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Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1607-3894 - ISSN (Online) 2071-1255
Published by U of Mosul Homepage  [20 journals]
  • Comparative efficacy of platelet-rich plasma and dextrose prolotherapy for
           stifle joint ...

    • Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of PRP and dextrose PRL in stifle joint arthritis in rabbits.Sixteen healthy adult male rabbits were allocated into groups A (n=8) and B (n=8). After induction of arthritis in all experimental animals, the animals of group A were treated with intra-articular injection of PRP, while the animals of group B were treated with dextrose PRL. Pain scoring was evaluated by the Simple Descriptive Pain scale at 0d, 6d, 13d, and 19d, while radiographic scoring was examined by Kellgren and Lawrence grading system at pre-induction, post-induction, and post-treatment. The hematological parameters, including PLT, HB, WBC, PCV, RBC, monocytes, and lymphocytes, were assessed in blood samples at 0d, 6d, 13d, and 19d. We observed that Pain scoring showed a significantly lower (P<0.05) value in group A than in group B at 13d and 19d. Radiographic scoring was significantly lower (P<0.05) in group A than the group B during post-treatment. However, during the pre- and post-monoiodoacetate (MIA) induction, there was no significant difference (P>0.05) in radiographic scoring between both groups. The PLT concentration was increased, and monocyte was decreased in the group A animals than the group B animals at 13d and 19d (P<0.05), while WBC, RBC, PCV, HB, and lymphocyte concentration showed no significant difference (P>0.05) between both groups. In conclusion, the application of PRP is an effective method for treating stifle joint arthritis compared to the dextrose PRL in the rabbit model.
      PubDate: Sat, 04 Mar 2023 20:30:00 +010
  • Estragole: A review of its pharmacology, effect on animal health and
           performance, toxicology, ...

    • Abstract: Estragole is a volatile terpenoid molecule found in various plants or components, frequently in very high concentrations. It has been demonstrated to increase animal health and output performance effectively. Estragole has been shown to possess antioxidant properties both in vitro and in vivo. These properties include the ability to raise GSH and GPx levels, as well as the ability to suppress toxic materials and maintain cellular redox status, MDA activity, and MPO activity. In addition, it produces anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects via the production/release of cytokines, substance P, bradykinin, histamine, serotonin, cytokines, and nitric oxide (NO), and it induces a substantial leukocyte migration. Further, Estragole gives protection against bacteria and viruses. The objective of this review was to briefly discuss the natural sources of Estragole, its chemistry, its extraction, its bioavailability, absorption, distribution, toxicity, and carcinogenicity, and its biomedical effects in vivo or in vitro are discussed in this review. The market for Estragole, as well as its regulatory framework also explained in this study.
      PubDate: Sat, 04 Mar 2023 20:30:00 +010
  • Routine red bone marrow smear in local breed claves at Basrah, Iraq

    • Abstract: The state of the peripheral blood reflects on bone marrow activity. Therefore, we need to know the normal red bone marrow, and it can be a reference for those interested in hematology. Calves of apparently healthy local breeds were used to examine the state of the bone marrow, take a sample of peripheral blood before slaughter, and then a bone marrow biopsy that was immediately after slaughter. The calves that showed typical values for the parameters of red blood cells and total and differential white blood cells were included in the study. The result of bone marrow smears for nine normal calves appeared to have a faint coloration of granulated myelocytic than erythroid cells. As well as the myeloid was less than the erythroid, and that M: E ratio was 0.91±0.03. The erythroid series, Rubriblast, and Rubricyte were present as the most common progenitor red cell, including basophilic, polychromic, and normochromic cytoplasm, metarubricyte as a reduced nucleus. The myeloid series: Myeloblast, myelocyte was the most common progenitor white cells with granulation as basophilic, eosinophilic and neutrophilic within their cytoplasm, metamyelocyte with shrunken nuclei and band cell with horseshoe nucleus. They rarely found the megakaryocyte, enormous multinucleate cell.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Mar 2023 20:30:00 +010
  • Study of some toxic metals in parts from catfish (Silurus triostegus) in
           Shatt Al-Arab river

    • Abstract: According to their toxicity, toxic heavy metals such as arsenic, mercury, cadmium, copper, zinc, and lead are believed to be the most harmful to humans, fish, and the environment. Because their levels are rising due to human activities endangering aquatic species and people, the current study sought to ascertain the level of toxic heavy metals in five catfish parts (skin, liver, muscles, gills, and ovaries). In the northern part of the Shatt Al-Arab, catfish samples were collected in March 2022. ICP-MS was used to detect target metal levels. According to the results, arsenic accumulated in the skin and muscles at a rate of 0.22 and 0.21ppm, respectively. In contrast, the levels of arsenic in the various body parts are not statistically different. Additionally, cadmium showed no noticeable variances in the studied body parts. Furthermore, the liver had the most significant copper accumulation 18.72ppm. Furthermore, mercury accumulation in various body parts was shown to vary statistically, with the highest levels in muscles 0.66ppm. In addition, zinc was accumulated in the body parts in the following sequence: gills, ovaries, liver, skin, and muscles, respectively, while in the following sequence: muscles, skin, gills, liver, and ovaries respectively in the lead. Moreover, there were no statistically significant differences in the quantity of zirconium that accumulated. According to the current study, the catfish’s body parts did not accumulate toxic heavy metals at high rates. This may be due to study area the environment and the mechanisms of treating these types of metals by catfish. 
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Feb 2023 20:30:00 +010
  • The prevalence of parasitic infections among slaughtered animals in
           mechanical abattoir

    • Abstract: Gastrointestinal parasites, such as helminths and protozoa, are abundant parasitic agents of livestock, particularly ruminants. The current study aims to determine the prevalence rate of parasitic infections in large ruminate animals slaughtered in the mechanical abattoir in Alexandria governorate, Egypt. The prevalence was identified through the records of parasitic infections detected in the fecal matter of large ruminate animals in addition to the recorded postmortem examination findings. Three hundred sixty-four slaughtered large ruminant animals were selected, labeled, and subjected to fecal sampling and postmortem examination. Each fecal sample was tested by three different techniques; the formalin-ether concentration, Ziehl-Neelsen hot-stained, and saturated saline flotation to diagnose all parasite types. One hundred thirty positive cases (35.71%) were determined during the fecal sample examination, and 76 cases (20.87%) were found in postmortem examination. Formalin-ether processing of fecal samples yielded the highest number of pathogens; Entamoeba species were detected in 98 fecal samples (26.69%), and Fasciola species eggs were detected in 14 samples (3.84%). The postmortem examination revealed Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica in 13 animals (3.57%), mixed lung and liver hydatid cysts in 32 animals (8.79%), whereas liver hydatid cysts only were identified in 15 animals (4.12%). Finally, Sarcocystosis infection was detected in 3.57%. In conclusion, the parasitic infections of large ruminant animals are a leading cause of pathogenicity in large animals, leading to economic losses. Prevention and control measures must be implemented by mechanical abattoirs according to the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Feb 2023 20:30:00 +010
  • Prevalence of chewing lice species on migratory birds in Razzaza lake

    • Abstract: Chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera and Amblycera) are permanent, obligate, and host-specific ectoparasites commonly found in birds. This study detects the types of chewing lice on living migratory birds. 436 birds were detected in Razzaza Lake that included lice and were captured during migration from October 2021 to February 2022 like Anas strepera, Anas crecca, Anas platyrhynchos, and Anas clypeata. The lice were soaked in 70% of ethyl alcohol and three species were found on 48 (10.98%) of four different bird species; Columbicola columbae, Campanulotes bidentatus, and Menacanthus camelinus. A new species is the M. camelinus that was found among new types of birds; A. platyrhynchos and A. clypeata, recording 1(2.04%). The prevalence sex of the infested birds and the lice species was A. strepera; 13(27.08%), 13(26.53%), A. crecca; 3(0.80%), 3(6.12%), A. platyrhynchos; 31(8.27%), 31(63.27%), A. clypeata; 1(0.27%), 2(4.08%), respectively. The Natural History Research Center and Museum at Baghdad University confirmed the parasite and type of birds. Migratory birds are one of the infectious resources for local and domestic birds that should be treated continuously to prevent pathogen transmission and preservation of bird flocks. The insecticide should be used on all bird flocks to prevent the completion concerning the stages of the cycle of life.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Feb 2023 20:30:00 +010
  • Characterization and phylogenetics of beta-lactamase Temoneira gene in
           Escherichia coli of the ...

    • Abstract: This study aims to determine the character and phylogenetics of the β-lactamase Temoneira (blaTEM) gene in Escherichia coli isolated from the reproductive tract of Bali cattle with repeat breeder cases. This study was conducted in June 2021 that used 16 female Bali cattle with repeat breeder cases to take their reproductive tract fluid using a plastic sheet gun. Isolation of Escherichia coli, using Eosin Methylene Blue Agar was identified by biochemical tests. Antibiotic susceptibility test on E. coli samples was carried out by disc diffusion method. The screening test for the presence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase was done using the double-disk approximation test method. Characterization of the blaTEM gene in E coli, using the PCR method and sequences of the blaTEM gene, were phylogenetically analyzed. The results showed that 4 E. coli isolates were obtained from 16 samples of reproductive tract fluid. The sensitivity test to antibiotics of 4 isolated samples of E. coli showed that 50% were resistant to penicillin and cefotaxime. Samples of E. coli resistant to penicillin and cefotaxime showed synergy results in the double-disk approximation test. The PCR results showed that the samples of E coli encoded the blaTEM gene which was located at the 560 bp position on gel electrophoresis. The phylogenetic tree analysis found that the blaTEM gene encoded by E. coli was related to E. coli encoding the blaTEM-206 gene. The character blaTEM gene in samples of E. coli showed the character of blaTEM-206 gene of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing E. coli. Escherichia coli from the reproductive tract of Bali cattle showed the character of E. coli S2.2-EK pEC-S2.2 blaTEM gene for class A broad-spectrum B-lactamase TEM-206 with a high degree of kinship.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Feb 2023 20:30:00 +010
  • Chukar partridge in northern Iraq: A review article

    • Abstract: Iraqi Sulaymaniyah is a treasure land of wildlife, especially avian species. Most of this treasure is not discovered, and even the guidance map is not completed yet. The geographical area of Sulaymaniyah is suitable for many types of wildlife animals, including Chukar partridges, locally known as Khasa Kaw. The Chukar partridge is present in many countries in the Middle East region, but there is a subspecies in the northern of Iraq. The Sulaymaniyah nature is a natural habitat for this fantastic bird, seen in the valleys and around water springs throughout the region. Also, Chukar partridges are used as game birds and raised as pets or for fighting between the males. Unfortunately, there is no detailed scientific study on this bird, even though it is one of the most common and beloved birds. This article provides information on the history of the bird, its life cycle, behavior, taxonomy, distribution, sex, and age determination of Chukar partridges. It also mentions the most common diseases of chukar partridge and its natural predators. 
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Feb 2023 20:30:00 +010
  • Influence of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in reproductive efficiency
           of adult male rats

    • Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the dose-dependent and time-dependent effect of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MIONPs) on reproduction in male rats. Following their synthesis, the physicochemical properties of MIONPs were determined. Sixty-four adult male rats, aged 90 days were randomly assigned to control (C), orally administered with distilled water, and three treated groups, orally administered with 1, 5, 10 mg/kg/day of MIONPs solution (TL, TM, and TH groups, respectively), for 28 days. Each group was allocated to two subgroups, sacrificed after 14 and 28 days of treatment. After each period, the males were weighed and sacrificed. Decreased body weight and genital organ weights were shown in TM and TH groups, at both experimental periods, compared with control in a dose-dependent manner. The serum concentration of GnRH, FSH, LH, and testosterone increased in the TL group and decreased in TM and TH groups compared with control in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. At both periods, the lowest expression levels of pituitary FSHβ and LHβ genes and testicular inh-α and LHR genes were recorded in TM and TH groups, and the highest levels were expressed in the TL group. The testis sections of TL males, showed normal architecture, but those from TM and TH groups showed degenerative and necrotic changes, reduced germinal epithelium, vacuolation, and decreased number of spermatocytes apparent. It is concluded that a low dose of MIONPS has a beneficial effect, whereas moderate or high doses have pathological effects on male reproduction.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Feb 2023 20:30:00 +010
  • Cryptosporidium parvum oocytic antigen induces dendrtic cell maturation
           that suppresses Th2 ...

    • Abstract: Cryptosporidium parvum is an opportunistic intracellular parasite that causes disease in animal populations such as calves and goats. It is also a significant zoonotic disease globally, causing mild to severe human diarrhea. In immunocompromised animals, calves and lambs, and immunocompromised humans such as AIDS patients, an infection can be life-threatening as no effective treatments are currently available to control infection. The effects of Cryptosporidium parvum antigen (CPA) on dendritic cells (DCs) were investigated. This study examined cytokine secretion and cell surface marker expression on DCs exposed to CPA. Cytokine production in CD4+ cells co-cultured with CPA primed DCs in the presence of anti-CD3 was also measured. CPA induced a significant increase in the production of interleukin (IL)-12p40, IL-10, IL-6, and TNF-α by DCs and enhanced the expression of the cell surface markers TLR4, CD80, CD86, and MHC11. CPA primed DC co-cultured in the presence of anti-CD3 with CD4+ T-cells inhibited the secretion of Th2-associated cytokines, notably IL-5 and IL-13, with no effects on the secretions of interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-2, IL-17, and IL-10. These findings support studies in the literature that CPA can induce the full maturation of DCs that subsequently initiate Th1 immune responses critical to the resolution of C. parvum infection.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Feb 2023 20:30:00 +010
  • Flurbiprofen: Determination of safety profile, analgesic effect, and
           interaction with lipoic ...

    • Abstract:  our study aimed study aimed to detect and investigate the safety profile of flurbiprofen and evaluate the analgesic effects of the tail immersion and writhing tests, as well as its interaction with lipoic acid as an analgesic for visceral pain in mice. The up-and-down manner described by Dixon was utilized to determine the median lethal dose (LD50) and the median analgesic dose (ED50), the safety criteria were calculated, mathematical equations were applied, and the interaction between flurbiprofen and alpha-lipoic acid was evaluated using the writhing test. The LD50 of oral flurbiprofen was 1147.4 mg/kg, and the ED50 of oral flurbiprofen was 8.6 mg/kg using the tail immersion test. The therapeutic index was 133, and the standard safety margin was 35%. The highest analgesia time was one h after dosing, which faded after 24 h. Administration of flurbiprofen 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg had an analgesic effect in a dose-dependent manner. Flurbiprofen relieved visceral pain when dosed at 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg, with analgesic efficacies of 53, 56, and 65%, respectively. The simultaneous administration of flurbiprofen and alpha-lipoic acid had a synergistic analgesic effect on visceral pain. From our results, we conclude that flurbiprofen has a wide range of safety and is an effective analgesic for peripheral and visceral pain. The synergistic effect between flurbiprofen and alpha-lipoic acid may have clinical benefits, including reducing the dose of flurbiprofen when used together.
      PubDate: Mon, 27 Feb 2023 20:30:00 +010
  • Detection of some virulence gene Stx1, Stx2, and rfb of Escherichia coli
           isolated from fish in ...

    • Abstract: The current study aims to detect the presence of some virulence genes of Escherichia (E.) coli in fish. 46 strains of E. coli were previously isolated from 153 fish samples, including 28 and 18 isolates of E. coli from local markets and fish farms, respectively, in Nineveh Governorate from November 2021 to January 2022. The study results show that all isolates of E. coli possessed the uidA gene with a molecular weight of 623 bp. In addition, they show that 88.9% (16/18) isolates from farmed fish samples possessed the Stx1 gene with a molecular weight of 347 bp, while 72.2% (13/18) of them carried the Stx2 gene with a molecular weight of 589 bp. Also, the study unveils that 89.3 % (25/28) isolated from the market fish samples possessed the Stx1 gene with a molecular weight of 347 bp, and 85.7% (24/28) isolates carried the Stx2 gene with a molecular weight of 589 bp. The rfb gene is detected in this study, neither in farm fish nor in the samples from the local fish markets using the PCR technique. Likewise, it shows that E. coli isolated from fish possessed the Stx1 and Stx2 genes, major causative agents of food poisoning for consumers. Finally, the study gives important information about the application of health conditions on fish farms and fish markets to prevent contamination and reduce infections by foodborne pathogens that cause food poisoning in humans.
      PubDate: Mon, 27 Feb 2023 20:30:00 +010
  • Detection of Cryptosporidium parvum in calf feces using microscopical,
           serological, and ...

    • Abstract: Cryptosporidiosis is a critical gastrointestinal disease in calves. This study examined 150 fecal samples of diarrheic calves collected from the eastern region of Saudi Arabia for detection of Cryptosporidium parvumusing the Modified Ziehl-Neelsen (MZN) method, Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), and conventional Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The performance of these methods was assessed using diagnostic accuracy tests. The present study identified C. parvum oocysts in fecal samples by modified Ziehl-Neelsen 40/150; 26.66%, ELIZA 60/150; 40%, and PCR 78/150; 52% methods, respectively. The microscopic method revealed higher specificity 65.27% than the ELIZA 51.38%, while the ELIZA showed higher sensitivity 32.05% than MZN method 19.23%. However, MZN and ELIZA methods were unsatisfactory diagnostic tools compared with the PCR as the area under the curve values in Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) analysis were less than 0.6. Furthermore, using the kappa analysis test revealed no agreement between MZN and ELISA methods compared with PCR at P<0.05.
      PubDate: Sun, 26 Feb 2023 20:30:00 +010
  • Inflammatory mediators and inflammatory cells as reliable molecular
           targets for assessment of ...

    • Abstract: Evaluation of the wound age and vitality is a persistent problem for forensic examinations to determine when injuries occurred and whether during the antemortem or post-mortem period. This study aimed to use the inflammatory cells and mediators as a target marker to determine wound age in antemortem or post-mortem samples in rats. Wound skin samples (n=39) were collected from antemortem groups aged 30, 60, 180, and 360 min and post-mortem groups within the same periods with control samples (unwounded group). Immunohistochemical staining examined all tissue samples for two inflammatory cell markers (CD15, CD68) and 2 inflammatory mediators (IL-6, TNF-α). The results showed that CD15-positive neutrophils were expressed in all time intervals of antemortem, and the expression gradually increased from 30 to 360 min. The CD68-positive macrophages began at 30 minutes and reached the highest level at 360 minutes in the antemortem wound. Because of the negative expression of CD15 and CD68 in all post-mortem groups, they could be a marker for comparing the vital and non-vital wounds. Furthermore, the Immunoreactivity results showed that the IL-6 and TNF-α were negatively expressed in unwounded skin samples. In addition, the periods after the induced wound produced a rise in the expression area of both markers in antemortem wounds. In this study, IL-6 and TNF-α expressions were negative or low in areas far from wound margin, unwounded specimens, and post-mortem wounds. CD15, CD68, IL-6, and TNF-α may be valuable markers for assessing wound age and vitality.
      PubDate: Sun, 26 Feb 2023 20:30:00 +010
  • Molecular detection of Stx1 and Stx2 genes of E. ...

    • Abstract: Subclinical mastitis in cattle is a pathological condition that causes a financial burden on the dairy industry. In addition, it puts the public sector at risk when pathogens of animal origin are present in unpasteurized milk and dairy products that may enter the human food chain and cause serious illnesses. Our study aimed to determine the percentage of pathogenic Escherichia coli causing subclinical mastitis in dairy cows in Mosul city by confirming the existence of Stx1 and Stx2 genes. Eighty milk samples were obtained from cows suffering from subclinical mastitis using sterile procedures from November 2018 to October 2019. Escherichia coli was isolated, characterized, and confirmed using culture and PCR. According to our research, the pathogenic Escherichia coli in milk samples was 36.3% (29/80). Moreover, molecular screening for a specific Escherichia coli gene revealed that all isolates 100% carried the uidA gene. PCR revealed that 27/29 (93.1%) isolates had both Stx1 + Stx2 genes, and all the isolates 100% possessed the Stx2 gene. No significant relationship was found between the percentage of pathogenic E. coli and the seasons. Even though there were more isolates in the winter than in the summer, this increase was not statistically significant. This study's findings may help pay attention to one of the leading causes of subclinical mastitis, which benefits the private sector in controlling the disease.
      PubDate: Sun, 26 Feb 2023 20:30:00 +010
  • Molecular detection of cestoda in black francolin (Francolinus
           francolinus) of Babylon ...

    • Abstract: Cestodes or tapeworms (Class Cestoda, phylum Platyhelminthes) are widespread parasites of birds, as they cause various damages, which may lead to the death of their hosts, especially when the infection is severe. The Black Francolin belongs to the Phasianidae family of pheasants and, in the order Galliformes, the gallinaceous birds, and it is called Francolinus francolinus. Considering it as a local bird in Asia, it was referred to as the black partridge. The current study was conducted from January to October 2019 to determine the Cestoda infections within F. francolinus. Thirty-five birds from F. francolinus were examined for the presence of cestoda, of which 17 birds (48.57%) were infected with cestoda parasites. Molecular diagnosis based on sequences of cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) gene regions was performed to confirm the diagnosis of this cestoda. This revealed a close identification of up to 93.44-100% for COI gene regions with other cestoda species obtained from GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis supported the placement of this species within three families, Davaineidae, Taeniidae, and Hymenolepididae, with close relationships to the previously described species of Raillietina sp., R. mahnerti, R. hymenolepidoides, Ophryocotyloides dasi, Rodentolepis nana and Hydatigera parva based on the COI gene regions. This is the first study in Iraq to diagnose Cestoda in birds by molecular methods, where five species of cestoda parasitic on F. francolinus were recorded for the first time in Iraq. 
      PubDate: Sun, 26 Feb 2023 20:30:00 +010
  • Molecular study and DNA sequence analysis of Theileria annulata in cattle
           in Al-Hilla, Iraq

    • Abstract: The current work was conducted to unveil the current situation for the infection by Theileria annulata in cattle in Al-Hilla City, Iraq. A total of 225 blood samples (200 from suspected infected animals and 25 from clinically healthy animals as a control group) were collected. These samples were subjected to a direct slide-smearing for detection using a microscope and DNA sequencing, targeting the cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene of 10 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products. The thin smear findings of the 200 suspected cases revealed that 63 (31.5%) were infected with Theileria spp., while 115 (57.5%) cases had no Theileria but other blood parasites; however, only 22 (11%) suspected cases showed no presence of any parasites. Unsurprisingly, the 25 blood samples from the control group demonstrated no presence of any blood parasite. Moreover, the DNA sequencing demonstrated that the Theileria spp. belonged to T. annulata species, and these sequences were nucleotide-based similar to Gene-Bank isolates from Tunisia (ON035604, ON035605, ON035606, ON035607, ON035608, ON035609, ON035610, ON035611, ON035612, and ON035613). The present study outcomes indicate that theileriosis is the dominant parasitic infection in cattle in Al-Hilla City and is highly caused by Theileria annulata.
      PubDate: Sun, 26 Feb 2023 20:30:00 +010
  • Isolation and molecular identification of Escherichia coli strain from
           fish available in farms ...

    • Abstract: This research work was conducted as well as the determination of the resistance to antibiotics of these isolated species of E. coli in Nineveh governorate to assess the incidence of Escherichia coli (E. coli) contamination in different fish farms and local fish markets. The total number of fish samples used in the present study was 153, including 75 samples from various fish farms and 78 samples from different local markets in Mosul. The current study showed that the percentage of E. coli isolated from fish farms was 24% (18/75) and 35.9% (28/78) from local markets. While it showed a positive result for E. coli with serotype (O157:H7) with a percentage was 9.3 and 14.1% from both farmed fish and market fish samples, respectively. Additionally, all E. coli positive isolates possess the specific uidA gene, which was detected using the PCR technique. The highest sensitivity of E. coli bacteria to the antibiotic’s ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim, and gentamicin was 96, 94, and 86%, respectively. At the same time, the highest percentage of resistance of E. coli to the antibiotics cephalothin, tetracycline, erythromycin, and amoxicillin was 100, 64, 64, and 62%, respectively. To reduce health risks to consumers, these results provide useful basic information for the proper management of these environments in order to prevent fecal contamination in fish farms and the fish sold in local markets.
      PubDate: Sun, 26 Feb 2023 20:30:00 +010
  • Prevalence and associated risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection in
           sheep and aborted ...

    • Abstract: Toxoplasmosis has been associated with economic and public health concerns due to abortion in humans and animals. Detection for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in sera of 174 healthy sheep (IgG) and sera of 89 aborted women (IgG, IgM, and IgG avidity) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and T. gondii in 59 sheep milk samples identified by PCR. The primary risk factors for sheep and women seropositive samples were also analyzed. Relatively higher seroprevalence of T. gondii, 62.6%, was recorded in sheep than 57.3% in aborted women. The IgM/IgG antibody responses in aborted women were 42.7%, 41.6%, 15.7%, and 0% for IgM -ve/IgG -ve (negative toxoplasmosis), IgM -ve/IgG +ve (chronic toxoplasmosis), IgM +ve/IgG +ve (maternal infection) and IgM +ve/IgG -ve (acute infection), respectively. IgM and IgG-positive samples showed a low avidity rate 14.3%, denoting acute maternal infection, while a much higher rate 78.6%, denoting chronic maternal infection. Molecular investigation of T. gondii in sheep milk samples revealed that 28.8% were positive by PCR at 470-bp. The respectable significant association between many risk factors and the seroprevalence of T. gondii in humans and sheep was recorded. The current study indicates elevated toxoplasmosis antibodies in sheep and aborted women from El-Beheira and Alexandria governorates, Egypt. Additionally, it demonstrates a correlation between age, mutton intake, miscarriage, cat exposure, drinking water source, and breeding practices with seropositivity to T. gondii. These results largely confirm the need for greater in-depth toxoplasmosis epidemiological research and public health education initiatives.
      PubDate: Sun, 26 Feb 2023 20:30:00 +010
  • Pathological and histomorphometric study of comparative gastric ulcer
           induced by indomethacin, ...

    • Abstract: This study aimed comparison the gastric ulcer induced by indomethacin, aspirin, and ethanol on the level of pathological changes, ulcers surface area, and index. Forty rats were divided into 4 groups: the control group received normal saline, the remaining were the gastric ulcer groups, the Indomethacin group 40 mg/kg, the Aspirin group100 mg/kg, and the 80% ethanol group 5 ml/kg, all doses were orally administrated one time. The result revealed the ethanol group had the largest ulcer surface area, whereas the indomethacin group had a significantly lowest ulcer index after 3 hrs., and no significant differences among the groups after 24 hrs. Gastric ulcers were in the ethanol group after 3 hours, while the gastric ulcers were approximate in treated groups after 24 hrs. Histopathological changes revealed erosions or gastric ulcers with necrosis, hemorrhage, and inflammation, as well as complete ulcer exfoliation of mucosa reaching the muscularis in the indomethacin and ethanol groups after 24 hrs. The PAS/AB stain showed intense, slight, and moderate mucus reactivity in the indomethacin, aspirin, and ethanol groups, respectively, after 3 hrs., while decreased mucus reactivity in all treated groups after 24 hrs. The COX-2 expression increased in the indomethacin and aspirin groups except in the ethanol groups. We conclude that gastric ulcer surface area was severer in the ethanol group after 3 hrs., whereas severe gastric ulcers and a decline in mucus production after 24 hrs. The indomethacin group had a modest rise in COX2 expression, which was stronger in the aspirin and weak in the ethanol groups.
      PubDate: Sat, 25 Feb 2023 20:30:00 +010
  • Genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of foot and mouth
           disease virus vaccine ...

    • Abstract: Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) control is a national and regional responsibility. FMD outbreaks were detected in three farms in Port-Said Governorate in 2020, although animals in these farms were vaccinated with the local polyvalent inactivated vaccine. Samples from tongue epithelium and vesicular fluid were collected from these farms, where FMDV isolation was performed on BHK-21 cell culture. Viral RNA was extracted from the virus isolates, and vaccine strains were then screened for FMDV using conventional Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The substitution rates and phylogenetic relationship between the field isolate and the vaccine strains were determined using DNA sequence and bioinformatics analyses. The results illustrate that the sequence analysis for the 1D region of FMDV field isolate was serotype A‑Africa topotype, Genotype IV, and closely related to isolated A‑Africa topotype Genotype IV by Animal Health Research Institute, 2020 with nucleotide similarity ranging from 97.1% to 99.74%, and revealing genetic variation of 5.63-7.88% from previously Egyptian isolated A‑Africa topotype, Genotype IV in 2016 and 2018. High genetic variations were determined from the locally used vaccine strain serotype A of the Asia topotype, lineage Iran‑05, in the major antigenic sites of the VP1 region with a nucleotide difference of 26.34%. Depending on these findings, the Veterinary Serum and Vaccine Research Institute produced an emergency inactivated monovalent vaccine using the newly isolated strain, and we recommended adding it to the subsequent prepared vaccine batches. 
      PubDate: Sat, 25 Feb 2023 20:30:00 +010
  • Prevalence of resistance and virulence genes in Escherichia coli isolates
           from diarrheic dogs

    • Abstract: The current study was designed to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes in Escherichia coli isolated from canine diarrheal cases. Fecal samples were collected from 77 dogs with clinical diarrhea and 10 non-diarrheic dogs. Breed, age and sex, and clinical manifestations were recorded. Samples were plated on MacConkey and EMB agars, followed by standard isolation procedures and identification of E. coli. An antimicrobial susceptibility test using the disc diffusion method was performed against Ampicillin, Tetracycline, Trimethoprim, Gentamicin, and Streptomycin. PCR was used to determine if the isolates carry virulence intimin adherence protein (eaeA) and antimicrobial resistance genes. Body temperature, respiratory, and heart rates in dogs with diarrhea were significantly higher than in non-diarrheic dogs. PCR detected the eaeA virulence gene in 44(69.8%) of 63 isolates from diarrheic dogs. All isolates were resistant to ampicillin, and 55(87.3%), 47(74.6%), 29(46.0%), and 19(30.2%) of these were resistant to tetracycline, trimethoprim, gentamicin, and streptomycin, respectively. The frequency of antimicrobial resistance genes in the 63 isolates was 81.0, 52.4, 41.3, 33.3, 23.8 and 9.5% for CITM, tet (B), dfrA1, aac (3)-IV, aadA1 and tet (A), respectively. Overall, 6(9.4%), 16(25.4%), and 41(65.1%) were positive for one, two, three, or four resistance genes, respectively. In conclusion, the high prevalence of virulence (69.8%) and resistance 9.5-81.0% genes in E. coli isolates could be responsible for the diarrhea episodes, which may have posed therapeutic implications in affected dogs.
      PubDate: Sat, 25 Feb 2023 20:30:00 +010
  • Antibiotics resistance patterns of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from
           meat at Mosul city retails

    • Abstract: Psychrotrophic bacteria are one of the significant microbes in chilled meat,pseudomonasis the most predominant member of this group. Pseudomonas could survive in various ecological niches. In the current study, we detect the prevalence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in meat at Mosul city retailsandtheir antibiotics resistance profile. One hundred fifty samples from beef, mutton and chicken meat were collected aseptically and cultivated. P. aeruginosa isolates were phenotypically and genetically recognized, and their antimicrobial activity was carried out for cultured isolates. Our findings revealed that 21 (14%) of meat samples were P. aeruginosa positive with a high significant recovery rate in chicken meat 11 (22%) and beef 7 (14%) compared to mutton 3 (6%). The antimicrobial resistance level of P. aeruginosa were 100% for amoxicillin, and 66% for aztreonam. The susceptibilities were 95% for tobramycin, 90% for levofloxacin, 90% for ciprofloxacin, 90% for gentamicin, 76% for piperacillin, and 57% for meropenem. In conclusion, P. aeruginosa is likely to be more common in meat, especially in chicken. Therefore, good hygienic practices should be applied to handle and preserve meat under suitable conditions to extend its shelf life, ensure meat safety, and conserve consumer health. 
      PubDate: Sat, 25 Feb 2023 20:30:00 +010
  • Molecular detection of Cryptosporidium spp. in stray cats in Al-Qadisiyah
           governorate, Iraq

    • Abstract: Cryptosporidiosis is an opportunistic zoonotic disease considered a global public health concern. Cats are a potential host for transmitting zoonotic diseases to humans as Cryptosporidium spp. infection. The present study aimed to determine the Cryptosporidium spp in stray cats using molecular methods in Al-Qadisiyah governorate, Iraq, from September 2021 to February 2022. A total of 100 fecal samples were collected from different geographical areas. All the samples were investigated using Nested-PCR and sequencing methods to identify and characterize Cryptosporidium spp. in stray cats. The results of the molecular examination showed that 35% of the fecal samples were infected with Cryptosporidium spp. Two species have been identified, C. parvum and C. canis. In conclusion, the results showed that cats are a reservoir host for Cryptosporidium spp for human infection. For the prevention and control of Cryptosporidium spp. Cat infection should get more attention from health officials, especially when the prevalence rate is high.
      PubDate: Sat, 25 Feb 2023 20:30:00 +010
  • The influence of alpha-lipoic acid on ovarian follicle growth in induced
           aging mice

    • Abstract: The ovary contains follicles at various developmental stages. The present study aimed to investigate the antioxidant efficiency of alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA) on follicle growth in induced aging ovaries. Juvenile female mice (n=24) were allocated into four groups (n=6, each); the control group received distilled water, and the induced aging group (T1) received D-galactose (300 mg/kg). The co-administrated group (T2) was treated with α-LA (300 mg/kg) and D-galactose (100 mg/kg), while the fourth group (T3) was treated with α-LA (100 mg/kg). At the end of treatments (8 weeks), animals were sacrificed, and ovaries were processed for hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunostaining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). PCNA was detectable in oocytes but only in granulosa cells of activated follicles. The D-galactose treatment successfully induced ovarian aging as the proportion of primordial and growing follicles was significantly reduced accompanied by massively increased atretic follicles. Additionally, only numerous PCNA positively stained follicles were recognized. The co-administrated α-LA moderately rescued the characteristics of ovarian aging. Mice treated with α-LA demonstrated a substantial increase in the population of atretic follicles, antral follicles, and PCNA positively stained follicles. There was no change in oocyte size at any follicle growth stage among groups. In conclusion, α-LA moderately rescued the detrimental impacts of induced ovarian aging. For the first time, the expression of PCNA was linked with ovarian aging, where PCNA-staining has been recognized as a valuable tool to evaluate the proliferative activity of the granulosa cells.
      PubDate: Sat, 25 Feb 2023 20:30:00 +010
  • Molecular characterization of Fasciola spp. ...

    • Abstract: This study aimed to characterize and identify the genotypes of Fasciola spp. isolated from sheep, goats, and cattle in Duhok province based on the ITS1 region of rDNA. About 54 adult Fasciola flukes were individually isolated from the livers of naturally infected ruminants. After morphological identification, the genomic DNA of 54 isolated Fasciola spp. was successfully extracted, and the ITS1segment (518 bp) of rDNA was amplified. The amplicons were confirmed by gel electrophoresis and yielded mono cleared bands. Five amplicons from these samples (2 sheep, 2 cattle, and 1 goat) were selected for sequencing and then compared with NCBI-GenBank sequences for genotyping and phylogenetic analysis. Sequencing analysis and the BLAST results revealed that 3/5 of the resultant sequences were F. hepatica and 2/5 were F. gigantica. The ITS1 sequences were submitted to NCBI-GenBank with accession numbers: OM920533, OM920534, OM948733, OM948683, and OM918714. Alignment analysis of the current study and GenBank ITS1 sequences showed the presence of nucleotide variations between F. hepatica and F. gigantica species (interspecific), which were enough to separate them. At the same time, they were not observed within the same species of Fasciola (intraspecific). The pairwise identity percentage of intraspecific and interspecific Fasciola isolates was 100% and 99.2-99.6%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the ITS1 sequences demonstrated that the Fasciola isolates of this study were clustered into two clades (hepatica and gigantica clades). The present study concluded that both Fasciola spp. (F. hepatica and F. gigantica) existed among the infected ruminants in Duhok province and are closely related to intraspecific Fasciola isolates from different countries in the Middle East, Asia, Europe, and Africa.
      PubDate: Fri, 24 Feb 2023 20:30:00 +010
  • Bioceutical role of nano and organic selenium on certain reproductive
           value of laying hen ...

    • Abstract: Nanotechnology has proposed many new effective forms of nutritional supplement ingredients due to their low toxicity and high bioavailability, among which are nano-selenium, due to their distinctive properties of small particles and increased surface area of ​​compounds, allowing the opportunity for biological interactions. In this study, 48 laying hens, aged 47 weeks, of a rose type were used, and the experiment lasted for two months. The birds were fed two types of diets, one standard and the other a non-standard diet, represented by the use of crushed yellow corn for molting. The birds were divided into six groups 8 birds/group, with the first group receiving a standard diet, the second group receiving only yellow tops crushed, the third group receiving organic-Se 2 g/L with a standard diet, the fourth group receiving Nano-Se 0.5 ml/L with standard stalk, the fifth group receiving organic- Se with straw 2 g/L, and the sixth group receiving nano-Se with straw 0.5 ml/L. The results showed a significant rise in ovary weight, oviduct weight, number of immature and mature follicles, FSH, LH, as well as an improvement in the histological characteristics of the shell gland in the groups treated with nano and organic-Se, indicating that nano-Se plays a critical role in restoring most reproductive and histological parameters to their normal levels, close to the baseline. This study found that organic and nano-Se are crucial in improving most reproductive and physiological parameters of laying hens exposed to molting. 
      PubDate: Fri, 24 Feb 2023 20:30:00 +010
  • Molecular detection of Mycoplasma spp. from camel’s milk

    • Abstract: The dromedary camels are essential because of their multiple uses for transport, wool, meat, and milk production. Camel’s milk is considered exceptional nutrition, so it uses for therapeutic and high nutrition. Mastitis may affect camel’s milk production, cause significant economic loss, and is associated with zoonotic disease. The study aimed to detect the prevalence of Mycoplasma spp. especially M. bovis in camel’s milk using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method as a primary molecular diagnostic technique. Fifty milk samples were collected from she camels suffering from subclinical mastitis in Iraq. The result of the current study declared that 26.66% of the camel’s milk samples were positive for Mycoplasma. In contrast, the prevalence rate of Mycoplasma (M.) bovis in all the samples was 61.53%. The study concludes that Mycoplasma and especially M. bovis are considered one of the bacteria that cause subclinical mastitis in camels, and using the PCR method is regarded as a more rapid, simple, and current for detecting the Mycoplasma bacteria.
      PubDate: Fri, 24 Feb 2023 20:30:00 +010
  • The combined effect of the human umbilical cord blood with chitosan
           scaffold on the ...

    • Abstract: This studyaimed to investigate the role of a low dose of human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells (HUCB-MSCs) with chitosan scaffold (ChSc) on the progress of the cutaneous wound healing process in male Albino rats. A full-thickness cutaneous wound with a circular shape with a diameter of about 2 cm was induced on the dorsum of thirty-six Albino male rats, divided into four groups: the first group, the wounds were left without treatment as a control group. In the second group, the wounds were covered by freeze-dried ChSc. While in the third group, the wounds were treated through injection of the HUCB-MSCs intradermally, and in the fourth group, the ChSc seeded with HUCB-MSCs were used together to treat the wounds. The progress of wound healing was monitored by histological, immunohistochemical, and biochemical assays for all experimental groups at 3, 8, and 21 postoperative days. Both ChSc and the low dose of HUCB-MSCs alone performed moderate healing progress.The (HUCB-MSCs) ChSc group exhibited an increased healing rate more than the other groups and reported an appropriate collagen deposition without scarring signs, effective mast cell regulation, and well vascularization. In conclusion, the fourth group (the HUCB-MSCs with ChSc) improved the healing process, revealing the highest healing rate and performance without complications. 
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Feb 2023 20:30:00 +010
  • Food safety and sanitation practices survey in very small halal and
           non-halal beef ...

    • Abstract: To determine food safety and sanitation practices and compare small halal and non-halal beef slaughterhouses in the United States, we conducted two web-based surveys using a similar questionnaire and data collection methods. Among the 80 halal slaughterhouses included in this study, 56.25% (45 out of 80) participated, while 63.75% (51 out of 80) participated in the non-halal slaughterhouse survey. This study showed no significant differences between halal and non-halal slaughterhouses regarding food safety and sanitation, food safety technologies, and microbiological testing practices. All halal and non-halal slaughterhouses conducted generic E. coli (100%) for beef carcasses. The most common interventions used in halal slaughterhouses were a combination of treatments (cold water + hot water (180 °F) + organic acid) 31.1%. In contrast, the most common interventions used in non-halal slaughterhouses were only hot water (180 °F) (33.5%). The findings of this study can be used to describe food safety and sanitation practices in the halal meat industries and find areas for improvement.
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Dec 2022 20:30:00 +010
  • The molecular identification of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC)
           isolated from meat and ...

    • Abstract: The present study aims to diagnose diarrheagenic E. coli in meat and meat products by the conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique using the uidA gene to confirm the existence of the bacterial isolates as E. coli. The multiplex PCR technique is adopted to detect the virulence genes of these bacteria using two groups of primers for detecting the gene (stx1, stx2, aggR, esth, eae, invE, daaC, estp, elt, and bfpA). This study applies these primers to 100 E. coli strains isolated from 782 samples of meat and meat products (fresh, minced, burger, pastirma, and chicken) from February to November 2020. The results of the present study show that all E. coli isolates are positive to have the uidA gene (147 bp). The study also detects 95/782 (12.15%) pathogenic species related to virulence genes by using multiplex PCR. The highest percentage of pathotype is ETEC, 46.32%, and the lowest is the DAEC type 1.05%. In addition, the other pathotypes are 20.05, 14.74, 6.32, 6.32, and 5.26% of STEC, EHEC, aEPEC, EAEC, and EIEC, respectively. The high contamination rate with DEC reported in this study is associated with the poor hygiene conditions of slaughtering and meat storage in shops and markets, resulting in health risks to consumers. 
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Dec 2022 20:30:00 +010
  • Effects of ProbChick® on the immunological response after new castle
           virus using LaSota stain ...

    • Abstract: The vaccination process and immunological status of chickens during their life period have great importance in the poultry industry. We aimed in the current study to evaluate the effect of ProbChick® on the immunological status of broiler chickens after vaccination with Newcastle vaccination using the LaSota strain. A total of 200 one-day-old chicks were divided randomly into five groups. The first group is the control group, while the second group consumes ProbChick® with drinking water. The third group was vaccinated with the Newcastle vaccine (LaSota strain), and the fourth group was vaccinated with the Newcastle vaccine after 7 days. The ProbChick® was consumed. The fifth group was vaccinated with the Newcastle vaccine and consumed ProbChick® on the same day. The result showed that ProbChick® enhances the weight gain, food conversion ratio, and relative weight of the bursa of Fabricius and spleen. In addition, ProbChick® will enhance the antibody titer if it is added to drinking water on the same day of vaccination and give suitable antibody titer compared to control groups and in comparison, to a group where it is added to drinking water after 7 days of vaccination. We conclude that adding ProbChick® to the broiler at 1 g/litter of drinking water at the same vaccination by Newcastle vaccine using the LaSota strain will enhance the immune response during and after vaccination. This will improve the efficiency and titer of antibody production.
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Dec 2022 20:30:00 +010
  • Use of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) prepupae amino acids as anti
           Aeromonas hydrophila ...

    • Abstract: Aeromonas hydrophila is an opportunistic freshwater. These bacteria cause gastroenteritis and septicemia in animals and humans. Hemolysin and aerolysin, are important in the pathogenesis of A. hydrophila. Prepupae Black soldier fly (BSF) can be used as an antibacterial using its active substance against hemolysin and aerolysin. This study aimed to determine how the interaction of prepupae BSF amino acids with A. hydrophila enterotoxin in silico and protein level in various substrates in vivo. The study consisted of BSF larva of T1 (fed fruit waste), T2 (fed fermented fruit waste), T3 (fed tofu waste), T4 (fed fermented tofu waste), and T5 (fed fermented fruit waste and tofu waste). Data on the difference of protein level of prepupae among groups were analyzed statistically using the ANOVA test. The study showed that the highest protein content of BSF prepupae was found in treatment T3 dan T4. Protein docking analysis showed that L-arginine had the most hydrogen interaction (11 H-bonds) with aerolysin and 10 H-bonds against hemolysin, indicating an antibacterial role. The most favorable interacting residues of 17 amino acids against hemolysin were ARG73, ASP74, THR541, ALA523, and ASN483, while the residues of the active site against aerolysin were ASP92, ARG394, SER354, TYR348, ARG356, VAL396, PRO395, and ASP350. Amino could inhibit the hemolytic toxin of Aeromonas by interacting with binding site residues. The better the nutritional value of the substrate given to BSF larvae, the higher the protein content of BSF prepupae. Proteins from BSF prepupae can be antibacterial candidates against A. hydrophila. 
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Dec 2022 20:30:00 +010
  • Prevalence and some risk factors with therapeutic trial of sheep
           dermatophytosis in Egypt

    • Abstract: Dermatophytosis is a fungal disease that affects the superficial skin layers and hair of farm animals all over the world including Egypt. Despite being a self-limiting disease, it has serious effects on public health and devastating economic losses due to its serious skin damage, a long course of treatment, and loss of weight. This study determines the most prevalent species of dermatophyte in sheep and identifies the incriminated species by both microscopic and culture methods with an assessment of animal and environmental risk factors. Moreover, it evaluates the effectiveness of three antifungal compounds (tioconazole cream and clotrimazole spray, and fluconazole capsule), on twenty-four naturally infected sheep. One hundred and three sheep from Sharkia and Dakahalia governorates were examined with clinically suggestive lesions from 2018 to 2019. 47.6% of the cases were positive for the dermatophyte infection either by clinical signs, microscopic or culture, or both. The highest registered infection rate is in males, at the age of ˂ 6 months, and in the winter season. Three antifungal medications are used for the first time in the treatment of ovine dermatophytosis. They are proved to have been effective in subsiding skin lesions with hair growth to return to its normal clinical state with a 100% curative rate. The treatment with preferable and easily applicable topical cures, especially tioconazole cream, is highly effective in the short run. This cream treatment is easily applicable and provides a good alternative to the traditional antifungal medication for sheep. Consequently, such treatment can reduce the possibility of spreading the infection by other animals, and may allow the adaption of efficient control measures.
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Dec 2022 20:30:00 +010
  • Molecular and Serological detection of Toxoplasma gondii in three species
           of wild birds of ...

    • Abstract: Birds are intermediate hosts and important reservoirs that play a significant role in Toxoplasma gondii (Apicomplexa, Sarcocystidae) epidemiology and infection transfer to humans by eating their raw or undercooked meat. The aim of this study is to diagnose the Toxoplasma gondii infection in three species of wild birds (Columba livia, Streptopelia senegalensis and Passer domesticus) in the province of Babylon from May 2021 to August 2021, using a latex agglutination test and molecular diagnosis with nested PCR for SAG1 gene identification. Results showed that antibodies were detected in 56/144 (38.88%) samples. Furthermore, results of the nested PCR technique for detection of SAG1 gene revealed that 41 (73.21%) of the samples positive for the latex agglutination test were only found in three species of birds. These three species of birds were found infected with T. gondii with possible transmission to human beings. For the first time, a S. senegalensis, was infected with the T. gondii in Iraq.
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Dec 2022 20:30:00 +010
  • Histochemical study of the hepatic metacestodes in sheep infected with

    • Abstract: This study aimed at detecting the liver histopathological changes of hydatid cysts sheep infestation. Seventeen sheep liver's samples, infested with hydatid cysts, were collected from the local butchers. The specimens sectioned, processed, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin and some special stains such as Gomori's aldehyde fuschin, Van Gieson, Toluidine blue, Alcian blue, Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) and Mansso's trichrome. The results of haematoxylin and eosin stain of infected groups revealed the presence of the laminated membrane of hydatid cyst in different spots of hepatic tissue encircled by infiltration of inflammatory cells, an increase in fibrous tissue and severe necrotic hepatic tissue. The special stains as in Gomori's aldehyde fuschin revealed the protoscolex in green colour and elastic fibres of connective tissue surrounding hydatid cyst with its laminated membrane in purple colour. Van Gieson stain showed dark brown-purple colour of the elastic fibres reduplication of connective tissue surrounding hydatid cyst, while Toluidine blue stain sections revealed the dark blue stain of acidic components of hydatid cyst laminated membrane and necrotic hepatocytes. Alcian blue stain revealed the blue colour reactivity of the proteoglycans of the connective tissue surrounding hydatid cyst. PAS reaction stain revealed the magenta colour reaction of the intact hepatocytes in the control group comparing with depletion of magenta colour in necrotic hepatocytes surrounding hydatid cyst. Masson's trichrome stain revealed increased collagen fibres of the connective tissue. At the conclusion, it’s evident that infection with hydatid cysts causes a variety of histopathological alterations that appeared through several tissue stains.
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Dec 2022 20:30:00 +010
  • Neurobehavioral toxicity of copper sulfate accompanied by oxidative stress
           and ...

    • Abstract: The aim is to investigate the sub-acute neurotoxic effects of copper sulfate in chicks on motor and neurobehavioral activity and its relation to oxidative stress and histopathological changes in chick brain tissue. Thirty chicks were employed in this experiment, randomly separated into 5 groups of 6 chicks. They were given the following concentration 2.5, 5, 10, and 15% of LD50. Each of the chicks is put through the following behavioral tests response to tonic immobility test, righting reflex, testing the motor activity of the chicks inside the open field box. Orally LD50 was 772 mg/kg, Recording an inhibition in the animal's movement in the open field and an increase in the chicks' dormancy duration. The effects are directly proportional to the increase in the chicks' dose. Copper sulfate in 2.5, 5, 10, and 15% of the LD50 showed a significant increase in malondialdehyde concentration, while 15% of LD50 recorded a significant decrease in glutathione and cholinesterase activity. All doses substantially decreased total antioxidant capacity in brain and liver tissue. Chick brain of copper sulfate 15% of LD50 shows in the cortex of cerebrum severe gliosis, satellitosis, perivascular and periaxonal edema, necrosis (karyorrhexis) of neuron, and apoptosis. The rest of the concentrations had histopathological alterations proportionate to the rise in the given dose. We concluded from this work that high concentrations of copper sulfate in the brain generated oxidative stress and histopathological alterations, which influenced chicks' neurobehavior and motor activity in the open environment. 
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Dec 2022 20:30:00 +010
  • Microscopic and molecular detection of Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina
           in female camel from ...

    • Abstract: This study identified the etiological pathogens responsible or protozoal-like disease conditions in female camels from Al-Diwaniyah Province, Iraq. For this reason, 125 female camels (one blood sample per animal) that showed signs of weakness and pale mucus membranes were considered for the study. The samples of stained blood smears were explored microscopically and via a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method that the targeted glutamine-dependent carbamoyl phosphate synthase (CPSII) gene for identifying Babesia bovis and 18S rRNA gene for detecting B. bigemina. The results of the microscopic technique uncovered the occurrence of Babesia spp. in 76 (60.8%) of the examined samples, which encourage the use of PCR to identify the protozoal species. The PCR findings demonstrated that B. bovis and B. bigemina were detected in 8 (8.9%) and 11 (12.22%), respectively, of the positive microscopic samples. The study findings reveal that weakness and paleness of mucus membranes in camel females can be attributed to the presence of infections by blood protozoa, mainly Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina.
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Dec 2022 20:30:00 +010
  • Morphometrical and Histochemical study of glandular stomach
           (Proventriculus) in local domestic ...

    • Abstract: The present work explores morphometric and histochemical foundations of the wall of proventriculus in adult domestic male ducks. To achieve this study, six healthy adult ducks were purchased from local vendors in Mosul province. All birds were sedated. Their stomachs were removed after being dissected to achieve the gross description and measurements of the proventriculus, including the length and diameter of cranial, middle, and caudal regions of the proventriculus. Small tissue pieces 6-8 mm in length from three regions of proventriculus were processed for histomorphological studies using hematoxylin and Eosin stain, combined PAS-AB pH 2.5, toluidine blue, and Masson's trichrome stains. The finding showed that the proventriculus connects with the esophagus from the cranial side and the muscular stomach from the caudal side. It was a thin elongated oval tubular organ. Histologically, the mucosa of the proventriculus revealed the presence of folds and sulci-like structures covered by simple columnar epithelium. The tunica submucosa consisted of many signs of profound and straightforward sub-mucosal glands supported by connective tissue septa and extended from the basal part of the diverged gland through the lamina propria, which was organized in a conical manner (adenomere). Tunica Muscularis appeared as a double-layer coordinated in the form of inner longitudinal and outer circular ones. Finally, serosa consists of fibrous tissue, vessels, fatty tissue, and nerve plexuses studded by the mesothelial cells. The highest thickness of the four layers of mucosal, submucosal, muscular, and serosal layers in the distal part of ‎the proventriculus. Histochemical PAS staining positively reacted with epithelial tunica mucosa and wall of proventricular glands.
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Dec 2022 20:30:00 +010
  • Curative and protective potentials of Moringa oleifera leaf decoction on
           the ...

    • Abstract: The present study was designed to investigate the protective, and curative potentials of Moringa oleifera (MO) leaves powder against streptozotocin (STZ) induced type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in rats. Fifty adult Wistar male albino rats were randomized and divided into five equal groups: The normal control group, the Moringa group, The diabetic group, the therapeutic group, and the diabetic rats (3 days after STZ injection) were received-MO-for successive 8 weeks and the prophylactic group, the rats were received-MO-for 2 weeks before STZ induced diabetic rats and lasted for 8 weeks. The protective or treated oral administration of 1 ml freshly prepared aqueous leaf decoction of-MO-revealed a significant upregulation of the mRNA expression of PDX-1, Ngn3, VEGF, IGF-1, and GLUT-2. Additionally, it induced a significant downregulation of FBG level compared to that of the diabetic group, a significant reduction in MDA level and a significant elevation in the TAC level. Furthermore, the histopathological observations of pancreas, liver, and kidney tissues affirmed the improvement in treated and prophylactic groups compared to STZ-diabetic groups, and the improvement in the prophylactic group was more distinct than the treated group. MO-aqueous leaf extract can treat and protect against STZ-induced T1DM; via its antioxidant action (increase the TAC and decrease MDA). Thus, it has the potential for utilization as a prophylactic against diabetes.
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Dec 2022 20:30:00 +010
  • Effects of hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress on the plasma
           concentration and ...

    • Abstract: The aim was to determine the impact of oxidative stress (OS), induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), on the ketorolac plasma concentration and pharmacokinetics in the chicks. A significant decrease was observed in the total antioxidant status (TAS) measured on day 7th, 10th, and 14th of chicks age by 39, 29, and 41%, respectively compared to the control (H2O) group. By measuring the analgesic median effective dose (ED50), ketorolac’s analgesia amplified 16% in the stressed (H2O2) group. Ketorolac concentration in plasma was investigated at measured multiple times at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 24 hours after the administration (14 mg/kg, IM) to 110.38, 181.46, 66.24, 13.08, 10.11, and 4.12 µg/ml at the H2O group and significantly elevated in all times measured except 0.25 and 24 h after ketorolac administration by 24, 38, 54, 199, 93, and 59 % to be 136.45, 250.88, 102.03, 39.13, 19.55, and 6.55 µg/ml in the H2O2 group, respectively. The values of AUC0-∞, AUMC0-∞, Cmax, and Kel in the stressed chickens that were administered ketorolac were elevated by 59, 19, 38, and 43%, respectively, whereas other parameters like MRT, t1/2β, Vss, and Cl were reduced by 25, 30, 56, and 37% respectively compared to H2O group. The results showed that the H2O2-inducedOS amplified the analgesic action of ketorolac in a chick model, besides its modification of the plasma concentration and pharmacokinetics of ketorolac. 
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Dec 2022 20:30:00 +010
  • Molecular evaluation of E198A SNP in the iso-type 1 β – tubulin gene of
           Haemonchus contortus ...

    • Abstract: This study investigated the benzimidazole resistance in Haemonchus contortus parasitic nematodes from sheep from October 2021 to December 2022 in Al-Diwanyiah city/Iraq, and samples were processed at the laboratory of Parasitology in Veterinary Medicine College of Al-Qadissyiah University through the detection of E198A mutation and SNP polymorphism of the β-tubulin gene at this codon position. Ninety adult H. contortus samples were collected from the abomasum of sheep (n = 400) and then tested by qPCR and tetra-primer ARMS-PCR. Of these, three different genotypes have been found for E198A SNP: heterozygous (RS), homozygous (SS), and homozygous resistant genotype (RR). The frequencies for these genotypes were 31.11% heterozygous, 57.77% homozygous, and 11.11% homozygous resistant. The current study indicated the spread of benzimidazole resistance for H. contortus of sheep in Iraq, Al-Diwnayiah by utilizing qPCR and tetra-primer ARMS-PCR for the first time. It is speculated that the BZ-resistance is due to excessive and irregular H. contortus drug abuse and inter-species transfer between ruminants at the commonly grazing pastures and from imported sheep. 
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Dec 2022 20:30:00 +010
  • The amelioration of vitamin E on histological changes of rabbit’s
           brain treated with zinc ...

    • Abstract: Zinc-oxide in nanoparticles is suggested to be one of the crucial nanoparticles due to its expanse implementation in many industries, like electrons, food supplements, and maquillage and makeup. This led to more individual exposure to ZnO NPs through inspiration and skin penetration. This study objected to estimating the toxic impact of ZnO NPs on the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum in male rabbits by studying the gross and histological changes. Twenty-four adult male rabbits were divided randomly into four groups, comprising six animals. The first group was considered as the control group left without treatment; the second group was treated with 100 mg/kg BW of vitamin e orally, the third group was treated intraperitoneally with ZnO NPs 600 mg/kg BW, and the fourth group was treated with I/P 600 mg/kg BW of ZnO NPs in addition to 100 mg/kg BW orally of vitamin e twice weekly for twenty-one days. The histological results showed degenerative, necrotic changes in neurons with a vascular and inflammatory response in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum in the second group of rabbits treated with ZnO NPs. In contrast, the treated rabbits with ZnO NPs and vitamin E revealed slight improvement in the histological picture of brain sections. Also, there was an alteration in acetylcholine levels in all groups compared with the control group.
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Dec 2022 20:30:00 +010
  • The impact of nano zinc oxide particles on the histology of the male
           reproductive system of ...

    • Abstract: The goal of our research is to evaluate the histological impact of nano ZnO particles (NZnO) on the testis and epididymis of adult male rabbits treated with I.P of 600mg/kg body weight of nano ZnO particles twice a week for three weeks and to the protective effect of vitamin E versus the effect of nano zinc oxide particles. Twenty-four adult male rabbits were used in this research and divided into four groups. The first group was the control group injected with intraperitoneal distal water, and the second group was injected with 600mg/kg body weight of nano Zno particles I.P. twice a week for three weeks, the third group was injected with 600 mg/kg body weight of nano Zno particles I.P. and co-administrated with 100 mg/kg body weight of vitamin e orally, while the fourth group received 100mg/kg body weight of vitamin e orally. The histological results showed that the nano ZnO particles treatment causes noticeable changes in the testis and epididymis. These changes are characterized by thickening of tunica albuginea of testis, degenerative and necrotic changes of germ cells lining the seminiferous tubules, arrest of spermatogenesis, giant cell formation, degeneration, and necrosis of epithelial cells lining epididymis canals. The canals are free from sperms is observed. As for the group of animals treated with nano ZnO particles co-administrated with vitamin e showed improvement in the histological changes compared with the control and group treated with vitamin e only showed normal architecture of testis and epididymis. Moreover, there is a decrease in the level concentration of Testosterone of the animals treated with nano ZnO particles compared with other groups.
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Dec 2022 20:30:00 +010
  • Molecular evidence of schmallenberg virus associated by ovine abortion
           with fetal anomalies in ...

    • Abstract: In late 2011, Schmallenberg virus (SBV) was observed in Germany using genomic analysis. The virus is transmitted through insect vectors and vertically from females to their offspring across the placenta. In adult sheep, the virus causes a short viremia followed by lethargy, abortion, and dystocia when giving birth to malformed lambs. RT-PCR for virus detection and commercial ELISAs for antibody detection were rapidly developed. No previous studies have detected SBV in sheep in Nineveh province. Thus, this study intended to investigate the presence of SBV in aborted fetuses and describe the macroscopic lesions. Fifteen aborted lambs aged between 70 to 135 days were collected between October 2021 and January 2022. Brain stem, spinal cord, spleen, liver, lung, and abdominal fluid were collected and stored at -20ºC for molecular analysis. Viral RNA was extracted from these collected samples, and reverse transcription was performed in one step. RT-PCR was applied to amplify the SBV gene (S segment). Three of fifteen lambs showed marked malformations in the vertebral column, arthrogryposis, hydranencephaly, cerebral and cerebellar hypoplasia, and porencephaly. SBV was detected in malformed aborted lambs by RT-PCR with 474bp product size. These findings indicate that SBV causes abortion with malformations. Further studies on this topic should include the isolation and characterization of the virus and SBV epidemiology.
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Dec 2022 20:30:00 +010
  • Epidemiological aspects of some equine viral diseases

    • Abstract: Although different equine viruses’ outbreaks have been recorded. However, the most important ones in are the African horse sickness virus (AHSV), equine influenza virus (EIV), equine viral arteritis (EVA), Equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV), and equine herpes viruses (EHV). To combat these diseases, it is imperative to understand their epidemiological aspects. So, the current review aims to highlight some epidemiological aspects including; causative agents, clinical forms, history, prevalence and geographical distribution, source of infection, and methods of transmission. The AHSV mainly causes pulmonary, and cardiac forms with high morbidity and mortality rates in Africa. The EIV is found all over the world and results in respiratory signs. The EVA has low morbidity and mortality rates and is mainly found in the Americas and Europe, its significance is due to the reproductive problems as abortion in mares and subfertility in stallions. The EIAV has low morbidity and mortality rates and causes long time course disease mainly of fever, and chronic anaemia or death. The EHVs are the current most important pathogens due to their endemicity all over the world and their high morbidity. It causes respiratory, abortion, neonatal, and sometimes neurological manifestations. Aerosols and body excretions are the main sources of infection with EIV, EVA, and EHV. Venereal EVA transmission occurs through natural breeding or artificial insemination with the semen of infected or carrier stallions. The spreading of arboviruses is greatly affected by the vector activity like the AHSV which transmitted by the the Culicoide. imicola biting midges, and the EIAV by family Tabanidae. In general, it is recommended to take all epidemiological measures, including vaccinations and vector control, to limit the spread of such diseases and reduce economic losses.
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Dec 2022 20:30:00 +010
  • Protective effect of Moringa oleifera leaves extract against gentamicin
           induced hepatic and ...

    • Abstract: Gentamicin-specific non-targeted induction of hepato- and nephrotoxicity is a clinical challenge in human and veterinary medicine. This study investigates the hepato- and nephroprotective effect of Moringa oleifera leaves extract on Gentamicin-induced hepatic and nephrotoxicity in rats. C- group showed negative control and had no treatment. C+ group received 80 mg/kg/day/i.p of gentamicin (GM) for 8 days and exhibited positive control . T1, T2, and T3 groups were treated with Moringa oleifera (MO) leave extract orally for 14 days at doses of 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg respectively after GM treatment. After 21 days of MO leave extract treatment, all the rats had liver and kidneys excisions. The assessment was done for the macroscopic changes in the liver and the microscopic changes and measurement of the MDA level of the liver and kidneys. The histopathological examination of the liver and kidneys shows that gentamicin increased the damage in the liver (degeneration, necrosis, and fibrosis score), kidneys (glomerular damage, degeneration, and necrosis of tubulous score), and MDA level. The application of MO extract at a dose of 600 mg/kg in gentamicin-induced rats can prevent the increase in the MDA levels as indicated by a decrease in the MDA levels in the liver and kidneys. The study results highlight the preventive role of MO leaves extract for Gentamicin induced toxicity that could be attributed to the antioxidant properties of phytochemicals.
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Dec 2022 20:30:00 +010
  • The pharmacokinetics of phenylbutazone and its interaction with
           dexamethasone in chicks

    • Abstract: The present study aims to investigate the influence of dexamethasone administration on the pharmacokinetics of phenylbutazone and its plasma concentration as well as its pharmacological interaction in a chick model. The analgesic median effective doses (ED50s) of phenylbutazone and dexamethasone are separately evaluated as 5.60 and 0.63 mg/kg, IP, and their ED50s are estimated and reduced to 1.76 and 0.19 mg/kg, IP, respectively. The type of pharmacological interaction between phenylbutazone and dexamethasone is synergistic as determined by the isobolographic analysis. The phenylbutazone administration at 11.20 mg/kg, IP has plasma concentrations of 39.83, 66.17, 48.00, 35.30, 26.50 and 13.33 µg/ml in the estimated times of 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 24 hours, respectively. These concentrations are increased to 57.00, 384.17, 210.67, 138.67, 65.50 and 50.10 µg/ml as dexamethasone 1.26 mg/kg, IP is given by 43, 426, 339, 293, 147 and 276%. Phenylbutazone pharmacokinetics are increased and result in an elevation in an area under the curve (AUC0-∞) 196%, area under the moment curve (AUMC0-∞) 140%, elimination rate constant (Kel) 50%, and maximum concentration (Cmax) 426%. However, other parameters are reduced to include half-life (t1/2β) 33%, mean residence time (MRT) 18%, steady state of the volume of distribution (Vss) 78%, and clearance (Cl) 60%. The overall findings reveal a synergism as a type of pharmacological interaction between phenylbutazone and dexamethasone. In addition, a change in phenylbutazone pharmacokinetics and its plasma concentration which improves phenylbutazone therapeutic efficiency in the chick model is noticed.
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Dec 2022 20:30:00 +010
  • Role of evolutionary epidemiology in the determination of the risk factors
           associated with some ...

    • Abstract: The evolutionary epidemiology is crucial as it does not only help in tracking the origin, spreading, prediction, and control of viruses but also explains the failure causes of some vaccines and serological diagnostic tools. To keep animal welfare, it is essential to raise awareness of the multiple risk factors associated with the different epidemics. Arthropod-borne viruses like African horse sickness virus (AHSV) and equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV) are related to vectors multiplication. Accordingly, their seasonal occurrence was attributed to the environmental climatic conditions. While equine influenza virus (EIV) and equine herpes virus (EHV) were found to occur in winter and spring (foaling seasons), respectively. The management risk factors resulted in the occurrence and reactivation of latently infected cases. The RNA viruses are characterized by genetic assortment which results in increasing pathogenicity, and failure of the used vaccines. The EHVs able to establish infection in different host tissues adding to their immune evasion strategies. Most of the diseases occurred at the age over 2 years although the EIAV takes long time to appear. The hard work of males and other stress factors render them more liable for infection with equine viral arteritis (EVA), EIAV, and EHV. Genetically, some breeds of horses were at risk of AHSV, EVA, and EHV infection. Most of the donkeys, mules, and zebra develop subclinical forms that magnifies their role in the epidemiological situation. Different phenomena like overwintering in AHSV, hard work in EIV, virus hidden nature and latency in EHV should be more analysed. 
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Dec 2022 20:30:00 +010
  • Fecal and gastric fluid microbiome profiles in the indopacific bottlenose
           dolphins (Tursiops ...

    • Abstract: The microbiota of the gastrointestinal system of dolphins has received significant interest recently. Moreover, little is understood about the microbiomes found in the stomachs of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus). This study aimed to evaluate the biodiversity of bacterial microbiota in the digestive system of T. aduncus. In the present study, 18 samples were obtained from an ex-situ conservation area, Wersut Seguni Indonesia, Kendal, Indonesia, and processed for bacterial DNA extraction. A total of 7 samples were qualified as representative samples for the 16S metagenomic sequencing. The bacterial composition revealed that the Shewanellaceae was significantly higher in the stomach than in the gut. As a result, the abundance of the microbiome in gastric and stool samples showed significant differences. In contrast, the Peptostreptococcaceae was found in greater abundance in the gut than in the stomach. At the species level, we successfully found emerging zoonotic pathogens involving Shewanella algae and Shewanella xiamenensis. This report is the first study to explore the bacterial diversity in gastro of T. aduncus.
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Dec 2022 20:30:00 +010
  • Isolation and molecular identification of proteolytic bacteria from vaname
           shrimp (Lithopenaeus ...

    • Abstract: Vannamei shrimp culture in intensive and traditional ponds is developing rapidly in Indonesia. The development starts with technology, high density, and feeding systems. It results in very high organic material produced in the aquaculture ponds, and this water quality management is necessarily maintained. This study aims to isolate and identify the molecular of proteolytic bacteria from Vannamei shrimp aquaculture ponds using a different system that is as probiotic agents. This study used a survey method and random sampling technique from traditional and intensive shrimp aquaculture. The results showed that the proportion of proteolytic bacteria in traditional ponds was higher than that in intensive ponds. The screening based on colony morphology and highest activity index obtained 4 bacterial isolates of Vibrio sp.and Pseudoalteromonas white an identity value of 98.23-99.80%. The value of this activity was observed at 7.0 cm, subsequently inhibiting Vibrio sp. by 1.5 cm. The bacteria were also found to develop at pH 7 and a temperature of 28°C adequately. Additionally, the maximum proteolytic activity at a 48-hours incubation indicated their potential relevance as a biotechnological probiotic. Further studies on the potential of Pseudoalteromonas ganghwensis strains found that the bacteria have antimicrobial activity and are sensitive to antibiotics that can be used as aquaculture probiotic agents.
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Dec 2022 20:30:00 +010
  • A comparison between different laboratory methods and stains for detection
           microfilaremic dogs

    • Abstract: For microscopical and statistical evaluation of different laboratory methods and stains for detecting circulating microfilariae of Dirofilaria immitis in ten naturally infected local stray dog’s positive to canine heartworm Ag ELISA kit. All blood samples were examined by three methods modified Knott's technique, serum concentration test, and Türk's solution concentration test and three laboratory stains methylene blue, giemsa, and acridine orange stains were used to dye the precipitate of the modified Knott's technique. Results showed that the slides prepared from the serum were easy to examine (there are no erythrocytes) compared with the slides prepared from the precipitate of the modified Knott's technique. The slides prepared using the Türk's solution were more transparent and freer of cell debris. The length and width of the microfilariae detected by the three methods did not change significantly. Our conclusion from this study is that Türk's solution concentration test and the serum concentration test can be used in place of the modified Knott's technique to detect microfilaremic dogs. Acridine orange staining can also substitute for methylene blue and giemsa stains for faster results.
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Dec 2022 20:30:00 +010
  • Histogenesis of the rabbit liver (pars hepatica) with particular reference
           to the portal area

    • Abstract: Rabbits are small mammals used as standard lab animals in biomedical research. The liver is the largest internal organ, providing essential metabolic, exocrine, and endocrine functions. The present study was performed on rabbit embryos and fetuses at different gestational periods and neonatal kittens to find out the histological structure of the liver. Histogenesis of the liver was performed by using different histological stains, Harris's H and E and Masson's trichrome. The liver bud was developed around the 10th day of gestation from the caudo-ventral part of the foregut. In comparison, the hepatoblasts developed at the 12th day of gestation. Then, the liver increased in size, and cellular differentiation occurred throughout the entire length of the gestation period. The hepatic parenchymal cells, central vein, and hematopoietic cells were studied for their developmental sequences. The portal area differentiation was the focus of our study. This study clarified that this area was essential for detecting mesenchymal stem cell markers through immunohistochemistry. 
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Dec 2022 20:30:00 +010
  • Correlation incidence between infectious bursal disease and aflatoxicosis
           in broilers chicken ...

    • Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the incidence of infectious bursal disease IBD and aflatoxicosis with the correlation between them in broilers of six different areas in Nineveh Province, Iraq, which include: Mosul, Talafer, Hamdanya, Bartella, Baaj, and Gayara for six months (October 2021-March 2022). The necropsy of the suspected infected birds and blood sampling were conducted on 25 birds for each area to diagnose IBD. Samples of broiler feed were collected from the same farms to diagnose aflatoxin B1. The detection of both IBD and aflatoxicosis occurred by the ELISA technique. The necropsy results showed hydropericardium, paleness or congestion, friable and swelling of the liver, kidneys, and bursa of Fabricius, with more severe lesions in a few sporadic cases as gelatinous fluid surrounding the heart, intense paleness of the liver, kidney, and enlarged bursa of Fabricius. The detection of IBD revealed that the positive results were 142, and the negative results are 8 birds out of a total of 150 suspected broiler attributed to the subclinical infection according to the vaccine index equation. Also, positive aflatoxin B1 concentrations were recorded in all broiler feed in the 6 areas as the highest concentration mean was 0.23 ppb and the lowest concentration mean was 0.186 ppb in Mosul and Baaj, respectively. This study indicated a positive correlation between IBD and aflatoxin B1 but was not statistically significant.
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Dec 2022 20:30:00 +010
  • Effect of exogenous hormones in the expression level of OXTRs gene in cows
           using Rt PCR

    • Abstract: We aimed in the current study to investigate the effect of oxytocin and prostaglandin on the expression level of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTRs) in local Iraqi cows at postpartum period. A total of 30 local Iraqi cows were divided randomly into three groups; the first group was considered a control group. The second group was injected with oxytocin 100 IU/IM twice weekly for four weeks postpartum. The third group was injected with PGF2α at a dose of 500 µg/I.M. twice weekly for four weeks postpartum. The blood was collected twice weekly for four weeks from the jugular vein for DNA extraction and to measure the OXTRs receptor gene by real-time PCR. The current study showed that the OXTRs gene expression level was insignificant in the first week between the three groups. In the second, third, and fourth weeks, the oxytocin group showed the highest significant OXTRs expression level, followed by the progesterone group compared to the control group. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that OXTRs expression in bovine blood plasma regulates by oxytocin and prostaglandin hormones during the postpartum period.
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Dec 2022 20:30:00 +010
  • Histopathological changes as tools to discriminate antemortem and
           post-mortem wounds in rats: ...

    • Abstract: Wound age estimation is one of the chief exciting subjects in forensic medicine. It is substantial to determine the most likely accurate when wounds happened, whether during antemortem or post-mortem conditions. Moreover, histological change is a method that assists available parameters in determining the antemortem and post-mortem period. This study aims to observe the histopathological changes in induced wounds to determine when the injury occurred and whether the injury occurred during antemortem or post-mortem conditions. Thirty-nine rat wound skin biopsies were studied. All samples were taken in antemortem groups at 30, 60, 180, and 360 min, and in post-mortem groups within 30, 60, 180, and 360 min with control samples (unwounded group). The skin sections were seen by microscope to observe the changes in the following criteria: the ratio and distribution of the neutrophil and macrophage, congestion and dilatation of capillaries, and degree of autolysis. For the antemortem wounds, the number of neutrophils appeared at 30 minutes and sharply increased from 60 minutes after the wound. In addition, there was an increase in macrophages from 180 min after the wound. For the post-mortem wounds in all times examined, the degree of autolysis was the best criterion for knowing the wound timing. These results propose that histopathological changes can be used as a critical criterion for finding the time of wounds and comparing antemortem and post-mortem incisional wounds in forensic medicine.
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Dec 2022 20:30:00 +010
  • Prevalence of ovine theileriosis in Mosul city, Iraq

    • Abstract: The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of ovine theileriosis (OT) in sheep in Mosul city, Iraq using microscopic examination (ME) of the blood smears stained with MGG- Quick stain and conventional polymerase chain reaction technique (c-PCR) to compare between c-PCR technique and ME as techniques for the diagnosis of disease, and to investigate the pattern and type of infections based on multiplex polymerase chain reaction technique (m-PCR). From October 2021 to May 2022, one-handed eighty-five Blood samples were drawn randomly from sheep in various regions of Mosul city. The overall prevalence of OT was 42% (22.7 out of 185) and 52.4% (97 out of 185) using microscopic examination and c-PCR technique, respectively. A slight agreement was observed between ME of blood smears and c-PCR technique according to Kappa value 0.190, with low sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of ME method was 30%, 88.6%, 58.4%, respectively, compared with c-PCR technique. The prevalence of mixed infection 22.7% and single infection with T. lestoquardi 20% were significantly higher (P<0.05) than single infection with T. ovis 9.7%. This study concludes that OT is widespread in Mosul city, Iraq, and the c-PCR technique is more reliable and suitable for detecting Theileriainfection in sheep than the ME method. 
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Dec 2022 20:30:00 +010
  • Baker’s Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and its application on
           poultry’s production and ...

    • Abstract: The poultry population has substantially grown in recent years, and measures to ensure meat quality have also improved significantly. The exponential growth of the human population eventually resulted in increasing meat demand. In particular, poultry meat has been the more favorable and nutritive option. Research on feed additives has sparked an interest in many poultry specialists looking for ways to increase poultry performance. The use of baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as an antibiotic alternative by acting as prebiotics and probiotics has received significant attention. Baker’s yeast contains β-glucans and mannan-oligosaccharides as its main components. Recent studies have shown that baker’s yeast, as an alternative protein source, positively affects poultry growth performance, blood parameters, and immune response. Furthermore, the application of baker's yeast as a fermented feed additive showed promising results for poultry production. The use of baker’s yeast in the diet improves the morphological structure of the poultry gut, thus increasing growth performance. More informatively, it stimulates feed intake, increases body weight gain, and improves the feed conversion ratio. Baker’s yeast also improves the immune system of poultry animals by reducing various numbers of harmful microorganisms by combating poultry diseases more effectively and eventually increasing poultry health. This paper aims to synthesize all aspects of the effect of baker’s yeast on the poultry industry and the role and application of baker's yeast in poultry productivity.
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Dec 2022 20:30:00 +010
  • The endometrial expression level of estrogen-α and VEGF-A in female rats
           administered with a ...

    • Abstract: The study was conducted to determine the effect of low-dose estrogen in the early cycle of clomiphene citrate therapy on the expression of level estrogen receptor α (ERα) and VEGF-A in the endometrium. This study was an experimental study using 29 adult female rats aged 3 months with the body weight of 150-200 grams. The female rats were randomly allocated were allocated randomly into 3 groups (C: placebo; T1: treated with a single dose of clomiphene citrate (100 mg/kg BW, IP, single dose); T2: combination treatment with clomiphene citrate (100 mg/kg BW, IP, single dose) and estradiol valerat (15 pg/kg BW, IP, single dose). Uterine samples were examined for estrogen-α receptor expression and VEGF-A expression using immunohistochemistry. The results revealed a significant difference between the percentage of Estrogen-α in the C group compared with the T1 and T2 groups. Meanwhile, there was no significant difference between the T1 and T2 groups. The percentage of VEGF-A expression in group C was significantly different compared with T1 and T2. Meanwhile, there was no significant difference between the T1 and T2 groups. In conclusion, administration of a low dose of estradiol valeratein early clomiphene citrate therapy resulted in no significant effect on estrogen-α receptor expression and VEGF-A expression in the endometrium. 
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Dec 2022 20:30:00 +010
  • In vitro and in vivo anthelmintic efficacy of condensed tannins extracted
           from the seeds of ...

    • Abstract: This study was designed to examine in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic efficacy of condensed tannins (CT) extracted from seeds of Medicago sativa on Haemonchus contortus in sheep. CT's in vitro anthelmintic effect was assessed at a 300 μg/ml concentration compared with albendazole (reference drug) at 10 μg/ml. The results showed that CT had a nematocidal effect on H. contortus, and the cuticle of the adult worm appeared to be its initial target. For the in vivo experiment, nine 3-month-old helminths-free lambs were distributed into three groups. Group 1 (n=3) was challenged only as infected untreated controls; Group 2 (n=3) was treated with condensed tannin, and Group 3 (n=3) was treated with albendazole. Fecal and blood samples were collected every 3 days until the end of the experiment; for fecal egg count (FEC) and anti- H. contortus IgG titers determination, respectively. The lambs treated with the CT in G2 exhibited a pronounced decrease of mean FEC with great FECR% detected from the first-week post-treatment (PT) until the end of the experiment compared with G1 animals. The antibody levels gradually increased in G2 following the 2nd dose of CT treatment compared to other groups. A brilliant consistent relation between the elevation of IgG response and reduction of FEC was observed following the second booster dosing of the CT in G2. In conclusion, the CT evoked strongly in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity against H. contortus and could be used as a natural alternative treatment of high potency against haemonchosis in sheep.
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Dec 2022 20:30:00 +010
  • Effect of atorvastatin on bone formation in ovariectomized rats

    • Abstract: The study was designed in order the effect of one class of lipophilic statins (Atorvastatin) in some biomarkers of bone formation (Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), 1,25 (OH)2 D3, calcium, and phosphorous) in serum of ovariectomized female rats. Thirty adult female rats (2.5-3) months, weighing (200-220) gm were housed at conditions of controlled temperature (22-25°C), cycle (12h light - 12h dark) in the house of animals of Veterinary Medicine College of Mosul University. The animals were divided into three equal groups, sham group, ovariectomized (ovx) group, and ovx treatment orally with 20mg/kg/d of atorvastatin. After 60 days of treatment, blood from all groups was collected for ALP activity, 1,25 (OH)2 D3, calcium, and phosphorous estimation, and left femur bones were excised for histological examination. The results showed that the serum ALP, calcium, and phosphorus were significantly elevated, and a significant reduction in 1,25 (OH)2D3 was noticed in the ovx group. However, treatment with atorvastatin caused a significant reduction in ALP with a non-significant elevation in 1,25 (OH)2D3. Histological results showed a low density and thin trabecular bone, a few blood vessels, high numbers of osteoclast, with low numbers of osteoblasts in the ovx group. However, the treated ovx with atorvastatin increases the thickness of trabecular bone, medium developed osteogenic tissue, and a low number of osteoblasts. In conclusion, atorvastatin has a moderate effect on bone of ovx, affecting bone formation more than bone resorption.
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Dec 2022 20:30:00 +010
  • Dental disorders in dogs and cats: A retrospective study

    • Abstract: The study was conducted on 289 clinical cases of dogs and cats admitted to the Clinic of Department of Surgery, Anesthesiology, and Radiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, over 18 months. Thorough oral, dental, and radiographic examinations were performed on all cases. Disorders were recorded in a predesigned survey sheet along with several factors such as breed, age, sex, diet, and body condition score. Cases were categorized into four groups according to age. The results revealed that 138 (47.75%) of the total cases have dental disorders, 81 (58.7%) males and 57 (41.3%) females. Periodontal diseases were the most recorded affection 128 cases. Among animals admitted to the department clinic, then dental plaque (111 cases). Animals on soft food diet among total affected cases recorded, 89 cases (64.5%), then mixed diet (soft and hard food) 40 cases 29% and the last group dry or hard diet, 9 cases only 6.5%. The most affected breeds were German shepherd dogs 5.797% and Shirazy cats 57.97%. Data statistical analysis showed that age and diet had (P<0.05), which means that these two factors impacted the occurrence of dental disorders, in contrast, sex had (P= 0.143), which indicates that sex statistically did not affect the occurrence of dental disorders, moreover a spearman correlation test was performed between age and dental disorders (P<0.05) and revealed that, with an increase in age, there is an increase in dental disorders.
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Dec 2022 20:30:00 +010
  • Phenotypic and genotypic characterizations of Escherichia coli Isolated
           from veal meats and ...

    • Abstract:  Foodborne pathogens bacteria can cause various diseases and death worldwide. Escherichia coli is the most crucial microorganism transmitted through meat and its products. Pathogenic E. coli is one of the major groups that can produce the Stx1 and Stx2 toxins. The present study aims to isolate and identify the E. coli bacteria using the classical methods, and to detect the specific-species uidA gene, and Stx1 and Stx2 genes using the PCR assay. Five hundred four samples were collected randomly from meats and different parts of a butcher shops from various regions of the right and the left sides of Mosul city. The results found that the prevalence rate of E. coli in this study was 27.4% (138/504). Additionally, the prevalence rate of E. coli was higher in meat, 41.7% (35/84). At the same time, the prevalence rate of E. coli was lower in hook 16.7% (14/84). Additionally, the prevalence rate of E. coli in meats and butcher shops on the right and left sides of Mosul city was 31.9% (65/204) and 24.3% (73/300), respectively. Furthermore, all E. coli isolates possessed the specific species uidA gene. 30/138 (21.7%) of E. coli isolates possess the Stx1 gene, while 17/138 (12.3%) of E. coli isolates have the Stx2 gene. Finally, most E. coli isolates possessed the Stx1 and Stx2 genes 91/138 (66%). 
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Dec 2022 20:30:00 +010
  • Simultaneous determination of pethidine pharmacokinetics in rats: The
           impact of tramadol ...

    • Abstract: The rats model has never thoroughly investigated the influence of tramadol on plasma pethidine concentration besides pethidine pharmacokinetics. Individually, analgesic ED50s for pethidine and tramadol are estimated as 3.55 and 24.21 mg/kg, i.p. Subsequently, their measures decreased to 1.65 and 11.27 mg/kg, i.p., when both were given in combination at 1:1 from ED50s. Tramadol and pethidine have a form of synergistic analgesic interaction, which is therefore classified as a pharmacodynamic interaction. Pethidine (7.1mg/kg, i.p.) reveals the plasma concentration of 369.00, 493.33, 373.33, 305.33, 306.33 and 247.67 µg/ml that was measured over distinctive times of 0.25,0.5,1,2,4, and 24 hours. At the same time, the concentration of plasma levels of tramadol and pethidine (48.42 and 7.1mg/kg, i.p., correspondingly) declined to 229.33, 268.33, 233.00, 198.33, 195.67 and 180.33 µg/ml by 38, 46, 38, 35, 36 and 27%, respectively. Tramadol affected the pethidine pharmacokinetics through an elevation in the area-under-curve (AUC0-∞) 49%, area-under-moment-curve (AUMC0-∞) 343%, mean-residence-time (MRT) 137%, half-life (t1/2β) 136%, and the distribution volume (Vss) 64%. Other estimated pharmacokinetic measures were reduced which included maximal concentration (Cmax) 47% and elimination rate constant (Kel) 60%. In general, the findings revealed a synergism as a mode of pharmacological interaction between pethidine and tramadol, in addition to a change in pethidine pharmacokinetics, which could improve pethidine effectiveness in the rat’s model.
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Dec 2022 20:30:00 +010
  • Role of rosuvastatin in bone metabolism of ovariectomized adult rats

    • Abstract: The study was planned to explore the influence of one type of hydrophilic statins (rosuvastatin) on the level of serum osteocalcin, N-telopeptide of type 1 collagen (NTx), calcium, and phosphorus. In addition to calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium in femur bone ash of female ovariectomized rats. Thirty female rats aged 2.5-3 months were divided as follows, sham group, ovariectomized (ovx) group as a model of osteoporosis, and (ovx) group treated with 20mg /kg of rosuvastatin for 60 days. Blood samples were collected after 30 and 60 days of the experiment for biochemical analysis. Besides, after 60 days of the treatment, right femur bones were excised and ashed to estimate calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium. The results showed a significant elevation in serum osteocalcin, (NTx), calcium, and phosphorus, in addition to elevation in osteoclasts number and deceased osteoblasts and thickness of trabecular bone in the (ovx) group compared to the sham, while treatment with rosuvastatin caused a significant reduction in osteocalcin, (NTx), calcium and phosphorus after 60 days. Also, the results revealed a significant reduction in the percentage of (Ca, P and Mg) content in bone ash of the (ovx) group compared to the sham group. However, rosuvastatin treatment led to a significant elevation in the percentage of calcium and inorganic phosphate in bone ash and increased the thickness of trabecular bone and development in osteocytes compared with ovariectomized rats. The conclusion of the present study, rosuvastatin has a positive effect on the bone of ovariectomized rats.
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Dec 2022 20:30:00 +010
  • Multidrug-resistant and clonal dispersion of enterotoxigenic Escherichia
           coli from ready-to-eat ...

    • Abstract: This research evaluated the effluent proportion of E. coli and ETEC in RTE meat products, characterized the isolated strains' clonal relatedness, and determined their antibiotic resistance. 130 RTE products were gathered from various restaurants and street fast food vendors in Duhok and Zakho Province. The Isolates of E. coli identified by culture methods were confirmed as ETEC by multiplex PCR of the identified virulence genes. ERIC-PCR was applied to establish the clonal relationships between strains. The disk diffusion method performed the susceptibility of antibiotics on the isolated ETEC. Out of 130 examined samples, 39 (30%) isolates of E. coli and 16 (12.3%) ETEC were detected. Pan-fried burgers were revealed to be the most frequent contaminated sample type, with both E. coli and ETEC 50% and 23.3%, respectively (P≤0.05). A high clonal dispersion (12 genotypes) was observed among the isolated ETEC strains. A strong genetic linkage was discovered between a few isolates retrieved from the same sample type and within the strains from the same geographic source area. A high antibiotic resistance rate was observed with total resistance to Amoxicillin/clavulanate, Clarithromycin, Doxycycline, Erythromycin, and Clindamycin. Isolates from burger samples showed a higher resistance rate when compared with the other sample types (P≤0.05). Multi-drug resistance was noticed in all ETEC isolates. RTE meat products sold in our area have a high rate of clonally heterogeneous carrying multi-drug resistant ETEC and may constitute a significant public health risk.
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Dec 2022 20:30:00 +010
  • Detection of resistance against anti-helminths drugs in gastrointestinal
           nematodes of calves ...

    • Abstract: The species of parasite, low dose, and continual employ of the same drug may predispose to the evolution of anthelmintic resistance AR. In Mosul, Iraq, this is the first study investigating AR in gastrointestinal GIT nematodes of calves. Four hundred eighty fecal samples through a cross-sectional survey were examined using the Mini-FLOTAC. A herd of calves consisting of 60 male calves was divided into four groups of 15 calves: group A counted as control, group B was treated with Reemazol® 25% (Albendazole) 7.5 mg/kg of body weight orally, group C received Dufazan® (Levamisole and Oxyclozanide) 7.5 mg/kg BW orally, and group D gave Ivermectin 1% by S/C injection 0.2 mg/kg BW. The efficacy asset employs the Fecal Egg Reduction Test (FECRT). AR judgment obtains relying on the instructions of the World Association of advancement for Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP). GIT nematode prevalence was 50.6%. The effectiveness of mentioned drugs was 84, 87, and 95%, respectively. The lower limit confidence interval 95% level was 89, 86, and 80%, respectively, indicating AR to albendazole and levamisole, while ivermectin was questionable. In conclusion, the high prevalence of GIT nematodes in Mosul indicate that AR is present against the three classes of deworming drugs. Awareness of the associated aspects and sources of resistance is essential to face and minimize the development of resistant worms.
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Dec 2022 20:30:00 +010
  • Neurotoxicity of xylazine in chicks

    • Abstract: Despite the widespread use of xylazine in veterinary medicine, studies on its neurotoxicity are limited. So, our current study aims to reveal its neurotoxicity in chicks by determining the (LD50) of xylazine in Dixon's procedure. Moreover, it aims to study the effects of a small and repeated dose of xylazine on neurobehavioral test and the toxic doses of xylazine on the concentration of (glycine and glutamate) in the plasma of chicks and on the brain tissue after 60 and 90 minutes of injection. The LD50 of xylazine by injection into the chest muscle was 26.65 mg/kg. The injection of xylazine at a dose of 3 and 6 mg/kg in the chest muscle for three consecutive days caused an inhibition in motor activity within the open field as well as a significant elevation in the tonic immobility test response, injection of xylazine at doses 48.96 mg/kg ,60 and 90 minutes after the injection led to a significant increase in the glycine concentration as well as a significant decrease in glutamate after 90 minutes in the plasma of chicks, accompanied by histological variation in the brain tissue characterized by necrosis of neurons, vasogenic edema, neurophagia, cavities, infarction, necrosis of Purkinjean cell with decrees in the number of it. Our results revealed that xylazine had neurotoxic effects in chicks, represented by inhibition of neural behavior and motor activity within the open field, accompanied by a change in the concentration of glycine and glutamate in the plasma of chicks and histological variation in the brain tissue of chicks.
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Dec 2022 20:30:00 +010
  • Effect of experimentally induced prepubertal hyperthyroidism on
           postubertal reproductive ...

    • Abstract: This study was carried out to investigate the effect of induced prepubertal hyperthyroidism on the reproductive functions of male rats at the pubertal stage. Hyperthyroidism was induced by supplementing thyroxin in drinking water (0.002% w/v) and drenching of 200 μg/kg body weight. Sixty immature males (aged 50 days) were allocated to control and hyperthyroid (PH) groups, administered with distilled water and thyroxin, respectively. Each group was subdivided into three subgroups, sacrificed after 15 days (C15 and PH15), after administration for 15 days and left without treatment for 15 days (C15+ and PH15+), or after 30 days (C30 and PH30). After each period, body weight and relative weight of genital organs were recorded. Serum concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxin (TT4), triiodothyronine (TT3), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and testosterone was assessed. The expression levels of testicular inha and thyroid hormone receptor (THR) genes were analyzed. Histopathological examination of testis was studied. Compared with control, PH group male rats showed decreased body weight gain and genital organ weights at all experimental periods, increased levels of serum TT4, TT3, and LH, decreased levels of TSH, FSH, and testosterone, and lower expression levels of testicular inha and THR genes. Testicular sections of PH group male rats, showed reduced germinal epithelium, vacuolation, and decreased the number of spermatocytes and Sertoli cells compared with control. In conclusion, the disturbed fluctuations of sex steroid hormones due to prepubertal hyperthyroidism might cause retardation of the testes’ development. 
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Dec 2022 20:30:00 +010
  • A review on Trichomonas species infection in human and animals in Iraq

    • Abstract: Trichomonas is known as a common protozoan that causes a sexually transmitted disease in humans called trichomonosis, as well as venereal and intestinal trichomonosis in cattle and cats, respectively. This parasite also causes avian trichomonosis or termed “canker” in the gastrointestinal tract of birds. Three main pathogenic species (T. vaginalis, T. foetus, T. gallinae ) belonging this genus are identified and recorded in different parts of the world, however their presence and epidemiology are still incompletely known in other parts, in particular T. foetus in Iraq. The purpose of this review is to update information of this disease based on electronic search of databases to document the presence and prevalence of Trichomonas spp. in human and some animals in Iraqi cities. The findings show that the infection by T. vaginalis and T. tenax in human and T. gallinae in birds is identified in Iraq, recording different percentages rates. However, venereal and intestinal trichomonosis caused by T. foetus tend to be little or absent in cattle and cats, respectively. Where venereal trichomonosis is only found in cattle of Basra and Nineveh provinces while intestinal trichomonosis is not recorded in Iraq yet. T. hominis is recorded in middle and northern areas of Iraq. In conclusion, less or absence of the infection in cattle or cats may be ascribed into animal breed, climate, less of studies and/or other unknown factors. Thus, epidemiological and molecular studies are needed to investigate the presence and prevalence of this disease, particularly in cattle and cats of Iraq.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Dec 2022 20:30:00 +010
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