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  • Reproductive qualities of French breed large white breed sows of different
           operating value and level of their discretion

    • Authors: L. V. Zasukha, V. M. Voloshchuk, V. I. Khalak, B. V. Gutyj, O. M. Bordun
      Pages: 3 - 8
      Abstract: This work aimed to investigate the lifespan and breeding use, reproductive qualities, and the level of their discreteness in sows of the large white breed of French breeding, considering their operational value. Agroprime Holding LLC of the Odesa region, the laboratory of innovative technologies, and experimental livestock facilities of the Institute of Pig Breeding and AIP of the National Academy of Sciences carried out the practical part of the work. Evaluation of sows according to indicators characterizing the level of their adaptation and reproductive qualities was carried out taking into account the following characteristics: life expectancy, days; duration of tribal use, days; received farts; all live piglets were born, head.; multifertility, ch.; high fertility, kg.; nest weight at the time of weaning at 28 days, kg; preservation, %. The selection index of reproductive qualities of the sow (SIRQS) was calculated according to the method of O. M. Tsereniuk et al. (2010), the coefficient of discreteness (D) – Seromolot and Sviatchenko (1984). Biometric processing of research results was carried out according to generally accepted methods. It has been established that sows of the large white breed of French breeding, provided they are kept in production premises using innovative technologies, are characterized by high indicators of the level of adaptation and reproductive qualities. Thus, their life span is 905.7 days, the duration of breeding use is 680.6 days, and in terms of reproductive qualities, they belong to the elite class. A significant difference between the groups of experimental animals was established in terms of life expectancy, duration of breeding use, total number of live piglets, multifertility, and litter weight at the time of weaning at the age of 28 days. The maximum indicators of high fertility (1.34 kg) and preservation of piglets until weaning at the age of 28 days (100 %) were found in sows of the “low operational value” category. The coefficient of discreteness of life expectancy and breeding use in sows of I, II, and III experimental groups is equal to 0.406, 0.677, and 0.633, reproductive qualities – 0.828, 0.882, and 0.903, respectively. Coefficients of paired correlation between life span and breeding use of sows and signs of reproductive qualities range from -0.055 to +0.904. The maximum increase in additional production was obtained from sows of the “high operational value” category – +6.80 %, and its value is +355.57 UAH/head/ farrowing.
      PubDate: 2024-03-19
      DOI: 10.32718/ujvas7-1.01
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • The current state of development and veterinary support of pheasant
           farming in Ukraine

    • Authors: R. M. Sachuk, B. V. Gutyj, T. A. Velesyk, O. A. Katsaraba, V. O. Pepko, B. S. Barylo, T. V. Orikhivskyi, S. V. Zhyhalyuk, R. M. Sachuk, P. V. Bodnar, V. Y. Bodnaruk
      Pages: 9 - 14
      Abstract: This work aimed to investigate the lifespan and breeding use, reproductive qualities, and the level of their discreteness in sows of the large white breed of French breeding, considering their operational value. Agroprime Holding LLC of the Odesa region, the laboratory of innovative technologies, and experimental livestock facilities of the Institute of Pig Breeding and AIP of the National Academy of Sciences carried out the practical part of the work. Evaluation of sows according to indicators characterizing the level of their adaptation and reproductive qualities was carried out taking into account the following characteristics: life expectancy, days; duration of tribal use, days; received farts; all live piglets were born, head.; multifertility, ch.; high fertility, kg.; nest weight at the time of weaning at 28 days, kg; preservation, %. The selection index of reproductive qualities of the sow (SIRQS) was calculated according to the method of O. M. Tsereniuk et al. (2010), the coefficient of discreteness (D) – Seromolot and Sviatchenko (1984). Biometric processing of research results was carried out according to generally accepted methods. It has been established that sows of the large white breed of French breeding, provided they are kept in production premises using innovative technologies, are characterized by high indicators of the level of adaptation and reproductive qualities. Thus, their life span is 905.7 days, the duration of breeding use is 680.6 days, and in terms of reproductive qualities, they belong to the elite class. A significant difference between the groups of experimental animals was established in terms of life expectancy, duration of breeding use, total number of live piglets, multifertility, and litter weight at the time of weaning at the age of 28 days. The maximum indicators of high fertility (1.34 kg) and preservation of piglets until weaning at the age of 28 days (100 %) were found in sows of the “low operational value” category. The coefficient of discreteness of life expectancy and breeding use in sows of I, II, and III experimental groups is equal to 0.406, 0.677, and 0.633, reproductive qualities – 0.828, 0.882, and 0.903, respectively. Coefficients of paired correlation between life span and breeding use of sows and signs of reproductive qualities range from -0.055 to +0.904. The maximum increase in additional production was obtained from sows of the “high operational value” category – +6.80 %, and its value is +355.57 UAH/head/ farrowing.
      PubDate: 2024-03-19
      DOI: 10.32718/ujvas7-1.02
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Adaptive changes in immunological, hematological and metabolic profiles of
           pregnant cows

    • Authors: M. M. Zhelavskyi, S. P. Kernychnyi, O. Ya. Dmytriv, T. V. Betlinska
      Pages: 15 - 22
      Abstract: Pregnancy triggers a series of complex interactions within the body, involving both the immune system and metabolic processes. In the case of pregnant cows, these mechanisms are essential for supporting the developing fetus and maintaining the overall health of the mother. The aim of the work was to study the hematological, biochemical, and immunological parameters of cows at different periods of pregnancy. Research was conducted on cows (Bos Taurus) of the Ukrainian Black-and-White dairy breed. Groups were formed based on the principle of analogs. The research was carried out using the methodology of group-period experiments. The control group consisted of non-pregnant cows. The first observation period was conducted on pregnant cows with confirmed pregnancy (30 days). The second observation period was carried out at 90 days of pregnancy, the third at 180 days of gestation, and the fourth at 270 days. Laboratory studies included immunological research conducted in the specialized laboratory of immunology for reproduction animals. The first notable observation was the gradual increase in the population of CD3+ lymphocytes from the beginning of gestation, which remained stable until the 90th day of pregnancy and then gradually decreased. The population of B cell immune cells CD22+ had its peculiarities: dynamic and stable growth from the start of pregnancy until the middle of the second trimester (180 days), followed by a gradual decrease until the onset of labor. The redistribution of T and B lymphocytes occurred with dynamic fluctuations in the number of undifferentiated 0-lymphocytes. The processes of transformation and adaptation of homeostasis affected both enzyme activity and indicators of mineral metabolism. Thus, from the beginning of pregnancy (from the 30th day of gestation), the experimental cows showed a significant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity (P < 0.05), alanine aminotransferase (P < 0.05), and aspartate aminotransferase activity (P < 0.05). During the pregnancy of cows, body changes occur. From the early period of gestation throughout the entire period of embryogenesis, changes in the system of hematopoiesis, alterations in the activity of enzymes, exchange of Ca and P, accompanied by changes in immunological reactions take place. These processes are adaptive and ensure the maintenance of the homeostasis system. The perspective of further research will aim at studying changes in immunological and biochemical parameters during physiological pregnancy and when it is complicated.
      PubDate: 2024-03-19
      DOI: 10.32718/ujvas7-1.03
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Efficacy of thankuni and grapes in arsenicosis-affected rat

    • Authors: Md. Feroz Mahmud, Md. Mahmudul Hasan, Md. Bazlar Rashid, Rakibul Islam, Sumon Sarkar, Howard Rodriguez-Mori, Mst. Nasrin Banu
      Pages: 23 - 29
      Abstract: This study was undertaken to observe the effects of Thankuni and grapes on hematological and biochemical parameters against arsenicosis in Long Evans rats. Sixty male rats were selected to perform the study. The experimental rats were randomly divided into five different groups, with n = 12 in each group. Animals in group T0 were given normal feed and water and kept as control. Rats of group T1 were given arsenic trioxide @ 100 mg/L of drinking water orally. Rats of group T2 were given arsenic trioxide @ 100 mg/L drinking water and Thankuni @ 1gm/kg feed. Group T3 was given arsenic trioxide @ 100 mg/L drinking water with grapes @ 10 mg /kg body weight thrown DW. Group T4 was given arsenic trioxide, Thankuni, and grapes with the same dose for up to 45 days, respectively. Four randomly selected rats from each group (T0, T1, T2, T3, and T4) were sacrificed at 15-day intervals to determine body weight, hematological and biochemical parameters. At the end of the experiment, the result showed that the minimum weight gain group was T1 whereas the maximum weight gain was found in the T3 and T4 groups. The weight gain of the T2 group is better than T1. Reduction of TEC and Hb values were significant (P < 0.01) in the T1 group. Whereas in the rest of the groups, the reduction of TEC and Hb was less than in arsenic-treated groups. In conclusion, Thankuni and grapes have a significant effect on body weight and hematological and biochemical parameters.
      PubDate: 2024-03-19
      DOI: 10.32718/ujvas7-1.04
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Effects of leonardite and succimer treatment on enzyme activity in rats
           exposed to lead acetate

    • Authors: M. Varava
      Pages: 30 - 34
      Abstract: The study aimed to research in vivo changes in the enzyme activity of the blood and liver of laboratory rats under continuous exposition to a moderate dose of lead acetate while receiving succimer together with humic feed additive madden out of leonardite. Two-month-old white rats were used to assess the detoxifying properties of the humic compounds leonardite and lignite. To conduct the study, a total of 32 male laboratory rats were divided into four groups, each consisting of eight animals, using the analog pair approach. Rats received a pre-meal injection of lead acetate at a dose of 7 mg/100 g of animal weight (1/110 LD50) using a veterinary feeding needle. Humic feed additives were supplied to animals by creating solutions from leonardite at a dosage of 18 mg/kg depending on the active ingredient. Succimer was prescribed in an amount of 30 mg/kg, previously dissolved in apple juice using a feeding tube 3 hours after eating one time in a day. Upon analyzing the collected data, it can be deduced that the treatment involving succimer and the humic-based feed additive leonardite alongside lead acetate poisoning yielded improved protein metabolism and activity of enzymes in poisoned rats. Notably, in all statistically significant instances (P < 0.05) of improvement in indicators among animals in that research group, the numerical values closely approximated those of intact animals. The key distinction between treating animals with succimer alone and the combination of succimer and leonardite primarily manifested in alterations in the activity of liver enzymes involved in the antioxidant system such as: catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase.
      PubDate: 2024-03-19
      DOI: 10.32718/ujvas7-1.05
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Seasonal variation of semen quality among the three genotypes of native
           chicken

    • Authors: Md Saiful Islam, Shakila Faruque, Mohammad Emadul Huda, Md. Redoan Akond Sumon, Md Zulfekar Ali
      Pages: 35 - 40
      Abstract: The study, conducted at the Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute, aimed to assess semen quality and characteristics in three types of indigenous cocks and explore seasonal variations. Ninety bird samples from three genotypes, namely non-descript Deshi (ND), Hilly (HI), and Naked Neck (NN), were used in this research. A total of 548 semen samples were collected to evaluate the color, volume, consistency, and transparency of semen in different seasons. Semen collection was performed using an abdominal massage technique, and volume was measured with a tuberculin syringe. For determining microscopic physical and morphological characteristics, computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) software was used. Results showed that among three types of indigenous cocks, semen quality differed (p < 0.001) from season to season. Semen quality was comparatively good for ND in the autumn season, for HI in the summer season, and for NN in the spring season. The highest semen volume (0.318 ± 0.010 ml) was recorded in the summer season, and the lowest semen volume (0.218 ± 0.008 ml) was recorded in the spring season. Genotype had a significant (p < 0.01) effect on semen volume, and the effect of semen and genotype interaction on semen volume was non-significant (p > 0.05). The sperm concentration was higher in NN compared to ND and HI. The percentages of static, bent tail, coiled tail, DMR, distal droplet, and proximal droplet were comparatively higher in the HI and NN genotypes. The color, consistency, and volume of semen were affected by genotype and season. 
      PubDate: 2024-03-19
      DOI: 10.32718/ujvas7-1.06
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Study of disinfectant activity against bee pathogenic enterobacteria in
           vitro

    • Authors: T. A. Romanishina, A. R. Lakhman, O. Ye. Galatiuk, V. L. Behas, M. V. Zastulka
      Pages: 41 - 45
      Abstract: Dysbiosis is a pathological condition caused by violating the normal coexistence of bacterial organisms in one or more body systems. This disease arises due to the action of many ethological factors, the mechanisms of which arise from each other. Klebsiellosis of bee colonies is a relatively new disease of Apis mellifera, caused by pathogenic enterobacteria, which leads to the mass death of bees with signs of acute dyspepsia, particularly in the spring and autumn periods. To prevent klebsiellosis in bees, it is necessary to carry out veterinary and sanitary measures in apiaries every year, including disinfection. Modern beekeeping encourages the search for new antibacterial drugs to ensure the production technology of safe and high-quality beekeeping products suitable for sale. Preliminary laboratory assessment (in vitro) of the effectiveness of disinfectants against specific pathogens of specific diseases of bees will ensure an increase in the effectiveness of such agents in apiaries, which is economically effective for practical beekeeping. The purpose of the research was to determine the activity of different concentrations of the disinfectant (0.25 %, 0.5 %, 1.25 %, 2.5 %) with an active substance of an organic nature with covalent weakly polar bonds against pure cultures of pathogenic enterobacteria of bees of the species Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella (Enterobacter) aerogenes in vitro. The modified Kirby-Baur method on Mueller-Hinton agar was used for research. A bactericidal effect against a pure culture of Klebsiella pneumoniae species was registered after 24 hours with lysis zone diameters at 8.6 ± 0.27 mm (0.25 % concentration) – 15.0 ± 0.35 mm (2.5 % concentration). On the 3rd day of research, a bacteriostatic effect was registered with the largest diameter of the zone of growth retardation (24.4 ± 0.27 mm) at 2.5 % disinfectant concentration. Bactericidal and bacteriostatic effects were recorded on the culture of enterobacteria of bees of the species Klebsiella (Enterobacter) aerogenes for 24 hours of cultivation with zones of lysis – 6.8 ± 0.42 mm (0.25 %) – 11.8 ± 0.22 mm (2.5 %) and inhibition of bacterial growth at the level of – 21.8 ± 0.42 mm (0.25 %) – 25.8 ± 0.42 mm (2.5 %). At the same time, there was no significant difference between the zones of Klebsiella (Enterobacter) aerogenes growth retardation in concentrations of 0.5 % – 2.5 % on the 3rd day of research. The studied disinfectant has bactericidal and bacteriostatic effects on pure cultures of bee enterobacteria of the species Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella (Enterobacter) aerogenes in laboratory conditions, which is promising for further study of the drug.
      PubDate: 2024-03-19
      DOI: 10.32718/ujvas7-1.07
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Histomorphology of the ovaries of rabbits does during ovulation induced by
           the combined use of gonadotropins

    • Authors: Y. V. Tverdokhlib, S. V. Naumenko, V. I. Koshevoy, O. S. Miroshnikova, O. Ye. Zhigalova
      Pages: 46 - 52
      Abstract: Hormonal stimulation of folliculogenesis is a general method of increasing reproductive capacity in rabbits; however, studying the safety of the developed protocols remains an urgent scientific task. The use of hormonal agents is due to the physiological characteristics of rabbits, primarily coitus-dependent mechanisms of ovulation. Applying gonadotropin-releasing analogs depends on mature follicles ready for ovulation in the ovary. It, therefore, has limited effectiveness for rabbits of the “zero” cycle that have not yet given birth. Therefore, such females are recommended to use medications based on gonadotropins obtained from the serum of foal mares (eCG) or human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). There is limited data on the combined use of gonadotropins, especially the long-term administration in different doses. Thus, the research aimed to conduct a morphological evaluation of rabbit's ovaries with combined serum and chorionic gonadotropins to stimulate folliculogenesis before artificial insemination to assess the safety of the proposed dosages and long-term administration. Stimulation of ovulation in rabbits of experimental groups was caused by the combined use of serum and chorionic gonadotropins (eCG – 400 IU; hCG – 200 IU) for experimental groups 1 and 2 at a dose of 40 IU and 24 IU, respectively. Females of the control group were induced to ovulate by subcutaneous injection of 0.2 ml of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog. Ovaries were collected on the seventh day of gestation after the euthanasia of the rabbit with prior premedication. After dissection and macroscopic examination, the ovaries were fixed in a 10% aqueous solution of neutral formalin. Histological slides were made according to the general method by pouring in paraffin and subsequent staining with hematoxylin and eosin. The research has established that repeated (during five reproductive cycles) combined use of serum and chorionic gonadotropins has dose-dependent effectiveness and can cause dysfunction of ovaries and blood circulation. Pathological changes may acquire a systemic character with the manifestation of critical conditions for the health and life of rabbits. The stimulating effect of the combined use of eCG and hCG was detected at a dose of 40 IU, and the inhibition of folliculogenesis was observed at 24 IU. Since the premises for the hyperandrogenism were found microscopically, it was essential to investigate the level of androgens in the blood of rabbits after using a dose of 24 IU. At the same time, both doses of gonadotropins affect the reactivity of the endothelium, which is manifested by the presence of intravascular vesicles and changes in the rheological properties of blood.
      PubDate: 2024-03-19
      DOI: 10.32718/ujvas7-1.08
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Plasma lipid profile and sex hormone levels in rabbits under
           paraceta-mol-induced oxidative stress

    • Authors: G. V. Vikulina, V. I. Koshevoy, S. V. Naumenko, M. L. Radzikhovskyi
      Pages: 53 - 59
      Abstract: Changes in the redox balance at different levels, which lead to the accumulation of toxic radicals against the background of a decrease in the content of redox-active compounds, i.e., a state of oxidative stress (OS), are considered the leading pathogenetic factor in pathological conditions. Processes of peroxide oxidation of biological substrates, especially cell membrane lipids and lipophilic compounds have both regulatory and pathological effects in the body of animals and humans. For now, it remains relevant to establish the regularities of interaction of metabolism during OS development. Among the large number of existing OS models, attention is drawn to those that can be reproduced in clinical practice, as a complication of treatment measures or an error in the medical strategy, due to a constant influence on peroxidation processes in the body. Important among such means is paracetamol (acetaminophen, APAP) – one of the most common antipyretic and analgesic drugs. In addition to the known hepato-, nephro- and neurotoxic effects of its long-term and/or excessive use, there are data on reproductive toxicity and disorders of lipid metabolism. Therefore, the aim of our work was to determine the lipid profile and the level of sex hormones in male rabbits during paracetamol-induced OS. The study was performed on male rabbits of the Khila breed. According to the principle of analogs, a control group (n = 12) was formed, which were kept on a standard diet, and an experimental group (n = 12), whose animals were simulated the state of OS by oral injection of a solution of paracetamol with food at a dose of 300 mg/kg of weight body once during 21 days. The following results were obtained by determining the dynamics of changes in biochemical indicators in the rabbit body during chronic injection of paracetamol: in the rabbits of the experimental group, after the injection of paracetamol, the level of diene conjugates was 63.0 % higher, and the content of thiobarbiturate-active products was 1.26 times higher (P ˂ 0.05). A decrease in the activity of the antioxidant defence system was also noted – the amount of reduced glutathione decreased by 35.4 %, and the activity of superoxide dismutase decreased by 25.6 % (P ˂ 0.05). The obtained changes were consistent with the comprehensive indicator of total antioxidant activity, which on the 21st day of the experiment was 34.1 % lower than the values of the control group (P ˂ 0.05). At the same time, the level of steroid hormones also changed during the study – the level of total testosterone gradually decreased (on the 21st day – by 22.8 %, and at the end of the experiment – by 30.9 %, P ˂ 0.05), while the level of 17β-estradiol had an upward trend and on the 21st day was higher than the control indicators by 10.7 % (P ˂ 0.05). Significant changes in lipid metabolism were found in male rabbits – the total cholesterol content on the 21st day of the experiment exceeded the data of control animals by 25.3 %, the level of triacylglycerols – by 42.3 %, and the content of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol also increased by 1.1 times (P ˂ 0.05), and the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, on the contrary, was reduced by 17.0 % (P ˂ 0.05). In general, the obtained results indicate the relationship between the development of OS with changes in lipid metabolism and the balance of sex hormones, which allows us to use the model of paracetamol-induced OS in rabbits for further research.
      PubDate: 2024-03-19
      DOI: 10.32718/ujvas7-1.09
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Postpartum complications in cows: diagnosis, treatment, prevention

    • Authors: D. V. Chabanenko, M. M. Zhelavskyi, P. М. Skliarov, B. V. Gutyj, M. Wrzecińska, F. A. Lone, S. Rana, O. V. Khmeleva, R. V. Mylostyvyi
      Pages: 60 - 67
      Abstract: This review contains an analysis of domestic and foreign researchers regarding the occurrence of postpartum complications in cows, which represents a significant veterinary problem. Diagnostic methods and treatment regimens for postpartum pathologies of various origins are presented. Difficulties and errors in diagnosing uterine inflammation lead to improper treatment, prolonged infertility, and significant economic losses. Based on an analysis of the literature, it has been proven that clinical forms of endometritis often develop into a subclinical course. The proportion of hidden endometritis can account for up to 80 % of the total amount of endometrial inflammation. The problem with postpartum complications of the uterus is that the inflammatory processes spread to the ovaries, and this can lead to complete infertility in animals. Rectal examination of cows remains one of the primary methods for diagnosing endometritis. Treatment generally involves the use of a wide range of antibiotics. Data on the hormonal causes of postpartum pathologies of the reproductive system of cows are also presented. A big problem is follicular and luteal cysts, their timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment. The leading cause of cysts is a disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. A practical method for diagnosing cysts is ultrasound, and the type of cyst can be determined by the level of progesterone in the blood. A practical method of treating cysts is the use of hormonal drugs. Data are also presented confirming the significant role of microflora in the occurrence of inflammatory changes in the reproductive organs of cows. The main types of causative agents of inflammatory processes in the genital organs of cows in the postpartum period are given. In cows with endometritis, an imbalance of the uterine microflora is detected, and the growth of bacteria of the genus Bacteroidetes and Fusobacteria with a simultaneous decrease in the number of Proteobacteria and Tenericutes. Data are presented that rumen acidosis can cause inflammation of the uterus, and this is associated with the penetration of Fusobacterium necrophorum into the blood circulation. The effectiveness of intravaginal treatment of cows with a mixture of lactic acid bacteria (L. rhamnosus, P. acidilactici, and L. reuteri) has been shown.
      PubDate: 2024-03-19
      DOI: 10.32718/ujvas7-1.10
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Key indicators of beef safety and quality as important aspects of
           conservation

    • Authors: S. V. Furman, I. M. Sokulskyi, D. V. Lisohurska, O. V. Lisohurska, B. V. Gutyj
      Pages: 68 - 73
      Abstract: Meat cattle breeding should develop in Ukraine as a priority and independent industry to meet beef needs. The meat industry has enormous potential and, as the most promising and attractive, will take a dominant place in the structure of the domestic food industry in the coming years. Beef is one of the most essential elements of the human diet. It contains complete proteins and animal fats, biologically active substances, mineral elements, and vitamins. The most important feature of food products is their quality and safety indicators, that is, the absence of substances harmful to the consumer's health and pathogens of infectious and invasive diseases. In this regard, veterinary and sanitary expertise and product safety control are of particular importance, as they are necessary to ensure the health of the population of Ukraine. Improving the quality of meat and meat products is a primary task in modern conditions. The implementation of this task depends not only on agricultural but also on processing enterprises. The article presents materials on the study of critical indicators of the safety and quality of beef. The study was carried out as part of the research work of the Department of Normal and Pathological Morphology, hygiene, and Expertise: “Monitoring the content of toxic substances in drinking water, feed and their impact on the body of cattle and the quality and safety of products”, state registration number – 0120U101318. The material for the research was the slaughter products of domestic animals, such as cattle, which were supplied to enterprises in the city of Zhytomyr. Pre-slaughter inspection and veterinary-sanitary examination of carcasses and their slaughter products of cattle was carried out following the “Rules of pre-slaughter veterinary examination of animals and veterinary-sanitary examination of meat and meat products”. The study aims to determine the safety and quality indicators of beef obtained in the conditions of meat processing enterprises of the Zhytomyr region. To achieve this goal, a comprehensive survey of beef safety and quality indicators was conducted. As a result of the tests, it was established that the pH level of the meat was 5.7–6.1. Carrying out the reaction with a 5 % solution of CuSO4 in the broth showed that the broth was transparent. A positive response to peroxidase was also detected. The safety parameters corresponded to regulatory documents. Careful control of the safety and quality of beef at every stage of production, starting from the rearing of animals and up to the sale of the product, guarantees a high degree of consumer protection.
      PubDate: 2024-03-19
      DOI: 10.32718/ujvas7-1.11
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Microbiological analysis of broiler chicken slaughter products using
           “Subtiform” probiotic and establishment of safety and technological
           process criteria

    • Authors: A. F. Bogatko
      Pages: 74 - 80
      Abstract: Feeding broiler chickens a probiotic biopreparation containing bacteria of the genus Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis leads to improved feed digestion, increased productivity, and immune status, as well as reduced insemination by opportunistic and pathogenic microorganisms of slaughter products. It enhances the level of prevention and treatment of various poultry diseases. The purpose of the work is to carry out a microbiological analysis of the slaughter products of broiler chickens after drinking the probiotic biological preparation “Subtiform” in doses of 0.5 g, 2.0, and 4.0 g per 10 dm3 of water. The material (major pectoral muscle and internal organs) was examined by bacteriological methods. It was established that the content of MAFAM in the control and experimental groups 1, 2, and 3 of the chilled slaughter products of broiler chickens for 1, 3, and 5 days of storage at a temperature of 0–4 °С was within the limits of standards (no more than 1.0×104 CFU/d). It was established that when broiler chickens were given 4.0 g/10 dm3 of water, the MAFAM content for one day of poultry meat storage decreased by 10.4 % (Р < 0.05); on the third day of storage, it decreased by 9.6 % (Р < 0.05); at the beginning of the fifth day of storage, the decrease was, respectively, by 11.3 % (Р < 0.01) compared to the indicators of the control group. The content of MAFAM in offal, in particular in the heart of broiler chickens, was reduced in experimental group 3 by 36.9 % (Р < 0.001); in the liver – by 33.6% (Р < 0.001); in the muscular part of the stomach – by 27.2 % (Р < 0.001); in the spleen and lungs, there was also a decrease in the content of MAFAM in experimental group 3, respectively, by 20.2 % (Р < 0.01) and 23.6 % (Р < 0.01) compared to the indicators of the control group of broiler chickens. It was established that opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms, in particular BGCP, bacteria of the genus Proteus, and pathogenic microorganisms, in specific bacteria of the genus Salmonella, bacteria of the species Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes in 25 grams of the large pectoral muscle of broiler chickens and internal organs (heart, spleen, liver, the muscular part of the stomach and lungs) were not detected. According to the results of the conducted research, an adverse effect of the probiotic biopreparation at a dose of 4.0 g/10 dm3 of water on the development of microorganisms in the large pectoral muscle and internal organs of broiler chickens was established. Therefore, the probiotic “Subtiform” at a dose of 4.0 g/10 dm3 of water during the drinking of broiler chickens can be recommended to increase productivity and obtain safe slaughter products. The practical value of the work consisted of establishing the microbiological indicators of poultry slaughter products after drinking probiotics, as well as establishing safety criteria and the technological process.
      PubDate: 2024-03-24
      DOI: 10.32718/ujvas7-1.12
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Pharmaco-technological research and stability of the drug for the
           treat-ment and prevention of vitamin and trace element deficiency in
           animals

    • Authors: T. A. Velesyk, O. O. Overchuk, V. Yu. Chernega
      Pages: 81 - 86
      Abstract: The article presents the research results on the Development of manufacturing technology and the study of the stability of a solution for oral use based on carnitine hydrochloride, vitamins – E, B12, choline chloride, selenium, and zinc. “Devivit Carnitine” oral is used for the prevention of diseases of liver and muscle tissue metabolism in farm animals and poultry, nephrosis, myocarditis, prevention of stress (heat, transport, sound, food, post-vaccination, etc.), and prevention of vitamin and hypovitaminosis. When developing the drug technology, experimentally obtained pharmaco-technological properties of active substances and excipients were taken into account. The technological process of preparing an oral solution consists of four technological stages: preparation of canisters for filling, preparation of the solution, filling containers with medicine and packaging. The stability and shelf life of “Devivit Carnitine” (solution for oral use) in plastic canisters were determined. It was established that the drug sample in plastic canisters was stable, according to all quality control methods indicators, during the entire period of the study. The shelf life of the medicinal product with carnitine hydrochloride, vitamins E and B12, choline chloride, selenium, and zinc is 12 months. In the future, a study of preclinical data is planned to verify whether the drug does not reveal a particular hazard for animals based on conventional studies of safety pharmacology, repeated dose toxicity, genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, and developmental toxicity.
      PubDate: 2024-03-24
      DOI: 10.32718/ujvas7-1.13
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Efficacy of levamisole against nematode infestations in dogs

    • Authors: I. D. Yuskiv, O. L. Tishyn, L. L. Yuskiv
      Pages: 87 - 93
      Abstract: For endoparasitic infestations of dogs, drugs based on levamisole hydrochloride are used. That is why the purpose of the work was to conduct a field study to evaluate the effectiveness of the studied drug “Levamizole O.L.KAR 10 %” and the reference drug “Levamizole-plus 10 %” against endoparasitic infestations of dogs of different breeds, ages, and sexes. According to the results of a parasitological examination of the dogs of the experimental and control groups, endoparasites established spontaneous damage, the causative agents of nematodes of the alimentary canal: species Toxocara canis with an intensity of invasion (II) from 110 to 180 eggs in one gram of feces (EGF) with an average intensity of invasion of 149.0 ± 5.62 EGF, species Toxascaris leonina with an intensity of invasion from 75 to 131 EGF with an average intensity of invasion of 104.4 ± 4.85 EGF and the species Ancylostoma caninum with an intensity of invasion from 48 to 92 EGF with an average intensity of invasion of 69.9 ± 3.71 EGF. Clinically, nematodes of the alimentary canal in dogs were manifested by poor appetite, depressed state, pallor of mucous membranes, mild diarrhea, vomiting, and weight loss observed in some animals. Based on the obtained results, it was established that the studied drug “Levamizol O.L.KAR 10 %” and the reference drug “Levamizol-plus 10 %” when deworming dogs have a pronounced nematodocidal effect against endoparasites of the alimentary canal, which are caused by the following species: Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonine, Ancylostoma caninum. Thus, the effectiveness of the studied drug “Levamizol O.L.KAR 10 %” for spontaneous toxocariasis infestation in dogs on the seventh day after deworming was 93 %. The reference drug “Levamizol-plus 10 %” was 91 %, and on the 14th day after deworming the animals, the effectiveness of the drugs was 100 %. For spontaneous toxascarosis infestation in dogs, the efficacy of the studied drug “Levamizol O.L.KAR 10 %” on the seventh day after deworming was 95 %. The reference drug “Levamizol-plus 10 %” was 94.4%, and on the 14th day after deworming the animals, the effectiveness of the drugs was 100 %. Helminthological studies have established that for spontaneous hookworm infestation in dogs on the 7th and 14th day after deworming with the study drug and the comparison drug in the recommended doses, the effectiveness of veterinary drugs was 100 %. Field tests showed that the studied drug “Levamizol O.L.KAR 10 %” and the reference drug “Levamizol-plus 10 %” when administered once orally in the recommended doses of the manufacturer, are well tolerated by animals regardless of breed, age, sex, and body weight, not have a toxic effect on the body of animals and are effective against nematodes of the alimentary canal in dogs.
      PubDate: 2024-03-25
      DOI: 10.32718/ujvas7-1.14
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Morphometric parameters of the heart of domestic sheep Ovis aries L., 1758

    • Authors: M. R. Ragulya, L. P. Goralskyi, I. M. Sokulskyi, N. L. Kolesnik
      Pages: 94 - 101
      Abstract: The cardiovascular system is one of the most critical animal systems. Its main functions are to supply organs and tissues with oxygen and nutrients and to remove metabolic products from tissues. Diseases of the cardiovascular system of animals cause significant economic damage, including reduced productivity, reproductive qualities, and the development of concomitant diseases. The prevention, diagnosis, surgery, and treatment of such pathologies are only possible by knowing the morphofunctional parameters of comparative anatomy, histology, and physiology. The heart plays a vital role in blood circulation and regulates the proper functioning and development of all organs of animal and human organisms. The study of the heart structure reveals topography features, age-related morphology, and development of this organ in domestic animals and remains relevant. The article is a fragment of the scientific developments of the Department of Normal and Pathological Morphology, Hygiene and Forensics of Polissia National University on the following topics: “Features of the morphology of the heart of domestic mammals” (state registration number 0121U108884); “Development, morphology and histochemistry of animal organs in normal and pathological conditions”, state registration number 0113U000900. In the study, sexually mature clinically healthy animals (n = 5) belonging to the class Mammalia – Mammals, species Ovis aries L., 1758 – domestic sheep (ram) were investigated. The study aimed to evaluate the morphological structures of the heart of mature sheep using macro- and microscopic, morphometric, and statistical research methods. The heart of a sexually mature domestic sheep was subjected to anatomical dissection. Sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin to study the cyto- and histoarchitectonics of the heart for microscopic examination of transverse striated myocardial muscle tissue, detection of cardiomyocyte cytostructure, and Heidenhain staining of histological specimens were used. The morphology of the heart in sheep has a similar organization plan, topographic location of the organ, and anatomical and histological structure. However, there are some striking species and morphological features. The heart of the domestic sheep belongs to the expanded-shortened anatomical type (according to its development index – 145.5 ± 4.02 %). According to the studies, the absolute and relative weight of the heart of mature sheep is, accordingly, 208.4 ± 9.82 g and 0.44 ± 0.007 %, and the weight without epicardial fat is 175.0 ± 8.17 g. It has been shown that the microscopic structure of the ventricles and atria of the sheep heart differ in cytometric parameters. Cardiomyocytes of the left ventricle have the most significant volume (3982.99 ± 423.96 μm3), the smaller – of the right ventricle (2463.02 ± 318.04 μm3). The lowest index was observed in atrial cardiomyocytes (1215.93 ± 176.94 μm3). The volumes of cardiomyocyte nuclei in the left ventricle were (53.42 ± 5.18 μm3) and in the right ventricle (52.85 ± 4.33 μm3). The volume of atrial nuclei (50.16 ± 4.57 μm3) is almost the same. Such ambiguous morphometric parameters of cardiomyocytes and their nuclei volumes are directly reflected in their nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio, which is the smallest in cardiomyocytes of the left ventricle (0.0136 ± 0.0062), larger in cardiomyocytes of the right ventricle (0.0219 ± 0.0079) and the largest (0.0430 ± 0.0096) in atrial cardiomyocytes. The obtained results of the study of the macro- and microscopic structure of the heart of domestic sheep significantly supplement the information on heart morphology in the relevant sections of comparative anatomy and histology and are a significant contribution to clinical cardiology.
      PubDate: 2024-03-26
      DOI: 10.32718/ujvas7-1.15
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2024)
       
 
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