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Journal of Veterinary Medical Research
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2357-0512 - ISSN (Online) 2357-0520
Published by Beni-Suef University Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Effect of Different Grilling Methods on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
           Content in Grilled ...

    • Abstract: Grilled chicken became widespread desired dish for wide section of consumers, however, they may act as a probable source of some chemical carcinogens, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other harmful chemicals. The content of these materials may differ according to cooking methods, temperature and grilling duration. The main aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence exerted by different grilling methods that usually practiced by consumers on the content and profile of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in experimentally marinated then grilled broiler chicken. Thirty samples were marinated and grilled by charcoal, gas and electric grill (Ten samples each), the samples were extracted using magnesium sulfate and sodium acetate in an organic solvent, then purified by primary secondary amine, magnesium sulfate and endcapped octadecylsilane silica gel particles and finally measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS). Benzo[a]pyrene, Sum of benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and chrysene (PAH4), the genotoxic PAHs (PAH8) and total PAHs (ƩPAHs) recorded the highest average levels (1.38, 3.09, 3.09 and 36µg/kg) respectively, in charcoal grilled chicken samples, while lowest mean values were detected in electric machine grilled chicken samples (0, 0.44, 0.55 and 26.36µg/kg), respectively. Also, benzo[a]pyrene exceeded the permissible limits in 40% of charcoal grilled chicken samples. From the obtained results of the current study, electric grilling added less content of benzo[a]pyrene, PAH4, PAH8, non-carcinogenic PAHs and total PAHs, while samples grilled using charcoal grill showed the highest contamination with these compounds in terms of the previous parameters.
      PubDate: Sun, 11 Sep 2022 22:00:00 +010
  • In-vitro evaluation of different commercial antimycotics and disinfectants
           against Trichophyton ...

    • Abstract: Dermatophytosis is a fungal disease that affects both animals and humans. The improper use of antimycotic agents and disinfectants led to an acquired resistance of dermatophytes to most of commonly used agents. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of dermatophytosis in a beef calves farm and to evaluate the in-vitro efficacy of some of commonly used antimycotic agents and disinfectants. Of the 120 calves examined, 35.0% (42/120) showed ringworm lesions. Trichophyton verrucosum were isolated from a total of 45 skin scrapping and hair collected from infected animals (n=42) and farm workers (n=3) followed by molecular identification using PCR. Antimicrobial sensitivity profile was performed by agar-based disk diffusion method using six antifungal agents. Three disinfectants with different concentrations were tested against 45 strains of Trichophyton verrucosum isolated from animal and human samples using broth macro-dilution at different contact times (20 sec, 30min, 1h and 24h). Animal isolates were sensitive to Fluconazole (100.0%), meanwhile human strains were sensitive to Itraconazole (66.7%) (P
      PubDate: Sun, 17 Jul 2022 22:00:00 +010
  • Coagulase Negative Staphylococci Causing Subclinical Mastitis in Sheep:
           Prevalence, Phenotypic ...

    • Abstract: Subclinical mastitis (SCM) is one of the most prevalent diseases affecting dairy animals and hindering the development of animal production sector worldwide. Staphylococci are the most significant causative bacterial pathogens in both clinical and subclinical cases. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of SCM among sheep detecting the prevalence of coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) and studying some of their phenotypic and genotypic characters. A total of 145 individual half milk samples (HMSs) were collected aseptically from 75 apparently healthy ewes and examined. The prevalence of SCM based on California Mastitis Test (CMT) was 29.3 and 21.4% at sheep and udder HMSs levels, respectively. The prevalence of CNS in subclinically mastitic sheep was investigated in 31 (25.8%) HMSs. Identification of CNS isolates revealed that, S. epidermidis was the most prevalent (37.5%) followed by S. xylosus (25%) and each of S. simulans, S. chromogenes and S. haemolyticus (12.5%). The results of in-vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of CNS isolates against 12 antimicrobial agents showed high resistance against ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefoxitin and cefotaxime. Meanwhile, high susceptibilities were recorded against ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, florophenicol, vancomycin, doxycycline, clindamycin, gentamicin and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. The haemolytic activity and biofilm formation on CRA medium were investigated in all isolates. The haemolytic activity was detected in 75% of isolates meanwhile 62.5% of isolates were biofilm formers. The results of genotypic detection of mecA and blaZ resistance genes and icaD biofilm coding gene using PCR showed that they were detected in 80, 60 and 60% of the tested isolates, respectively. It was concluded that CNS isolates were the most prevalent causes of ovine SCM and the existence of high percentages of antimicrobials resistance as well as resistance and virulence genes represent risk factors and public health hazards and possible danger of lateral transfer of resistance genes to other microorganisms in both animals and humans. 
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Jul 2022 22:00:00 +010
  • Staphylococcus aureus Causing Subclinical Mastitis in Goats: Prevalence,
           Phenotypic and ...

    • Abstract: The dairy goat industry is rapidly developing worldwide as a result of increasing the awareness about the high quality and nutritional properties of caprine milk. Subclinical mastitis (SCM) is one of the most important challenges facing goat industry and leading to great economic losses. S. aureus has been regarded for long time as one of the most leading cause of mastitis either clinical or subclinical. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of SCM among goats and to isolate S. aureus as well as study some of their phenotypic and genotypic characters. A total of 143 individual half milk samples (HMSs) were collected aseptically from 75 apparently healthy goats and examined. S. aureus were isolated and identified phenotypically using conventional methods in addition to using Vitek2 compact system. The selected isolates were confirmed by the detection of staphylococcal 16S rRNA gene. The prevalence of SCM based on California Mastitis Test (CMT) was 41.3 and 34.3% at goats and udder HMSs levels, respectively. The prevalence of S. aureus isolation in subclinically mastitic goats was investigated in 49 HMSs as 26.5%. The results of in-vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of S. aureus isolates against 12 antimicrobial agents showed high resistance against ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic, cefoxitin, cefotaxime and vancomycin. Meanwhile, high susceptibilities were recorded against ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, florophenicol, doxycycline HCl, clindamycin, gentamicin and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. The haemolytic activity and biofilm formation on CRA medium were investigated in all isolates. The haemolytic activity was detected in 76.9% of isolates meanwhile 53.8% of isolates were biofilm formers, respectively. The results of genotypic detection of mecA, blaZ and vanA resistance genes using PCR showed that they were detected in 100, 71.4 and 42.9% of the tested isolates, respectively. Meanwhile, biofilm and α-haemolysin coding genes (icaD and hla) were detected in 71.4 and 42.9% of the tested isolates, respectively. It was concluded that S. aureus is one of the most prevalent cause of caprine SCM and the existence of high percentages of antimicrobials resistance as well as resistance and virulence genes represent risk factors and public health hazards and possible danger of lateral transfer of resistance genes to other microorganisms in both animals and humans.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Jul 2022 22:00:00 +010
  • Effect of Gonadotrophin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) on the Reproductive
           Performance in Ossimi Ewes

    • Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the influence of gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) administration to Ossimi ewes before mating on their conception, lambing and prolificacy rates, and their mean lambs’ birth weights. Twenty-one (three to five years old) Ossimi ewes and five (three to four years old) rams, (58.6±4.75kg) were recruited for this study. Ewes were allocated into three groups (7 ewes each) and synchronized with two doses of prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 α) 11 days apart. Ewes of the first group (35.3±5.62kg) were flushed with corn (0.5 kg/ewe/day) for two weeks before and two weeks after mating, while ewes of the second group (37.37±7.03kg) received one ml of GnRH, 24 hours after the second dose of PGF2α. Ewes of the third group (35.28±4.11kg) served as a control. Results of this study illustrated that GnRH group had higher conception (85.71%) and lambing (85.71%) rates than corn (71.43%, 71.43%) and control (42.85%, 42.85%) groups respectively. But the difference was not significant (p > 0.05). Prolificacy rate (100%) was the same for all groups (p > 0.05); there was no twin lambing in all groups. Also, the mean lambs’ birth weight was non-significantly (p > 0.05) higher in GnRH (1.88 kg) than corn (1.82 kg), and control (1.87 kg) groups respectively. In conclusion, administration of GnRH to Ossimi ewes before breeding non-significantly enhanced their conception and lambing rates, and the effect on mean lambs’ birth weights was very limited. 
      PubDate: Sun, 26 Jun 2022 22:00:00 +010
  • Biodegradable antimicrobial films incorporated with silver nanoparticles
           inhibit the growth of ...

    • Abstract: Antimicrobial food packaging was developed in response to the growing demand for longer fresh food shelf life and protection against foodborne infections. Therefore, the current study was conducted to investigate the antimicrobial effect of homemade biodegradable antimicrobial films incorporated with silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) experimentally inoculated in chicken breast. Chicken breast slices (5 × 5 cm) were experimentally inoculated with a cocktail of three S. aureus strains at a concentration of about 6.6 log10 CFU/cm2 and wrapped in homemade biodegradable antimicrobial films. Following that, the residual bacterial counts in wrapped chicken breast fillet slices were monitored for up to 10 days in a refrigerator (4 °C). It was found that at the end of the chilling period the films with biosynthesized Ag-NPs (1 mM), biosynthesized Ag-NPs (2 mM), chemically synthesized Ag-NPs (1 mM), and chemically synthesized Ag-NPs (2 mM) reduce the S. aureus counts by about 4.66, 5.24, 4.79, and 5.43 log10 CFU/cm2, respectively when compared with control films. Biodegradable antimicrobial films also prolonged the shelf-life of samples by approximately 4 days when compared to control samples.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 Jun 2022 22:00:00 +010
  • Staphylococcal Subclinical Mastitis in Dairy Cows in Blida Region

    • Abstract: Subclinical mastitis is an insidious disease of the mammary gland that negatively impacts the production of dairy cows. The objective of the present study is to screen subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle farms. A total of 208 lactating cows from five herds were examined and screened by the California mastitis test (CMT). Bacteriological analysis was performed on all CMF positive milk samples to characterize the presence of infection due to the genus Staphylococcus; as well as studying of the sensitivity of these isolated strains to antibiotics. The results showed that out of 208 cows screened by CMT, 71.15% were positive. Bacteriological analysis revealed that 111 samples found to be of the genus Staphylococcus, (75%). The characterization of the strains affirmed that the coagulase positive staphylococci represent 51.34% with a predominance of Staphylococcus aureus with a rate of 40.54% and the coagulase negative staphylococci represent 48.61%. The results of the antibiotic resistance revealed that the strains of coagulase positive Staphylococci particularly S aureus are resistant to the combination of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid, oxacillin and tetracycline with levels ranging from 4.4%, 44, 4% and 11.1% respectively. While coagulase negative Staphylococci showed resistance to the same molecules with 9.2%, 16.6% and 31.3% respectively. The obtained results demonstrated a very strong correlation between CMT and bacteriological findings. CMT seems to be an advantageous tool to expand, for systematic and regular screening against subclinical mastitis.
      PubDate: Sun, 05 Jun 2022 22:00:00 +010
  • Hepatoprotective Effect of Silybon 140® on Acetaminophen induced
           Liver Toxicity in Nigerian ...

    • Abstract: Acetaminophen is commonly used in veterinary practice and it is known to produce hepatotoxicity at high doses especially in companion animals. Silybon 140® (Silybum marianum) is a new drug for the treatment of several liver injuries in humans. This experiment investigated the protective effect of Silybon 140 on toxicities induced by acetaminophen in dogs. Twelve Nigerian dogs about 12 months of age were randomly separated into four groups of three dogs each. Group 1 received only distilled water throughout the experiment while groups 2 and 3 were administered Silybon 140 at dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg for three days respectively.  A day after, groups 2, 3 and 4 were administered acetaminophen at dose of 500 mg/kg once. All medications were given orally. Blood samples were collected in two samples bottles; one with EDTA and the other without EDTA for hematology and serum biochemistry studies. Blood samples were collected before drug administration and at day 7, 14 and 21 post acetaminophen administration. The results showed significant protective effect of Silybon 140 on the liver and kidney against acetaminophen toxicity. At day seven there was significant decrease in AST levels in Silybon treated groups and ALT levels at day 21 comparing to acetaminophen group. Similarly, creatinine levels of 1.7±0.1, 1.6±0.3 and 2.7±0.3 for groups 2, 3 and 4 respectively were observed. At the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg, Silybon 140 effectively protected the liver and kidney against acetaminophen induced renal and hepatic toxicity, thus can be used for disease conditions affecting the liver and the kidney in dogs.
      PubDate: Sun, 05 Jun 2022 22:00:00 +010
  • Persistence and Immunogenicity of Edwardsiella Piscicida phoP/Q Mutants in
           Channel Catfish ...

    • Abstract: Edwardsiella piscicida is a Gram negative, invasive and intracellular pathogen lead to develop hemorrhagic septicemia in wide varieties of freshwater fish species worldwide. Previously, two novel E. piscicida mutant strains namely ΔphoP and ΔphoQ were constructed and the data were published. In the present study, the resistance of in-frame deleted mutant strains ΔphoP/Q were investigated for their immunogenicity at the levels of blood and serum killing activities in comparison with E. piscicida wild-type (WT) pathogenic strain C07-087. Moreover, tissue persistence and expression profile of some immune relevant genes were monitored in head kidneys, spleens and livers of the intra-peritoneal immunized channel catfish fingerlings model. Results revealed that ΔphoP and ΔphoQ showed a significant decreased resistance against host killing activities compared to E. piscicida WT strain. At all tested levels, the tissue persistence showed that the mutants held the capability to attack and spread in the immunized channel catfish investigated tissues. Meanwhile, live bacteria could be noticed in livers, spleens and anterior kidneys up to 7 days after immunization. Furthermore, significant up-regulation levels of IL-1β, INFγ, CD4-1, MHC class I and MHC class II were detected in anterior kidneys and spleens of WT, ΔphoP and ΔphoQ vaccinated fish compared to non-immunized control group at 14 and 21 days post immunization. In conclusion, our findings proved that ΔphoP and ΔphoQ mutant strains have the aptitude to motivate both innate and adaptive immune responses and also they have the prospective requirements as successful live vaccine candidates. 
      PubDate: Mon, 30 May 2022 22:00:00 +010
  • Effect of Flushing with Energy or Protein Sources on the Reproductive
           Performance in Ossimi Ewes

    • Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of flushing with corn (energizing source) and soybean (protein source) on the reproductive performance in Ossimi ewes. Thirty ewes, two to four years old (39 ± 1.44 kg) and five rams, three to four years old (58.6 ± 4.75 kg) were enrolled in this study. The ewes were assigned into three groups (10 ewes per group). Ewes in group A received 500gm of corn grains, group B received 500gm of soybean, while group C served as a control (maintenance ration only). The ewes received the flushing ration for two weeks before and two weeks after mating. The results from this study demonstrated that group B had higher conception, lambing, and prolificacy rates (80%, 80%, and 125%) than group A (70%, 70%, and 114.28%) and group C (70%, 70%, and 100%) respectively. The difference was not significant. Also, the birth weight of lambs was the highest in group B (1.95 ± 0.03 kg) followed by group C (1.83 ± 0.05 kg) and group A (1.76 ± 0.11 kg), but the difference was not significant. In conclusion, the obtained data revealed that flushing of Ossimi ewes with soybean as a source of protein improved conception, lambing and prolificacy rates and birth weight of their lambs but was not different than flushing ewes with corn grains. 
      PubDate: Thu, 05 May 2022 22:00:00 +010
  • Public Health Hazards Related to Streptococci Species Isolated from Milk,
           Chickens and Fish

    • Abstract: Streptococcus is a genus of spherical Gram-positive bacteria belonging to the phylum firmicutes and the lactic acid bacteria group. Members of the genus Streptococcus cause mild to severe bacterial illnesses in humans and animals. This work was designed to determine the biochemical, serological, and molecular characterization of Streptococci species isolated from cow`s milk, broilers chickens, and Nile tilapia. Bacteriological examination was carried out on 255 Samples (120 cow' milk, 65 broiler chickens, and 70 Nile tilapia) collected during the period from July 2010 to June 2013 from various localities in Beni-Suef Governorate, Egypt. Identification of the isolated strain revealed S. agalactiae, S. equi subsp.  zooepidemicus, E. fecalis, S. iniae, E. avium and L. lactis subsp. Lactis were found in the isolated strains. Furthermore S. agalactiae (Lancefield group B), S. equi subsp.  zooepidemicus (Lancefield group C) and E. faecalis (Lancefield group D) were found in the agglutination test for Lancefield groups. A multiplex PCR assay involves amplifying the multiple gene products in a single reaction using primers derived from 16S rRNA genes of S. agalacitae, S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus and lctO gene of S. iniae. The amplified products showed amplification of 220bp, 679bp and 870bp of amplification respectively. The sensitivity of streptococci species to antimicrobials exhibited that S. agalactiae, S equi subsp. zooepidemicus and S. iniae showed high sensitivity to both enrofloxacin, erythromycin followed by cephalexin.
      PubDate: Sat, 23 Apr 2022 22:00:00 +010
  • Comparing the Efficacy of Saccharomyces and Lactobacillus Probiotics on
           Feeding Behavior and ...

    • Abstract: Probiotics are widely used in livestock animals to improve their health and performance. Feeding behavior is an important sign of health and has an influence on animal productivity. Hence, this study was conducted to compare the efficacy of two commonly used probiotics (Saccharomyces cerevisiae; SAC and Lactobacillus acidophilus; LA) in dairy livestock on the feeding behavior and milk yield of cows. Thirty Holstein-Friesian cows were equally subdivided into three groups. The control group received no feed supplement, the second group received 25 gm SAC/head daily for six weeks and the third group was supplied with 25gm LA/head daily for successive six weeks. Then, the feeding behavior was videotaped every two weeks and the milk yield and composition were measured. Ruminal mobility and score, body condition score, and fecal total colony count were calculated. As a result, SAC increased the feeding frequency of cows in the sixth week of supplementation. SAC increased the milk yield in the fourth and sixth weeks, while LA increased the milk yield in the fourth week of supplementation. In the sixth week of supplementation, LA decreased the total colony count. Both probiotics did not affect the milk composition, rumen mobility, and score as well as body condition score. The obtained data suggested that the use of SAC improved the feeding and milk yield while LA increased the milk yield in addition to a reduction of the gut pathogens that enhances the mucosal immunity.
      PubDate: Tue, 12 Apr 2022 22:00:00 +010
  • Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Streptococci Associated with
           Clinical Bovine Mastitis

    • Abstract: This study was carried out on a total of 550 lactating animals; 310 and 240 cows and buffaloes, respectively which were examined for signs of clinical mastitis (swelling, hotness, redness, and apparent milk change) from different dairy farms and veterinary units located at El-Fayoum Governorate during the period from May 2017 to November 2017. Clinical examination proved that out of these animals, a total of 126 animals (87 cattle and 39 buffaloes) were found with clinical mastitis. Streptococcus species were recovered from 73 animals including; 29(39.7%) and 44(60.0%) cows and buffaloes, respectively. Furthermore, out of the 73 Streptococci isolates recovered from cows and buffaloes; there were 10(13.7%) and 15(20.5%) S. agalactiae, 5(6.8%) and 10(23.7%) S. dysgalactiae, 8 (10.6%) and 7 (13.7%) S. uberis, 3(4.1%) and 10(13.7 %) E. fecalis and 3(4.1%) and 2(2.7%) S. lactarius, respectively. Anti-microbial susceptibility testing showed that the highest resistance was recorded against penicillin, gentamicin, streptomycin, and doxycycline (100%). Conversely, the highest sensitivity was recorded against ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (100%). Biofilm formation capacity was phenotypically assessed on YESCA CR agar medium and showed that all examined S. agalactiae and S. dysgalactiae were strong biofilm producers, meanwhile, 78%, 50%, and 75% of S. uberis, S. lactarius, and E. fecalis were biofilm positive isolates respectively. Application of PCR technique revealed that enterotoxins producing genes; sed, seb were found in 20% and 80% of isolates, in order. Biofilm-associated genes; fnbA and icaA genes were detected in 90% and 70%, respectively. Resistance genes; mecA and blaZ, genes were possessed in 90% and 70% of isolates, respectively.
      PubDate: Wed, 06 Apr 2022 22:00:00 +010
  • Characterization of Coagulase Positive and Negative Staphylococci
           Recovered from Mastitic Cows ...

    • Abstract: This study aimed to characterize the different Staphylococci recovered from mastitic cows and buffaloes. A total of 126 mastitis milk samples were aseptically collected from clinically mastitic animals including 87 cows and 39 buffaloes. Bacteriological examination and biochemical identification using VITEK-2-compact-SYSTEM revealed that a total of 94 Staphylococcus isolates (74.6%) were recovered; 56 isolates (59.6%) and 38 isolates (40%) from cows and buffaloes, respectively. S. aureus was the most predominant isolate (n=26; 15 from cows and 11 from buffaloes) with a percentage of 27.7%. Moreover, 68 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) isolates (72.3%) were identified of which; 21 S. epidermidis (22.3%); all isolates were from cattle, followed by 18 S. lentus (19.1%); 8 and 10 from cows and buffaloes, respectively, 17 S. simulans (18%); 6 and 11 isolates, respectively, and finally 12 S. hominis (12.9%); 5 and 7 isolates, respectively. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that all isolates were sensitive to ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. On the contrary, all isolates were resistant to penicillin and streptomycin. Multidrug resistance (MDR) was detected in 21 (22.3%) Staphylococci isolates. Biofilm formation capacity was phenotypically assessed on YESCA CR agar medium and showed that all Staphylococci isolates were curli-producing. Application of PCR technique revealed that sed, seb genes were the most prevalent genes in all isolates, followed by fnbA gene which was detected in 80% of the isolates, and then mecA, blaZ, and icaA with percentages of 60%, 40%, and 40%, respectively.
      PubDate: Sat, 02 Apr 2022 22:00:00 +010
  • Prevalence of Enterotoxigenic S. aureus in Table Eggs in El-Fayoum City,

    • Abstract: This study was designed to determine the prevalence of enterotoxigenic S. aureus in table eggs in El-Fayoum city, Egypt. A total of 250 table egg samples (75 Baladi hens’, 75 white farm hens’, 75 brown farm hens’ and 25 duck egg samples) were collected randomly from poultry farms, groceries, supermarkets, and street vendors in El-Fayoum city, Egypt. Each Baladi hen ҆s egg sample was represented by five eggs, while each farm hen ҆s and duck egg sample was represented by three eggs. The shells and contents of eggs were examined for the presence of Staphylococcus spp < /em>., coagulase (coa), and staphylococcal enterotoxins (Ses) genes. The obtained results revealed that the examined samples of shells and contents of Baladi hens ҆, poultry farms ҆ (white and brown), and ducks ҆ eggs were contaminated with Staphylococcus spp. with incidences of 24.0, 9.3, 5.3, 44.0, 8.0, 2.7, 1.3 and 12.0 %, respectively and coagulase-positive S. aureus with the incidences of 16.7, 14.3, 0.0, 18.2, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0 and 33.3 %, respectively. Enterotoxin profiling by PCR proved that two classical enterotoxin genes (Seb and Sed) were produced from three (42.86%) coagulase-positive S. aureus strains, as two Baladi hens’ ҆ eggshells produced Seb and one of the ducks ҆ egg contents produced Sed. The public health hazards of the isolated strains and enterotoxins had been discussed.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Mar 2022 22:00:00 +010
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