camel hard palate morphology by gross anatomy, morphometric analysis in addition to light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Ten heads of freshly slaughtered camels were collected from Zagazig abattoir. The selected camels were in good general condition, their ages were ranged around three to five years. Anatomically, the hard palate was elongated and it could be divided into a narrow rostral part and a caudal wide part with about 13-14 transverse palatine ridges. The dental pad was a crescentic thick plate at the rostral end of hard palate. The incisive papilla is triangular prominence situated behind the dental pad in the median plane and is surrounded by shallow groove, microscopically, the mucosa of hard palate consisted of a keratinized squamous epithelium. The submucosa comprised from vascularized collagenous connective tissues run in various directions. The soft caudal part of the hard palate is distinguished by lobulated serous acini and it was rich in adipocytes. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated the stratification of the epithelium; with excessive desquamation and sloughing of the epithelial cells. By high magnification, the microplicae system was inform of irregular surface separated by septae.
  • Effects of glyphosate in common carp: Histopathological and
           immunohistochemical study

    • Abstract: We aimed in the current study to determine the LC50 of glyphosate in common carp fish (Cyprinus carpio L.) within 24 hours in addition to studying the pathological lesions of sublethal concentration of glyphosate (25 and 50% of LC50) in kidney and liver tissues. A total of 100 fish were used to determine the LC50 of glyphosate using the Trevan method (Curve protocol) within 24 hours, in addition to 75 fish used to study the histopathological lesions caused by 25 and 50% of LC50 in common carp after 5, 15 and 25 days of exposure. The current study showed that the LC50 of glyphosate in common carp was 26.151 mg/L within 24 hours, by this result the 25 and 50% of LC50 was 6.54 and 13.08 mg/L, respectively. The histopathological lesions revealed that both the kidney and liver showed degenerative and necrotic changes associated with infiltration of inflammatory cells and interstitial hemorrhages, also the liver sections showed hyperplasia of bile cuniculi and collagen fiber deposition within the portal area, generally, the histopathological lesions were more intensive and advanced in the group exposed to 50% of glyphosate LC50 more than that recorded in the group treated with 25% of glyphosate LC50. In conclusion, common carp fish (Cyprinus carpio L.) showed severe histopathological lesions after exposure to sublethal concentrations of glyphosate, these lesions are life-threatening and can cause high mortality in higher concentrations.
  • Effect of antibiotic substitution with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and
           probiotic on hematic parameters and growth performance of broilers

    • Abstract: The pan about the usage of antibiotics in chicken feed in different parts of the world, and rising customer demand for poultry products free of antibiotics has heightened the attention of poultry researchers and producers in identifying appropriate substitution to such alternatives. The present research was aimed to study the effects of dietary supplemented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, probiotics and mixing of them (S. cerevisiae and probiotic) on growth performances, activity of the immunity organs (thymus and bursa of Fabricius) and hematological profile, a total of 60 one day old birds were randomly divided into 4 band (n=15) (T1-T4). T1 band (control), T2 provided with 3 g/kg of S. cerevisiae, T3 provided with 200g/1000L of water and T4 provided with mixing of S. cerevisiae and probiotic. body weight was measured at zero, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days and represented highly significant at P<0.05 in T4 band in contrast to the last band, as well intestine weights and immunity organs weights in T2, T3 and T4 showed high significant variation at P<0.05 when compared with T1 (control band), in addition to the person correlation weights between T4 which showed height significant variation in intestinal weights with immunity organs and Bursa of Fabricius was highly significant with thymus gland, from our results we concluded that supplemented of chicken diet with S. cerevisiae and probiotic improved growth performance, immunity organs activity, hemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume.
  • Evaluation of the role of green synthesis silver nanoparticles as
           adsorbents and protective agents for broilers tissue treated with

    • Abstract: Aflatoxin (AF) is the most crucial problem in the poultry industry, feed contaminants lead to toxicity. This study aims to evaluate the effects of synthetic silver nanoparticles mediated by plant extract on the histopathological alteration in broilers treated with AF. Forty-five chicks were divided randomly into three groups: the control group, the second group of chicks were treated with aflatoxin at a concentration of 70 part per million rations for 21 days, the third group of chicks was treated with AF 70 ppm, and silver nanoparticles 150 ppm. Aflatoxin concentration significantly declines in the ratio of the third group 1.86 ppm in comparison to the second group 1.91 ppm. Histopathological examination in the liver of broilers infected with aflatoxicosis revealed vascular disturbances involving congestion of the central vein, recent thrombus formation, and dilatation of sinusoid with the cell adaptation mainly hyperplasia of epithelial cells lining the bile duct, and this considers pathognomic lesion of aflatoxicosis and hepatic necrosis. The silver nanoparticles exhibit a tissue protective role against aflatoxin, improving the histopathological architecture. The I See an Inside method is a good tool for statistical histopathological analysis, which revealed significant elevation in the score of liver alteration in the second group in contrast to the third and first groups. The study concludes that silver nanoparticles can adsorbent the aflatoxin and reduce its deleterious toxic effect, and ISI is one of the vital techniques for detecting toxic effects in variable parts of the liver.
  • Morphological and genotypical identification of Hyalomma anatolicum
           isolated from cattle in Al-Daghara city, Al-Qadisiyah province, Iraq

    • Abstract: The present study looks at the morphological and molecular distinct features of the tick Hyalomma anatolicum, a livestock-important tick that transmits production-decreasing pathogens. A total of 17 ticks were collected from infested skin of cattle in Al-Daghara city, Al-Qadisiyah province, Iraq, from Oct 15, 2022, to Nov 15, 2022. All ticks were investigated microscopically to identify tick-external features and genotypical, using partial sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene. The microscopic results showed that the tick had mouthparts and genital pores, which were specific and identical to species H. anatolicum. The sequencing results confirmed the finding of the microscopic data. In conclusion, the ticks H. anatolicum identified in the present study could be similar to ticks previously identified in neighboring countries, such as Pakistan and Egypt, which encourages an explanation of why these similarities happened. Iraq had cattle imported from countries close to the Pakistan region, such as India, this could bring new H. anatolicum to Iraq.
  • Anatomical study on the stifle (knee) joint in local breed of Awassi sheep

    • Abstract: This study focuses on the knee joint of Awassi sheep in Nineveh Governorate to identify its morphological characteristics. Ten healthy knee joints were used from both sexes. Our study showed that the knee joint is a complex joint consisting of a femur-patellar and a femur-tibial articular surfaces. The femoral-patellar articular surface is formed among the ridges of the femoral trochlea, which comprises two parallel and oblique ridges, as the medial ridge continues with medial condyloid of femur and lateral ridge separates from lateral condyle by the extensor fossa. The patella bone is the other part of this articulating surface, smaller than the trochlear articular surface. The articular capsule is thin and wide, and it is a fibrous layer that connects and lies around articular surfaces' edges, which are strengthened medially and laterally by femoral-patellar ligaments, both medial and lateral. The femoral-patellar joint contains the medial and lateral femoro-patellar ligaments, which are in the form of straps that connect the patella bone to the tibia and the middle patellar ligament. The two femur condyles and the proximal end of the tibia come together to form the tibial-femoral articular surface, with meniscus cartilage overlapping. The medial and lateral menisci are crescent-shaped sheets of fibrocartilage corresponding to the femoral and tibial articular surface. Each meniscus is connected to the tibia anteriorly by the anterior tibial meniscus ligaments, the medial meniscus attached posteriorly to the tibia by posterior cartilaginous ligament, and the lateral meniscus cartilage posteriorly bonded to the femur by the cartilaginous meniscofemoral ligament. The fibrous sheet of the articular capsule is connected around the edges of the condyles of femur and tibia, and articular capsule is attached to the medial and lateral tibiofemoral ligaments. There are two vesicular sacs with a simple connection between the cruciate ligaments. This study concluded that the fibrous sheet of the articular capsule is connected around the edge’s condyles of femur and tibia, and the articular capsule is attached to the medial and lateral tibiofemoral ligaments. There are two vesicular sacs with a simple connection between the cruciate ligaments.
  • Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of Entamoeba histolytica in cattle in
           Al-Diwaniyah governorate, Iraq

    • Abstract: This study is carried out to evaluate the occurrence of Entamoeba histolytica in cattle in Al-Diwaniyah Governorate Iraq. Fifty fecal samples were collected from cattle in different regions of the province. Microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used to examine the samples. Four-PCR-product-dependent gene-sequencing was conducted, besides the microscopy, targeting the small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene of the parasite. The outcomes of the microscopy demonstrated the presence of the parasitic cyst and trophozoite in 66%, (33/50) of the fecal samples of the examined cattle. The results of the PCR showed that the genus level of Entamoeba was positive in 72%, (36/50) of the fecal samples. The sequencing reported the existence of four closely similar isolates to isolates registered in fecal samples of cattle in Baghdad City, Iraq. The study concludes that Entamoeba histolytica is currently present in the cattle tested in the current governorate and the zoonotic disease could strongly be induced in people with contact with the animals testing positive.
  • Genetic diversity of Escherichia coli harboring virulence gene Stx1 and

    • Abstract: The goal of this study is to discover the genetic diversity of twelve Escherichia coli isolates harbor virulence genes (Stx1 and Stx2) isolated from farm fish and local market fish in different locations of Nineveh Governorate using Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC-PCR) technique in the time span November, 2021 - January, 2022. The source of contamination was found depending on the fingerprint analysis of the repetitive polymerase chain reaction among the genes of the intestinal micro-organism ERIC-PCR for every isolate. The results show that there are similarities among the isolates and it ranged about 51%-100%. The isolates are divided into 7 genotypes, based primarily on a 90% similarity threshold 1 to 7, with the most offspring being inside genotype 1, since genotype 1 used to be the biggest team containing four isolates. Then, two isolates are grouped under genotypes 3 and 5. In contrast, genotype 2, 4, 6 and 7 have only one isolate. By virtue of genetic variations in the location, there was once an excessive clonal dispersion of most E. coli strains. In addition, the study shows genetic differences in E. coli in 83.3%, (10/12) of the isolates, in the different geographical locations of Mosul city. The E. coli isolates were classified into some groups: first, different genetic grouping, different geographical locations, same genotype; second, different genetic grouping, same geographical locations, different genotypes.
  • Hematological, biochemical, and histological alteration induced by nano
           silver material on male rats

    • Abstract: This study investigates the effects of I/P injection of nano silver materials in the dose 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 mg/kg B.W. for 21 days on blood parameters, cardiac and hepatic tissue histology, and their functions. The results showed a significant increase in the blood parameters of treated animals in compared with the control group. The histological study showed that the histological alteration is more pronounced in the animals that treated with the dose 0.6 mg/kg B.W. which is characterized by inflammatory reaction with degeneration and necrosis of hepatocytes. In contrast, the histological alteration of cardiac muscle showed generalized congestion of blood capillaries, degeneration, and necrosis of cardiomyocytes with inflammatory reaction. Our conclusion of this study showed that the nano silver materials have a pronounced cytotoxic impact on the histological structure and function of the liver and heart besides the influence on the blood parameters (RBCs, platelets, hemoglobin, WBCs, MCV, MCH, MCHC).
  • Genetic confirmation for morphological identification of Stilesia
           globipunctata in camel in Iraq

    • Abstract: Camels (Camelus dromedaries), similar to other ruminants, are infected by the Anoplocephalidae family belonging to the class cestode causing mild to severe illness. This study utilized a conventional PCR assay to confirm that Stilesia spp. is morphologically identified. Slaughtered camel intestines from the Al-Najif abattoir in the central part of Iraq were morphologically examined for Stilesia spp. Applied a PCR and genetic analysis for twenty adult worms. The presence of Stilesia spp. adult worms were initially identified through morphological characterization. The scolex and strobili were found in the intestine lumen and its nodules. All the worms’ specimens were identified as a Stilesia genus, and PCR amplified their partial DNA fragment on the location of the ITS2, 5.8S rDNA gene. Camels infected with Stilesia spp. found in eviscerated camel carcasses in south Iraq, and twenty isolates of Stilesia globipunctata molecular data have been recorded an accession numbers OM221663- OM221682 in the NCBI.
  • Etiological and pathological investigation of astrovirus infection in
           broilers in Sulaymaniyah province

    • Abstract: Astrovirus infection is an enteric viral disease, which leads to economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. This study aimed to detect Chicken Astrovirus (CAstV) infection in broiler chicks in Sulaymaniyah province. Tissue samples were collected from 100 chicks from Sulaymaniyah broiler farms between July 2021 and February 2022 and were separated into 3 groups according to their age; 1-week-old chicks, group B; (n=33), was 2 weeks old chicks, and group C; (n=34) for 3 weeks old chicks. The tissue samples (intestine, liver, and kidney) were analyzed by PCR and suspected samples were passed for the histological techniques and preparation of H&E stain. Samples in groups B and C had characteristic gross and histologic lesions, specifically, the histopathologic sections revealed atrophied hepatocytes, the presence of urate crystals in the kidneys and ureters, also villous atrophy with cryptitis and crypt abscess in the duodenum. RT-PCR for detection and amplification of the 362 bps-ORF-1b (partial) region of the virus genome revealed, that 5 of the 100 samples were positive for CAstV; group B (2 samples) and group C (3 samples), while group A was negative for CAstV. Isolated CAstV strain IQ/CAstv/suly/2022 with (ON093075) was closely related to four Iranian ones.
  • Effect of buck’s body weight on some reproductive parameters and it’s
           relation with sexual behavior

    • Abstract: This study aims to investigate the relation of body weight with testicular parameters, sexual behavior and sex hormones. The study was conducted within two months, August and September. Eighteen native black bucks were randomly assigned to three groups (n=6) according to their body weights, 30-35, 36-40 and 41-45 kg. All animals were reared under a semi-intensive system. The analysis of data revealed direct correlation of testicular parameters as scrotal circumference, right and left testicular length and volume with the body weight.  The results at August show that the bucks body weight when increased, many sexual behaviors improve significantly as attempted mounts, snuffing, flehmen response, time for 1st mating and time for 1st jump. As for sexual behavior at September, the attempted mounts, snuffing, flehmen response, number of mating, time for 1st mating and time for 1st jump, improve significantly in the bucks with heavy weight as compared to low weight bucks. Also, the number of mating (ejaculation) is better numerically at September compared to August. For the effect of buck’s body weight on sexual hormones, testosterone concentration increases significantly at both, August and September as body weight increased, and conversely, both LH and estrogen levels are reduced as body weight increases.  In conclusion, the current study reveals that there is a direct relation between the local buck’s body weight and most of the testicular parameters, sexual behavior and sexual hormones activity.
  • Detection of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale antibodies in broiler by
           ELISA in Mosul city

    • Abstract: Respiratory infections in poultry are considered one of the most acute infections that negatively affect the poultry industry and cause severe economic losses worldwide. Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT) is one of the fundamental causes of poultry respiratory diseases due to misdiagnosis with other respiratory pathogens and the absence of ideal diagnostic protocols. Accordingly, this study aimed to detect the presence of antibodies against ORT using indirect ELISA. For this purpose, serum samples n=368 were collected from 16 small broiler farms in Mosul city and adjacent areas. The results showed that 32.1% (118/368) of the tested samples were seropositive for ORT antibodies. Furthermore, only (18.8%) 3/16 of the farms follow standard management practices, while 13/16 (82.2%) have poor management practices. Additionally, the study showed that only 2/16 (12.5%) of the farms use antibiotics after performing an antibiotic sensitivity test, while 14/16 (87.5%) randomly use antibiotics without testing antibiotic sensitivity. Finally, 62.5% (10/16) of the studied farms have a previous history of respiratory infections, while only 37.5% (6/16) of the farms have no previous history of respiratory infections. In conclusion, detecting seropositive against ORT in the studied broiler farms with poor management and arbitrary use of antibiotics might suggest a significant role of ORT in developing respiratory infections and finally contribute to the massive financial losses.
  • Clinical survey and molecular detection of Trichomonas gallinae infection
           of domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) in Al-Qadisiyah Province,

    • Abstract: The present study encompasses two aspects: monitoring the typical clinical features of trichomoniasis among domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) in Al-Qadisiyah Province, Iraq, and molecular typing of the etiological agent. The typical clinical features of trichomoniasis, including glutinous plaques that create yellow, necrotic, cheese-like masses, were verified in a sample of fifty pigeons with a frequency of occurrence of 100% (n=50/50). Microscopic examination also revealed a frequency of occurrence among pigeons of 100% (n=50/50). The molecular typing of the causative agent was performed using the 18S rRNA sequence analysis approach with the universal Trichomonas ITS1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2 specific primer through conventional PCR. Among the ten pigeons tested, the molecular typing revealed that Trichomonas gallinae was the causative agent of trichomoniasis with a frequency of occurrence of (n=10/10). The ITS1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2 nucleotide sequences of the ten strains of Trichomonas gallinae were submitted to GenBank under the following accession issues: OM367997, OM457006, OM457005, and OM456998. These findings underscore the indispensable need for implementing high preventive standard measures against avian trichomoniasis to better control this disease.
  • Histological comparison between histoacryl and suturing to close lung
           wounds in dogs

    • Abstract: The study was designed to know if there is any histological difference between using suturing and histoacryl (n-2-butyl-cyanoacrylate) for closing small parenchymal lung wounds in dogs. Twelve adult dogs were used in this study. The experimental animals were divided into two equal groups of six animals each. After induction of general anesthesia, a left intercostal thoracotomy was done, and a small incision of 2cm was made on the parenchymal lung tissue. Then, in the first group, the lung wound was closed by suturing, while in the second group, the wound was sealed by applying adhesive tissue glue. The histopathological samples were collected on the 15th and 30th days postoperatively. The histopathological changes in both groups were relatively similar, manifested by formation of granulation tissue, infiltration of inflammatory cells, congestion and thinking in the wall of blood vessels, hemorrhage, edema, atelectasis, and interstitial emphysema. In conclusion, we can use histoacryl as an effective adhesive tissue glue to close small lung wounds due to the absence of any relative histopathological differences between suturing and histoacryl for closing lung wounds.
  • Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Piper betle exhibit high
           antimicrobial activity against Salmonella enteritidis and E. coli

    • Abstract: Piper betle (P. betle) is a popular medicinal plant in Asia. Plant leaves have been used as a traditional medicine to treat various health conditions. P. betle leaf has plentiful antimicrobial products. The extraction of leaves from P. betle is of high interest for industrial applications. The aqueous leaf extracts of P. betle provided the materials required to produce silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and promoted their antimicrobial activity. UV/vis absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to analyze the AgNPs. This study investigated the antimicrobial AgNPs produced by P. betle against S. enteritidis and E. coli. The minimum biocidal concentration (MBC) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were the methods used to determine the antimicrobial activity of greenly synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Plasmon absorbance was shown in correspondence to peak absorption values of 400–500 nm and the color change of the extract to dark brown. The MICs of P. betle and AgNPs were 4.6 mg/mL and 0.06 μg/mL against S. enteritidis and 3.7 mg/mL and 0.06 μg/mL against E. coli, respectively. AgNPs did not cause the hemolysis of RBCs in vitro. Findings reveal AgNPs have higher antimicrobial activity than aqueous leaf extracts of P. betle against S. enteritidis and E. coli.
  • clinicopathological evaluation of some immunostimulants' effects in Barki

    • Abstract: Levamisole, BCG, vitamin E & Selenium are traditional immunopotentiating agents. This study aimed to monitor and compare between their effects on some clinicopathological and immunological parameters. For this purpose, sixty clinically-healthy 6-months Barki male lambs were equally divided into three groups: The first group was injected S/C with l ml of levapan®10% /50kg B.Wt (100 mg of levamisole) for 3 consecutive days, while the second group was injected S/C with 0.1 ml of BCG vaccine, and the third group was injected S/C for one time with E and Se 0.5 ml /10 kg B. Wt. Blood samples were collected at 0, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 35 days. Clinicopathological and immunological parameters were estimated and statistically analyzed. The three groups displayed a significant enhancement in the estimated immunological parameters (elevated neutrophils count, neutrophils phagocytic activity and index, globulin, and acute phase proteins), but the BCG group had the highest degree of immunopotentiating action for a longer time. The E and Se group and levamisole group were almost equal. On the other hand, the erthyrogram, total antioxidant capacity, liver and kidney functions with the BCG, and levamisole groups were negatively affected, while they were enhanced in the E and Se group for 14 days. In addition, the iron profile showed significant hypoferremia, hypotransferrinemia, and hyperferritinemia with the BCG group, and non-significant changes with both, the levamisole and E and Se groups. We concluded that the BCG has a powerful and sustainable immunomodulatory effect and it is recommended to inject it combined with E and Se to avoid its side effects.
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762

Your IP address:
Home (Search)
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-