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  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 225 journals)
Showing 1 - 63 of 63 Journals sorted by number of followers
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 143)
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Veterinary Record     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Veterinary Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Australian Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Small Animal Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Equine Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Veterinary Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
New Zealand Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Veterinary and Comparative Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Anthrozoos : A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Research in Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Preventive Veterinary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Trends in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Equine Veterinary Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Veterinary Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Clinical Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Veterinary Parasitology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Nursing Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medical Diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Medicine International     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Research Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Topics in Companion Animal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Zoonoses and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Avian Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Health Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Irish Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Human & Veterinary Medicine - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Australian Equine Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Veterinary Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Medical Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
ILAR Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Veterinary Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Kenya Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Veterinary Medicine and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
VCOT Open     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advanced Research in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Theriogenology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Reproduction in Domestic Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
New Zealand Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Small Ruminant Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tropical Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Tanzania Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Pet Behaviour Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu dan Kesehatan Hewan (Veterinary Science and Medicine Journal)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias (Colombian journal of animal science and veterinary medicine)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Abanico Veterinario     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Veteriner     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Veteriner Udayana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Austral Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Science Development     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Medicine: Research and Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Livestock     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
veterinär spiegel     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Higiene e Sanidade Animal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Hellenic Veterinary Medical Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Research Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chilean Journal of Agricultural & Animal Sciences     Open Access  
CES Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia     Open Access  
Veterinaria México OA     Open Access  
Compendio de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Veterinary Surgery     Open Access  
Ciencia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Nepalese Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Sri Lanka Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Salud y Tecnología Veterinaria     Open Access  
Veterinary Parasitology : X     Open Access  
Jurnal Medik Veteriner     Open Access  
Tierärztliche Praxis Ausgabe K: Kleintiere / Heimtiere     Hybrid Journal  
Tierärztliche Praxis Ausgabe G: Großtiere / Nutztiere     Hybrid Journal  
Van Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Rassegna di Diritto, Legislazione e Medicina Legale Veterinaria     Open Access  
Veterinaria (Montevideo)     Open Access  
SVU-International Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Matrix Science Medica     Open Access  
Veterinary Journal of Mehmet Akif Ersoy University / Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Analecta Veterinaria     Open Access  
Veterinarski Glasnik     Open Access  
Medicina Veterinária (UFRPE)     Open Access  
Veterinaria     Open Access  
Jurnal Sain Veteriner     Open Access  
International Journal of Tropical Veterinary and Biomedical Research     Open Access  
Revista de Ciência Veterinária e Saúde Pública     Open Access  
Jurnal Medika Veterinaria     Open Access  
Veterinary Parasitology : Regional Studies and Reports     Full-text available via subscription  
Revue Vétérinaire Clinique     Full-text available via subscription  
Folia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Science and Animal Health     Open Access  
FAVE Sección Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Wartazoa. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Indonesia Medicus Veterinus     Open Access  
Spei Domus     Open Access  
Revista de Educação Continuada em Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access  
Revista Veterinaria     Open Access  
Journal of the Selva Andina Research Society     Open Access  
Bangladesh Veterinarian     Open Access  
Journal of Buffalo Science     Hybrid Journal  
Revista de Ciências Agroveterinárias     Open Access  
Intas Polivet     Full-text available via subscription  
Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi / Atatürk University Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Revue Marocaine des Sciences Agronomiques et Vétérinaires     Open Access  
Acta Veterinaria     Open Access  
Nigerian Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Veterinária     Open Access  
Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde     Hybrid Journal  
Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access  
Macedonian Veterinary Review     Open Access  
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú     Open Access  
Revista Complutense de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Medical Mycology Case Reports     Open Access  
Veterinaria México     Open Access  
Revista de Salud Animal     Open Access  
Revista de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revista MVZ Córdoba     Open Access  
Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
InVet     Open Access  
Zeitschrift für Ganzheitliche Tiermedizin     Hybrid Journal  
team.konkret     Open Access  
pferde spiegel     Hybrid Journal  
kleintier konkret     Hybrid Journal  

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Iranian Journal of Veterinary Surgery
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2008-3033
Published by Iranian Veterinary Surgery Association Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Comparative Study of Low-Level Laser, Acupuncture, and Liquid Stitch
           Effects on Surgical Wound Healing in Rat Model

    • Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of low-level laser, acupuncture, and liquid stitch on surgical wound healing in a rat model. 40 male Wistar rats (200-300 gr) were used in this study. Under general anesthesia (ketamine/xylazine), surgical preparation on both sides of the spine was performed and a skin incision was made on each side (1.5 cm). 40 wounds were closed by 3-0 polypropylene suture material in a simple interrupted pattern and half with liquid stitch. 80 wounds were divided into eight groups of ten: in groups A and B wounds were closed with polypropylene suture material and liquid stitch with no other treatment. In groups C and D wounds closed with suture materials, and liquid stitch, respectively, received acupuncture. In groups E and F, wounds closed with suture materials, and liquid stitch, respectively, received a low-level laser. In groups G and H wounds were closed with suture materials and liquid stitch, respectively, and received both laser and acupuncture. Treatments were started the day after surgery and continued until day 10. All the groups were subdivided into two equal groups which were sacrificed on days five and ten after surgery. Skin samples were taken for histopathological evaluations (H&E, Masson Trichrome). The results showed that the quality of wound healing in groups C, D, E, F, G, and H, were statistically superior to the groups A, and B. Groups G and H which received both treatments, had better results than groups C, D, E, and F, which received only one of the treatments. Low-level laser treatment showed better results in comparison with acupuncture treatment. There was no significant difference between groups A and B. It can be concluded that both acupuncture and low-level laser has pro-healing properties on surgical wounds.
       
  • Evaluation of the Healing Properties of the Crude Extract of Ocimum
           Gratissimum Leaves on Excision Wound in Rabbit Bucks

    • Abstract: The wound-healing efficacy of the crude extract of Ocimum gratissimum leaf was evaluated in excision wound models. The parameters studied included; rate of wound contraction, period of complete epithelialisation in days, dermal toxicity and tensile strength of the excision wound. The means of wound area measurements among treatment animals at different time intervals were compared using one way ANOVA and post hoc test. The level of significance among the means was placed at p < 0.05. A significant wound healing efficacy was observed at 100% concentration, better than the Cicatrin wound healing effect. At the reconstituted concentrations of 25% and 50%, their efficacies were comparable to the reference drug used. The Ocimum gratissimum leaf crude extract at different reconstitutions was found to be very safe as no dermal toxicity or rash was recorded. The result showed that O. gratissimum possesses significant wound-healing activity which was evidenced by decrease in the period of epithelialisation, increase in the rate of wound contraction and skin-breaking tensile strength. It has been established that O. gratissimum contains alkaloids (anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties) as well as antimicrobial properties. These may be the lead to their wound healing effects. In conclusion, the use of O. gratissimum leaf crude extract at 100%, as a potent wound healing herb which reduces wound healing time and prevents the activities of micro-organism associated wound contamination with no dermal toxicity is hereby recommended. However, further studies need to be carried out to further expound the mechanism of action of O. gratissimum in wound healing as well as its systemic effect on animals.
       
  • Atypical Megaesophagus Caused by a Nasopharyngeal Polyp in a Cat: A Case
           Report

    • Abstract: A 6-month-old intact male domestic shorthair cat presented with a history of aphonia, vomiting, regurgitation, chronic purulent nasal discharge, and recurrent signs of respiratory infection. Radiographic examination revealed alveolar lung pattern and generalized megaesophagus at the thoracic and caudal cervical region. Additional examinations by computed tomography and virtual tracheoscopy revealed a large mass on the nasopharyngeal area that occupied about 90% of the tracheal lumen. With the aid of tracheostomy, the mass was removed with traction and sharp excision. According to histopathological findings the mass was diagnosed as nasopharyngeal polyp. A recheck examination performed a week later and the clinical manifestations of the megaesophagus were resolved and also three years later during a phone call, his owner reported he was doing well. To the best of the knowledge of the authors, megaesophagus following nasopharyngeal polyp is only reported in three other cats.
       
  • Exploring the Effect of Botulinum Toxin A - Lidocaine on Experimental
           Abdominal Wall Defect Healing in Rats

    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Botulinum Toxin A (Botox) and lidocaine on the repair of abdominal muscle defects. This study was conducted on 40 rats in four groups. Animals during experimental abdominal wall defect creation and before closing the defect in the Botox group, 5 units of Botox, in the lidocaine group 1 ml of 1% lidocaine, in the Botox-lidocaine group 10 units of Botox with lidocaine with a final volume of 1 cc and in the control group received normal saline in a volume of 1 ml. Each group was divided into two subgroups. Each subgroup animal was sacrificed on days 6 and 12, respectively, after surgery, and after taking a sample, it was examined macroscopically and microscopically. In macroscopic evaluation on both days 6 and 12 after surgery, the highest muscle tension (stretching of the muscles in the nipple area and a significant reduction in abdominal volume) belonged to the normal saline group and the lowest to the Botox and Botox-lidocaine groups. In microscopy on day 6, in normal saline and lidocaine groups, a wider area of granulation tissue and a large number of inflammatory cells were observed, and in the Botox and Botox-lidocaine groups, a less limited amount of granulation tissue was observed. On day 12, in the control and lidocaine groups, a large level of granulation tissue and fibroblasts was observed, while in the Botox and Botox-lidocaine groups, a very small amount of connective tissue was seen at the incision site. Animals receiving normal saline had significantly more inflammation than the groups receiving Botox and Botox lidocaine. According to the results, it seems that topical administration of Botox-lidocaine combination can be a good solution to reduce suture tension and prevent rupture of abdominal sutures.
       
  • Protective Effects of Rosmarinic Acid on Testicular Torsion-Detorsion in
           an Animal Model

    • Abstract: Testicular torsion is a disorder that may cause infertility or subfertility in males. Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a natural polyphenol with potent antioxidant effects that its protective effects in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in the hepatic, renal, cerebral, and myocardial tissues was demonstrated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of rosmarinic acid on testicular torsion/detorsion. 20 healthy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham-operated, torsion/detorsion, rosmarinic acid 50 mg/kg, and rosmarinic acid 70 mg/kg. testicular torsion was performed for two hours and detorsion was maintained for two hours. Administration of rosmarinic acid was performed 30 min before detorsion in treatment groups. Sperm parameters (sperm motility and sperm concentration), oxidative stress biomarkers (MDA, GPx, and CAT), and histopathological damage were examined in all groups. Results indicated that testicular I/R significantly reduced sperm motility and sperm concentration compared to the sham group, while treatment with RA significantly increased motility. Testicular I/R significantly increased MDA level and reduced GPx and CAT levels in the T/D group compared to the sham group, whereas treatment with RA reduced MDA level and increased GPx and CAT levels. Histopathological damages in the T/D group were significantly higher than those in the sham group. RA treatment reduced pathological damages. In conclusion, rosmarinic acid improved sperm parameters, increased antioxidant activity, and reduced histopathological damages. Therefore, it is recommended for attenuating testicular damages.
       
  • Evaluation of Two Different Ovariohysterectomy Approaches on Alpha-1-Acid
           Glycoprotein (AGP) Level in Cats

    • Abstract: This study aimed to compare acute phase proteins in cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy (OHE) by median celiotomy or left flank laparotomy approach. Nineteen native intact queens were used. Cats were randomly divided into four groups for midline (Test, n=5 and control, n=5) and left flank (Test, n=5 and control, n=4) ovariohysterectomy. Blood samples were taken immediately before surgery, 24, 48, 72 hours, and 7 days after surgery for assessment of Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), total protein, and albumin values. According to the results, standard and left flank OHE approaches increased AGP levels, but no significant difference was observed compared to the control group (p > 0.05). No significant difference was observed on serum total protein and albumin levels using standard and left flank OHE approaches compared to the control group (p > 0.05). The results suggested two surgical procedures had the same effect on acute-phase proteins in ovariohysterectomized cats.
       
  • Computed Tomographic and Morphometric Study of Lumbosacral and Coccygeal
           Vertebrae in Healthy White New Zealand Rabbit (Oryctolagus Cuniculus)

    • Abstract: Rabbits are commonly used in researches but despite their wide usage, knowledge of normal structure of various parts of lumbosacral and coccygeal vertebrae with computed tomography (SC) is obscure. On the other hand, scrutinizing of structures in these regions in their natural status can bring about more accurate diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for clinicians and surgeons. The goal of this study was to provide an exhaustive descriptive and morphometric assessment of lumbosacral and coccygeal vertebrae in rabbits with computed tomography. In this article morphometric parameters in 2D CT images of 10 healthy, mature, white New Zealand rabbits were measured. End plate height (EPH) had no significant difference through lumbosacral and coccygeal vertebrae but other parameters such as vertebral body height (VBH), spinous process height (SPH), transverse process length (TPL), transverse process width (TPW), spinous process angle (SPA), transverse process angle (TPA) and vertebral body length (VBL) had significant differences. Spinal canal depth (SCD) had an invariable measure from the first lumbar vertebra up to the third sacral vertebra and decreased at the location of the fourth sacral vertebra and was invariable up to the second coccygeal vertebra. Pedicle width (PDW) had an invariable measure from the first cervical vertebra up to the second coccygeal vertebra. In conclusion computed tomographic anatomy of lumbosacral and coccygeal vertebrae in white New Zealand rabbits were evaluated and different parts of vertebrae were described.
       
  • Anatomical and Normal 3D CT-Scan Study of the Vertebral Column and the
           Shell of the European Pond Turtle (Emys orbicularis)

    • Abstract: Limited information about the skeletal anatomical features of the European pond turtle, one of the species of turtles in Iran, is available. Given that performing clinical examinations as well using imaging techniques require complete anatomical information of the animal, it is essential to study these features in various researches. This study was done to provide complete anatomical information of the vertebrae and different shell parts in European pond turtles, as well as their normal 3D CT-Scan images in both flexed and extended neck positions. This study was performed on 10 European pond turtles (Emys orbicularis). CT-Scan images were taken from each sample and in the three-dimensional reconstruction of the images, different patterns were used. 8 cervical vertebrae, 10 dorsal vertebrae, 2 sacral vertebrae, and 25 caudal vertebrae were observed in European pond turtles. The cervical vertebrae were highly mobile and there were no cervical ribs. Due to the fusion of the dorsal vertebrae, there were no intervertebral foramina in this section, but very small lateral vertebral foramina were visible. These foramina were formed in the last four dorsal vertebrae at the fusion site and they were larger than the foramina of the cranial vertebrae. According to the results of this study, it can be concluded that the use of diagnostic techniques such as a three-dimensional CT-Scan is very useful in the study of skeletons. The correct direction and position of the bones can be easily determined using this technique. Part of the turtle`s ability to contract the neck is due to the special structure of the articular processes of the last two cervical vertebrae and the first dorsal vertebra. One of the most important adaptations in the evolution of the special structure of the seventh and eighth vertebrae of the neck and the way they are articulated.
       
  • Cataract extraction by Phacoemulsification procedure in a Hybrid Lion
           (Panthera leo persica) - A Case Report

    • Abstract: The medical record of a 25 year old male hybrid lion weighing 154 kg named Tippu, with a history of blindness in right eye since one year housed at Anna Zoological Park, Vandalur Zoo in Chennai was referred to Ophthalmology unit of Madras Veterinary College Teaching Hospital for expert opinion and treatment. As per the request from the zoo authority, a team of surgeons from Madras Veterinary College visited the Zoo. The lion, Tippu, weighing 154 kg, was immobilized with xylazine hydrochloride @1.5mg/kg body weight and ketamine hydrochloride @ 2.5mg/kg body weight intramuscularly were given by using a darting gun and a detailed ophthalmic and neurological examinations, ophthalmoscopy and tonometry were performed. The condition was diagnosed as a unilateral cataract of the right eye (OD) and the most appropriate surgical correction by Phacoemulsification method was advised. The lion was intubated with No.18 cuffed endotracheal tube and general anaesthesia was maintained with 2% Isoflurane in oxygen. The surgical procedure was carried out using a one-handed phacoemulsification and nucleus is fragmented into four pieces. At the end of the procedure yohimbine hydrochloride administered @ 0.1 mg/kg body weight intravenously. Mild fibrin deposition was noticed in the anterior chamber post operatively for four weeks, after which the lion showed an uneventful recovery.
       
  • Babesiosis Causes Reproductive Dysfunction in Splenectomized Mice: A Proof
           of Concept in Vitro Study

    • Abstract: Babesias as the second common blood parasite in mammals after trypanosomes have aroused wide concern particularly due to having zoonotic potential. This study was implemented to scrutinize epididymal sperms characteristics and in vitro fertilizing (IVF) capacity as well as subsequent pre-implantation embryos developmental potential following experimental babesiosis (EB) induction by Babesia bigemina in mice. In this experimental study, twenty-four adult male mice were randomly categorized into four equal groups including untreated control, sham, splenectomy, and EB. Experimental babesiosis was induced in splenectomized mice through 2.0 ml intraperitoneal injection of an infected heparinized blood sample belonging to a cow with confirmed B. bigemina infection. All animals were euthanized after 5 days and epididymal sperms characteristics and IVF abilities along with early embryo development were analyzed following infection confirmation. Experimental babesiosis resulted in epididymal sperms quantity, quality, and IVF potential reduction as well as pre-implantation embryos developmental retardation compared to control, sham, and splenectomy groups. These findings revealed that B. bigemina infection can result in male subfertility and/or infertility in mice leading to pre-implantation embryos developmental arrest.
       
  • Measurement of Echocardiographic Ejection Fraction Reference Values and
           Evaluation between Body Weight and Ejection Fraction in Domestic Rabbits
           (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    • Abstract: Domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) are an excellent model for cardiovascular research because the size of these animals is more suitable for study and experimentation than smaller animals. One of the most important diagnostic imaging methods is echocardiography, which is used today to evaluate the anatomical and functional cardiovascular system and is one of the most accurate and sensitive non-invasive methods for examining heart disease. Ventricular function indices can be assessed with cardiac imaging techniques. One of these important cardiac parameters is the ejection fraction, which has a valuable place along with other involved parameters. Ejection fraction is a measure of the percentage of blood that comes out of the heart with each contraction. For this study, 100 adult and young standard domestic rabbits (in Iran) six months to one year old and in both sexes (50 female rabbits and 50 male rabbits) without anesthesia and sedation were used. In this study, the mean Ejection fraction in domestic rabbits studied in males was 58.753 ± 6.889 and females 61.397 ± 6.530, which are comparable to the items mentioned in the valid books and the average size of EF fraction measured in this study, there is no significant difference between this research and other research. There was no significant difference in the percentage of Ejection fraction between most weight groups, but there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) in weight groups (2161–2320 gr) and (2481–2640 gr). Echocardiographic EF reference values for domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) non-anesthetized with are presented providing reference values for future studies.
       
  • Surgical Management of Complete Transverse Radioulnar Fracture in Congo
           African Grey Parrot

    • Abstract: A 10 month aged male Congo African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus) weighing 400 gm, with a history of collision with a ceiling fan, was presented to the Shahedul Alam Quadary Teaching Veterinary Hospital (SAQTVH), Chattogram Veterinary and Animal Sciences University (CVASU). On presentation, the bird was unable to fly and dropping of left wing. On physical examination, soft tissue swealing with reddish discoloration and crepitus was felt on palpation at radioulnar region. Radiographic examination revealed complete overriding transverse diaphyseal fracture of left radius and ulna. Under general anesthesia with diazepam and ketamine, retrograde intramedullary pinning was performed to stabilize ulnar fracture. Intramedullary pinning and application of bandage results bone healing at 65th post-operative day. The bird recovered with loss of flying ability due to slight malunion of fracture. The study suggests that, postoperative management is very essential for the successful outcome in radioulnar fracture management in birds with intramedullary pinning.
       
  • Effects of Intraperitoneal Administration of Polyethylene Glycol Solution
           on Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rat Testicular Torsion and Detorsion
           Model

    • Abstract: Testicular torsion and detorsion are significant clinical issues for infertile men. Torsion of the spermatic cord is an emergency condition resulting from the rotation of the testis and epididymis around the axis of the spermatic cord. A rat testis model was used to assess the effects of polyethylene glycol on ischemia-reperfusion injury. Twenty-four healthy male Wistar rats were used. The rats were included and randomized into four investigational groups (n = 6): Group Sham: Merely laparotomy was implemented. Group Ischemia: Merely 3-hour interval ischemia was done. Group IS/REP: A 3-hour interval ischemia, 3-hour reperfusion for left testis, one-week reperfusion for right testis were done and 20 µl normal saline was administered intraperitoneally (IP) 30 min before termination of ischemia. Group IS/REP/PEG: The same as group IS/REP as well as 20 µl PEG solution 3% (IP) 30 min before termination of ischemia. Evaluations were based on biochemical analyses and sperm parameters morphometry. Polyethylene glycol enhanced antioxidant activity and quality of sperm parameters (p < 0.05). In conclusion, polyethylene glycol could be helpful in minimizing ischemia-reperfusion injury in testicular tissue exposed to ischemia
       
  • The Effects of Olive Leaf Extract Ointment on Third-Degree Burn in Rat

    • Abstract: Due to the prevalence of burns and the necessity of effective treatment with low and optimal complications, in the present study, the efficacy of olive leaf extract ointment was evaluated as a therapeutic substance for burn wounds. Moreover, the healing effects of olive leaf extract ointment were compared to Silver Sulfadiazine. 36 rats were used in the present study. To create a burn wound, a rectangular piece of copper (2 x 1 cm) was put in 94º C water for 20 minutes and then placed on the rats’ skin for 30 seconds. Then, the rats were randomly divided into three groups; 1) Sham group: Rats did not receive any treatment and just the wound was washed with distilled water. 2) Control group: In this group rats were treated with silver sulfadiazine. 3) OLE group: 10% olive leave extract ointment was employed to treat the wounds. Wounds were macroscopically examined during days 4, 7, 14, and 21. Histopathological assessments were performed on days 4, 7, 14, and 21 in various studied groups. Results revealed that wound contraction was higher in the OLE group compared to the sham and control groups and histopathological examinations indicated that OLE improved wound healing in comparison to the sham group.
       
  • Death Due to Migration of a Wooden Skewer Foreign Body from the
           Gastrointestinal Tract to the Lung in a Dog

    • Abstract: Sharp wooden skewers can easily migrate from the gastrointestinal tract after ingestion and penetrate to abdominal and chest organs. Clinical signs can vary depending on the location of the foreign body. This report describes the death due to the penetration of a foreign body (kebab skewer) from the gastrointestinal tract into the lungs in a dog. A 6-month-old mixed-breed male dog weighing 16 kg was referred to the clinic due to severe dyspnea, anorexia, and diarrhea. The Physical examination showed a sharp increase in the number of breathing and severe dyspnea. Lateral thoracic radiography revealed the unilateral collapse of the caudal lobe of the lung and fluid accumulation or mass in the thorax. In order to obtain a dorsoventral radiograph, the dog was anesthetized using the diazepam-ketamine combination. Shortly after induction, the dog experienced cardiopulmonary arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation was not successful. At autopsy, a wooden kebab skewer with a length of about 15 cm was observed in the abdomen and chest of the animal. The importance of thorough physical examination and patient assessment before anesthetic induction or positioning for radiography, thoracocentesis, and provision of adequate ventilation and oxygenation are discussed.
       
  • Radiographic and Histopathologic Evidences of Movement versus
           Immobilization Effects on Enthesis Formation in Rabbits

    • Abstract: Enthesis joins tendon, ligament, or joint capsule to the bone, which are two very different tissues. As a result, it is more prone to stress and increased risk of rupture. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the role of limb movement or immobilization in enthesis healing after surgical repair and found out if radiography could be a reliable method for determining its prognosis. Fourteen New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into two groups. After detaching the Achilles tendon from the bone surface, the tendon was re-attached to the bone with a modified Kessler suture pattern. The limb of group 1 rabbits was externally fixed with the fiberglass cast. In group 2, however, no cast was used. Radiographs were taken after surgery and in weeks 2, 4, 6, and 8 post-operation. Samples were taken from the area after 8 weeks and stained by the hematoxylin-eosin method. The results were reported descriptively. Bone growth, increased chondrocytes in the cartilaginous region, and increased fibroblasts and fibrocytes were seen in group 1. While erosion, collagen fibers regularity, and tissue maturity were more predominant in group 2. Although early limb movement during the enthesis healing period helps to increase the regularity of collagen fibers in the tendinous zone of the enthesis, it does not increase the amount of callus in the bone and increases the risk of bone erosions and even fractures. While stabilizing the limb in the first two months of enthesis healing protects the bone against the forces and helps bone formation, which has a positive role in healing the enthesis.
       
  • Cranium Bifidum and Meningocele in the Caudal Aspect of a Lamb Head

    • Abstract: Meningocele is a congenital defect defined as a herniation of dura through the defect of cranial bone (cranium bifidum) with an accumulation of CSF in it. This anomaly has been described in calf, lamb, foal, piglet, dog, and cat. The etiology of meningocele is unknown but genetic and environmental factors may cause meningocele in lambs. A seven-day-old female Kurdish lamb with a congenital mass (8 cm in diameter) in the caudal part of its head was referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of Urmia University. The lamb was lateral recumbent and the vital signs were in the normal range. Symptoms of pain and paddling were revealed while manipulating the mass. The fluid obtained from the mass was examined under a microscope and showed no signs of bacteria or inflammatory cells. Total serum protein was 8.9 g/dL and mean platelet volume (MPV) was 2.5 fl and other blood parameters were normal. In radiography, there was a bone defect in the skull and congenital cranium bifidum and meningocele were confirmed. The meningocele mass was removed with surgery and the skin was stitched. The clinical condition of the lamb did not improve after surgery. The lamb had died 5 days after surgery. This report presents the clinical findings and radiographs of cranium bifidum in a Kurdish lamb. The prognosis for surgical treatment is poor in cases where the animal has not been able to stand and suckle since birth.
       
  • A Rare Case of Esophageal Diverticulum with Unusual Foreign Bodies in a
           Dog

    • Abstract: A two-year-old, Mongrel, intact male dog was presented to Madras Veterinary College Teaching Hospital with a complaint of postprandial regurgitation that was repeated at each meal. On physical examination, the animal was below ideal weight and with mild respiratory distress. It was suspected of megaesophagus. Thoracic contrast radiography revealed the presence of an esophageal diverticulum along with foreign bodies at the level of the base of the heart. The diverticulum was surgically corrected and the animal made an uneventful recovery. Six months follow-up did not show any recurrence of symptoms. This paper describes an acquired esophageal diverticulum in a dog. Diverticulectomy is an effective surgical technique to remove a large esophageal diverticulum and can be performed with good outcomes.
       
  • Cervical Intramuscular Lipoma in a Donkey (Equus asinus)- A Case Report

    • Abstract: Cancer is an uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells. It is found in animals as well as humans. There are many different types of cancer that are found in animals, symptoms are often similar to those in people. An 8-year-old male donkey was referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital and examined for cylinder-like dense mass that was found on the top of the cervical region and extended from the dorsal part of the base of the ears to withers. Radiographic evaluation of the cervical region was demonstrated that the mass was well-demarcated soft tissue opacity in dorsal cervical vertebrae. Ultrasonographic experimentation display a well circumscribe hyperechoic triangular shape mass with fat echogenicity in the sagittal plane without any vascularization. Surgical exploration of the mass indicated fusiform to cylindrical, well-demarcated, and soft tissue in yellow color. The microscopic finding showed that the tumor cells were identical to those in normal fat tissue and massive vacuoles exchange the cytoplasm with peripheralization of the nuclei. Necrosis and inflammation were not observed, while, dystrophic calcification and fibrosis were detected. Based on the aforesaid macro-, microscopic and histopathologic findings, Lipoma was recognized. Nevertheless, no treatment was performed for this case due to the large volume of the mass.
       
  • Coronal Rhytidectomy for Correction of Bilateral Superior Entropion in
           Dogs with Redundant Eyebrow Droop - A Review of Two Cases

    • Abstract: Various degrees of entropion defects with redundant skin folds due to conformational defects are common in Chow Chow and Shar Pei breeds of dogs. The irritation caused by the eyelid and hairs on the conjunctiva results in lacrimation and blepharospasm. In severe cases, as the dogs reach 7-8 months of age the complications of this extreme entropion result in a corneal ulcer. Temporary tacking of the facial folds was resorted to augment the corneal healing and to assess the size of the skin to be removed later. Surgical excision of wrinkles - rhytidectomy was done as radical surgery and was found satisfactory. The area of natural tension lines along the wrinkles in the coronal region was marked before excision and for a good cosmetic outcome. This paper describes the need for a rhytidectomy -excision of large facial skin folds- in Chow Chow and Shar Pei breeds of dogs to correct bilateral superior total entropion
       
 
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