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Iranian Journal of Veterinary Surgery
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2008-3033
Published by Iranian Veterinary Surgery Association Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Myelographic Applications in Newborn Healthy and Paraplegic Calves

    • Abstract: This study was undertaken to establish a protocol for myelography in the healthy and paraplegic neonatal bovine calf. The study material will be composed of 30 calves, 10 of which are normal and 20 of which are paraplegic, brought to Adnan Menderes University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. The contrast medium used was Iopamidol, which was introduced through the foramen magnum under general anesthesia . In order to diagnose the atlantooccipital space, this region was tried to be diagnosed with the help of an ultrasound. Myelography revealed changes in the spinal canal and assisted in a definite diagnosis. It has been observed that myelography applications made with this method described by Braun are extremely useful and practical. Bleeding was observed in only two of the cases after puncture. No complications were observed after myelography. While a narrowing of the subarachnoid space was observed in the cervical region in 2 of 20 calves with paraplegia, a lesion was observed in the lumbar region in 5 of them. In 10 cases, narrowing of the cauda equina segment was observed. In 3 cases, paraplegia was observed in the patient it has been concluded that the prognosis can be determined more accurately by myelography.
  • Unilateral Forelimb Polydactyly (Type II) with Contracted Tendon in a
           Female Calf and its Correction by Surgical Intervention

    • Abstract: Polydactyly is a malformation characterized by the presence of one or more additional digits that usually occurs solitarily or rarely together with other developmental or inheritable anomalies such as contracted tendon. A 5-day-old mixed native breed calf presented to the clinic of faculty of veterinary medicine of Razi University (Kermanshah, Iran) with extra digits (polydactyly) and contracted tendon in the right forelimb. The calf was born during normal delivery without intervention and had normal clinical symptoms in the examination. In physical examinations, an extra part was seen in the right forelimb with distinct metacarpus and digits, and also contracted tendon was evident in the main digits. Regarding the inability of the calf to locate the affected limb on the ground normally, surgical intervention was performed to remove extra digits and resolve the contracted tendon. Case follow up showed a good improvement and the calf had a normal life.
  • Clinical and Histopathological Diagnosis of Synovial Pad Proliferation in
           a Racehorse

    • Abstract: Synovial pad proliferation that origins from a soft tissue observes in the fetlock joint of horses, mainly racing horses. In the present study, we report the clinical and histopathological findings of synovial pad proliferation in a 15-years-old male horse with mild lameness. A palpable and visible mass was found at the dorsolateral surface of the right hindlimb joint associated with ulcer and hemorrhage. The radiology examination and biopsy sample were performed for the present case. In radiology, there was not exostosis or a bone fraction. Histopathology dominantly demonstrated densely collagenous, fibrous connective tissue and vascular congestion to gather with mild chronic inflammation and fibrosis. No evidence of edema and acute inflammation were found on the tissue sections. The surgical removal of the proliferative mass was suggested for the treatment of choice for optimal recovery.
  • Surgical treatment and relative frequency of skin tumors in domestic
           equids: A retrospective study

    • Abstract: Abstract The purposes of the present study were to report the relative frequency, to compare skin neoplastic diseases diagnosed in horses, donkeys and mules in a referral hospital population and to evaluate the outcome of surgical intervention in treatment of the skin neoplastic diseases in the domestic equids. Seventy-two domestic equids including 32 horses, 30 mules and 10 donkeys were included in this retrospective study. Data were obtained from medical sheets. The relative frequency of skin tumors was determined. The abnormal skin neoplastic/hyperplastic masses were removed with a radical surgical excision. Diagnosis were based on signalment, history, gross clinical examination, and confirmed by histopathological examination. Outcomes of surgical intervention were evaluated. The occurrence of skin tumors were higher in males than females and higher in intact males than geldings. Sarcoids were the most common skin tumor of horses and mules. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCCs) were the second most common skin tumors in horses, whereas, papilloma/fibropapiloma were the second most common skin tumors in mules. Both of sarcoids and SCCs were the most common skin tumors in donkeys. Inguinal region was the main anatomic location for the occurrence of skin tumors in the males especially in intact, equids. Sarcoids were mainly diagnosed on the skin of male external genital system in the intact horses. In male mules, all diagnosed sarcoids were located on the skin of external genital system. Histopathological examination is necessary for accurate diagnosis of the skin neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions in the equids. Skin of male external genital system is the main predilection site for occurrence of skin tumors in the domestic equids. It seems that conventional surgery as a practical technique offers a higher rate of success in treatment of skin tumors in the domestic equids.
  • Protective effect of Pyrroloquinoline Quinone (PQQ) against renal
           ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat

    • Abstract: Ischemia/reperfusion can cause tissue damage and affect organ function. Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) occurs in a variety of clinical manifestations such as stroke, trauma, and surgery. The present study investigated the role of Pyrroloquinoline Quinone (PQQ) on the renal damage after IRI. Rats were assigned to four groups randomly (n=8): Control group, Sham group, Renal IRI (45 min ischemia and subsequently reperfused for 24 hours) and Renal IRI + PQQ (10 mg/kg /IP). Serum level of Urea, Creatinine, TNF-α and IL-6 were measured by a biochemical analyzer using commercial kits. In kidney tissue samples total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA), and Myeloperoxidase (MPO) were measured using commercial kits. The results showed that IRI injury increased serum urea, creatinine levels, TNF-α and IL-6 along with MDA, MPO levels in the renal tissue, and decreased renal TAC levels. A decrease in serum urea, creatinine levels as well as MDA, MPO levels of the IR+PQQ group were observed in renal tissues. In addition, TAC levels in the kidney tissues of PQQ-treated animals were improved in comparison with the IRI group. Pyrroloquinoline Quinone (PQQ) treatment ameliorated renal IR injury by anti-oxidative stress and anti-inflammatory properties. Consequently, it could be promising as a potential therapeutic agent for renal Ischemia-reperfusion injury.
  • Nano -methoxatin improves ischemia-reperfusion injury in torsion-detorsion
           model of ovary

    • Abstract: Abstract:Using a rat ovary model, protective effects of nano-methoxatin (NMXTN) were studied on ischemia-reperfusion injury. Following randomization of forty-eight healthy female Wistar rats ~250g, the animals were subjected to eight experimental groups (n = 6): Group SHAM: Only laparotomy was performed. Group IS: Only a 3- hour ischemia was performed. Group IS/Oil: Only a 3- hour ischemia was performed and 50 µL soybean oil alone (Solvent of MXTN) was administered 30 min before cessation of ischemia. Group IS/REP: The procedure included a 3-hour ischemia followed by a 3-hour reperfusion and 50 µL soybean oil alone was administered 30 min before cessation of ischemia. Group IS/MXTN: The procedure included a 3-hour ischemia only and 50 µL (0. 3 mmol/lit/IP) of MXTN 30 min before cessation of ischemia. Group IS/NMXTN: The procedure included a 3-hour ischemia only and 50 µL (0. 3 mmol/lit/IP) of NMXTN 30 min before cessation of ischemia. Group IS/REP/MXTN: The procedure included a 3-hour ischemia, a 3-hour reperfusion and 20 µL (0. 3 mmol/lit) of MXTN 30 min before cessation of ischemia.Group IS/REP/NMXTN: The procedure included a 3-hour ischemia, a 3-hour reperfusion and 20 µL (0. 3 mmol/lit) of NMXTN 30 min before cessation of ischemia. Significantly amended development of ischemia/reperfusion tissue injury was observed in animals treated with NMXTN compared to those of other groups (P=0.001). Mean values of biochemical indices were significantly higher than those observed for other groups (P=0.001). Significantly lower values of MDA were observed in IS/REP/NMXTN animals compared to those of other groups (P=0.001). Where ovarian tissue is exposed to ischemia intraperitoneal administration of NMXTN could bear clinical benefits in diminishing ischemia-reperfusion injury.
  • Evaluation of Possible Effects of Hyoscine in Xylazine-Induced Fetal Death
           in Pregnant Rats

    • Abstract: Although xylazine is widely used in domestic animals as a sedative, analgesic, and muscle relaxant, its side effects on the uterus prevent its utilization in pregnant animals or in embryo transfer. Although the effects of xylazine on increasing uterine contractions have been confirmed, no reliable report of fetal death due to xylazine administration has been published. Hyoscine is an anticholinergic medication that has antimuscarinic and antispasmodic effects in the uterine tissue of pregnant cattle during in vitro studies, therefore, we investigated if administration of xylazine in the last third of pregnancy could increase fetal death and if hyoscine could prevent its adverse effects. Twenty adult female rats, after mating with four adult male rats and confirming pregnancy, were randomly divided into two equal control and treatment groups. On the 18th day of pregnancy, the number of fetuses per rat was determined using ultrasonography. Rats in the treatment group received hyoscine (1 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) for 3 days. Subsequently, all rats were administered xylazine (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) for 3 days. On the 21st day of pregnancy, the number of living and dead fetuses was counted after laparotomy. Also, the weight and dimensions of the fetuses were measured. The results showed that although more fetuses lost their lives in the treatment group compared to the control group, the statistical difference in the percentage of fetal mortality in the two groups was not significant (p  0.05). In addition, the comparison of the mean weight, body length, and body width of living and dead fetuses in both groups showed that there was no statistically significant difference between these groups (p  0.05). It could be concluded that maternal xylazine intake in rats could cause about 18-25% of fetal mortality. However, the use of hyoscine to prevent fetal death induced by xylazine is not recommended.
  • Ultrasonographic Measurements of Fetlock Joint Tendons and Ligaments
           Dimensions in Sound Darehshori Horses.

    • Abstract: Tendons and ligaments in palmar/plantar aspect of fetlock joints are always exposure to injuries resulting from traumas and diseases of limbs. Ultrasound has a wide extensive use in the diagnosis and measurement of equine soft tissues and musculoskeletal injuries in horses. The purpose of the current research is to measure and comparison of the fetlock joint tendons and ligaments dimensions in front and hind limbs of sound Darehshori horses. This study consisted of ten healthy Darehshori horses that mean age and height of them were 11.2 ± 3.5 years and 131.6 ± 10.2 cm. After clipping and washing, the area between 4 cm above the proximal sesamoid bones and distal to the level of the proximal sesamoid bones was divided into 2 levels in sagittal and 3 levels in transverse view. An ultrasonography was performed with a linear transducer 12 MHz Frequency on both front and hind limbs in full weight bearing. Measurements of tendons and ligaments such as Superficial digital flexor tendon, Deep digital flexor tendon and Suspensory ligament were done both sagittal and transverse view. Transverse ultrasonography was made to get the measurements such as thickness, width and cross-sectional area of tendons and ligaments. Echogenicity and fibrillary pattern of tendons and ligaments were assessed in longitudinal images. In the front and hind limbs, the greatest width of digital flexor tendons and suspensory was related to the front joints while the greatest thickness was related to the digital flexor tendons and suspensory ligament in the hind joints. As the results in the present study revealed, no significant differences were found between the amounts of the left and right front and hind limbs of sound darehshori horses. In conclusion, this study provides a thorough, in-depth knowledge on the normal ultrasound measurements of the tendon and ligaments in the fetlock joints.
  • Diagnosis and Treatment of Vaginal Protrusion of Urinary Bladder
           (Cystocele) in a Dog

    • Abstract: Cystocele is a chronic condition mostly seen in humans, which defines as the protrusion of the bladder into the vaginal wall. Generally, vaginal prolapse includes bladder prolapse or cystocele, rectal prolapse or rectocele, and uterus prolapse. This condition is very rare in veterinary medicine and, as a consequence of dystocia, constipation and forced breeding are performed. In this case, report a 5-year-old mixed breed intact female dog and non-pregnant was diagnosed with cystocele using diagnostic imaging and clinical examinations, furthermore was treated with cystopexy surgical techniques and, a necrotic segment in the ventral side of the bladder was seen, which was treated with partial cystectomy. cystocele is a condition mostly seen in humans and, according to our knowledge, there is only one previous report of occurrence in animals.
  • Hydrogel Based on Alginate-Polyethylene Glycol Polymer Containing
           Scrophularia striata Extract Nano-Liposomes is an Excellent
           Nano-Phyto-Extract in Wound Healing; a Geometric and Pathological Study

    • Abstract: Due to the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of Scrophularia striata, it is used to heal wounds. Today, hydrogel based on alginate-polyethylene glycol polymer is mainly used due to its drug delivery properties and create of suitable conditions for wound healing. In this study, we tried to investigate the effect of hydrogel based on alginate-polyethylene glycol polymer containing Scrophularia striata extract nanoliposomes on wound healing in rat animal models. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering were used to examine nanoliposome and hydrogel. 126 Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into 7 groups (18 rats/group). The rats were anesthetized and their dorsum shaved, a burn wound was created with a cylindrical copper at 100° C. Rats' wounds were treated with hydrogel Scrophularia striata extract and on the 5th, 10th, and 15th days, histopathological evaluation, macroscopic features and wound healing were evaluated and analyzed in different groups. The structure of nanoliposomes was uniform and the size was 80-110 nm. Also, the size of the hydrogel was 320 nm with nanometric size and spherical morphology. Histopathological evaluation, wound area and wound contraction confirmed that the treatment group had a significant difference from other groups and the effect was almost similar to that of zinc oxide. This study showed that alginate-polyethylene glycol polymer containing Scrophularia striata extract caused wound contraction, and reduced wound area, and can be used for wound healing.
  • Study of Normal Cardiac Parameters by Echocardiography in Healthy Kordi

    • Abstract: The objectives for this study are to report reliability, normal cardiac dimensions and time indices adult Kordy sheep. Twelve healthy adult Kordi sheep were recruited. Full echocardiographic examinations were performed in the standing unsedated animals. In such a way that Mitral, tricuspid, aortic and pulmonary flows were measured. Images were stored and measured offline. The difference between left and right side measurements and the intraobserver inter-day repeatability were tested and then the reference values of PW Doppler echocardiographic parameters in healthy adult female Kurdish sheep were established. As documented in other species, all sheep PW Doppler parameters demonstrated a poor inter-day repeatability and a moderate variability. Tricuspid and pulmonary flows were best evaluated on the right side whereas mitral and aortic flows were best obtained on the left side and reference values are reported for healthy adult Kordi sheep. PW Doppler echocardiography allows the measurement of intracardiac blood flow indices in sheep. The reference values establishment will help interpreting these indices of cardiac function in clinical cardiac cases and developing animal models for human cardiology research.
  • Color Doppler Ultrasonographic Assessment of Renal Arteries Parameters in
           German Shepherd Dogs

    • Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the normal parameters of the renal arteries in German Shepherd dogs in order to use these values in clinical studies and interpretation of the results. In this study, 24 healthy dogs of the breed German shepherd, including 11 female dogs (45.8%) and 13 male dogs (54.2%) were examined with doppler ultrasound. The average age of dogs was 2.7 years with a standard deviation of 1.07 (minimum age of 9 months and maximum age of 15 years). In each case, renal artery doppler parameters were measured and normal values of doppler parameters in renal arteries were measured. In the main renal arteries PSV mean was 84.07 cm/s and EDV mean was 44.46 cm/s. In intrarenal arteries mean PSV was 64.81 cm/s, the mean EDV was 33.03 cm/s, the mean RI was 0.54, and the mean AT was 36.53 m/s. The results obtained in this study are the normal parameters of renal arteries in healthy German Shepherd dogs, which can be used in clinical examinations and interpretation of the results.
  • Evaluation of Cardiac Structure and Function Changes Following the
           Ovariohysterectomy by Echocardiographic Measurements in Immature Cats

    • Abstract: The aim of this study was conducted to identify the short-term effects of ovariohysterectomy on the heart of immature cats using echocardiography. This longitudinal study was conducted on a sample consisting of 6 immature female DSH cats. After the selection of test items, echocardiography was performed on the cats before the ovariohysterectomy (D0) and ten days (D10), twenty days (D20), and thirty days (D30) after the ovariohysterectomy. Cardiac parameters, including fractional shortening (FS), ejection fraction (EF), cardiac output (CO), left atrial-to-aortic root diameter ratio (LA/Ao), and left ventricular wall thickness to interventricular septum ratio (LVWD/IVS) was measured. Results indicated that the average EF at D10 (71.83%), D20 (71.00%), and D30 (69.83%) was significantly reduced compared to D0 (77.66%). The average CO at D10 (1.68 l/min), D20 (1.51 l/min), and D30 (1.5 l/min) was significantly reduced compared to D0 (2.05 l/min). However, the average FS at D10 (40.54%), D20 (40.50%), and D30 (39.33%) reduced compared to D0 (45.00%); the reduction was not statistically significant. The average Ao/LA and LVPW/IVS remained unchanged during the study (without noticeable changes). Ovariohysterectomy negatively impacts cardiac function; accordingly, special care and follow-up during sterility are essential for maintaining cardiac health.
  • Comparative Study of Low Level Laser, Acupuncture and Liquid Stitch
           Effects on Surgical Wound Healing in Rat Model

    • Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of low-level laser, acupuncture, and liquid stitch on surgical wound healing in a rat model. 40 male Wistar rats (200-300 gr) were used in this study. Under general anesthesia (ketamine/xylazine), surgical preparation on both sides of the spine was performed and a skin incision was made on each side (1.5 cm). 40 wounds were closed by 3-0 polypropylene suture material in a simple interrupted pattern and half with liquid stitch. 80 wounds were divided into eight groups of ten: in groups A and B wounds were closed with polypropylene suture material and liquid stitch with no other treatment. In groups C and D wounds closed with suture materials, and liquid stitch, respectively, received acupuncture. In groups E and F, wounds closed with suture materials, and liquid stitch, respectively, received a low-level laser. In groups G and H wounds were closed with suture materials and liquid stitch, respectively, and received both laser and acupuncture. Treatments were started the day after surgery and continued until day 10. All the groups were subdivided into two equal groups which were sacrificed on days five and ten after surgery. Skin samples were taken for histopathological evaluations (H & E, Masson’s trichrome). The results showed that the quality of wound healing in groups C, D, E, F, G, and H, were statistically superior to the groups A, and B. Groups G and H which received both treatments, had better results than groups C, D, E, and F, which received only one of the treatments. Low-level laser treatment showed better results in comparison with acupuncture treatment. There was no significant difference between groups A and B. It can be concluded that both acupuncture and low-level laser has pro-healing properties on surgical wounds.
  • Ferulago angulata; a complementary therapy in testicular
           torsion–detorsion damage

    • Abstract: The present study was conducted to determine the protective influences of Ferulago angulata aqueous extract against testicular ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. Twenty-eight subjects were assigned randomly into four groups: (I) sham group, (II) torsion/detorsion (T/D) group, (III) T/D followed by treatment with F. angulata (200 mg/kg, IP), (IV) intact group with only 200 mg/kg F. angulata. T/D damage was induced by 2 hours of testis rotation 720° followed by 24 hours of reperfusion injury. After reperfusion period, biochemical and hormonal parameters were measured in the serum, epididymal sperms were collected for evaluation of sperm characteristics (count, motility, viability, and abnormal morphology rate), and testes were studied histopathologically. I/R injury was associated with significant reduction in count, viability, and all sperm kinematic parameters (P<0.05), which could be reversed significantly by F. angulata (P<0.05) (except for some kinematic parameters). Although the abnormal morphology rate of sperms was numerically higher in the T/D group in comparison to the sham and intact groups; the difference was not statistically significant. Histopathological assessments showed that F. angulata could significantly increase the Johnsen’s score, mean seminiferous tubular diameter, and germinal epithelial cell thickness in the treatment group compared to the T/D group (P<0.05). GPx, SOD, and testosterone were significantly reduced following torsion/detorsion compared to the sham group (P<0.05); and the reductions were prevented significantly by F. angulata (P<0.05) (except for SOD). MDA level was significantly increased in the T/D group in comparison to the sham and intact groups (P<0.05), which F. angulata was not able to reverse peroxidation index. The overall results of the research suggest that F. angulata extract can be a good natural alternative to testicular I/R injury.
  • Investigating the Effect of Pentoxifylline and Zinc Oxide Combination on
           Experimental Full-Thickness Wound Healing in Rats

    • Abstract: This paper aims to investigate the effect of topical application of pentoxifylline and zinc oxide combination on experimental full-thickness wound healing in rats. Forty-eight adult male Wistar rats weighing 250 to 300 g were randomly divided into four groups of 12: Control (C), Zinc oxide (Z), Pentoxifylline (P), and Zinc-Pentoxifylline (ZP). For topical use of pentoxifylline, the ointment was formulated as 5%. All rat were anesthetized by intraperitoneal administration of a combination of xylazine 2% and ketamine 10% and after transfer to the operating table, under aseptic conditions, using a sterile ruler and surgical razor, a 2×2 cm2 skin defect in the back was created. In order to manage the wound, each group received appropriate treatment. In the ZP group, the combination of pentoxifylline and zinc oxide was treated in a ratio of 1: 1. On days 7, 14, and 21 after facilitation, a subgroup of each main group was sampled, then the samples were examined macroscopically and microscopically. At the end of this period, the highest percentage of the healing, wound closure, and keratinocyte migration and the lowest inflammation belonged to the PZ group. The rate of inflammation and the number of inflammatory cells at the end of the period were lower in the ZP group than Z group and there was a statistically significant difference (p≤0.05). Overall, this study showed that wound healing is performed with better speed and quality following topical application of a combination of zinc oxide and pentoxifylline. However, more studies are needed to confirm this conclusion.
  • Ultrasonographic Finding of Unilateral Clinical Anophthalmia in a Puppy

    • Abstract: Anophthalmia refers to the most severe ocular congenital malformation that results from inadequate development of the primitive forebrain and is always associated with blindness. The exact etiology of anophthalmia is not well understood; however, heritable and environmental factors may be involved. A 2-month-old Asian Shepherd puppy was presented with the absence of one eye. The puppy was alert, responsive, and had a good body score. The eyelids with eyelashes and palpebral conjunctiva were bilaterally present. However, in the right eye, the palpebral fissure was narrow, and the orbit was shallow without a distinct globe. Further inspection revealed no ocular structures, although the left eye was ophthalmoscopically quite normal. Also, there were no cytologic characteristics of conjunctivitis in either eye. Using the transpalpebral ultrasonography technique, a semi-oval anechoic area without any obvious ocular chambers or structures was observed in the right eye, and finally, unilateral clinical anophthalmia was diagnosed. General physical examination revealed no other malformation. The long-term prognosis is favorable for this pup. However, surgical strategies (e.g., implants and expanders) can be used to improve cosmetic appearance.
  • Acute Equine Colic due to the Diaphragmatic Hernia: Two Cases

    • Abstract: Diaphragmatic hernias are an uncommon cause of abdominal pain in horses. The following case report describes a diaphragmatic hernia in 2 adult horses with signs of acute colic. A six-year-old stallion and a seven-year-old mare were referred to the emergency duty for severe abdominal pain; for a six-month period from late 2021 to early 2022. The horses were subjected to explorative laparotomy, which revealed a migration of the large colon associated with volvulus (in stallion); and small intestine protrusion (in mare) in thoracic space. Necropsy revealed a diaphragmatic chronic rupture (approximately 13 centimeters in diameter) in the left mid-region with the protrusion of the large colon in the thoracic cavity in the male horse; and a diaphragmatic acute rupture (approximately 3 centimeters in diameter) in the left dorsolateral region with the incarceration of jejunum in thoracic cavity in the mare. This case report demonstrated that a diaphragmatic hernia should be considered as a differential diagnosis in equine colic.
  • Comparison of Contrast-induced Gastrography with Iohexol, Iodixanol and
           Barium sulfate in Common Mynah bird (Acroidotheres Tristis)

    • Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the comparative study of contrast media for gastrography of mynah bird. This study was conducted on 12 adult male mynah birds. Using different contrast agents, all the birds were studied five times, with a minimum of two days of time interval between each study. Radiographic tests were performed 1, 5, 15, 30, 60, and 90 minutes after ingesting the contrast agent via using a gavage tract; imaging was performed at a time interval of 30 minutes and continued until the time when the contrast agent reached cloaca and was excreted. There was a statistically significant difference between the results of digestive system studies using Iodixanol, Iohexol, and barium sulfate in terms of mean scores of the contrast agent’s ability to fill different parts of the gastrointestinal tract, clarity of observations, and observing details of gastrointestinal tract at all times of radiography (P < 0.05). Iodixanol is less nephrotoxic and is a better contrast agent, however we do not recommend using Iodixanol and Iohexol diluted by water at a ratio of 1:1.
  • CT Anatomy of the Skull in Alborz Wild Sheep (O. o. arkali and O. o.

    • Abstract: Understanding the anatomical structures of endangered wildlife species is a real help for veterinarians in this field. The aim of this study was to determine the anatomy of the skull of this sheep, which is phenotypically similar to deer. In this study, the skulls of 6 male Alborz wild sheep, all alive, were examined. The examinations were performed using computed tomographic (CT) scans and radiographic images. It also processed and named the extracted images using RadiAnt and Photoshop software. Morphometric studies performed on the skull of this breed showed that the length, width, and height of the skull of wild Alborz rams were 25.28 ± 0.99, 12.34 ± 1.00, and 13.30 ± 0.63 cm, respectively. Measuring the volume of the head and nasal cavity in this sheep shows a volume of 1636.33 ± 73.34 and 177.08 ± 10.46 cm3. Also, the volume of the frontal and lacrimal sinuses, which were the largest and smallest sinuses in the skull of this breed, respectively, were 219.90 ± 8.92 and 4.37 ± 0.66 cm3. Frontal, maxillary, and lacrimal sinuses were observed like other ruminants. Contrary to the Egyptian sheep, Saanen, and Markhz goat, palatine and sphenoid sinuses were also observed in this wildlife. Also, unlike Egyptian sheep and like Sanan goats, Markhz goats, and Ile de France sheep, ventral conchal sinus was observed in this breed. Due to the study, CT scan and radiographic anatomy are important to investigate the characteristic features of the paranasal sinuses as well as their relations and communications with the other cavities in the head region of the Alborz wild sheep. Also, these features were very important pre‐requisites for diagnosing pathological conditions and clinical interference in the head region.
  • A review on wound healing with Iranian medicinal plants and microbial
           flora in veterinary medicine

    • Abstract: Medicinal plants were used as treatment many years ago, and now the raw materials of most medicines are obtained from plants. Recently, due to the lack of side effects, the variety of effective compounds in plants, the development of industries related to the cultivation of medicinal plants, the recommendations of the World Health Organization to use plants and several other reasons the use of medicinal plants has been widespreaded. Numerous studies have been performed to investigate the effects of medicinal plants and microbial flora on wound healing. Previous studies revealed the positive effects of medicinal plants on wound healing compared to other chemical drugs, and a significant reduction in inflammation, acceleration of the healing process and reduction of oxidative stress was observed following the use of herbal medicines. In this review, effects of the most important Iranian medicinal plants and microbial flora on wound healing in veterinary medicine have been investigated.
  • Atresia ani Type II with rectovaginal fistula in a 6-week old kitten

    • Abstract: Atresia ani is a developmental defect within the cloacal region, resulting in anal canal closure and abnormal routing of feces. there are four types of atresia ani including congenital anal stenosis (Type I), imperforate anus alone (Type II), imperforate anus with more cranial termination of the rectum as a blind pouch (Type III), Lack of contact between the cranial rectum, and terminal rectum (Type IV). Type II atresia ani is mostly combined with a rectovaginal fistula between the dorsal wall of the vagina and the ventral portion of the rectum. A 6 week old female Persian cat was presented with anorexia, depression, and voiding of feces through the vulva, diagnosed with Atresia ani type II associated with rectovaginal fistula which was confirmed by radiographic examination with contrast medium. Surgical correction was performed under general anesthesia. The cat was able to control defecation and start to gain weight and no long-term complications were observed.
  • Effect of Cinnamon Nanoparticles in Presence of HAMLET on the Healing of
           Wounds Infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa: An Animal Model Study

    • Abstract: The objective was to evaluate the ability of cinnamon nanoparticles (CNPs) in the healing of wounds with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAE) infection as well as HAMLET sensitization in rats. Fifty healthy male Wistar rats were used in this study. The rats were divided into 5 groups (n = 10), randomly. In the NORMAL group, no infected wounds were treated with a sterile solution of saline 0.9% (0.1 ml). In the PAE group, the wounds with Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection were only treated with a sterile solution of saline 0.9% (0.1 ml). In the PAE-HMLT group, HAMLET (100 µg) was used to treat infected wounds. In the PAE-CNM group, 1 mg/ml CNPs (0.1 ml) were applied topically to treat PAE-infected wounds. In the PAE-HMLT-CNM group, HAMLET (100 µg) and 1 mg/ml CNPs (0.1 ml) were applied topically to treat PAE-infected wounds. Microbiological examination, planimetric and biochemical showed a significant difference between rats in the PAE-HMT-CNM group in comparison with other groups (p < 0.05). In conclusion, CNPs could offer the potential to pay more attention to this harmless and easily available agent to be topically applied in wounds with infection.
  • Surgical management of pyometra infection in a pet rabbit

    • Abstract: A 3.5 year-old mixed breed pet female rabbit with 2.3 kg weight was referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the Shiraz University. The main complaint of the owner was abdominal distension. The peculiarity of the present report is which the patient had no mating or parturition antecedent according to its history. Based on diagnostic methods and clinical examination, presence of an enlarged organ containing fluid material and occupying most of the caudal abdomen led to the provisional diagnosis of pyometra. Exploratory laparotomy was performed under general anesthesia. After abdominal wall incision, the uterus was immediately evident and the uterine wall was over-distended and penetrated, with purulent material free in the abdominal cavity. Next, ovariohysterectomy was performed and abdominal incision was closed routinely. Based on a literature review, this is one of rare reports regarding pyometra in pet rabbits.
  • The Effects of Honey, Curcumin, Ginger, Nigella sativa and Their Mixture
           on the Radial Bone Defect Repair in Rat Model: Histological and
           Biomechanical Study

    • Abstract: Honey, curcumin, ginger, and Nigella sativa are known for their antioxidant, immune stimulation properties, and wound healing effects. This study was conducted to determine the effect of these compounds and their mixture on the bone healing of the radial bone defect model in rats. One hundred and ten radial bone defects in 55 healthy male rats were randomly divided into 11 groups (10 rats per group). Groups 1-5 received honey, curcumin, ginger, and Nigella sativa orally by gavage, and groups 6-10 received the same materials locally by rubbing them on the sutured skin. The bone repair effects of these materials were evaluated by histopathology and biomechanical examinations. Using honey, curcumin, ginger, and Nigella sativa exhibited a beneficial effect to promote bone healing in this study. The biomechanical and histopathologic evaluations showed that the honey (oral), the mixture of honey and curcumin (oral), and the mixture of honey and Nigella sativa (topical) groups exhibited significantly better results on the 52nd postoperative day compared to the other groups.
  • Use of Tie-in Fixation and Modified Poliglecaprone-25 Suture Cerclages in
           a Complex Femoral Diaphysis Fracture in a Black-Eared Opossum (Didelphis
           aurita): Case Report

    • Abstract: A juvenile opossum was found after an episode of trauma caused by a vehicular collision. In the emergency care, vital parameters and changes related to the trauma were measured, and it was not possible to verify any changes, other than a crepitation in the left femur. Radiographic examinations revealed a complex fracture in the femur, requiring surgical intervention. The animal was submitted to an anesthetic procedure using dexmedetomidine, ketamine, and isoflurane. Femur osteosynthesis was performed using the external fixation technique in tie-in configuration, associated with absorbable poliglecaprone 25 sutures modified cerclage. The post-surgical analgesia was performed with dipyrone, tramadol chloride, and meloxicam. After 40 days of care, including removal of fixation, healing, and rehabilitation, the animal was reintroduced to its natural habitat.
  • Evaluation of the Healing Properties of the Crude Extract of Ocimum
           Gratissimum Leaves on Excision Wound in Rabbit Bucks

    • Abstract: The wound-healing efficacy of the crude extract of Ocimum gratissimum leaf was evaluated in excision wound models. The parameters studied included; rate of wound contraction, period of complete epithelialisation in days, dermal toxicity and tensile strength of the excision wound. The means of wound area measurements among treatment animals at different time intervals were compared using one way ANOVA and post hoc test. The level of significance among the means was placed at p < 0.05. A significant wound healing efficacy was observed at 100% concentration, better than the Cicatrin wound healing effect. At the reconstituted concentrations of 25% and 50%, their efficacies were comparable to the reference drug used. The Ocimum gratissimum leaf crude extract at different reconstitutions was found to be very safe as no dermal toxicity or rash was recorded. The result showed that O. gratissimum possesses significant wound-healing activity which was evidenced by decrease in the period of epithelialisation, increase in the rate of wound contraction and skin-breaking tensile strength. It has been established that O. gratissimum contains alkaloids (anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties) as well as antimicrobial properties. These may be the lead to their wound healing effects. In conclusion, the use of O. gratissimum leaf crude extract at 100%, as a potent wound healing herb which reduces wound healing time and prevents the activities of micro-organism associated wound contamination with no dermal toxicity is hereby recommended. However, further studies need to be carried out to further expound the mechanism of action of O. gratissimum in wound healing as well as its systemic effect on animals.
  • Exploring the Effect of Botulinum Toxin A - Lidocaine on Experimental
           Abdominal Wall Defect Healing in Rats

    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Botulinum Toxin A (Botox) and lidocaine on the repair of abdominal muscle defects. This study was conducted on 40 rats in four groups. Animals during experimental abdominal wall defect creation and before closing the defect in the Botox group, 5 units of Botox, in the lidocaine group 1 ml of 1% lidocaine, in the Botox-lidocaine group 10 units of Botox with lidocaine with a final volume of 1 cc and in the control group received normal saline in a volume of 1 ml. Each group was divided into two subgroups. Each subgroup animal was sacrificed on days 6 and 12, respectively, after surgery, and after taking a sample, it was examined macroscopically and microscopically. In macroscopic evaluation on both days 6 and 12 after surgery, the highest muscle tension (stretching of the muscles in the nipple area and a significant reduction in abdominal volume) belonged to the normal saline group and the lowest to the Botox and Botox-lidocaine groups. In microscopy on day 6, in normal saline and lidocaine groups, a wider area of granulation tissue and a large number of inflammatory cells were observed, and in the Botox and Botox-lidocaine groups, a less limited amount of granulation tissue was observed. On day 12, in the control and lidocaine groups, a large level of granulation tissue and fibroblasts was observed, while in the Botox and Botox-lidocaine groups, a very small amount of connective tissue was seen at the incision site. Animals receiving normal saline had significantly more inflammation than the groups receiving Botox and Botox lidocaine. According to the results, it seems that topical administration of Botox-lidocaine combination can be a good solution to reduce suture tension and prevent rupture of abdominal sutures.
  • Protective Effects of Rosmarinic Acid on Testicular Torsion-Detorsion in
           an Animal Model

    • Abstract: Testicular torsion is a disorder that may cause infertility or subfertility in males. Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a natural polyphenol with potent antioxidant effects that its protective effects in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in the hepatic, renal, cerebral, and myocardial tissues was demonstrated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of rosmarinic acid on testicular torsion/detorsion. 20 healthy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham-operated, torsion/detorsion, rosmarinic acid 50 mg/kg, and rosmarinic acid 70 mg/kg. testicular torsion was performed for two hours and detorsion was maintained for two hours. Administration of rosmarinic acid was performed 30 min before detorsion in treatment groups. Sperm parameters (sperm motility and sperm concentration), oxidative stress biomarkers (MDA, GPx, and CAT), and histopathological damage were examined in all groups. Results indicated that testicular I/R significantly reduced sperm motility and sperm concentration compared to the sham group, while treatment with RA significantly increased motility. Testicular I/R significantly increased MDA level and reduced GPx and CAT levels in the T/D group compared to the sham group, whereas treatment with RA reduced MDA level and increased GPx and CAT levels. Histopathological damages in the T/D group were significantly higher than those in the sham group. RA treatment reduced pathological damages. In conclusion, rosmarinic acid improved sperm parameters, increased antioxidant activity, and reduced histopathological damages. Therefore, it is recommended for attenuating testicular damages.
  • Cataract extraction by Phacoemulsification procedure in a Hybrid Lion
           (Panthera leo persica) - A Case Report

    • Abstract: The medical record of a 25 year old male hybrid lion weighing 154 kg named Tippu, with a history of blindness in right eye since one year housed at Anna Zoological Park, Vandalur Zoo in Chennai was referred to Ophthalmology unit of Madras Veterinary College Teaching Hospital for expert opinion and treatment. As per the request from the zoo authority, a team of surgeons from Madras Veterinary College visited the Zoo. The lion, Tippu, weighing 154 kg, was immobilized with xylazine hydrochloride @1.5mg/kg body weight and ketamine hydrochloride @ 2.5mg/kg body weight intramuscularly were given by using a darting gun and a detailed ophthalmic and neurological examinations, ophthalmoscopy and tonometry were performed. The condition was diagnosed as a unilateral cataract of the right eye (OD) and the most appropriate surgical correction by Phacoemulsification method was advised. The lion was intubated with No.18 cuffed endotracheal tube and general anaesthesia was maintained with 2% Isoflurane in oxygen. The surgical procedure was carried out using a one-handed phacoemulsification and nucleus is fragmented into four pieces. At the end of the procedure yohimbine hydrochloride administered @ 0.1 mg/kg body weight intravenously. Mild fibrin deposition was noticed in the anterior chamber post operatively for four weeks, after which the lion showed an uneventful recovery.
  • Surgical Management of Complete Transverse Radioulnar Fracture in Congo
           African Grey Parrot

    • Abstract: A 10 month aged male Congo African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus) weighing 400 gm, with a history of collision with a ceiling fan, was presented to the Shahedul Alam Quadary Teaching Veterinary Hospital (SAQTVH), Chattogram Veterinary and Animal Sciences University (CVASU). On presentation, the bird was unable to fly and dropping of left wing. On physical examination, soft tissue swealing with reddish discoloration and crepitus was felt on palpation at radioulnar region. Radiographic examination revealed complete overriding transverse diaphyseal fracture of left radius and ulna. Under general anesthesia with diazepam and ketamine, retrograde intramedullary pinning was performed to stabilize ulnar fracture. Intramedullary pinning and application of bandage results bone healing at 65th post-operative day. The bird recovered with loss of flying ability due to slight malunion of fracture. The study suggests that, postoperative management is very essential for the successful outcome in radioulnar fracture management in birds with intramedullary pinning.
  • Death Due to Migration of a Wooden Skewer Foreign Body from the
           Gastrointestinal Tract to the Lung in a Dog

    • Abstract: Sharp wooden skewers can easily migrate from the gastrointestinal tract after ingestion and penetrate to abdominal and chest organs. Clinical signs can vary depending on the location of the foreign body. This report describes the death due to the penetration of a foreign body (kebab skewer) from the gastrointestinal tract into the lungs in a dog. A 6-month-old mixed-breed male dog weighing 16 kg was referred to the clinic due to severe dyspnea, anorexia, and diarrhea. The Physical examination showed a sharp increase in the number of breathing and severe dyspnea. Lateral thoracic radiography revealed the unilateral collapse of the caudal lobe of the lung and fluid accumulation or mass in the thorax. In order to obtain a dorsoventral radiograph, the dog was anesthetized using the diazepam-ketamine combination. Shortly after induction, the dog experienced cardiopulmonary arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation was not successful. At autopsy, a wooden kebab skewer with a length of about 15 cm was observed in the abdomen and chest of the animal. The importance of thorough physical examination and patient assessment before anesthetic induction or positioning for radiography, thoracocentesis, and provision of adequate ventilation and oxygenation are discussed.
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762

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