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Nepalese Veterinary Journal
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2091-0290
Published by Nepal Journals Online Homepage  [155 journals]
  • Editorial

    • Authors: S Karki
      Pages: II - III
      Abstract: Not available
      PubDate: 2023-06-17
      DOI: 10.3126/nvj.v38i1.55538
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 1 (2023)
  • Safety and Immunogenicity of ND Vaccines Used in Nepal

    • Authors: S Marahatta, N Upadhyaya, S Shah, S Sedhai, P Sharma, S Dhakal
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Viral infections, including Newcastle disease (ND), constitute a major health problem in the rapidly growing poultry industry of Nepal. Despite regular vaccination in the commercial farms, ND virus (NDV) outbreaks are frequently reported raising concern over the safety and immunogenicity of live-attenuated vaccines being used. This study was performed to compare the safety and immunogenicity of four commercially available ND vaccines in Nepal after administration at recommended (1X) and higher (10X) dose. There was no safety concern associated with the use of lentogenic live-attenuated ND vaccines even at higher dose. A varying degree of antibody response was observed at recommended and higher doses with the thermostable I-2 vaccine outperforming other groups. A higher dose did not improve antibody response except for the F1 vaccine. To prevent widespread outbreaks in future, regular molecular surveillance to identify the circulating strains of NDV together with the periodic evaluation of immunogenicity and protective efficacy of commercial vaccines is necessary in Nepal.
      PubDate: 2023-06-17
      DOI: 10.3126/nvj.v38i1.55539
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 1 (2023)
  • Prevalence of Gastro-intestinal Helminthiasis in Cattle of Madi Valley,

    • Authors: R Bastakoti, SP Paudel, A Pandey, MP Acharya
      Pages: 12 - 19
      Abstract: Cattle is one of the leading species of domestic livestock in Nepal. The helminthic diseases are common in livestock with varied occurrence. This study was carried out to find the prevalence and risk factor associated with gastro-intestinal helminth parasites in 304 fecal samples of cattle of Madi Valley, Chitwan, Nepal. Rectal sample were collected in zip lock plastic bag containing in 10% formalin and preserved in refrigerator before examination. Sedimentation and floatation techniques were used for the detection of helminth parasites. The overall prevalence of gastro-intestinal helminth was found to be 51.32%. The parasitic infection of trematode was 39%, cestode 13% and nematode 48%. In the trematode group, Fasciola sp. 4.61%, Paramphistomum sp. 15.13%, Dicrocoelium sp. 1.64%, Schistosoma sp. 0.66% and Bilharzia sp. 0.99% were prevalent. Among cestode, only Moniezia sp. was observed with infection rate of 7.89%. Nematode included Strongyloides sp. 3.95%, Trichostrongylus sp. 7.24%, Toxocara sp. 3.95%, Oesophagostomum sp. 1.97%, Haemonchus sp. 4.28%, Cooperia sp. 1.97%, Bunostomum sp 0.66%, Nematodirus sp 0.99% and others 3.29%. Mixed infections were observed in 17% of positive samples. Sex and age group showed statistically significant difference. Male have higher prevalence than that of female (P<0.05). Potential risk factor like farmer’s group, water source, body condition score, grazing and rearing system, purpose of animal rearing and last date of drenching showed significant association on prevalence of parasite. Cattle of Madi valley, Chitwan had shown wide range of helminthiasis in cattle.
      PubDate: 2023-06-17
      DOI: 10.3126/nvj.v38i1.55791
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 1 (2023)
  • Study on Productive and Morpholgical traits of Goat Kids in different
           Ecozones of Rolpa district

    • Authors: MH Azad, M Dahal, MS Ali
      Pages: 20 - 31
      Abstract: Goat is a domesticated small ruminant, reared by small farmers across the country primarily for meat production. Productivity of goat is often low, which could be related to several genetic and non-genetic factors. A field study was carried out to characterize, evaluate and estimate the effect of non-genetic factors on the hill goat kids during December, 2015 to August 2016 in different eco-zones of Rolpa district, mid-west Nepal. Altogether150 goat kids were selected for this study. Morphological attributes productive performances based on field monitoring and measurements within different altitudes of Rolpa were collected. Least square analysis was performed using Harvey (1990) computer software package, and means were compared using DMRT. The mean body weight of goat kids at birth, pre-weaning, weaning at 5 months’ age were 2.62, 6.34, 10.15 and 13.87 kg respectively. Birth weight of kids significantly differed with respect to altitude(P<0.01). Coat colour (P<0.05) of does and parity (P<0.001) of dams. Similarly, kidding rates of does significantly differed (P<0.05) with respect to colour and altitude. Body weight of the kid at weaning were significantly (P<0.05)correlated to body length, heart girth and wither height. Thus, the results of this study suggest that the performance of low altitude goat flocks was better than mid and high altitude goat flocks in Rolpa district in terms of production and reproduction traits. The selection of the best performing kids for higher weight gain could be done on the basis of both birth and weaning weights. This result could be attributed to superior genotype along with better management practices adopted by the farmers in Rolpa district.
      PubDate: 2023-06-17
      DOI: 10.3126/nvj.v38i1.55811
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 1 (2023)
  • Antibiotic Residue in Raw Milk Collected from Dairy Farms and Markets in

    • Authors: S Pokharel, S Sedhai, R Thakur, MN Gautam, D Aryal, N Upadhyaya
      Pages: 32 - 40
      Abstract: Antibiotic residue in food has been a growing public health problem due to the increasing global threats of antimicrobial resistance. Animal products including milk and meats might alos contain residues of antibiotics as administering antibiotics in animals to treat infection is a common practice. However, the level of the presence of residues are not frequently quantified in Nepal. The objective of this study is to estimate the level of residues in milk collected from dairy farms and markets. A total of 935 raw milk samples were collected from 14 districts of 5 provinces namely Koshi, Madhesh, Bagmati, Gandaki and Lumbini province. Samples were tested at the Veterinary Standards and Drug Regulatory Laboratory (VSDRL) from June 2021 to Dec 2022 first using Rapid Test Kit followed by Gentamicin ELISA Kit for quantification. The result showed antimicrobial residue was present in 1.6% of the milk samples (15/935). On further quantification with ELISA, only 4 samples (0.42%) were positive for Gentamicin antibiotic which were below the MRL level. Extensive research with larger sample size and national representative samples are needed to understand the exact scenario of antibiotic residue in milk.
      PubDate: 2023-06-17
      DOI: 10.3126/nvj.v38i1.55814
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 1 (2023)
  • Observation of Rearing System of Small Ruminants in Jumla District

    • Authors: RP Sah, MP Yadav, S Kanu
      Pages: 41 - 46
      Abstract: Small ruminant production is one of the main sources of meat in Jumla district and contributes in the food security of the nation. A study was carried out at Guthichaur and surrounding areas of Jumla district to observe the rearing system and management practices of small ruminant. Twenty farmers from Guthichaur, Jumla with a flock size of 100 to 350 animals were interviewed about the rearing system, management practices, and health problems. Sheep was a major livestock commodity and most of the farmers raised sheep and goat together in transhumance system (migratory sheep flock). Baruwal, Bhyanglung and their crosses in case of sheep while Sinhal in case of goat were found to be common in the study areas. From the beginning of summer season (Falgun-Jestha), the animals were grazed in the nearby field during the day and kept in shed at night. In winter, where it snows, they were kept in shed and fed hay and stored corn due to limited grazing area. At night, some farmers kept their sheep, goats in shed while some farmers kept their sheep outside in field. From third week of Jestha to fourth week of Bhadra, farmers moved their flock to high hills called Patan to graze on locally available herbs. Farmers performed open castration on their animals by themselves and besides deworming the debilitated animals, they generally didn’t deworm or vaccinate their animals. Some of the major health problems observed in the animals were plant poisoning, parasitic infestations, scabies and lice infestation, pneumonia, abortion, uterine prolapse, vaginal prolapsed, and inbreeding. Farmers kept the same male for seed material for many years and were found to be unfazed by the consequence of inbreeding.
      PubDate: 2023-06-17
      DOI: 10.3126/nvj.v38i1.55815
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 1 (2023)
  • Molecular Detection of Anaplasma in Cattle of Morang, Rupandehi and
           Surkhet districts of Nepal

    • Authors: CR Pathak, G Pandey, MP Acharya, YR Pandey, P Hamal, P Khanal, H Luitel
      Pages: 47 - 55
      Abstract: Anaplasma, a vector transmitted rickettial parasite, infects blood cells of bovine causing asymptomatic to clinical bovine anaplasmosis. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of Anaplasma sp. in blood samples of dairy cattle in Morang, Rupandehi, and Surkhet districts of Nepal and to determine the risk factors and biochemical alterations of the respective animal. In total, 120 blood samples (40 from each district) were randomly collected from dairy cattle. The blood smears were prepared and fixed with 10% methanol on the field, and fresh blood was collected in EDTA tubes for molecular analysis and in clot activating tubes to yield serum for biochemical tests. 9 (7.5%) blood samples had produced the 577 base pairs of DNA fragments specific for the 16S rRNA gene of Anaplasma sp. by PCR amplification. 5 (4.16%) blood samples in the smear were found positive by microscopic examination. Serum biochemical profile was not different between Anaplasma sp. positive cattle and negative cattle (p > 0.05). The prevalence rate between Jersey and Holstein Friesian crossbred was also not different (p>0.05). There was a higher prevalence among cattle aged more than 2 years compared to cattle less than 2 years (p<0.05) indicating older cattle were more susceptible to the Anaplasma infection. In conclusion, serum biochemical alterations and risk factors should be considered in order to achieve prognosis and initiation of an appropriate therapeutic regimen for a favorable outcome of the tick-borne haemoparasitic diseases along with molecular detection for improved detection.
      PubDate: 2023-06-17
      DOI: 10.3126/nvj.v38i1.55842
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 1 (2023)
  • Study of Canine Babesiosis in Pet and Stray Dogs of Kathmandu Valley

    • Authors: A Gautam, C Regmi, P Neupane, S Shah, TP Prasai
      Pages: 56 - 67
      Abstract: Canine babesiosis is caused by protozoan parasites which is usually transmitted via various species of ticks. The parasites ultimately parasitize the erythrocytes of host body, resulting in fever, anemia, and hemoglobinuria. From June 2021 to September 2021, a cross-sectional study using the purposive sampling method was conducted. A total of 140 samples were collected from dogs and were examined for the presence of Babesia spp. using thin blood smear test stained in Giemsa. Regression analysis was done to compare categorical and outcome variables. The overall prevalence of babesiosis was found to be 14.3%. The result showed significantly higher prevalence of babesiosis in tick infected dogs (p<0.05). Sex, age, type and breed wise prevalence were found to be statistically insignificant (p>0.05). In hematological parameters, RBC, Hb, PCV, and platelets declined significantly in positive cases (p<0.05). In TLC, the changes in the Babesia positive cases were statistically insignificant (p>0.05), whereas in DLC of the infected cases, changes only in neutrophils and lymphocytes were statistically significant (p<0.05). The mean temperature in positive cases was found to be 103.44±0.69. This research intends to add some information on the status of babesiosis inside Kathmandu valley with majorly concluding ticks as major cause of diseases. Tick control is therefore critical in order to reduce the prevalence.
      PubDate: 2023-06-17
      DOI: 10.3126/nvj.v38i1.55843
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 1 (2023)
  • Prevalence of Fish Tapeworm – Diphyllobothrium latum in Commercial Fish
           Farms of Chitwan District, Nepal

    • Authors: S Devkota, A Subedi, DK Singh, RP Ghimire
      Pages: 68 - 75
      Abstract: Diphyllobothrium latum, commonly known as “fish- tapeworm”, has a zoonotic importance as it causes Diphyllobothriasis in humans. Fish, one of the highly consumed meat sources by human, also acts as second intermediate host for D. latum. There are several reports indicating consumption of D. latum infested poorly cooked fish causing Diphyllobothriasis in human. Thus, D. latum in fish can be considered as a major risk factor for Diphyllobothriasis in humans. Despite being a public health concern, no scientific data regarding the prevalence of D. latum in fish population of commercial fish farms of Nepal exists. The objective of this study was to bridge this knowledge gap by estimating the prevalence of D. latum in commercial fish farms of Chitwan district of Nepal. The study was conducted in six municipalities of Chitwan, Nepal. Out of 46 registered fish farms of Chitwan district, 42 farms were sampled in this study. The fish sampled from each farm were brought to the Histology laboratory of Department of Aquatic Resource Management of Agriculture and Forestry University, Nepal maintaining cold chain system and were dissected for feces collection. For qualitative parasitological examination of feces, sedimentation and centrifugal flotation method were used. Out of 42 farms sampled, 16 (38.10%) fish farms were found positive for presence of any kind of gastrointestinal parasites. Out 42 commercial fish farms examined, 9 (21.4%) farms were found positive for D. latum. Besides, D. latum fish farms were also found positive for Contracaecum sp. (19%), Coccidia (11.9%) and Eustrongyloides (2.4%). This research indicated that the prevalence of D. latum was more than 20% in commercial fish farms of Chitwan district showing possibility of zoonotic transmission to human population. Management practices of fish farmers must include ways to prevent D. latum infestation in fish population. Moreover, general public should be made aware about prevalence of D. latum in fish and its possible risk to human health along with its preventive measures for safe fish consumption.
      PubDate: 2023-06-17
      DOI: 10.3126/nvj.v38i1.55844
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 1 (2023)
  • Study of Productive, Reproductive and Morphological Traits of Bucks in
           Different Eco-zones of Lumbini Province, Nepal

    • Authors: M Dahal, MH Azad
      Pages: 76 - 87
      Abstract: Goat is a domesticated small ruminant, primarily reared by small farmers for meat production, across the country. The productivity of goat is often low, which could be related to several genetic and non-genetic factors. A field study was carried out to characterize, evaluate and estimate the effect of non-genetic factors on the productive and reproductive performance of hill goats in different eco- zones at Rolpa district of Lumbini province. Altogether 43 bucks of different age groups were identified for this study. Morphological attributes, productive, and reproductive performance were collected based on field monitoring and measurements within different altitudes of Rolpa district. Least square analysis was performed using Harvey (1990) computer software package, and means were compared using DMRT. The measurements of morphological traits were higher in male as compared to females. Results revealed the age at first service of bucks (336 days), the average body weight of buck was (38.76 kg), the overall body length of buck from one to four year was 78.01±0.35 cm, overall heart girth of one to four years’ age buck was 77.57±1.65 cm, average wither height from one to four-year-old buck was 71.88±2.13 cm, overall average Scrotal circumference of bucks (1-4 years) were 24.38±0.71 cm respectively. The results of this study suggest that the performance of low altitude goat flocks was better than mid and high-altitude goat flocks in the Rolpa district in terms of production and reproduction traits. The selection of the best performance of buck could be done on the basis of their traits for breeding. This result could be attributed to superior genotype along with better management practices followed by the farmers in Rolpa district.
      PubDate: 2023-06-17
      DOI: 10.3126/nvj.v38i1.55848
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 1 (2023)
  • Study on Management Status and Disease aspects of Pheasant (Phasianus
           colhicus) of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    • Authors: M Poudel, MK Karna, TR Gompo
      Pages: 88 - 97
      Abstract: Even though Nepal has several wild pheasant species, captive pheasant rearing for human consumption is a relatively new farming practice in Nepal. Pheasant farming is a growing practice among Nepalese farmers. However, farmers lack understanding and background in pheasant management techniques and associated diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate the distribution, location, management status, and disease characteristics of commercial pheasant farming in the Kathmandu valley. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted in Kathmandu valley and the Central Veterinary Laboratory (CVL), from July to September 2021. The case records from 2017 to 2021 were analyzed at CVL and the farms were mapped based on their locations. The top ten pheasant diseases reported in CVL were identified and the disease outbreak farms were followed to get additional information on management aspects. A total of 42 pheasant farms were visited to collect data, and dead birds from these pheasant farms were submitted to CVL for postmortem and bacterial culture. MS-EXCEL and the online software “Open Epi” were used for statistical analysis. Sixty percent of the surveyed farms exclusively raised pheasants, while 40 percent practiced mixed farming. The source of hatching eggs was from abroad (12%), local breeding center (70%) and inter-district farms (18%). Ninety percent of the farms practiced some extent of biosecurity such as clothes changes and visitors log maintained. The temporal analysis identified that pheasant mortality was highest in July, followed by June and August. Of the total cases reported in retrospective study urolithiasis was responsible for 20.27 percent of deaths, Newcastle disease and Mycotoxicosis each were responsible for 13.51 percent of deaths of birds. Though urolithiasis is one of the leading causes of death there was no significant statistical associations (p>0.05) with ages and the flock size. The study collected the baseline data on management practices and disease distributions among the commercial pheasant farming in Kathmandu valley. We suggest, further studies on morbidity, mortality, seasonal stress, and economic aspects of commercial pheasant farming. Prior knowledge and expertise on management and health aspects related to farming is needed for sustainable pheasant farming in Nepal.
      PubDate: 2023-06-17
      DOI: 10.3126/nvj.v38i1.55849
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 1 (2023)
  • Seroprevalence of Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia (CCPP) in Bharatpur,
           Chitwan, Nepal

    • Authors: LB Regmi, S Manandhar, L Gongal, S Poudel, RC Acharya, D Subedi
      Pages: 98 - 105
      Abstract: A study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia (CCPP) in 106 goats of Bharatpur Municipality of Chitwan, Nepal from July to October 2021. A questionnaire was used to determine the potential risk factors. Collected samples were subjected to a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) for the detection of antibodies. The seroprevalence of Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia in goats was 4.71% (5/106). Although seroprevalence was high among females and goats below or equal to 5 years, there was no statistically significant. This study was carried out in the Chitwan district for the first time, applying the (Mccp) Antibody test technique, considering the need for control of this economically important disease for poor livestock farmers in Chitwan and it can play important role in the epidemiological study of CCPP in Nepal.
      PubDate: 2023-06-17
      DOI: 10.3126/nvj.v38i1.55850
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 1 (2023)
  • Sugarcane Derived Polyphenol Feed Additive Supplemented to the Wheat Diet
           Improved Broiler Performance

    • Authors: N Sekh, C Oshea
      Pages: 106 - 116
      Abstract: This study examined effects of incremental levels of sugarcane derived polyphenol on most commonly used cereals in the poultry feed industry; wheat and maize. Both cereals rapidly digestible starch, which is usually digested completely than protein itself whereas polyphenol slows down glucose absorption in rat without compromising feed intake. Polyphenol may enhance depositing of muscle in broilers due to synchronous availability of the plasma glucose and amino acid. In this experiment, 240 Ross 308 male broilers (5 birds/cage; n=6) were given 8 different diets, wheat and maize; without or with polyphenol inclusion level at 0.5%, 2% and 4% respectively. Feeds were given ad-libitum in 2 phases as grower (day 11-24) and finisher (day 24-38). Parameters assessed were body weight (BW), average daily feed intake (ADFI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), drip loss%, shear force and meat color. Birds were euthanized at day 38 for meat quality inspection using Pectoralis muscle. The research revealed that 2% polyphenol in wheat diets significantly reduced ADFI (day 24-38) as compared to unsupplemented wheat diets (p<0.0001). At the same level, polyphenol numerically improved FCR (day 24-38) in broilers fed wheat diets (FCR 1.93) and maize diets (FCR 1.63) as compared to unsupplemented wheat diets (FCR 1.98) and maize diets (FCR 1.70) respectively. However, 4% polyphenol inclusion level had adverse effect on BW (day 17 and 38) and ADG (day 10-38, day 24-38) in broilers fed wheat diets as compared to unsupplemented wheat diets. On other hand, maize diets supplemented with different level of polyphenol did not have any significant effect on BW, ADG, ADFI and FCR in broilers as compared to unsupplemented maize diets. Also, there was significantly higher ADFI (day 24-38) in broilers fed wheat diets as compared to maize diets (p<0.0001). Regarding meat qualities, there were not any effect of polyphenol on drip loss%, shear force and meat color. However, cereal type itself had significant effect on meat color appearance as maize fed broilers had more yellowness value of meat (b*; p<0.0001) than broilers fed wheat diets. In conclusion, polyphenol supplementation found to be useful for broilers mainly on wheat diets at 2% inclusion level.
      PubDate: 2023-06-17
      DOI: 10.3126/nvj.v38i1.55851
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 1 (2023)
  • Evaluation of Condition of Meat Shop on Prospective of Meat Act in Madi
           Municipality, Chitwan, Nepal

    • Authors: R Bastakoti, S Upadhyaya
      Pages: 117 - 122
      Abstract: There are many meat shop around the country and only few are maintaining standard according to animal slaughter house and meat inspection act, 2057. We are trying to evaluate standard of 122 meat shop of Madi Municipality. We have prepared a questionnaire and surveyed all the meat shop to know the condition of shop and their standard with reference to animal slaughter house and meat inspection act, 2057. Meat shop in Madi is dominated by chicken, 85.71%. Which are equipped with D-freeze (60.65%) for freezing meat for a day with 91.22% having backup support for freezers. 70.08% of the shops are registered as mentioned by act. Similarly, only few (7.09%) of the shop have area met the requirement given by act. Ventilation in 59.02% of the shops are perfectly in line with act whereas tiles in the floor was absent in 83.61% of the shops. Good water supply and Slab in butchering area is in minimal with 8.20% and 4.10% respectively. Good condition mesh wire is present in order to prevent flies in 19.67% of the shops. Furthermore, only 1.64% of the butcher are aware about rules and regulations and 11.48% of the shop uses proper disinfection. Similarly, waste management is mostly done by making manure (28.69%) followed by burning (27.05%). Additionally, consumer’s preference is in fresh meat (79.51%) among which demand of chest meat is higher (52.46%) in chicken meat. In conclusion, most of the butcher are unaware of act and are doing their business without any knowledge of act and are not in line with the instructions given by the act.
      PubDate: 2023-06-17
      DOI: 10.3126/nvj.v38i1.55855
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 1 (2023)
  • A Retrospective Study of Parvovirus Infection in Dogs in Kathmandu

    • Authors: P Mahato, S Khanal, M Upadhyaya
      Pages: 123 - 128
      Abstract: Canine parvo virus infection (CPVI) is highly infectious disease of dogs causing acute gastrointestinal illness in dog with high morbidity. In Kathmandu valley, knowledge on the epidemiology of diseases of dogs is limited. To determine the prevalence of disease in owned dogs in the Kathmandu valley and its associated risk factors, a retrospective study of data from clinical records of the Mount Everest kennel club (old Baneshwor height) during a one-year period was conducted. Using an Excel line graph and pie chart, the prevalence of canine parvovirus infection was examined according to season, age, and vaccination status. A total of 504 cases were seen in the 735 clinical records reviewed, of which 145 cases—or 11.01 % of all cases—had CPVI-like symptoms. The prevalence of CPVI in dogs sold by Mount Everest Kennel club in the valley was estimated to be 11.01% where high cases were observed during the dry season (peaks at April and December) though it could also reach peak during the rainy season (July-August). High number (55.6%; 45/81) of outbreaks were noted among the age group below 3 months followed by age group 4 to 7 months (33.3%; 27/81) and least number of outbreaks were noted in the age group older than 7 months (11.1%;9/81). High number (55.6%; 45/81) of outbreaks were noted among the age group below 3 months followed by age group 4 to 7 months (33.3%; 27/81) and least number of outbreaks were noted in the age group older than 7 months (11.1%;9/81). Disease incidence was highest in German shepherd (21%; 17/81), Japanese spitz (18.51%; 15/81), Labrador (18.51%; 15/81) and mixed/cross (42%; 34/81). Few Vaccinated dogs (7.4%; 6/81) were also found to be tested positive with CPVI. Our finding showed that temperature, breed susceptibility and vaccination status can be the possible risk factors associated with CPVI infection among dog population in Kathmandu valley suggesting pet owners to regularly follow the vaccination schedule, vaccinate their dogs in a timely manner, and routinely check on the health of their canines. Additionally, owners should be aware of the risks and should keep their dogs away from stray dogs.
      PubDate: 2023-06-17
      DOI: 10.3126/nvj.v38i1.55856
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 1 (2023)
  • Assess the quality of Murrah Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Bull Semen
           regarding seasonal and geographical variability in Nepal

    • Authors: DN Sah, NR Devkota, MP Sharma, N Bhattarai
      Pages: 129 - 142
      Abstract: We carried out this study to assess the quality of semen regarding the seasonal and geographical variability of Murrah buffalo breeding bull in Nepal. We aimed to access the quality of seme n of murrah buffalo bull considering the seasonal and geographical variability to help standardize quality semen producing protocol and concern. A total of eight Murrah buffalo bulls were used. Semen collection was done at once week and two ejaculations were considered at an interval of 30 minutes during the Summer (June to August), Autumn (September to November), Winter (December to February), and Spring (March to May) from 2017 to 2020 AD. Immediately after collection, initial motility, sperm concentration, pre-filling motility, post-thaw motility, live sperm, and abnormality
      of sperms were evaluated. Findings revealed that the season had affect (p<0.005) to the semen volume, individual motility, and post- thawing motility except for semen volume and sperm abnormality(p>0.05). However, initial motility, sperm concentration, and pre filling motility did not vary in months (p>0.05). It is thus well reflected that several traits related to quality and quantity of semen Murrah buffalo bulls may vary depending on the season of collection, location and age (p<0.05) with the semen traits of initial motility, sperm concentration, and pre-filling motility. Accordingly the semen collected during the autumn and spring season is revealed the percentage of average post thaw motility above the 52% that considered the success of artificial insemination is good for buffaloes.

      PubDate: 2023-06-17
      DOI: 10.3126/nvj.v38i1.55857
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 1 (2023)
  • Study of Reproductive Traits of Does in Different Altitudes of Rolpa

    • Authors: MH Azad, M Dahal, MS Ali
      Pages: 143 - 157
      Abstract: Goat is a domesticated small ruminant, primarily reared by small farmers for meat production, across the country. Productivity of goat is often low, which could be related to several genetic and non-genetic factors. A field study was carried out to characterize, evaluate and estimate the effect of non-genetic factors on the reproductive performance of hill goats during December, 2015 to August 2016 in different eco-zones at Rolpa district of mid-western Nepal. Altogether 482 dams of different age groups were identified for this study. Reproductive performance were collected based on field monitoring and measurements within different altitudes of Rolpa district. Least square analysis was performed using Harvey (1990) computer software package, and means were compared using DMRT. Results revealed that the mean age of first heat in does (299 days), age at first kidding (493 days), gestation length (150 days), kidding interval (251 days), postpartum estrus (91 days), and kidding rates were (1.54 per doe), respectively. Altitude significantly influenced (P<0.001) along with parity (P<0.05) with respect to age of first heat in does. Significance difference of of kidding interval (P<0.05) was significantly influenced within different altitude of goat farming. Similarly, colour and altitude also significantly differed (P<0.05) with respect to kidding rates of does Thus the results of this study suggest that the performance of low altitude goat flocks was better than mid and high altitude goat flocks in Rolpa district in terms of production and reproduction traits. This result could be attributed to superior genotype along with better management practices followed by the farmers in Rolpa district.
      PubDate: 2023-06-17
      DOI: 10.3126/nvj.v38i1.55858
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 1 (2023)
  • Association of Body Condition Score with Lactation and Reproductive
           Performance in Murrah Cross Buffaloes in Chitwan, Nepal

    • Authors: M Paudel, G Gautam, KB Khatri, P Baral, BP Pantha
      Pages: 158 - 169
      Abstract: Body condition score (BCS) is a precise method for determining the stored energy reserves of dairy animals, which are located in the form of subcutaneous fat tissue, indicated by the animal’s degree of accomplished nutrition, and could be used as a management and selection tool to improve reproductive performance. The objective of this research was to investigate and quantify relationships between BCS and milk production, milk composition, and reproductive performance in Murrah cross buffalo. For this purpose, a semi-structured questionnaire was created and BCS was calculated using a visual technique based on a BCS chart. The sampling approach employed was a completely randomized design. A total of 165 Murrah cross buffaloes from 59 household farms were used in the study, where 130 milk samples were collected and used to assess the milk parameters by lacto-scan. Four BCS groups were namely 2.5-2.99, 3.0-3.49, 3.5-3.99, and 4.0-4.99 where the BCS score was found to grow during the dry period until calving, then decreased as milk production increased. BCS group (3.5-3.99) had higher performance during all the lactation periods with a peak milk yield of 11.4 ± 1.1 kg. At the late lactation stage BCS group (3.5-3.99) showed higher values of SNF (9.77), protein (4.01), and lactose (3.82), followed by BCS groups 4.0-4.49, 3.0-3.49, and 2.5-2.99. At the early, lactation stages, the BCS group (3.5-3.99) had the highest (P<0.01) average milk yield of 10.28, 9.50, 9.37 kg, and the BCS group (4- 4.49) had highest (P<0.01) average fat percent of 9.19, 10.20, and 10.32, respectively. The buffaloes of BCS group 3.5-3.99 had shorter post-partum estrus (61.14days) (P<0.01), fewer services for conception (1.30) (P<0.01) and higher first service conception rate (79.87%) (P<0.01). Similarly, the incidence of associated reproductive disorders such as uterine prolapse, retained placenta, metritis, and mastitis are lowest in BCS group 3.5-3.99 with values of 7.69%, 3.44%, 3.44%, and 6.89% respectively. It can be concluded that the BCS group (3.5–3.99) provided the greatest production results in both milk and reproductive function. For optimal animal lactation and reproductive performance, the nutrition management of dairy cows should be necessarily monitored using the BCS score.
      PubDate: 2023-06-17
      DOI: 10.3126/nvj.v38i1.55860
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 1 (2023)
  • Comparative Study of Growth and Survival of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis
           niloticus) on Different Feed Types

    • Authors: SY Ahir, R Chaudhary, A Maraseni, NP Karki
      Pages: 170 - 178
      Abstract: This study aimed to compare the growth and survival of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed with three different feed types: homemade feed (control), commercial feed, and earthworm-enriched feed. A total of 135 Nile tilapia with an average weight of 6.2 g and length of 6.5 cm were stocked in 9 hapas, with 15 fish per hapa. The fish were reared for 62 days, and growth performance, survival rate, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were measured. The results showed that the final average weight and length of Nile tilapia fed with earthworm-enriched feed were higher than those fed with homemade and commercial feed. The highest mean weight gain (18.45 g) and mean length gain (4.7 cm) were observed in Nile tilapia fed with earthworm-enriched feed (T3R1). The FCR of Nile tilapia fed with earthworm-enriched feed (1.65) was lower than that of the other two groups. Moreover, the survival rate of Nile tilapia fed with earthworm-enriched feed was 100%, while the survival rate of Nile tilapia fed with homemade and commercial feed was 93.3% and 66.7%, respectively. In conclusion, earthworm-enriched feed showed superior performance in terms of growth and survival rate of Nile tilapia. This feed type can be considered as a potential alternative to the traditional homemade and commercial feed in the aquaculture industry. Further studies on the economic feasibility of using earthworm enriched feed for Nile tilapia are recommended.
      PubDate: 2023-06-17
      DOI: 10.3126/nvj.v38i1.55861
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 1 (2023)
  • Study on External Egg Quality Parameters and Hatchability of Sakini Breed
           in Swine and Avian Research Program, Lalitpur, Nepal

    • Authors: M Dahal, N Yadav, P Tamang
      Pages: 179 - 186
      Abstract: Eggs are an important and convenient source of protein for those living in rural regions. In addition, eggs from local hens are popular and traded for a fair price. As a result, the primary goal of this study was to evaluate egg laying and egg quality parameters in Sakini (Gallus gallus domesticus) from Nepal in order to better understand the chicken’s reproductive fitness and the relationship between the parameters. For this, a total of 120 eggs from different weeks (30 from each week) were taken as a sample. The egg sample was collected from the birds of different ages i.e. 43rd, 48th, 56th, and 57th weeks. These chickens were raised in the same environment and management conditions at Swine and Avian Research Program (SARP), Khumaltar. Eggs were candled during incubation, i.e., on the 18th day. A strong light was held under the eggs to observe their fertility during candling of eggs. External egg quality parameters like Egg weight, Egg length, Egg breadth, Shape index and Egg color were measured. Fertility and hatchability percentages were calculated. The findings have shown that the highest fertility rate was observed for the 48.47 ±0.71 gm egg weight group i.e., 80 %. However, the highest overall hatchability was observed in the 48.73±0.68 gm egg weight group which is 70 %. On the basis of their shape index, there is significantly highest (P<0.01) fertility rate was observed in the 67.26 ± 0.56 group that is 70 %. 
      PubDate: 2023-06-17
      DOI: 10.3126/nvj.v38i1.55862
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 1 (2023)
  • Feeding Status of Indigenous Buffalo in Midhills of Gandaki Province,

    • Authors: A Shrestha, S Kanu, B GC, N Baskota
      Pages: 187 - 193
      Abstract: More than 50% of the households of Gandaki province have been rearing buffaloes. Whereas in mid hills 1-2 number of buffalo is present in most houses which are reared for sustainable purpose. A cross sectional study was carried out for a year in the mid hills of Gandaki province selecting 20 farms from four locations; Parbat, Nagi ramche, Tarakhola and Lwang ghalel, Kaski. Similarly, for a year a buffalo farm of Directorate of Agricultural Research, Gandaki was also studied. The purpose of this study was to determine the feeding system of buffalo in midhills and DoAR farm and compare the milk production. The milk production by the indigenous buffalo of local farms (3.3liters/d) was significantly higher than that of DoAR farms(2.9 liters/d) despite of feeding balanced concentrate ration daily. The raulo and khar combination was the main source of roughages whereas maize, barley and millet flour were the common source of concentrate for the indigenous buffalo in mid hills of Gandaki province.
      PubDate: 2023-06-17
      DOI: 10.3126/nvj.v38i1.55863
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 1 (2023)
  • Study of Prevalence of Paramphistomum cervi in domestic ruminants of
           Pokhara Lekhnath Metropolitan City, Kaski

    • Authors: S Pokharel, S Sharma
      Pages: 194 - 205
      Abstract: Pramphistomum cervi has been a neglected but very crucial trematode parasite causing huge unseen economic loss in ruminant production globally. It has become an endemic species of fluke predominant in tropics and subtropics of Nepal. This study was aimed to estimate the overall prevalence of Pramphistomum cervi eggs in different domestic ruminant species of Pokhara Lekhnath Metropolitan City of Kaski district and to find the interaction of prevalence with other variables. A cross sectional study was performed to study the prevalence of Paramphistomum cervi eggs identified by Parasitological unit of Veterinary Hospital and Livestock Service Experts Centre, Kaski from January 2021 to April 2022. Out of 900 observations,842 observations with complete information were filtered out and included in our study. Statistical analysis was done with EpiInfo (Version and graphical representation was done with MS Excel 2016. The overall prevalence of Pramphistomum cervi in different species of domestic ruminants was found to be 16.98%(143/842). The highest prevalence was seen in Cattle that was18.21% (45/247), followed by goats 16.66% (5/30) and buffaloes 16.46% (93/565). Seasonwise study of prevalence of Paramphistomum cervi in all the three ruminant species showed the highest overall infectivity during summer i.e 20.42% (88/431) followed by 13.38% (55/411) in winter and this difference was statistically significant (p-value 0.0065 at 95%CI). The higher prevalence of parasite was observed in adult lactating females of improved breeds. Thus, Paramphistomum cervi infection has become an important animal health issue to be addressed for safeguarding animal health and improvement of ruminant production in Pokhara Lekhnath Metropolitan City, Kaski. The biological intermediate host control measures in the pasture and routine screening of the parasite with routine deworming is essential to reduce the fluke burden among ruminants of Pokhara Metropolitan City in the future.
      PubDate: 2023-06-17
      DOI: 10.3126/nvj.v38i1.55866
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 1 (2023)
  • Diagnosis and Management of Constipation and Obstipation in Canine: From
           Current Practices to Future

    • Authors: S Sharma, S Pokharel, S Singh
      Pages: 206 - 216
      Abstract: This study was conducted to understand the present diagnosis and management patterns of constipation and obstipation in dog and accessing about its future holds. A total of 68 dogs both healthy (n=34) and constipated (n=34) brought to a private pet hospital in Kathmandu were included in the study for two-months during Feb-April, 2019 were recorded. The protocol comprised history taking (age, sex, breed and chief complains), physical and clinical examination, hematology/Biochemistry followed by radiography in some cases. Statistical analysis was conducted using MS-Excel 2016 and SPSS v25. We found that starting from the dietary management, rehydration and medical management using laxatives, enemas, antibiotics and supporting liver medications were being followed
      to manage constipation and obstipation. Anorexia (82.4%) and dehydration were the most common clinical signs. Female dogs (52.9%) were found more affected than male dogs (47.1%). Large and small breed dogs (73.5%) were more prone to constipation than medium sized breeds (26.5%). Older Dogs (>60 months) (34%) were the most affected age groups. Haemato-biochemical blood findings showed significant increase in Total Leucocyte Count (Leukocytosis), Neutrophilia, ALP levels and Blood Urea Nitrogen (p ≤ 0.001) while there was also an increase in Serum bilirubin and Serum albumin levels (p ≤ 0.05) in constipated dog. This research showed increased risk of constipation in old and female dogs. Starting from high fiber diets, mild laxatives and enemas, the treatment can be proceeded to fluid therapy, antibiotic therapy and medications managing liver ailments after haemato-biochemical examination. Use of Novel prokinetic drugs practiced in humans like Cisapride and Pruracalopride, can be considered in veterinary practice. In situations of surgical management, most reliable would be the subtotal colectomy to manage idiopathic megacolon causing constipation and obstipation.
      PubDate: 2023-06-17
      DOI: 10.3126/nvj.v38i1.55867
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 1 (2023)
  • Global Pattern of Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome Outbreaks in Freshwater
           Farmed and Wild Fish from 2005 to 2012

    • Authors: NP Karki
      Pages: 217 - 223
      Abstract: Epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) is an infectious disease of freshwater farmed and wild fish caused by a fungus, Aphanomyces invadans. This disease is an important economic disease causing huge socio-economic losses to fish farmers across the world. While this is an important fish disease, its global epidemiology is poorly understood. The objective of this study is understand the global spatiotemporal epidemiology of EUS outbreaks from 2005 to 2022. The data were retrieved from open access database of the World Organization for Animal Health (WOAH). Results showed that there were a total of 277 outbreaks of EUS reported to WOAH from 2005 to 2022 from 15 countries and territories with 76% outbreaks reported from African countries. Democratic Republic of Congo reported the highest number of EUS outbreaks. Higher number of outbreaks were reported during 2014 to 2017. The observed epidemiological pattern might be biased due to the underreporting of the disease. Nevertheless, it offers important insights to understand the latest global pattern of EUS. We suggest to increase country level awareness on EUS so that outbreaks are reported in a timely manner.
      PubDate: 2023-06-17
      DOI: 10.3126/nvj.v38i1.55868
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 1 (2023)
  • Oleander Poisoning in Cattle in Devghat, Nepal- a Case Report

    • Authors: BR Rajbanshi, C Mishra, J Adhikari, S Timalsina, P Pokhrel, K Bashyal
      Pages: 224 - 229
      Abstract: Oleander poisoning, though widely seen in the Mediterranean region, is rarely seen in Nepal. The poisonous effect of the fodder is due to the accidental ingestion of the different parts of ‘oleandrin’ which contains cardiac glycosides called cardenolides causing mortality in animals. In our study, 8 lactating cows were affected after oleander leaves were accidentally mixed and chopped with Napier. After the ingestion of the mixed fodder, out of 8 cows, 5 died instantly and the remaining 3 were showing severe clinical signs such as severe depression, anorexia, ruminal atony, diarrhea, serous nasal discharge, tachycardia, and irregular heartbeat. The diagnosis of the poisoning was made by finding the chopped leaves of oleander in the feed and ruminal content. The visual observation of the oleander leaves along with gross lesions specifically in the heart causing coagulative necrosis- as it acts as cardiac glycosides- we came to diagnose the oleandrin poisoning. As there was not the availability of digoxin-specific antibodies for the therapy, symptomatic and supportive treatment was done, and the good prognosis was seen on morbid animals within a week.
      PubDate: 2023-06-17
      DOI: 10.3126/nvj.v38i1.55872
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 1 (2023)
  • Pregnancy Toxaemia in Goat: a Case Report

    • Authors: R Bastakoti, A Pandey, A Budhathoki
      Pages: 230 - 234
      Abstract: A four years old Khari goat was brought to Madi Veterinary Hospital with the history of parturition 3 days ago with triplet’s kid, in- appetence and weakness. Vitals signs were within normal physiological range. Laboratory diagnosis revealed low glucose level (27 mg/dl) and was diagnosed as pregnancy toxemia on the basis of clinical and laboratory findings. Calcium-borogluconate, corticosteroid, B-complex and jiggery were given as glucose replacement, glucose precursor, metabolic supporter and source of glucose respectively. Goat became responsive with after two days of treatment.
      PubDate: 2023-06-17
      DOI: 10.3126/nvj.v38i1.55870
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 1 (2023)
  • Abdominal Myolipoma in Dog- a Case Report

    • Authors: C Mishra, MK Shah, S Mainali, BR Pandey
      Pages: 235 - 239
      Abstract: A 6-year-old female dog was referred to Veterinary Teaching Hospital of Agriculture and Forestry University, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal. The complaint was an abdominal mass around the umbilicus centrally and cranial to the sternum without any clinical manifestation. Histopathologically, mature adipocytes of different sizes were seen and were interposed within spindle shaped smooth muscle fibre. The muscle fibres were seen separated due to the proliferative infiltration of these adipocytes in between. Abdominal myolipoma was diagnosed based on the clinical manifestation, gross and histopathological lesions. This could have been misdiagnosed with mammary tumour but the absence of proliferative myoepithelial cells ruled out the possibility.
      PubDate: 2023-06-17
      DOI: 10.3126/nvj.v38i1.55873
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 1 (2023)
  • Dhakeri-Bange Syndrome in Goats: A Clinical-laboratory Investigation

    • Authors: K Karki
      Pages: 240 - 243
      Abstract: An outbreak of syndrome of unknown etiology associated with the feeding of moldy dry forage and green fodder among goats in Dhakeri village of Banke District on October-November 2008. Goats suddenly became ill with symptoms of knuckling of the fetlocks of the pelvic limbs, with no apparent ataxia or flexor weakness. Weight bearing was possible while the digits were extended, but with knuckling, weight was supported on the dorsal surface of the foot. The more severely affected goats were paraplegic and recumbent. Anorexia, apathy, diarrhea and ruminal stasis, flaccid posterior paralysis, hindlegs stretched forward both side of abdomin, paralysis of all four legs, head bented to sides, aimlessly head and rear shaking .On clinical examination based on history these goats were provisionally diagnosed as Dhakeri-Bange as being called locally and Endemic Mycotic polyneuropathy syndrome as seen first time in Nepal due to moldy forage/fodder poisoning in natural pasture were treated with Antidegnala liquor. On mycological and microbiological examination of tissue samples from post-mortem of dead goat and forage/fodder samples from pasture and goats feeding stalls on respective medium revealed the growth of fungal pathogens like Aspergillus and Penicillium spp with E. coli. These results provide circumstantial evidence that feeding of moldy forages and green fodder leaves infected by Penicillium and Aspergillus spp may cause outbreaks of a systemic Mycosis in these goats.
      PubDate: 2023-06-17
      DOI: 10.3126/nvj.v38i1.55874
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 1 (2023)
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