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Iranian Journal of Veterinary Surgery
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2008-3033
Published by Iranian Veterinary Surgery Association Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Ultrasonographic Finding of Unilateral Clinical Anophthalmia in a Puppy

    • Abstract: Anophthalmia refers to the most severe ocular congenital malformation that results from inadequate development of the primitive forebrain and is always associated with blindness. The exact etiology of anophthalmia is not well understood; however, heritable and environmental factors may be involved. A 2-month-old Asian Shepherd puppy was presented with the absence of one eye. The puppy was alert, responsive, and had a good body score. The eyelids with eyelashes and palpebral conjunctiva were bilaterally present. However, in the right eye, the palpebral fissure was narrow, and the orbit was shallow without a distinct globe. Further inspection revealed no ocular structures, although the left eye was ophthalmoscopically quite normal. Also, there were no cytologic characteristics of conjunctivitis in either eye. Using the transpalpebral ultrasonography technique, a semi-oval anechoic area without any obvious ocular chambers or structures was observed in the right eye, and finally, unilateral clinical anophthalmia was diagnosed. General physical examination revealed no other malformation. The long-term prognosis is favorable for this pup. However, surgical strategies (e.g., implants and expanders) can be used to improve cosmetic appearance.
       
  • Acute Equine Colic due to the Diaphragmatic Hernia: Two Cases

    • Abstract: Diaphragmatic hernias are an uncommon cause of abdominal pain in horses. The following case report describes a diaphragmatic hernia in 2 adult horses with signs of acute colic. A six-year-old stallion and a seven-year-old mare were referred to the emergency duty for severe abdominal pain; for a six-month period from late 2021 to early 2022. The horses were subjected to explorative laparotomy, which revealed a migration of the large colon associated with volvulus (in stallion); and small intestine protrusion (in mare) in thoracic space. Necropsy revealed a diaphragmatic chronic rupture (approximately 13 centimeters in diameter) in the left mid-region with the protrusion of the large colon in the thoracic cavity in the male horse; and a diaphragmatic acute rupture (approximately 3 centimeters in diameter) in the left dorsolateral region with the incarceration of jejunum in thoracic cavity in the mare. This case report demonstrated that a diaphragmatic hernia should be considered as a differential diagnosis in equine colic.
       
  • Comparison of Contrast-induced Gastrography with Iohexol, Iodixanol and
           Barium sulfate in Common Mynah bird (Acroidotheres Tristis)

    • Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the comparative study of contrast media for gastrography of mynah bird. This study was conducted on 12 adult male mynah birds. Using different contrast agents, all the birds were studied five times, with a minimum of two days of time interval between each study. Radiographic tests were performed 1, 5, 15, 30, 60, and 90 minutes after ingesting the contrast agent via using a gavage tract; imaging was performed at a time interval of 30 minutes and continued until the time when the contrast agent reached cloaca and was excreted. There was a statistically significant difference between the results of digestive system studies using Iodixanol, Iohexol, and barium sulfate in terms of mean scores of the contrast agent’s ability to fill different parts of the gastrointestinal tract, clarity of observations, and observing details of gastrointestinal tract at all times of radiography (P < 0.05). Iodixanol is less nephrotoxic and is a better contrast agent, however we do not recommend using Iodixanol and Iohexol diluted by water at a ratio of 1:1.
       
  • CT Anatomy of the Skull in Alborz Wild Sheep (O. o. arkali and O. o.
           vigneii)

    • Abstract: Understanding the anatomical structures of endangered wildlife species is a real help for veterinarians in this field. The aim of this study was to determine the anatomy of the skull of this sheep, which is phenotypically similar to deer. In this study, the skulls of 6 male Alborz wild sheep, all alive, were examined. The examinations were performed using computed tomographic (CT) scans and radiographic images. It also processed and named the extracted images using RadiAnt and Photoshop software. Morphometric studies performed on the skull of this breed showed that the length, width, and height of the skull of wild Alborz rams were 25.28 ± 0.99, 12.34 ± 1.00, and 13.30 ± 0.63 cm, respectively. Measuring the volume of the head and nasal cavity in this sheep shows a volume of 1636.33 ± 73.34 and 177.08 ± 10.46 cm3. Also, the volume of the frontal and lacrimal sinuses, which were the largest and smallest sinuses in the skull of this breed, respectively, were 219.90 ± 8.92 and 4.37 ± 0.66 cm3. Frontal, maxillary, and lacrimal sinuses were observed like other ruminants. Contrary to the Egyptian sheep, Saanen, and Markhz goat, palatine and sphenoid sinuses were also observed in this wildlife. Also, unlike Egyptian sheep and like Sanan goats, Markhz goats, and Ile de France sheep, ventral conchal sinus was observed in this breed. Due to the study, CT scan and radiographic anatomy are important to investigate the characteristic features of the paranasal sinuses as well as their relations and communications with the other cavities in the head region of the Alborz wild sheep. Also, these features were very important pre‐requisites for diagnosing pathological conditions and clinical interference in the head region.
       
  • A review on wound healing with Iranian medicinal plants and microbial
           flora in veterinary medicine

    • Abstract: Medicinal plants were used as treatment many years ago, and now the raw materials of most medicines are obtained from plants. Recently, due to the lack of side effects, the variety of effective compounds in plants, the development of industries related to the cultivation of medicinal plants, the recommendations of the World Health Organization to use plants and several other reasons the use of medicinal plants has been widespreaded. Numerous studies have been performed to investigate the effects of medicinal plants and microbial flora on wound healing. Previous studies revealed the positive effects of medicinal plants on wound healing compared to other chemical drugs, and a significant reduction in inflammation, acceleration of the healing process and reduction of oxidative stress was observed following the use of herbal medicines. In this review, effects of the most important Iranian medicinal plants and microbial flora on wound healing in veterinary medicine have been investigated.
       
  • Atresia ani Type II with rectovaginal fistula in a 6-week old kitten

    • Abstract: Atresia ani is a developmental defect within the cloacal region, resulting in anal canal closure and abnormal routing of feces. there are four types of atresia ani including congenital anal stenosis (Type I), imperforate anus alone (Type II), imperforate anus with more cranial termination of the rectum as a blind pouch (Type III), Lack of contact between the cranial rectum, and terminal rectum (Type IV). Type II atresia ani is mostly combined with a rectovaginal fistula between the dorsal wall of the vagina and the ventral portion of the rectum. A 6 week old female Persian cat was presented with anorexia, depression, and voiding of feces through the vulva, diagnosed with Atresia ani type II associated with rectovaginal fistula which was confirmed by radiographic examination with contrast medium. Surgical correction was performed under general anesthesia. The cat was able to control defecation and start to gain weight and no long-term complications were observed.
       
  • Effect of Cinnamon Nanoparticles in Presence of HAMLET on the Healing of
           Wounds Infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa: An Animal Model Study

    • Abstract: The objective was to evaluate the ability of cinnamon nanoparticles (CNPs) in the healing of wounds with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAE) infection as well as HAMLET sensitization in rats. Fifty healthy male Wistar rats were used in this study. The rats were divided into 5 groups (n = 10), randomly. In the NORMAL group, no infected wounds were treated with a sterile solution of saline 0.9% (0.1 ml). In the PAE group, the wounds with Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection were only treated with a sterile solution of saline 0.9% (0.1 ml). In the PAE-HMLT group, HAMLET (100 µg) was used to treat infected wounds. In the PAE-CNM group, 1 mg/ml CNPs (0.1 ml) were applied topically to treat PAE-infected wounds. In the PAE-HMLT-CNM group, HAMLET (100 µg) and 1 mg/ml CNPs (0.1 ml) were applied topically to treat PAE-infected wounds. Microbiological examination, planimetric and biochemical showed a significant difference between rats in the PAE-HMT-CNM group in comparison with other groups (p < 0.05). In conclusion, CNPs could offer the potential to pay more attention to this harmless and easily available agent to be topically applied in wounds with infection.
       
  • Surgical management of pyometra infection in a pet rabbit

    • Abstract: A 3.5 year-old mixed breed pet female rabbit with 2.3 kg weight was referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the Shiraz University. The main complaint of the owner was abdominal distension. The peculiarity of the present report is which the patient had no mating or parturition antecedent according to its history. Based on diagnostic methods and clinical examination, presence of an enlarged organ containing fluid material and occupying most of the caudal abdomen led to the provisional diagnosis of pyometra. Exploratory laparotomy was performed under general anesthesia. After abdominal wall incision, the uterus was immediately evident and the uterine wall was over-distended and penetrated, with purulent material free in the abdominal cavity. Next, ovariohysterectomy was performed and abdominal incision was closed routinely. Based on a literature review, this is one of rare reports regarding pyometra in pet rabbits.
       
  • The Effects of Honey, Curcumin, Ginger, Nigella sativa and Their Mixture
           on the Radial Bone Defect Repair in Rat Model: Histological and
           Biomechanical Study

    • Abstract: Honey, curcumin, ginger, and Nigella sativa are known for their antioxidant, immune stimulation properties, and wound healing effects. This study was conducted to determine the effect of these compounds and their mixture on the bone healing of the radial bone defect model in rats. One hundred and ten radial bone defects in 55 healthy male rats were randomly divided into 11 groups (10 rats per group). Groups 1-5 received honey, curcumin, ginger, and Nigella sativa orally by gavage, and groups 6-10 received the same materials locally by rubbing them on the sutured skin. The bone repair effects of these materials were evaluated by histopathology and biomechanical examinations. Using honey, curcumin, ginger, and Nigella sativa exhibited a beneficial effect to promote bone healing in this study. The biomechanical and histopathologic evaluations showed that the honey (oral), the mixture of honey and curcumin (oral), and the mixture of honey and Nigella sativa (topical) groups exhibited significantly better results on the 52nd postoperative day compared to the other groups.
       
  • Use of Tie-in Fixation and Modified Poliglecaprone-25 Suture Cerclages in
           a Complex Femoral Diaphysis Fracture in a Black-Eared Opossum (Didelphis
           aurita): Case Report

    • Abstract: A juvenile opossum was found after an episode of trauma caused by a vehicular collision. In the emergency care, vital parameters and changes related to the trauma were measured, and it was not possible to verify any changes, other than a crepitation in the left femur. Radiographic examinations revealed a complex fracture in the femur, requiring surgical intervention. The animal was submitted to an anesthetic procedure using dexmedetomidine, ketamine, and isoflurane. Femur osteosynthesis was performed using the external fixation technique in tie-in configuration, associated with absorbable poliglecaprone 25 sutures modified cerclage. The post-surgical analgesia was performed with dipyrone, tramadol chloride, and meloxicam. After 40 days of care, including removal of fixation, healing, and rehabilitation, the animal was reintroduced to its natural habitat.
       
  • Comparative Study of Low-Level Laser, Acupuncture, and Liquid Stitch
           Effects on Surgical Wound Healing in Rat Model

    • Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of low-level laser, acupuncture, and liquid stitch on surgical wound healing in a rat model. 40 male Wistar rats (200-300 gr) were used in this study. Under general anesthesia (ketamine/xylazine), surgical preparation on both sides of the spine was performed and a skin incision was made on each side (1.5 cm). 40 wounds were closed by 3-0 polypropylene suture material in a simple interrupted pattern and half with liquid stitch. 80 wounds were divided into eight groups of ten: in groups A and B wounds were closed with polypropylene suture material and liquid stitch with no other treatment. In groups C and D wounds closed with suture materials, and liquid stitch, respectively, received acupuncture. In groups E and F, wounds closed with suture materials, and liquid stitch, respectively, received a low-level laser. In groups G and H wounds were closed with suture materials and liquid stitch, respectively, and received both laser and acupuncture. Treatments were started the day after surgery and continued until day 10. All the groups were subdivided into two equal groups which were sacrificed on days five and ten after surgery. Skin samples were taken for histopathological evaluations (H&E, Masson Trichrome). The results showed that the quality of wound healing in groups C, D, E, F, G, and H, were statistically superior to the groups A, and B. Groups G and H which received both treatments, had better results than groups C, D, E, and F, which received only one of the treatments. Low-level laser treatment showed better results in comparison with acupuncture treatment. There was no significant difference between groups A and B. It can be concluded that both acupuncture and low-level laser has pro-healing properties on surgical wounds.
       
  • Evaluation of the Healing Properties of the Crude Extract of Ocimum
           Gratissimum Leaves on Excision Wound in Rabbit Bucks

    • Abstract: The wound-healing efficacy of the crude extract of Ocimum gratissimum leaf was evaluated in excision wound models. The parameters studied included; rate of wound contraction, period of complete epithelialisation in days, dermal toxicity and tensile strength of the excision wound. The means of wound area measurements among treatment animals at different time intervals were compared using one way ANOVA and post hoc test. The level of significance among the means was placed at p < 0.05. A significant wound healing efficacy was observed at 100% concentration, better than the Cicatrin wound healing effect. At the reconstituted concentrations of 25% and 50%, their efficacies were comparable to the reference drug used. The Ocimum gratissimum leaf crude extract at different reconstitutions was found to be very safe as no dermal toxicity or rash was recorded. The result showed that O. gratissimum possesses significant wound-healing activity which was evidenced by decrease in the period of epithelialisation, increase in the rate of wound contraction and skin-breaking tensile strength. It has been established that O. gratissimum contains alkaloids (anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties) as well as antimicrobial properties. These may be the lead to their wound healing effects. In conclusion, the use of O. gratissimum leaf crude extract at 100%, as a potent wound healing herb which reduces wound healing time and prevents the activities of micro-organism associated wound contamination with no dermal toxicity is hereby recommended. However, further studies need to be carried out to further expound the mechanism of action of O. gratissimum in wound healing as well as its systemic effect on animals.
       
  • Atypical Megaesophagus Caused by a Nasopharyngeal Polyp in a Cat: A Case
           Report

    • Abstract: A 6-month-old intact male domestic shorthair cat presented with a history of aphonia, vomiting, regurgitation, chronic purulent nasal discharge, and recurrent signs of respiratory infection. Radiographic examination revealed alveolar lung pattern and generalized megaesophagus at the thoracic and caudal cervical region. Additional examinations by computed tomography and virtual tracheoscopy revealed a large mass on the nasopharyngeal area that occupied about 90% of the tracheal lumen. With the aid of tracheostomy, the mass was removed with traction and sharp excision. According to histopathological findings the mass was diagnosed as nasopharyngeal polyp. A recheck examination performed a week later and the clinical manifestations of the megaesophagus were resolved and also three years later during a phone call, his owner reported he was doing well. To the best of the knowledge of the authors, megaesophagus following nasopharyngeal polyp is only reported in three other cats.
       
  • Exploring the Effect of Botulinum Toxin A - Lidocaine on Experimental
           Abdominal Wall Defect Healing in Rats

    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Botulinum Toxin A (Botox) and lidocaine on the repair of abdominal muscle defects. This study was conducted on 40 rats in four groups. Animals during experimental abdominal wall defect creation and before closing the defect in the Botox group, 5 units of Botox, in the lidocaine group 1 ml of 1% lidocaine, in the Botox-lidocaine group 10 units of Botox with lidocaine with a final volume of 1 cc and in the control group received normal saline in a volume of 1 ml. Each group was divided into two subgroups. Each subgroup animal was sacrificed on days 6 and 12, respectively, after surgery, and after taking a sample, it was examined macroscopically and microscopically. In macroscopic evaluation on both days 6 and 12 after surgery, the highest muscle tension (stretching of the muscles in the nipple area and a significant reduction in abdominal volume) belonged to the normal saline group and the lowest to the Botox and Botox-lidocaine groups. In microscopy on day 6, in normal saline and lidocaine groups, a wider area of granulation tissue and a large number of inflammatory cells were observed, and in the Botox and Botox-lidocaine groups, a less limited amount of granulation tissue was observed. On day 12, in the control and lidocaine groups, a large level of granulation tissue and fibroblasts was observed, while in the Botox and Botox-lidocaine groups, a very small amount of connective tissue was seen at the incision site. Animals receiving normal saline had significantly more inflammation than the groups receiving Botox and Botox lidocaine. According to the results, it seems that topical administration of Botox-lidocaine combination can be a good solution to reduce suture tension and prevent rupture of abdominal sutures.
       
  • Protective Effects of Rosmarinic Acid on Testicular Torsion-Detorsion in
           an Animal Model

    • Abstract: Testicular torsion is a disorder that may cause infertility or subfertility in males. Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a natural polyphenol with potent antioxidant effects that its protective effects in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in the hepatic, renal, cerebral, and myocardial tissues was demonstrated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of rosmarinic acid on testicular torsion/detorsion. 20 healthy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham-operated, torsion/detorsion, rosmarinic acid 50 mg/kg, and rosmarinic acid 70 mg/kg. testicular torsion was performed for two hours and detorsion was maintained for two hours. Administration of rosmarinic acid was performed 30 min before detorsion in treatment groups. Sperm parameters (sperm motility and sperm concentration), oxidative stress biomarkers (MDA, GPx, and CAT), and histopathological damage were examined in all groups. Results indicated that testicular I/R significantly reduced sperm motility and sperm concentration compared to the sham group, while treatment with RA significantly increased motility. Testicular I/R significantly increased MDA level and reduced GPx and CAT levels in the T/D group compared to the sham group, whereas treatment with RA reduced MDA level and increased GPx and CAT levels. Histopathological damages in the T/D group were significantly higher than those in the sham group. RA treatment reduced pathological damages. In conclusion, rosmarinic acid improved sperm parameters, increased antioxidant activity, and reduced histopathological damages. Therefore, it is recommended for attenuating testicular damages.
       
  • Evaluation of Two Different Ovariohysterectomy Approaches on Alpha-1-Acid
           Glycoprotein (AGP) Level in Cats

    • Abstract: This study aimed to compare acute phase proteins in cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy (OHE) by median celiotomy or left flank laparotomy approach. Nineteen native intact queens were used. Cats were randomly divided into four groups for midline (Test, n=5 and control, n=5) and left flank (Test, n=5 and control, n=4) ovariohysterectomy. Blood samples were taken immediately before surgery, 24, 48, 72 hours, and 7 days after surgery for assessment of Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), total protein, and albumin values. According to the results, standard and left flank OHE approaches increased AGP levels, but no significant difference was observed compared to the control group (p > 0.05). No significant difference was observed on serum total protein and albumin levels using standard and left flank OHE approaches compared to the control group (p > 0.05). The results suggested two surgical procedures had the same effect on acute-phase proteins in ovariohysterectomized cats.
       
  • Computed Tomographic and Morphometric Study of Lumbosacral and Coccygeal
           Vertebrae in Healthy White New Zealand Rabbit (Oryctolagus Cuniculus)

    • Abstract: Rabbits are commonly used in researches but despite their wide usage, knowledge of normal structure of various parts of lumbosacral and coccygeal vertebrae with computed tomography (SC) is obscure. On the other hand, scrutinizing of structures in these regions in their natural status can bring about more accurate diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for clinicians and surgeons. The goal of this study was to provide an exhaustive descriptive and morphometric assessment of lumbosacral and coccygeal vertebrae in rabbits with computed tomography. In this article morphometric parameters in 2D CT images of 10 healthy, mature, white New Zealand rabbits were measured. End plate height (EPH) had no significant difference through lumbosacral and coccygeal vertebrae but other parameters such as vertebral body height (VBH), spinous process height (SPH), transverse process length (TPL), transverse process width (TPW), spinous process angle (SPA), transverse process angle (TPA) and vertebral body length (VBL) had significant differences. Spinal canal depth (SCD) had an invariable measure from the first lumbar vertebra up to the third sacral vertebra and decreased at the location of the fourth sacral vertebra and was invariable up to the second coccygeal vertebra. Pedicle width (PDW) had an invariable measure from the first cervical vertebra up to the second coccygeal vertebra. In conclusion computed tomographic anatomy of lumbosacral and coccygeal vertebrae in white New Zealand rabbits were evaluated and different parts of vertebrae were described.
       
  • Anatomical and Normal 3D CT-Scan Study of the Vertebral Column and the
           Shell of the European Pond Turtle (Emys orbicularis)

    • Abstract: Limited information about the skeletal anatomical features of the European pond turtle, one of the species of turtles in Iran, is available. Given that performing clinical examinations as well using imaging techniques require complete anatomical information of the animal, it is essential to study these features in various researches. This study was done to provide complete anatomical information of the vertebrae and different shell parts in European pond turtles, as well as their normal 3D CT-Scan images in both flexed and extended neck positions. This study was performed on 10 European pond turtles (Emys orbicularis). CT-Scan images were taken from each sample and in the three-dimensional reconstruction of the images, different patterns were used. 8 cervical vertebrae, 10 dorsal vertebrae, 2 sacral vertebrae, and 25 caudal vertebrae were observed in European pond turtles. The cervical vertebrae were highly mobile and there were no cervical ribs. Due to the fusion of the dorsal vertebrae, there were no intervertebral foramina in this section, but very small lateral vertebral foramina were visible. These foramina were formed in the last four dorsal vertebrae at the fusion site and they were larger than the foramina of the cranial vertebrae. According to the results of this study, it can be concluded that the use of diagnostic techniques such as a three-dimensional CT-Scan is very useful in the study of skeletons. The correct direction and position of the bones can be easily determined using this technique. Part of the turtle`s ability to contract the neck is due to the special structure of the articular processes of the last two cervical vertebrae and the first dorsal vertebra. One of the most important adaptations in the evolution of the special structure of the seventh and eighth vertebrae of the neck and the way they are articulated.
       
  • Cataract extraction by Phacoemulsification procedure in a Hybrid Lion
           (Panthera leo persica) - A Case Report

    • Abstract: The medical record of a 25 year old male hybrid lion weighing 154 kg named Tippu, with a history of blindness in right eye since one year housed at Anna Zoological Park, Vandalur Zoo in Chennai was referred to Ophthalmology unit of Madras Veterinary College Teaching Hospital for expert opinion and treatment. As per the request from the zoo authority, a team of surgeons from Madras Veterinary College visited the Zoo. The lion, Tippu, weighing 154 kg, was immobilized with xylazine hydrochloride @1.5mg/kg body weight and ketamine hydrochloride @ 2.5mg/kg body weight intramuscularly were given by using a darting gun and a detailed ophthalmic and neurological examinations, ophthalmoscopy and tonometry were performed. The condition was diagnosed as a unilateral cataract of the right eye (OD) and the most appropriate surgical correction by Phacoemulsification method was advised. The lion was intubated with No.18 cuffed endotracheal tube and general anaesthesia was maintained with 2% Isoflurane in oxygen. The surgical procedure was carried out using a one-handed phacoemulsification and nucleus is fragmented into four pieces. At the end of the procedure yohimbine hydrochloride administered @ 0.1 mg/kg body weight intravenously. Mild fibrin deposition was noticed in the anterior chamber post operatively for four weeks, after which the lion showed an uneventful recovery.
       
  • Babesiosis Causes Reproductive Dysfunction in Splenectomized Mice: A Proof
           of Concept in Vitro Study

    • Abstract: Babesias as the second common blood parasite in mammals after trypanosomes have aroused wide concern particularly due to having zoonotic potential. This study was implemented to scrutinize epididymal sperms characteristics and in vitro fertilizing (IVF) capacity as well as subsequent pre-implantation embryos developmental potential following experimental babesiosis (EB) induction by Babesia bigemina in mice. In this experimental study, twenty-four adult male mice were randomly categorized into four equal groups including untreated control, sham, splenectomy, and EB. Experimental babesiosis was induced in splenectomized mice through 2.0 ml intraperitoneal injection of an infected heparinized blood sample belonging to a cow with confirmed B. bigemina infection. All animals were euthanized after 5 days and epididymal sperms characteristics and IVF abilities along with early embryo development were analyzed following infection confirmation. Experimental babesiosis resulted in epididymal sperms quantity, quality, and IVF potential reduction as well as pre-implantation embryos developmental retardation compared to control, sham, and splenectomy groups. These findings revealed that B. bigemina infection can result in male subfertility and/or infertility in mice leading to pre-implantation embryos developmental arrest.
       
  • Measurement of Echocardiographic Ejection Fraction Reference Values and
           Evaluation between Body Weight and Ejection Fraction in Domestic Rabbits
           (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    • Abstract: Domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) are an excellent model for cardiovascular research because the size of these animals is more suitable for study and experimentation than smaller animals. One of the most important diagnostic imaging methods is echocardiography, which is used today to evaluate the anatomical and functional cardiovascular system and is one of the most accurate and sensitive non-invasive methods for examining heart disease. Ventricular function indices can be assessed with cardiac imaging techniques. One of these important cardiac parameters is the ejection fraction, which has a valuable place along with other involved parameters. Ejection fraction is a measure of the percentage of blood that comes out of the heart with each contraction. For this study, 100 adult and young standard domestic rabbits (in Iran) six months to one year old and in both sexes (50 female rabbits and 50 male rabbits) without anesthesia and sedation were used. In this study, the mean Ejection fraction in domestic rabbits studied in males was 58.753 ± 6.889 and females 61.397 ± 6.530, which are comparable to the items mentioned in the valid books and the average size of EF fraction measured in this study, there is no significant difference between this research and other research. There was no significant difference in the percentage of Ejection fraction between most weight groups, but there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) in weight groups (2161–2320 gr) and (2481–2640 gr). Echocardiographic EF reference values for domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) non-anesthetized with are presented providing reference values for future studies.
       
  • Surgical Management of Complete Transverse Radioulnar Fracture in Congo
           African Grey Parrot

    • Abstract: A 10 month aged male Congo African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus) weighing 400 gm, with a history of collision with a ceiling fan, was presented to the Shahedul Alam Quadary Teaching Veterinary Hospital (SAQTVH), Chattogram Veterinary and Animal Sciences University (CVASU). On presentation, the bird was unable to fly and dropping of left wing. On physical examination, soft tissue swealing with reddish discoloration and crepitus was felt on palpation at radioulnar region. Radiographic examination revealed complete overriding transverse diaphyseal fracture of left radius and ulna. Under general anesthesia with diazepam and ketamine, retrograde intramedullary pinning was performed to stabilize ulnar fracture. Intramedullary pinning and application of bandage results bone healing at 65th post-operative day. The bird recovered with loss of flying ability due to slight malunion of fracture. The study suggests that, postoperative management is very essential for the successful outcome in radioulnar fracture management in birds with intramedullary pinning.
       
  • Effects of Intraperitoneal Administration of Polyethylene Glycol Solution
           on Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rat Testicular Torsion and Detorsion
           Model

    • Abstract: Testicular torsion and detorsion are significant clinical issues for infertile men. Torsion of the spermatic cord is an emergency condition resulting from the rotation of the testis and epididymis around the axis of the spermatic cord. A rat testis model was used to assess the effects of polyethylene glycol on ischemia-reperfusion injury. Twenty-four healthy male Wistar rats were used. The rats were included and randomized into four investigational groups (n = 6): Group Sham: Merely laparotomy was implemented. Group Ischemia: Merely 3-hour interval ischemia was done. Group IS/REP: A 3-hour interval ischemia, 3-hour reperfusion for left testis, one-week reperfusion for right testis were done and 20 µl normal saline was administered intraperitoneally (IP) 30 min before termination of ischemia. Group IS/REP/PEG: The same as group IS/REP as well as 20 µl PEG solution 3% (IP) 30 min before termination of ischemia. Evaluations were based on biochemical analyses and sperm parameters morphometry. Polyethylene glycol enhanced antioxidant activity and quality of sperm parameters (p < 0.05). In conclusion, polyethylene glycol could be helpful in minimizing ischemia-reperfusion injury in testicular tissue exposed to ischemia
       
  • The Effects of Olive Leaf Extract Ointment on Third-Degree Burn in Rat

    • Abstract: Due to the prevalence of burns and the necessity of effective treatment with low and optimal complications, in the present study, the efficacy of olive leaf extract ointment was evaluated as a therapeutic substance for burn wounds. Moreover, the healing effects of olive leaf extract ointment were compared to Silver Sulfadiazine. 36 rats were used in the present study. To create a burn wound, a rectangular piece of copper (2 x 1 cm) was put in 94º C water for 20 minutes and then placed on the rats’ skin for 30 seconds. Then, the rats were randomly divided into three groups; 1) Sham group: Rats did not receive any treatment and just the wound was washed with distilled water. 2) Control group: In this group rats were treated with silver sulfadiazine. 3) OLE group: 10% olive leave extract ointment was employed to treat the wounds. Wounds were macroscopically examined during days 4, 7, 14, and 21. Histopathological assessments were performed on days 4, 7, 14, and 21 in various studied groups. Results revealed that wound contraction was higher in the OLE group compared to the sham and control groups and histopathological examinations indicated that OLE improved wound healing in comparison to the sham group.
       
  • Death Due to Migration of a Wooden Skewer Foreign Body from the
           Gastrointestinal Tract to the Lung in a Dog

    • Abstract: Sharp wooden skewers can easily migrate from the gastrointestinal tract after ingestion and penetrate to abdominal and chest organs. Clinical signs can vary depending on the location of the foreign body. This report describes the death due to the penetration of a foreign body (kebab skewer) from the gastrointestinal tract into the lungs in a dog. A 6-month-old mixed-breed male dog weighing 16 kg was referred to the clinic due to severe dyspnea, anorexia, and diarrhea. The Physical examination showed a sharp increase in the number of breathing and severe dyspnea. Lateral thoracic radiography revealed the unilateral collapse of the caudal lobe of the lung and fluid accumulation or mass in the thorax. In order to obtain a dorsoventral radiograph, the dog was anesthetized using the diazepam-ketamine combination. Shortly after induction, the dog experienced cardiopulmonary arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation was not successful. At autopsy, a wooden kebab skewer with a length of about 15 cm was observed in the abdomen and chest of the animal. The importance of thorough physical examination and patient assessment before anesthetic induction or positioning for radiography, thoracocentesis, and provision of adequate ventilation and oxygenation are discussed.
       
  • Radiographic and Histopathologic Evidences of Movement versus
           Immobilization Effects on Enthesis Formation in Rabbits

    • Abstract: Enthesis joins tendon, ligament, or joint capsule to the bone, which are two very different tissues. As a result, it is more prone to stress and increased risk of rupture. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the role of limb movement or immobilization in enthesis healing after surgical repair and found out if radiography could be a reliable method for determining its prognosis. Fourteen New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into two groups. After detaching the Achilles tendon from the bone surface, the tendon was re-attached to the bone with a modified Kessler suture pattern. The limb of group 1 rabbits was externally fixed with the fiberglass cast. In group 2, however, no cast was used. Radiographs were taken after surgery and in weeks 2, 4, 6, and 8 post-operation. Samples were taken from the area after 8 weeks and stained by the hematoxylin-eosin method. The results were reported descriptively. Bone growth, increased chondrocytes in the cartilaginous region, and increased fibroblasts and fibrocytes were seen in group 1. While erosion, collagen fibers regularity, and tissue maturity were more predominant in group 2. Although early limb movement during the enthesis healing period helps to increase the regularity of collagen fibers in the tendinous zone of the enthesis, it does not increase the amount of callus in the bone and increases the risk of bone erosions and even fractures. While stabilizing the limb in the first two months of enthesis healing protects the bone against the forces and helps bone formation, which has a positive role in healing the enthesis.
       
  • Cranium Bifidum and Meningocele in the Caudal Aspect of a Lamb Head

    • Abstract: Meningocele is a congenital defect defined as a herniation of dura through the defect of cranial bone (cranium bifidum) with an accumulation of CSF in it. This anomaly has been described in calf, lamb, foal, piglet, dog, and cat. The etiology of meningocele is unknown but genetic and environmental factors may cause meningocele in lambs. A seven-day-old female Kurdish lamb with a congenital mass (8 cm in diameter) in the caudal part of its head was referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of Urmia University. The lamb was lateral recumbent and the vital signs were in the normal range. Symptoms of pain and paddling were revealed while manipulating the mass. The fluid obtained from the mass was examined under a microscope and showed no signs of bacteria or inflammatory cells. Total serum protein was 8.9 g/dL and mean platelet volume (MPV) was 2.5 fl and other blood parameters were normal. In radiography, there was a bone defect in the skull and congenital cranium bifidum and meningocele were confirmed. The meningocele mass was removed with surgery and the skin was stitched. The clinical condition of the lamb did not improve after surgery. The lamb had died 5 days after surgery. This report presents the clinical findings and radiographs of cranium bifidum in a Kurdish lamb. The prognosis for surgical treatment is poor in cases where the animal has not been able to stand and suckle since birth.
       
  • A Rare Case of Esophageal Diverticulum with Unusual Foreign Bodies in a
           Dog

    • Abstract: A two-year-old, Mongrel, intact male dog was presented to Madras Veterinary College Teaching Hospital with a complaint of postprandial regurgitation that was repeated at each meal. On physical examination, the animal was below ideal weight and with mild respiratory distress. It was suspected of megaesophagus. Thoracic contrast radiography revealed the presence of an esophageal diverticulum along with foreign bodies at the level of the base of the heart. The diverticulum was surgically corrected and the animal made an uneventful recovery. Six months follow-up did not show any recurrence of symptoms. This paper describes an acquired esophageal diverticulum in a dog. Diverticulectomy is an effective surgical technique to remove a large esophageal diverticulum and can be performed with good outcomes.
       
  • Cervical Intramuscular Lipoma in a Donkey (Equus asinus)- A Case Report

    • Abstract: Cancer is an uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells. It is found in animals as well as humans. There are many different types of cancer that are found in animals, symptoms are often similar to those in people. An 8-year-old male donkey was referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital and examined for cylinder-like dense mass that was found on the top of the cervical region and extended from the dorsal part of the base of the ears to withers. Radiographic evaluation of the cervical region was demonstrated that the mass was well-demarcated soft tissue opacity in dorsal cervical vertebrae. Ultrasonographic experimentation display a well circumscribe hyperechoic triangular shape mass with fat echogenicity in the sagittal plane without any vascularization. Surgical exploration of the mass indicated fusiform to cylindrical, well-demarcated, and soft tissue in yellow color. The microscopic finding showed that the tumor cells were identical to those in normal fat tissue and massive vacuoles exchange the cytoplasm with peripheralization of the nuclei. Necrosis and inflammation were not observed, while, dystrophic calcification and fibrosis were detected. Based on the aforesaid macro-, microscopic and histopathologic findings, Lipoma was recognized. Nevertheless, no treatment was performed for this case due to the large volume of the mass.
       
  • Coronal Rhytidectomy for Correction of Bilateral Superior Entropion in
           Dogs with Redundant Eyebrow Droop - A Review of Two Cases

    • Abstract: Various degrees of entropion defects with redundant skin folds due to conformational defects are common in Chow Chow and Shar Pei breeds of dogs. The irritation caused by the eyelid and hairs on the conjunctiva results in lacrimation and blepharospasm. In severe cases, as the dogs reach 7-8 months of age the complications of this extreme entropion result in a corneal ulcer. Temporary tacking of the facial folds was resorted to augment the corneal healing and to assess the size of the skin to be removed later. Surgical excision of wrinkles - rhytidectomy was done as radical surgery and was found satisfactory. The area of natural tension lines along the wrinkles in the coronal region was marked before excision and for a good cosmetic outcome. This paper describes the need for a rhytidectomy -excision of large facial skin folds- in Chow Chow and Shar Pei breeds of dogs to correct bilateral superior total entropion
       
 
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