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Iranian Journal of Veterinary Surgery
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2008-3033
Published by Iranian Veterinary Surgery Association Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Color Doppler Ultrasonographic Assessment of Renal Arteries Parameters in
           German Shepherd Dogs

    • Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the normal parameters of the renal arteries in German Shepherd dogs in order to use these values in clinical studies and interpretation of the results. In this study, 24 healthy dogs of the breed German shepherd, including 11 female dogs (45.8%) and 13 male dogs (54.2%) were examined with doppler ultrasound. The average age of dogs was 2.7 years with a standard deviation of 1.07 (minimum age of 9 months and maximum age of 15 years). In each case, renal artery doppler parameters were measured and normal values of doppler parameters in renal arteries were measured. In the main renal arteries PSV mean was 84.07 cm/s and EDV mean was 44.46 cm/s. In intrarenal arteries mean PSV was 64.81 cm/s, the mean EDV was 33.03 cm/s, the mean RI was 0.54, and the mean AT was 36.53 m/s. The results obtained in this study are the normal parameters of renal arteries in healthy German Shepherd dogs, which can be used in clinical examinations and interpretation of the results.
       
  • Evaluation of Cardiac Structure and Function Changes Following the
           Ovariohysterectomy by Echocardiographic Measurements in Immature Cats

    • Abstract: The aim of this study was conducted to identify the short-term effects of ovariohysterectomy on the heart of immature cats using echocardiography. This longitudinal study was conducted on a sample consisting of 6 immature female DSH cats. After the selection of test items, echocardiography was performed on the cats before the ovariohysterectomy (D0) and ten days (D10), twenty days (D20), and thirty days (D30) after the ovariohysterectomy. Cardiac parameters, including fractional shortening (FS), ejection fraction (EF), cardiac output (CO), left atrial-to-aortic root diameter ratio (LA/Ao), and left ventricular wall thickness to interventricular septum ratio (LVWD/IVS) was measured. Results indicated that the average EF at D10 (71.83%), D20 (71.00%), and D30 (69.83%) was significantly reduced compared to D0 (77.66%). The average CO at D10 (1.68 l/min), D20 (1.51 l/min), and D30 (1.5 l/min) was significantly reduced compared to D0 (2.05 l/min). However, the average FS at D10 (40.54%), D20 (40.50%), and D30 (39.33%) reduced compared to D0 (45.00%); the reduction was not statistically significant. The average Ao/LA and LVPW/IVS remained unchanged during the study (without noticeable changes). Ovariohysterectomy negatively impacts cardiac function; accordingly, special care and follow-up during sterility are essential for maintaining cardiac health.
       
  • Comparative Study of Low Level Laser, Acupuncture and Liquid Stitch
           Effects on Surgical Wound Healing in Rat Model

    • Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of low-level laser, acupuncture, and liquid stitch on surgical wound healing in a rat model. 40 male Wistar rats (200-300 gr) were used in this study. Under general anesthesia (ketamine/xylazine), surgical preparation on both sides of the spine was performed and a skin incision was made on each side (1.5 cm). 40 wounds were closed by 3-0 polypropylene suture material in a simple interrupted pattern and half with liquid stitch. 80 wounds were divided into eight groups of ten: in groups A and B wounds were closed with polypropylene suture material and liquid stitch with no other treatment. In groups C and D wounds closed with suture materials, and liquid stitch, respectively, received acupuncture. In groups E and F, wounds closed with suture materials, and liquid stitch, respectively, received a low-level laser. In groups G and H wounds were closed with suture materials and liquid stitch, respectively, and received both laser and acupuncture. Treatments were started the day after surgery and continued until day 10. All the groups were subdivided into two equal groups which were sacrificed on days five and ten after surgery. Skin samples were taken for histopathological evaluations (H & E, Masson’s trichrome). The results showed that the quality of wound healing in groups C, D, E, F, G, and H, were statistically superior to the groups A, and B. Groups G and H which received both treatments, had better results than groups C, D, E, and F, which received only one of the treatments. Low-level laser treatment showed better results in comparison with acupuncture treatment. There was no significant difference between groups A and B. It can be concluded that both acupuncture and low-level laser has pro-healing properties on surgical wounds.
       
  • Ferulago angulata; a complementary therapy in testicular
           torsion–detorsion damage

    • Abstract: The present study was conducted to determine the protective influences of Ferulago angulata aqueous extract against testicular ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. Twenty-eight subjects were assigned randomly into four groups: (I) sham group, (II) torsion/detorsion (T/D) group, (III) T/D followed by treatment with F. angulata (200 mg/kg, IP), (IV) intact group with only 200 mg/kg F. angulata. T/D damage was induced by 2 hours of testis rotation 720° followed by 24 hours of reperfusion injury. After reperfusion period, biochemical and hormonal parameters were measured in the serum, epididymal sperms were collected for evaluation of sperm characteristics (count, motility, viability, and abnormal morphology rate), and testes were studied histopathologically. I/R injury was associated with significant reduction in count, viability, and all sperm kinematic parameters (P<0.05), which could be reversed significantly by F. angulata (P<0.05) (except for some kinematic parameters). Although the abnormal morphology rate of sperms was numerically higher in the T/D group in comparison to the sham and intact groups; the difference was not statistically significant. Histopathological assessments showed that F. angulata could significantly increase the Johnsen’s score, mean seminiferous tubular diameter, and germinal epithelial cell thickness in the treatment group compared to the T/D group (P<0.05). GPx, SOD, and testosterone were significantly reduced following torsion/detorsion compared to the sham group (P<0.05); and the reductions were prevented significantly by F. angulata (P<0.05) (except for SOD). MDA level was significantly increased in the T/D group in comparison to the sham and intact groups (P<0.05), which F. angulata was not able to reverse peroxidation index. The overall results of the research suggest that F. angulata extract can be a good natural alternative to testicular I/R injury.
       
  • Investigating the Effect of Pentoxifylline and Zinc Oxide Combination on
           Experimental Full-Thickness Wound Healing in Rats

    • Abstract: This paper aims to investigate the effect of topical application of pentoxifylline and zinc oxide combination on experimental full-thickness wound healing in rats. Forty-eight adult male Wistar rats weighing 250 to 300 g were randomly divided into four groups of 12: Control (C), Zinc oxide (Z), Pentoxifylline (P), and Zinc-Pentoxifylline (ZP). For topical use of pentoxifylline, the ointment was formulated as 5%. All rat were anesthetized by intraperitoneal administration of a combination of xylazine 2% and ketamine 10% and after transfer to the operating table, under aseptic conditions, using a sterile ruler and surgical razor, a 2×2 cm2 skin defect in the back was created. In order to manage the wound, each group received appropriate treatment. In the ZP group, the combination of pentoxifylline and zinc oxide was treated in a ratio of 1: 1. On days 7, 14, and 21 after facilitation, a subgroup of each main group was sampled, then the samples were examined macroscopically and microscopically. At the end of this period, the highest percentage of the healing, wound closure, and keratinocyte migration and the lowest inflammation belonged to the PZ group. The rate of inflammation and the number of inflammatory cells at the end of the period were lower in the ZP group than Z group and there was a statistically significant difference (p≤0.05). Overall, this study showed that wound healing is performed with better speed and quality following topical application of a combination of zinc oxide and pentoxifylline. However, more studies are needed to confirm this conclusion.
       
  • Ultrasonographic Finding of Unilateral Clinical Anophthalmia in a Puppy

    • Abstract: Anophthalmia refers to the most severe ocular congenital malformation that results from inadequate development of the primitive forebrain and is always associated with blindness. The exact etiology of anophthalmia is not well understood; however, heritable and environmental factors may be involved. A 2-month-old Asian Shepherd puppy was presented with the absence of one eye. The puppy was alert, responsive, and had a good body score. The eyelids with eyelashes and palpebral conjunctiva were bilaterally present. However, in the right eye, the palpebral fissure was narrow, and the orbit was shallow without a distinct globe. Further inspection revealed no ocular structures, although the left eye was ophthalmoscopically quite normal. Also, there were no cytologic characteristics of conjunctivitis in either eye. Using the transpalpebral ultrasonography technique, a semi-oval anechoic area without any obvious ocular chambers or structures was observed in the right eye, and finally, unilateral clinical anophthalmia was diagnosed. General physical examination revealed no other malformation. The long-term prognosis is favorable for this pup. However, surgical strategies (e.g., implants and expanders) can be used to improve cosmetic appearance.
       
  • Acute Equine Colic due to the Diaphragmatic Hernia: Two Cases

    • Abstract: Diaphragmatic hernias are an uncommon cause of abdominal pain in horses. The following case report describes a diaphragmatic hernia in 2 adult horses with signs of acute colic. A six-year-old stallion and a seven-year-old mare were referred to the emergency duty for severe abdominal pain; for a six-month period from late 2021 to early 2022. The horses were subjected to explorative laparotomy, which revealed a migration of the large colon associated with volvulus (in stallion); and small intestine protrusion (in mare) in thoracic space. Necropsy revealed a diaphragmatic chronic rupture (approximately 13 centimeters in diameter) in the left mid-region with the protrusion of the large colon in the thoracic cavity in the male horse; and a diaphragmatic acute rupture (approximately 3 centimeters in diameter) in the left dorsolateral region with the incarceration of jejunum in thoracic cavity in the mare. This case report demonstrated that a diaphragmatic hernia should be considered as a differential diagnosis in equine colic.
       
  • Comparison of Contrast-induced Gastrography with Iohexol, Iodixanol and
           Barium sulfate in Common Mynah bird (Acroidotheres Tristis)

    • Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the comparative study of contrast media for gastrography of mynah bird. This study was conducted on 12 adult male mynah birds. Using different contrast agents, all the birds were studied five times, with a minimum of two days of time interval between each study. Radiographic tests were performed 1, 5, 15, 30, 60, and 90 minutes after ingesting the contrast agent via using a gavage tract; imaging was performed at a time interval of 30 minutes and continued until the time when the contrast agent reached cloaca and was excreted. There was a statistically significant difference between the results of digestive system studies using Iodixanol, Iohexol, and barium sulfate in terms of mean scores of the contrast agent’s ability to fill different parts of the gastrointestinal tract, clarity of observations, and observing details of gastrointestinal tract at all times of radiography (P < 0.05). Iodixanol is less nephrotoxic and is a better contrast agent, however we do not recommend using Iodixanol and Iohexol diluted by water at a ratio of 1:1.
       
  • CT Anatomy of the Skull in Alborz Wild Sheep (O. o. arkali and O. o.
           vigneii)

    • Abstract: Understanding the anatomical structures of endangered wildlife species is a real help for veterinarians in this field. The aim of this study was to determine the anatomy of the skull of this sheep, which is phenotypically similar to deer. In this study, the skulls of 6 male Alborz wild sheep, all alive, were examined. The examinations were performed using computed tomographic (CT) scans and radiographic images. It also processed and named the extracted images using RadiAnt and Photoshop software. Morphometric studies performed on the skull of this breed showed that the length, width, and height of the skull of wild Alborz rams were 25.28 ± 0.99, 12.34 ± 1.00, and 13.30 ± 0.63 cm, respectively. Measuring the volume of the head and nasal cavity in this sheep shows a volume of 1636.33 ± 73.34 and 177.08 ± 10.46 cm3. Also, the volume of the frontal and lacrimal sinuses, which were the largest and smallest sinuses in the skull of this breed, respectively, were 219.90 ± 8.92 and 4.37 ± 0.66 cm3. Frontal, maxillary, and lacrimal sinuses were observed like other ruminants. Contrary to the Egyptian sheep, Saanen, and Markhz goat, palatine and sphenoid sinuses were also observed in this wildlife. Also, unlike Egyptian sheep and like Sanan goats, Markhz goats, and Ile de France sheep, ventral conchal sinus was observed in this breed. Due to the study, CT scan and radiographic anatomy are important to investigate the characteristic features of the paranasal sinuses as well as their relations and communications with the other cavities in the head region of the Alborz wild sheep. Also, these features were very important pre‐requisites for diagnosing pathological conditions and clinical interference in the head region.
       
  • A review on wound healing with Iranian medicinal plants and microbial
           flora in veterinary medicine

    • Abstract: Medicinal plants were used as treatment many years ago, and now the raw materials of most medicines are obtained from plants. Recently, due to the lack of side effects, the variety of effective compounds in plants, the development of industries related to the cultivation of medicinal plants, the recommendations of the World Health Organization to use plants and several other reasons the use of medicinal plants has been widespreaded. Numerous studies have been performed to investigate the effects of medicinal plants and microbial flora on wound healing. Previous studies revealed the positive effects of medicinal plants on wound healing compared to other chemical drugs, and a significant reduction in inflammation, acceleration of the healing process and reduction of oxidative stress was observed following the use of herbal medicines. In this review, effects of the most important Iranian medicinal plants and microbial flora on wound healing in veterinary medicine have been investigated.
       
  • Atresia ani Type II with rectovaginal fistula in a 6-week old kitten

    • Abstract: Atresia ani is a developmental defect within the cloacal region, resulting in anal canal closure and abnormal routing of feces. there are four types of atresia ani including congenital anal stenosis (Type I), imperforate anus alone (Type II), imperforate anus with more cranial termination of the rectum as a blind pouch (Type III), Lack of contact between the cranial rectum, and terminal rectum (Type IV). Type II atresia ani is mostly combined with a rectovaginal fistula between the dorsal wall of the vagina and the ventral portion of the rectum. A 6 week old female Persian cat was presented with anorexia, depression, and voiding of feces through the vulva, diagnosed with Atresia ani type II associated with rectovaginal fistula which was confirmed by radiographic examination with contrast medium. Surgical correction was performed under general anesthesia. The cat was able to control defecation and start to gain weight and no long-term complications were observed.
       
  • Effect of Cinnamon Nanoparticles in Presence of HAMLET on the Healing of
           Wounds Infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa: An Animal Model Study

    • Abstract: The objective was to evaluate the ability of cinnamon nanoparticles (CNPs) in the healing of wounds with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAE) infection as well as HAMLET sensitization in rats. Fifty healthy male Wistar rats were used in this study. The rats were divided into 5 groups (n = 10), randomly. In the NORMAL group, no infected wounds were treated with a sterile solution of saline 0.9% (0.1 ml). In the PAE group, the wounds with Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection were only treated with a sterile solution of saline 0.9% (0.1 ml). In the PAE-HMLT group, HAMLET (100 µg) was used to treat infected wounds. In the PAE-CNM group, 1 mg/ml CNPs (0.1 ml) were applied topically to treat PAE-infected wounds. In the PAE-HMLT-CNM group, HAMLET (100 µg) and 1 mg/ml CNPs (0.1 ml) were applied topically to treat PAE-infected wounds. Microbiological examination, planimetric and biochemical showed a significant difference between rats in the PAE-HMT-CNM group in comparison with other groups (p < 0.05). In conclusion, CNPs could offer the potential to pay more attention to this harmless and easily available agent to be topically applied in wounds with infection.
       
  • Surgical management of pyometra infection in a pet rabbit

    • Abstract: A 3.5 year-old mixed breed pet female rabbit with 2.3 kg weight was referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the Shiraz University. The main complaint of the owner was abdominal distension. The peculiarity of the present report is which the patient had no mating or parturition antecedent according to its history. Based on diagnostic methods and clinical examination, presence of an enlarged organ containing fluid material and occupying most of the caudal abdomen led to the provisional diagnosis of pyometra. Exploratory laparotomy was performed under general anesthesia. After abdominal wall incision, the uterus was immediately evident and the uterine wall was over-distended and penetrated, with purulent material free in the abdominal cavity. Next, ovariohysterectomy was performed and abdominal incision was closed routinely. Based on a literature review, this is one of rare reports regarding pyometra in pet rabbits.
       
  • The Effects of Honey, Curcumin, Ginger, Nigella sativa and Their Mixture
           on the Radial Bone Defect Repair in Rat Model: Histological and
           Biomechanical Study

    • Abstract: Honey, curcumin, ginger, and Nigella sativa are known for their antioxidant, immune stimulation properties, and wound healing effects. This study was conducted to determine the effect of these compounds and their mixture on the bone healing of the radial bone defect model in rats. One hundred and ten radial bone defects in 55 healthy male rats were randomly divided into 11 groups (10 rats per group). Groups 1-5 received honey, curcumin, ginger, and Nigella sativa orally by gavage, and groups 6-10 received the same materials locally by rubbing them on the sutured skin. The bone repair effects of these materials were evaluated by histopathology and biomechanical examinations. Using honey, curcumin, ginger, and Nigella sativa exhibited a beneficial effect to promote bone healing in this study. The biomechanical and histopathologic evaluations showed that the honey (oral), the mixture of honey and curcumin (oral), and the mixture of honey and Nigella sativa (topical) groups exhibited significantly better results on the 52nd postoperative day compared to the other groups.
       
  • Use of Tie-in Fixation and Modified Poliglecaprone-25 Suture Cerclages in
           a Complex Femoral Diaphysis Fracture in a Black-Eared Opossum (Didelphis
           aurita): Case Report

    • Abstract: A juvenile opossum was found after an episode of trauma caused by a vehicular collision. In the emergency care, vital parameters and changes related to the trauma were measured, and it was not possible to verify any changes, other than a crepitation in the left femur. Radiographic examinations revealed a complex fracture in the femur, requiring surgical intervention. The animal was submitted to an anesthetic procedure using dexmedetomidine, ketamine, and isoflurane. Femur osteosynthesis was performed using the external fixation technique in tie-in configuration, associated with absorbable poliglecaprone 25 sutures modified cerclage. The post-surgical analgesia was performed with dipyrone, tramadol chloride, and meloxicam. After 40 days of care, including removal of fixation, healing, and rehabilitation, the animal was reintroduced to its natural habitat.
       
  • Evaluation of the Healing Properties of the Crude Extract of Ocimum
           Gratissimum Leaves on Excision Wound in Rabbit Bucks

    • Abstract: The wound-healing efficacy of the crude extract of Ocimum gratissimum leaf was evaluated in excision wound models. The parameters studied included; rate of wound contraction, period of complete epithelialisation in days, dermal toxicity and tensile strength of the excision wound. The means of wound area measurements among treatment animals at different time intervals were compared using one way ANOVA and post hoc test. The level of significance among the means was placed at p < 0.05. A significant wound healing efficacy was observed at 100% concentration, better than the Cicatrin wound healing effect. At the reconstituted concentrations of 25% and 50%, their efficacies were comparable to the reference drug used. The Ocimum gratissimum leaf crude extract at different reconstitutions was found to be very safe as no dermal toxicity or rash was recorded. The result showed that O. gratissimum possesses significant wound-healing activity which was evidenced by decrease in the period of epithelialisation, increase in the rate of wound contraction and skin-breaking tensile strength. It has been established that O. gratissimum contains alkaloids (anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties) as well as antimicrobial properties. These may be the lead to their wound healing effects. In conclusion, the use of O. gratissimum leaf crude extract at 100%, as a potent wound healing herb which reduces wound healing time and prevents the activities of micro-organism associated wound contamination with no dermal toxicity is hereby recommended. However, further studies need to be carried out to further expound the mechanism of action of O. gratissimum in wound healing as well as its systemic effect on animals.
       
  • Exploring the Effect of Botulinum Toxin A - Lidocaine on Experimental
           Abdominal Wall Defect Healing in Rats

    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Botulinum Toxin A (Botox) and lidocaine on the repair of abdominal muscle defects. This study was conducted on 40 rats in four groups. Animals during experimental abdominal wall defect creation and before closing the defect in the Botox group, 5 units of Botox, in the lidocaine group 1 ml of 1% lidocaine, in the Botox-lidocaine group 10 units of Botox with lidocaine with a final volume of 1 cc and in the control group received normal saline in a volume of 1 ml. Each group was divided into two subgroups. Each subgroup animal was sacrificed on days 6 and 12, respectively, after surgery, and after taking a sample, it was examined macroscopically and microscopically. In macroscopic evaluation on both days 6 and 12 after surgery, the highest muscle tension (stretching of the muscles in the nipple area and a significant reduction in abdominal volume) belonged to the normal saline group and the lowest to the Botox and Botox-lidocaine groups. In microscopy on day 6, in normal saline and lidocaine groups, a wider area of granulation tissue and a large number of inflammatory cells were observed, and in the Botox and Botox-lidocaine groups, a less limited amount of granulation tissue was observed. On day 12, in the control and lidocaine groups, a large level of granulation tissue and fibroblasts was observed, while in the Botox and Botox-lidocaine groups, a very small amount of connective tissue was seen at the incision site. Animals receiving normal saline had significantly more inflammation than the groups receiving Botox and Botox lidocaine. According to the results, it seems that topical administration of Botox-lidocaine combination can be a good solution to reduce suture tension and prevent rupture of abdominal sutures.
       
  • Protective Effects of Rosmarinic Acid on Testicular Torsion-Detorsion in
           an Animal Model

    • Abstract: Testicular torsion is a disorder that may cause infertility or subfertility in males. Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a natural polyphenol with potent antioxidant effects that its protective effects in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in the hepatic, renal, cerebral, and myocardial tissues was demonstrated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of rosmarinic acid on testicular torsion/detorsion. 20 healthy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham-operated, torsion/detorsion, rosmarinic acid 50 mg/kg, and rosmarinic acid 70 mg/kg. testicular torsion was performed for two hours and detorsion was maintained for two hours. Administration of rosmarinic acid was performed 30 min before detorsion in treatment groups. Sperm parameters (sperm motility and sperm concentration), oxidative stress biomarkers (MDA, GPx, and CAT), and histopathological damage were examined in all groups. Results indicated that testicular I/R significantly reduced sperm motility and sperm concentration compared to the sham group, while treatment with RA significantly increased motility. Testicular I/R significantly increased MDA level and reduced GPx and CAT levels in the T/D group compared to the sham group, whereas treatment with RA reduced MDA level and increased GPx and CAT levels. Histopathological damages in the T/D group were significantly higher than those in the sham group. RA treatment reduced pathological damages. In conclusion, rosmarinic acid improved sperm parameters, increased antioxidant activity, and reduced histopathological damages. Therefore, it is recommended for attenuating testicular damages.
       
  • Cataract extraction by Phacoemulsification procedure in a Hybrid Lion
           (Panthera leo persica) - A Case Report

    • Abstract: The medical record of a 25 year old male hybrid lion weighing 154 kg named Tippu, with a history of blindness in right eye since one year housed at Anna Zoological Park, Vandalur Zoo in Chennai was referred to Ophthalmology unit of Madras Veterinary College Teaching Hospital for expert opinion and treatment. As per the request from the zoo authority, a team of surgeons from Madras Veterinary College visited the Zoo. The lion, Tippu, weighing 154 kg, was immobilized with xylazine hydrochloride @1.5mg/kg body weight and ketamine hydrochloride @ 2.5mg/kg body weight intramuscularly were given by using a darting gun and a detailed ophthalmic and neurological examinations, ophthalmoscopy and tonometry were performed. The condition was diagnosed as a unilateral cataract of the right eye (OD) and the most appropriate surgical correction by Phacoemulsification method was advised. The lion was intubated with No.18 cuffed endotracheal tube and general anaesthesia was maintained with 2% Isoflurane in oxygen. The surgical procedure was carried out using a one-handed phacoemulsification and nucleus is fragmented into four pieces. At the end of the procedure yohimbine hydrochloride administered @ 0.1 mg/kg body weight intravenously. Mild fibrin deposition was noticed in the anterior chamber post operatively for four weeks, after which the lion showed an uneventful recovery.
       
  • Surgical Management of Complete Transverse Radioulnar Fracture in Congo
           African Grey Parrot

    • Abstract: A 10 month aged male Congo African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus) weighing 400 gm, with a history of collision with a ceiling fan, was presented to the Shahedul Alam Quadary Teaching Veterinary Hospital (SAQTVH), Chattogram Veterinary and Animal Sciences University (CVASU). On presentation, the bird was unable to fly and dropping of left wing. On physical examination, soft tissue swealing with reddish discoloration and crepitus was felt on palpation at radioulnar region. Radiographic examination revealed complete overriding transverse diaphyseal fracture of left radius and ulna. Under general anesthesia with diazepam and ketamine, retrograde intramedullary pinning was performed to stabilize ulnar fracture. Intramedullary pinning and application of bandage results bone healing at 65th post-operative day. The bird recovered with loss of flying ability due to slight malunion of fracture. The study suggests that, postoperative management is very essential for the successful outcome in radioulnar fracture management in birds with intramedullary pinning.
       
  • Death Due to Migration of a Wooden Skewer Foreign Body from the
           Gastrointestinal Tract to the Lung in a Dog

    • Abstract: Sharp wooden skewers can easily migrate from the gastrointestinal tract after ingestion and penetrate to abdominal and chest organs. Clinical signs can vary depending on the location of the foreign body. This report describes the death due to the penetration of a foreign body (kebab skewer) from the gastrointestinal tract into the lungs in a dog. A 6-month-old mixed-breed male dog weighing 16 kg was referred to the clinic due to severe dyspnea, anorexia, and diarrhea. The Physical examination showed a sharp increase in the number of breathing and severe dyspnea. Lateral thoracic radiography revealed the unilateral collapse of the caudal lobe of the lung and fluid accumulation or mass in the thorax. In order to obtain a dorsoventral radiograph, the dog was anesthetized using the diazepam-ketamine combination. Shortly after induction, the dog experienced cardiopulmonary arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation was not successful. At autopsy, a wooden kebab skewer with a length of about 15 cm was observed in the abdomen and chest of the animal. The importance of thorough physical examination and patient assessment before anesthetic induction or positioning for radiography, thoracocentesis, and provision of adequate ventilation and oxygenation are discussed.
       
 
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