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  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 225 journals)
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  • The results of fattening hybrid pigs of Danish selection

    • Authors: O. M. Chernenko, O. I. Chernenko, R. V. Mylostyvyi, O. V. Khmeleva, V. Ye. Garashchenko, O. G. Bordunova, V. R. Dutka
      Pages: 3 - 7
      Abstract: The results of a study of the breed combinations that influence pigs of Danish selection on fattening, meat, and economic indicators are presented. The experimental animals were divided into two groups according to their genotype. The method of groups-analogs was applied. The pigs were similar in terms of conditional heredity, sex, age, and body weight within each group. Five animals from each group were slaughtered at the meat processing plant to study the meat qualities. These studies arose due to the constant search for the most successful and cost-effective options for breed combinations that guarantee the effect of heterosis in hybrid offspring, which determined the scientific novelty and relevance. The dependence on breed combinations of fattening and meat qualities of young pigs obtained by simple two-breed and complex three-breed industrial crossbreeding of breeds of Danish selection has been established. At the final stage of fattening, a significant intergroup difference was established in terms of the average daily increase in body weight in favor of pigs of the breed combination F2 ¼Y ¼L ½D at 5.4% at P > 0.999 compared with analogs of the breed combination F1 ½Y ½L. Crossbreeds of the F2 generation turned out to be more early maturing and reached a body weight of 100 kg in 168.1 days, compared to 173.2 days in crossbreeds of the F1 generation with a difference of 5.1 days (P > 0.95) and a slaughter weight of 110 kg with a difference of 5.5 days (P > 0.95). They also spent less feed by 0.18 feed units per 1 kg of body weight gain, but the intergroup difference was insignificant. At slaughter, the weight of the steamed carcass in the crossbreeds of generation F2 ¼Y ¼L ½D was higher by 6.7 kg (P<0.95), and the slaughter yield was higher by 5.9 % (P > 0.999). It is concluded that the combination of Yorkshire breeds with Landraces and Durocs achieves a high economic effect on pork production since the level of profitability of pork production in three-breed hybrids is higher by 6.6%, respectively than in two-breed ones.
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
      DOI: 10.32718/ujvas5-1.01
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Cellular aging and immunity

    • Authors: M. M. Zhelavskyi, S. P. Kernychnyi, O. Ya. Dmytriv, T. V. Betlinska
      Pages: 8 - 16
      Abstract: Science is constantly evolving and updated with current data on cell biology. The cellular aging phenomenon should be considered an evolutionary mechanism of the biological regulation of all living organisms. Factors initiating cellular aging are variable. Each cell type can respond differently to the activation factors of cellular aging. In recent decades, science has been supplemented with new data that provide a deeper understanding of cellular and molecular mechanisms of cellular aging and the formation of immune homeostasis. There is a real prospect of using effective means of its regulation. In recent years, scientists have come close to discovering the mechanisms of cellular aging. Factors and mechanisms of cell regeneration are more deeply revealed. Scientists are also better aware of the phylogeny and ontogenesis of immune processes and the role of immune factors in developing pathologies. Researchers are increasingly focusing on modern diagnostic methods and xenotherapy. However, the specific factors of immunoregulation and the interaction of microphages, macrophages, and lymphocytes with other body cells are not yet fully understood. Accordingly, this requires further in-depth study. This review reviews the current literature on cellular aging and its regulatory mechanisms. The authors also present the results of their research on the mechanisms of immune responses in reproductive pathology. They draw parallels with modern scientific theories and interpret research. We will also focus on the issues that need to be addressed in the near future for the progressive development of this field of science. Thus, the study of the mechanisms of cellular aging and the development of effective means of hay therapy today requires further painstaking work. Despite significant advances in preclinical studies, many questions remain about the practical use of the drugs. This is especially true in the medicine of oncology, neurology, and cardiology. Nevertheless, scientists will be able to use pharmacological agents to influence cell division, differentiation, and determination in the future. We also hope to have developed effective means of immunotherapy of diseases. The molecular mechanisms of cell aging and mediators involved in the mechanisms of cell aging and death are being studied in detail. The field of research contains countless fascinating studies that are sure to be discovered.
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
      DOI: 10.32718/ujvas5-1.02
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Gross Anatomical Features of Tongue of Khaki Campbell Duck (Anas
           platyrhynchos domesticus) At Different Postnatal Ages

    • Authors: Papia Khatun, Shonkor Kumar Das
      Pages: 17 - 23
      Abstract: The present study aims to investigate the gross morphological structure of the tongue of the khaki Campbell duck at different postnatal ages. The ducks were from four age groups (A total of 25 ducks): day one (1), one (1) month, two (2) months, three (3) months, and four (4) months, having five ducks in each group. The tongues were collected immediately after the ethical killing of the birds for gross anatomical observations. The tongue of the Khaki Campbell duck was located on the floor of the oropharynx. In all examined ages, the tongue did not extend to the total limits of the lower beak. The elongated shaped tongue was divided into three parts, i.e., apex, body, and root. The spatula-shaped apex of the tongue was smooth dorsally and devoid of lingual papillae. On the ventral surface of the apex, there was a flat, triangular, white plate of the lingual nail. The dorsal surface of the body of the tongue was divided into two symmetrical parts by a median groove, which became more prominent at the advancement of age. Large and small conical papillae were found symmetrically along both body edges. The root of the tongue was the smallest part which was located adjacent to the laryngeal prominence. Papillae were found on both sides of the root. A fold of membrane, the frenulum linguae present on the ventral aspect of the body. The length and width of the tongue increased with the advancement of age. The present study revealed the gross anatomical structure of the tongue of the Khaki Campbell duck at different postnatal ages and helped to compare the findings with other avian species.
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
      DOI: 10.32718/ujvas5-1.03
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Dynamics and diagnosis of severe pneumocephalus of unknown etiology in dog

    • Authors: A. A. Studenok, V. A. Trokoz
      Pages: 24 - 30
      Abstract: Modern veterinary medicine and its subdivision – veterinary neurology, are constantly evolving. New diagnostic methods are emerging every day, and the list of new, previously unexplored animal diseases is expanding. Much information about the pathogenesis and etiology of diseases is borrowed from human medicine, which is a big problem, because human physiology is different from animals and, as a consequence, the dynamics of the disease are also different. That is why the continuous improvement of veterinary therapy and diagnosis of diseases is relevant and necessary. One of the rare and severe pathologies is pneumocephalus. It is reported that this is a condition in which there is a gradual accumulation of air in the cranial cavity or ventricles of the brain, creating a life-threatening condition. It is considered that pneumocephalus can occur spontaneously but, in most cases, is diagnosed after trauma or surgery with impaired integrity of the skull bones and meninges. This article describes a case of pneumocephalus of unknown etiology in a young dog who suffered a head injury while playing with the owner. During the neurological examination of the animal conducted immediately after the incident was diagnosed with severe central nervous system lesions (sopor, opisthotonus, tetraparesis); magnetic resonance imaging revealed significant brain damage with pronounced ventricular dilatation and the formation of a cavity filled with air. Re-diagnosis after 14 days showed progression of pneumocephalus with gas accumulation in the brain cavities. The contents of the ventricles have a division into liquid (cerebrospinal fluid), and air, progressive inflammatory processes in the brain's parenchyma were not observed; a fistula or canal connecting the cranial cavity and the external environment was not detected. Symptomatic and supportive therapy, carried out during the entire period of the dog's stay in the veterinary clinic, did not have positive results. The animal was euthanized according to medical indications and the owner's wishes.
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
      DOI: 10.32718/ujvas5-1.04
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Dependence of the artificial reservoir pollution with heavy metals on
           anthropogenic factors

    • Authors: V. Palamarchuk, H. Shpakovska, A. Kolechko
      Pages: 31 - 35
      Abstract: The article presents the research results of the heavy metals content in artificial reservoirs located at different distances from a number of pollutants of anthropogenic origin. The manuscript provides data on the dependence of the concentration of copper, zinc, lead, iron, cadmium in pond water on their location on highways and arable land. The location near these anthropogenic factors of artificial reservoirs pollution causes the accumulation of heavy metals in the water leading to significant exceedances of permissible levels for the catch of commercial fish, poses a significant threat to the environmental situation and safety of aquaculture. Research has also revealed that fish farming technology used in the farm also determines the ingress and accumulation of heavy metals in the reservoir. In particular, it was found that the operation of non-letting ponds, the use of cascades near the highway and arable land increases the accumulation of heavy metals. According to the results of our research, the content of heavy metals in a pond located at a short distance from the road and agricultural land indicate a high increase in the concentration of toxicants in water. It was established that the concentration of Kuprum was in the water thickness – 0.085 mg/dm3, and at the bottom of the reservoir 0.095 mg/dm3 at MPC 0.001 mg/dm3. The Zn content in the water thickness was 0.119 mg/dm3, in the deep layers of the reservoir – 0.127 mg/dm3, exceeding the maximum allowable concentrations of 11.9 and 12.7 times, respectively. Mangan in the water thickness of the reservoir located near anthropogenic polutantes was 0.091 mg/dm3, and near the bottom of the reservoir – 0.034 mg/dm3 at the MPC – 0.01 mg/dm3. Fe in the water of an artificial reservoir located near the field and road exceeded the maximum allowable concentrations for this chemical element by 20 times regardless of the layer of its selection
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
      DOI: 10.32718/ujvas5-1.05
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Hematological parameters of dogs for parasitism Dirofilaria immitis

    • Authors: D. Kryvoruchenko
      Pages: 36 - 41
      Abstract: The relationship between helminths and the host is built on a subtle molecular biological basis. Their pathogenic effect is characterized by the mechanical, toxic, inoculating effect on the host organism and the state of reactivity of his organism, immunological and allergic reorganization. It has been proved that helminths of the species Dirofilaria immitis are the most pathogenic nematodes of this genus because the localization of the imaginal stage of the parasite causes more complex pathogenesis of the invasion. The study aimed to establish changes in hematological parameters of dogs infected with D. immitis, considering the intensity of microfilariasis invasion. Studies have shown that the intensity of the invasion of up to 20 larvae/cm3 in the blood of dogs, significant changes in the number of erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets, hemoglobin, and hematocrit and ESR were not found. The intensity of the invasion of 20–40 larvae/cm3 in infected dogs in the blood decreases the number of erythrocytes by 11.92 % (P < 0.05), the hemoglobin content by 16.33 % (P < 0.05), the hematocrit by 12.70% (P < 0.05) and the number of leukocytes increases by 15.17 % (P < 0.05). Indicators of the intensity of invasion of 40–60 larvae/cm3 in infected dogs showed more significant changes in the blood, which are characterized by a decrease in the number of erythrocytes by 25.54 % (P < 0.001), platelets by 34.03 % (P < 0.01), hemoglobin content by 30.86 % (P < 0.001), hematocrit by 20.56 % (P < 0.001) and an increase in the number of leukocytes by 32.75 % (P < 0.001) and ESR by 1.84 times 0.001). At indicators of the intensity of invasion of more than 60 larvae/cm3, in dogs significant (P < 0.001) decrease in the number of erythrocytes by 47.21 %, thrombocytes by 42.84 %, the content of hemoglobin by 42.27 %, the indicator of hematocrit by 41.57 % and an increase in the number of leukocytes by 44.98 % and ESR by 2.51 times. In the leukoform of dogs with increasing rates of microfilariae invasion, the number of eosinophils gradually increases to 62.38 % (P < 0.001), rod-shaped neutrophils to 27.48 % (P < 0.05), monocytes to 23.21 % (P < 0.01) and the number of lymphocytes is reduced to 45.45 % (P < 0.001). The data obtained indicate the importance of determining these indicators for heartworm disease, which complements the picture of clinical examination of animals and will allow more effective treatment of dogs in this invasion.
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
      DOI: 10.32718/ujvas5-1.06
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Changes in the chemical composition of broiler meat when chelated
           compounds are added to the diet

    • Authors: T. Fotina, A. Berezovsky, R. Petrov , O. Shkromada, A. Nechiporenko , O. Fotin , P. Bondarenko
      Pages: 42 - 45
      Abstract: The paper considers the use of chelated forms of micronutrients for feeding broilers. The study aims to investigate the chemical composition of broiler meat in the case of broiler chickens of Cobb-500 cross, provided Zn, Cu, and Mn chelated forms are supplied to the diet. Experimental studies were conducted in 2020 on broiler chickens of Cobb-500 cross. Two groups of 20 birds were formed to study the chemical composition of poultry meat. The birds of the control group received an essential diet supplied with sulfates of Zn, Cu, and Mn. The birds of the experimental group received a diet enriched with chelated compounds of Zn, Cu, and Mn. The study has shown that introducing Zn, Cu, and Mn chelated compounds into the diet of broiler chickens has no adverse effect on the chemical composition of meat. It has also been determined that the meat of broilers eating feed supplied with chelated micronutrients contains significantly less cholesterin but more Ca, Zn, Cu, and Mn, and several essential amino acids. These indicators prove an increase in the health benefits of chicken meat.
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
      DOI: 10.32718/ujvas5-1.07
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • The activity of T- and B-cell links of specific protection of
           chicken-broilers under the influence of synbiotic preparation
           “Biomagn” and “Diolide” disinfectant

    • Authors: O. M. Chechet, V. L. Kovalenko, O. I. Vishchur, O. S. Haidei, N. V. Liniichuk, B. V. Gutyj, O. V. Krushelnytska
      Pages: 46 - 52
      Abstract: One of the most actual problems of modern poultry farming is to increase the preservation of chickens and ensure high intensity of their growth at all stages of rearing. The development of alternative methods of prevention and treatment of infectious diseases of poultry involves the use of preparations of natural or organic origin, which have antagonistic properties against infectious agents and are able to balance the immune response. A prominent place in the system of disease prevention and increasing the resistance of animals and poultry is the development of modern probiotic and bactericidal preparations. In view of this, we studied the influence of the synbiotic preparations “Biomagn” in combination with the disinfectant “Diolide” on the state of the T- and B-cell links of the specific immunity of broiler chickens during the period of their rearing. The preparation “Biomagn” is based on representatives of the normal commensal microflora - non-pathogenic lactic acid bacteria with antibacterial and immunomodulatory properties and additional components: magnesium chloride, chitosan, xylanase, protease, cellulase, milk thistle meal, acidity regulator, betaine and emulsifier. The specified remedy is used to ensure optimal level of metabolism, increase immune function, growth, safety of animals and poultry. The results of the research showed that the use of the synbiotic preparation “Biomagn” in combination with the disinfectant “Diolide” had a positive influence on the activity of T- and B-cell links of specific defense of broiler chickens organism during the period of their rearing. This is evidenced by an increase in the amount of T-lymphocytes (total, active and theophylline-resistant) and B-lymphocytes in the blood and an increase in their functional activity due to the redistribution of the receptor apparatus of immunocompetent cells. In particular, a decrease in the number of functionally inactive T- and B-lymphocytes in the blood and an increase in the number of cells with low and medium degree of avidity. Therefore, the use of a set of studied immunotropic preparations is a promising direction in increasing the resistance and productivity of poultry. This allows in industrial conditions of maintenance, without loss of productivity, to respond to technological factors that can lead to immunodeficiency, disease and death of poultry.
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
      DOI: 10.32718/ujvas5-1.08
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Ovocidal action of disinfectants against eggs of Passalurus ambiguus

    • Authors: A. Khorolskyi
      Pages: 53 - 57
      Abstract: Successful elimination of helminthic diseases, as well as their further prevention, is possible only under the condition of carrying out a complex of organizational and economic, veterinary and sanitary, and special anti-parasitic measures, which must necessarily include disinfestation of places where animals are kept, as well as environmental objects. It is necessary to establish the ability of modern chemical agents to harm certain types of parasites. The research aimed to determine the ovocidal efficiency of disinfectants in different concentrations and exposures against Passalurus ambiguus eggs isolated from domestic rabbits. An experimental test was carried out in laboratory conditions on chemical products of domestic production “Virosan”. (AS – alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride, glutaraldehyde) and “Hermecid-VS” (AS – didecyldimethylammonium chloride, glutaraldehyde, benzalkonium chloride). The leading indicator of the effect of disinfectants on the eggs of pasaluris was the value of their disinfestation efficiency. The results of the conducted studies established a high level of ovocidal efficiency of “Virosan” (OE – 100 %) against P. ambiguus eggs at 0.25 % concentration for exposures of 30–60 minutes and 0.5 % concentration for exposures of 10–60 minutes. A satisfactory level of the ovocidal efficiency of “Virosan” was established when using the agent in 0.1 % (30–60 min exposure) and 0.25 % (10 min exposure) concentrations, OE ranges from 62.36 to 82.20 %. An unsatisfactory level of the ovocidal efficiency of “Virosan” was established at 0.1 % of the concentration after exposure for 10 minutes (AS – 47.30 %). Disinfectant “Hermecid-VS” showed a high level of ovocidal efficiency concerning the eggs of pasaluris in 0.1 % concentration for 60 min exposure (OE – 91.45 %) and in 0.25–0.5 % concentration for 10–60 min exposure (AS – 100 %). A satisfactory ovocidal efficiency of “Hermecid-VS” was established when using the product at a concentration of 0.1 % (10 and 30-minute exposures), where OE indicators were 76.25 and 81.91 %, respectively. The obtained data make it possible to recommend disinfectants of domestic production “Virosan” and “Hermecid-VS” in specified concentrations and exposures to control and prevent pasalurosis in rabbits in order to effectively carry out the deinvasion of environmental objects and places where animals are kept.
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
      DOI: 10.32718/ujvas5-1.09
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Pathogenetic aspects of retroviral infections

    • Authors: L. P. Horalskyi , I. M. Sokulskyi , B. V. Gutyj , I. Y. Goralskaya, N. L. Kolesnik
      Pages: 58 - 65
      Abstract: Bovine leukemia and equine infectious anemia are registered in most regions of Ukraine and in many countries worldwide. This is accompanied by economic losses and reduced quality of livestock products, which determines the relevance of the study of retroviral infections, their diagnosis, and pathogenesis. The goal of our research was to find and improve the methodological foundations of the development of the pathological process for a more in-depth study of the etiology, pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention of retroviral infections. The object of the study was blood, lymph nodes, spleen, heart, lungs, liver, and kidneys for bovine leukemia and equine infectious anemia. Hematological, anatomical, histological, histochemical, morphometric, and statistical research methods were used for their study. The research group included 304 cattle aged 4–9 years and 42 horses, of which 25 were infected with the virus, and 17 were in the control group. It has been established that bovine leukemia and infectious anemia of horses is an irreversible pathological process characterized by slow progression, the presence of a latent or persistent form, with damage to cells, organs, and systems of the body, which leads to death. Infectious anemia of horses differs from leukemia of cattle by the hidden course of the pathological process. The pathogenesis of leukemia occurs in six stages, which we have identified and conventionally named.
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
      DOI: 10.32718/ujvas5-1.10
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Level of phenotypic manifestation of feeding and meat qualities of young
           pigs of different intrabreed differentiation according to some
           multi-component evaluation indexes

    • Authors: V. I. Khalak, B. V. Gutyj
      Pages: 66 - 70
      Abstract: The paper deals with the results of the search for fattening and meat qualities of young pigs of Large White breeds of different interbreeding differentiation according to some integrated indicators, the level of correlations between traits, and the economic efficiency of research results is calculated. The experimental part of the work was performed in agricultural formations of the Dnipropetrovsk region and the laboratory of animal husbandry of the State Establishment Institution “Institute of Grain Crops of NAAS of Ukraine”. Evaluation of young pigs for fattening and meat qualities was carried out taking into account the following indicators: average daily gain of live weight during the period of control fattening, kg, age achievement of live weight 100 kg, days, the thickness of the lard at the level of 6–7 thoracic vertebrae, mm, the length of the chilled carcass, cm. A comprehensive evaluation of young pigs for fattening and meat qualities was performed according to the Tyler and Sazer-Fredin indices. Economic efficiency of research results and biometric processing of the obtained data were carried out according to generally accepted methods. It was found that young pigs of the Large White breed of the controlled population at the age of 100 kg exceeded the minimum requirements of the elite class by 6.13%, the thickness of the lard at the level of 6-7 thoracic vertebrae – 32.25 % and the length of the chilled carcass – 3.92 %. A significant difference between animals of different interbreeding differentiation according to the Tyler index (groups I and III) was set up by the average daily gain of live weight during the control period of fattening (91.7 g), age of 100 kg live weight (7.3 days), lard thickness at the level of 6–7 thoracic vertebrae (3.4 mm), length of the chilled carcass (1.7 cm), length of bacon half of chilled carcass (2.7 cm). Taking into account the interbreed differentiation according to the Sazer-Fredin index, it is found that young pigs of the II group prevailed over their peers of I in terms of average daily increase in live weight during the period of control fattening by 4.03 %, age of achievement of live weight of 100 kg – 3.67 % and length of the chilled carcass – 0.2 %. The pairwise correlation coefficient between fattening and meat qualities of young pigs and evaluation indices ranges from -0.710 (tr = 10.24) to +0.844 (tr = 20.98). The maximum increase in additional products was obtained from young pigs of the first experimental group according to the Tyler index (+5.03 %) and the second experimental group according to the Sazer-Fredin index (+1.12 %). The cost of additional products got from the young pigs of these groups, provided that the selling price per 1 kg of live weight of young pigs at the time of the search was 47.5 UAH is +247.51 and +55.42 UAH/head, respectively.
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
      DOI: 10.32718/ujvas5-1.11
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
 
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