A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 220 journals)
The end of the list has been reached or no journals were found for your choice.
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Austral Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0719-8000 - ISSN (Online) 0719-8132
Published by SciELO Homepage  [688 journals]
  • Evolution of IFN-ℽ response against mycobacterial antigens used for the
           diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in BCG vaccinated cattle under a natural
           transmission setting in central Chile

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT: Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a chronic disease of animals mainly caused by Mycobacterium bovis, a zoonotic pathogen that generates economic losses in the milk and meat industry. In central Chile, the Metropolitan Region concentrates dairy herds with the highest bTB prevalence of the country and the official veterinary service has supported the evaluation of the M. bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine in this area with the replacement of tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPDs) by the DIVA (Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals) peptides for the bTB diagnosis in the herds. This study aimed to describe the IFN-ℽ response against PPDs (bovine and avian PPD) and DIVA antigenic cocktails (ESAT-6/CFP-10 and Rv3615c) in BCG vaccinated 11-month-old heifers under a natural transmission scenario. Sixty-two animals were vaccinated via subcutaneous route with a 2-8 x 105 colony forming units of BCG Russia strain and 60 control animals received sterile saline. Blood sampling was performed at time 0, previous to vaccination, and then at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 months post-inoculation. The follow up of the IFN-ℽ response in animals determined that the BCG vaccination interferes with the diagnosis of bTB using the traditional bovine PPD between 9 and 12 months post-inoculation. Furthermore, the sensitization with non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) was also interfering the diagnosis relying in PPDs, suggesting the need of using DIVA antigens under this epidemiological condition, whether or not the BCG vaccine is administered in cattle, in order to improve the accuracy of bTB diagnosis in central Chile.
  • Physical quality of different industrial versus non-industrial eggs
           obtained from groceries and markets in southern Chile

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine external and internal quality parameters of industrial (cages and cage-free) and family farms eggs that are normally available at groceries in developing countries such as Chile. Two experiments were performed to evaluate 1) quality differences between family farms and industrial eggs and 2) to determine quality differences between brown shell eggs from different industrial cage and cage-free systems. Experiment 1 consisted of five groups where three of them were industrial eggs: i) cage white shell eggs, ii) cage brown shell eggs, iii) brown shell cage-free eggs; and two of them were non-industrial: iv) family farm brown shell eggs and v) family farm blue shell eggs. Experiment 2 had four groups, all brown-shell types of eggs were used: i) cage brown eggs, ii) cage-free from aviary eggs, iii) southern free-range eggs and iv) central free-range eggs. In both Experiments, egg weight, egg length, egg width, egg shape index, Haugh units, albumen ratio, egg yolk, yolk weight and albumen weight, blood and meat spots were determined. In Experiment 1, brown and blue-shelled family farm eggs were equal in terms of external and internal quality, except for blood spots, with brown eggs having more incidence. In Experiment 2, free-range eggs presented more intense yolk colors compared to those from battery and cages. In both experiments, free-range eggs presented the darker yolk color. It can be concluded that brown and blue-shelled family farm eggs are equal in terms of external and internal quality, except for blood spots, with brown eggs having more incidence. In addition, free-range eggs from the southern part of the country presented better shell quality, whereas free-range eggs presented more intense yolk colors, while those of battery.
  • Effects of the inclusion of brown seaweed (Macrocystis pyrifera) additive
           in the diet of grass-fed steers on carcass performance, meat quality, and
           nutrient composition

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the inclusion of a brown seaweed additive (SWA; Macrocystis pyrifera) in the diet of grass-fed steers on carcass performance, beef quality, and nutrient composition. A total of 20 Holstein-Friesian steers were randomly distributed into two groups: Control group (a basal diet without supplementation of SWA) and SWA group (2%-SWA) with basal diet + 30 g/day/animal of SWA during the breeding phase (11 months) and 48 g/day/animal of SWA during the fattening phase (4 months). Steers fed with 2%-SWA were not different (P>0.05) in final body weight, carcass weight, carcass dressing, fat thickness, ribeye area, and marbling score than those from the Control group. Likewise, no effects of 2%-SWA supplementation were detected (P>0.05) for beef quality traits, glycolytic potential, or their metabolites (muscular glycogen, glycose+glucose-6-phosphate, and lactate), evaluated in longissimus lumborum (LL) samples. Sensory evaluation showed a slight preference for Control group samples rather than those from the 2%-SWA group (58.93% and 41.07%; P=0.06). Regarding, proximal composition, the inclusion of SWA only affected the total lipids present in the LL samples, which decreased significantly (P=0.01) in LL samples of grass-fed steers fed with 2%-SWA. The composition of macro (Ca, Na, Mg, P, and K) and micro (Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn) minerals in LL samples were not affected (P>0.05) by the inclusion of SWA in the diet. The inclusion of the additive based on brown seaweed had not a detrimental effect on carcass performance, beef quality, and mineral content, however, it reduced the total lipids content in the LL muscle.
  • Zoonoses and traumatic injuries among practicing veterinarians from
           Southern Chile

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT: This research addresses the occurrence of clinical signs and related symptoms of zoonotic diseases, traumatic injuries, and the frequency of healthcare seeking among practicing veterinarians, whose job was performed in the Los Lagos Region, Southern Chile. An online standardized survey collected from 140 practicing veterinarians was conducted between March and July 2020. The surveyed participants reported the occurrence of brucellosis, ringworm, scabies, cat scratch disease, anthrax, toxocariasis, salmonellosis, pediculosis, and flea infestation among veterinarians. The clinical signs and symptoms related to these events include diarrhea, allergies, and muscle pain. Mild and severe traumatic injuries were also declared by the participants, in which the frequency of severe trauma increased as the time of professional practice increased. Nevertheless, the use of professional healthcare was low among the surveyed veterinarians. This study emphasizes the need to consider veterinarians’ health-related occupational risks using the “One Health” approach.
  • Effects of plant extracts on the growth of beneficial indigenous lactic
           acid bacteria (BLAB) for their potential use in preventing bovine
           reproductive tract infections

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT: There is a renewed interest in products based on phytocompounds, prebiotics and probiotics applied to different hosts to exert effects of immunomodulation, anti-inflammation and analgesia. The microbiome of the bovine reproductive tract can become unbalanced for many reasons, favoring the entry and proliferation of pathogenic microorganisms, currently treated with antibiotics that exert adverse effects and generate antimicrobial resistance. To deal with this situation, “phytobiotic” formulas are proposed that combine phytocompounds and probiotics. This work aims to study the effect of plant extracts, prebiotics and vitamins on the growth of native beneficial lactic acid bacteria (BLAB), to be further potentially applied in the design of phytobiotic formulas. Nine beneficial strains isolated from different bovine ecosystems were evaluated against nine phytocompounds, two prebiotics and five vitamins. Affinity was assayed using the diffusion technique on agar plates, and the effect of the phytocompounds on the growth of lactic acid bacteria by microplates. The growth of all the strains was affected by some plant extracts, showing a stimulating or inhibitory effect. Diffusion-agar plates show that only vitamin A affected the viability of Lactobacillus johnsonii CRL1702 at concentrations higher than 7.5 mg/ml. When studying the growth kinetics of the strains with the phytocompounds, the results show that the effect was different in each of one the associated strains + plant extracts, indicating a strain-specific effect of plant extracts on each BLAB strain. Lapacho and Malva stimulate the growth of most microorganisms, then were selected to be combined with BLAB to design a phytobiotic formula with potential therapeutic activity to treat bovine reproductive infections. Plant extracts at the evaluated concentrations did not inhibit the growth of most of the pathogens responsible for endometritis. On the other hand, the highest concentrations of phenolic compounds were detected in Echinacea, Lapacho and Llantén; and the best percentages of antioxidant activity were evidenced in Garlic, Blueberry and Chamomile (<60%).
  • Frequency distribution of polymorphisms on κ-casein and DGAT1 genes in
           dairy cattle used in Chilean milk production

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT: Milk solids are very important to transform milk in dairy products like cheese. Several genes and polymorphic variants had been associated with this process, increasing the milk fat and/or protein content or regulating the coagulation milk properties. In the present study, we evaluate the frequency distribution of two major polymorphisms present in DGAT1 and CSN3 genes in 6 dairy biotypes commonly used in southern Chile: Holstein-Friesian (HF), Jersey (JE), Montbeliarde (MB), Overo Colorado (OC), Frisón Negro (FN) and hybrids (HYB). For CSN3 the results revealed that the A variant was predominant (0.57 to 0.71) in all breeds except Jersey which showed a high frequency of the B variant (0.73), one that favors milk transformation, and in MB (0.58). For DGAT1 a similar trend was seen. The A variant predominated (0.64 to 0.96) in all populations except Jersey, which displayed a high frequency (0.70) of the K variant that favors milk solids. The analysis of FIS for both markers gave negative and non-significant values in all populations some exception of OC and HYB, which are not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, suggesting an excess of heterozygotes. By another hand, FST analysis suggest a high genetic structure for Jersey. The simultaneous analyses of both markers produced 16 combined genotypes with hybrid animals displaying the highest number (11) whereas Jersey showed a favorable combination (DGAT1 KK and CSN3 BB) renewing their productive orientation to transform milk to cheese. Also, some Holstein animals displayed a heterozygous combined genotype (DGAT1 A/K-CSN3 AB). For decades, Holstein-Friesian has been an important breed used for milk production in southern Chile and during the last time, several farmers have introduced Jersey in order to improve milk quality. In this sense, our results show the presence of potential favorable genotypes for the transformation of milk to dairy products.
  • Frequency and risk factors of intestinal parasites in pet dogs from
           Mexicali, Mexico

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT: Parasitic intestinal infections in dogs represent a problem for human health, because a wide variety of these parasites have zoonotic potential. Therefore, proximity to pets puts us at risk. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency and risk factors (age, sex, size, breed, presence of ectoparasites and gastrointestinal disorders) of intestinal parasites in the feces of dogs attending a Veterinary Hospital in the City of Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico. A total of 148 fecal samples were collected from canine patients and analyzed for parasite identification and parasite load. A 12.2% (18/148) of the samples were positive to parasitic intestinal infections. The frequency of specific infections was an 8.1% of Cryptosporidium sp., followed by a 2.7% of Cystoisospora sp., and 1.4% of Toxascaris leonina. A statistical significance was identified between the presence of intestinal parasites and mongrel breed. The predominance of protozoa shows the importance of diagnosis prior to treatment with anthelminthic drugs, since preventive antiparasitic protocols are commonly used, although these particular parasites are out of the spectrum of those drugs. Cryptosporidium spp. have zoonotic potential, particularly in immunocompromised patients, and there are few or no treatment options.
  • Locomotor injuries morbidity data analysis in Chilean sport horses: a
           retrospective study (2016-2021)

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT: The equine industry in Chile is small but constantly growing, being the Chilean Rodeo the most important discipline. Problems associated to the musculoskeletal system are the most frequent condition in the equine veterinary practice. Economic losses for the equine industry associated to injuries related to the locomotor system are significant and have been estimated in different parts of the world. Five hundred and eighty-one (581) Chilean purebred horses (Caballo Raza Chilena) performing or training for Chilean Rodeo discipline fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Results showed that in Chilean purebred horses, forelimbs injuries were recorded in 73.1% and hindlimbs 26.9% being a statistically significant difference (P = 0.001). Unilateral lameness was the most frequent situation seen in 74.9% (n=424), bilateral lameness was observed in 21.7% (n=102) and lameness in 3 or more areas was recorded in 9.5% of horses (n=55). When comparing frequency of distribution between right and left sides, no differences were observed between forelimbs (P = 0.645) or hindlimbs (P = 0.853). The forelimb digit (hoof, pastern, and fetlock) had a prevalence of 59.6%. When specific diagnoses were recorded the most prevalent causes of lameness in Chilean purebreds were navicular disease (12.9%), fetlock osteoarthritis (11.9%) and distal tarsal joints osteoarthritis (11.7%). In conclusion, due to the activity and specific physical demands suffered by Chilean Rodeo horses, veterinarians must be familiar with injuries affecting Chilean sport horses, as the morbidity of musculoskeletal injuries varies drastically between different disciplines.
  • Serosurvey of canine distemper virus in culpeo (Lycalopex culpaeus) and
           chilla (Lycalopex griseus) foxes of the Araucanía region, Chile

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT: Our goal was to assess whether free-ranging foxes have been exposed to canine distemper virus (CDV) in the Araucanía region in Chile. The study was conducted at three sites in rural areas where free-ranging foxes were trapped and bled from 2009 to 2012. We sampled two species of foxes: the culpeo (Lycalopex culpaeus) (n=13) and the chilla (Lycalopex griseus) (n=14). A serum virus neutralization assay was used to detect the presence and magnitude of functional systemic antibodies to CDV. Overall, CDV seroprevalence in culpeo and chilla foxes was 7.7 and 21.4%, respectively. Exposure to CDV did not differ among the sites. Despite the relatively low seroprevalence found in free-ranging foxes, the presence of CDV-seropositive dogs previously reported in rural sites nearby, suggests a potential risk of pathogen spill over from domestic dogs to foxes in the area.
  • Neosaxitoxin, a Long-Lasting Local Anesthetic and its Potential Clinical
           Applications in Horses

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT: Neosaxitoxin (NeoSTX) is a toxin that binds to the voltage-gated sodium channels therefore, inhibiting the neuronal impulse. The present study was conducted to explore the properties of NeoSTX and to evaluate its effects when injected as a perineural nerve block in horses. A group of five client-owned mature Warmblood horses exhibiting clinical signs of unilateral foot pain were enrolled in the study. For inclusion, lameness should subside after a palmar digital nerve block (PDNB) using 2 mL of 2% lidocaine administered over the medial and lateral palmar digital nerves of the affected limb (Day 0). Lameness was assessed using the AAEP lameness grading scale and skin sensitivity was judged objectively using a pressure algometer. On day 1, 5μg of NeoSTX was injected, then on day 4, 10 μg of NeoSTX was administered. Lameness examination and skin sensitivity were evaluated at 3, 5,10, 15,30, 60, 90 minutes, and every hour until the effects of the nerve block were no longer detectable. When effects of NeoSTX was compared to effects of lidocaine at 2% there were no statistical differences in the onset of the anesthetic effect, measured as the time of start of desensitization of the skin and the time of complete desensitization or lameness resolution, nonetheless there was a significant difference in the return of skin sensation or lameness, showing a clear long-lasting nociceptive blocker effect of NeoSTX. In conclusion, results of this study suggest NeoSTX can potentially be used as an alternative to conventional local anesthetics drugs when a long-lasting effect is desired, for example as a part of a multimodal approach for pain management, as a local anesthetic for surgical procedures or to control chronic pain in some musculoskeletal disorders. However, more studies are needed to evaluate its use as long-lasting anesthetic effects in the aforementioned situations.
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762

Your IP address:
Home (Search)
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-