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Nepalese Veterinary Journal
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2091-0290
Published by Nepal Journals Online Homepage  [114 journals]
  • Isolation and Genomic Identification of Salmonella Pullorum in the Poultry
           Farms of Nepal

    • Authors: D.R. Khanal, R. Pokhrel, N. Bajracharya, S. Khanal, P. Shrestha
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: In the present study, Salmonella pullorum bacteria were isolated from 30 liver samples of poultry collected during the postmortem examination of suspected cases of pullorum disease from five major poultry producing districts (Kathmandu, Lalitpur, Bhaktapur, Kavre and Chitwan) of central Nepal in 2014. After isolating bacterial colonies from 30 samples in Brilliant Green Agar (BGA) and Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate (XLD) agar media, biochemical tests carried out for the identification of bacteria. On carbohydrate fermentation tests, 25 isolates showed metabolic characteristics typical for Salmonella while genomic analysis performed with Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) by amplifying Salmonella pullorum specific rfbs gene (187 bp) targeting Adenine residue at 237 positions confirmed that 18 isolates were from poultry suffering from pullorum disease. Present result warranted the need for routine biochemical and genomic investigations for better understanding of the species of Salmonella prevalent and subsequent adoption of suitable control strategy in the poultry operation.
      PubDate: 2017-12-21
      DOI: 10.3126/nvj.v34i0.22858
      Issue No: Vol. 34 (2017)
       
  • Study of Antibiotic Resistance on Escherichia Coli in Commercial Poultry
           of Nepal

    • Authors: T. Khanal, S.B. Raut, U. Paneru
      Pages: 6 - 17
      Abstract: The continuous use of antibiotics in compound feed at sub-therapeutic level has been an integral part of commercial poultry production in Nepal, which is one of the factors that promotes bacterial resistance. Hence, with the objective to determine antibiotic resistance in commercial poultry of Nepal, this study was designed taking Escherichia coli as a flagship bacterium. The commercial layers and broilers birds brought to veterinary teaching hospital of Agriculture and Forestry University by commercial poultry producers for disease diagnosis and treatment were considered as clinical examination of birds were carried out followed by post mortem examination (PME). Those layer/broiler birds which were not taking antibiotic orally or parenterally for last 2 weeks and diagnosed with collibacillosis on PME were included in sampling frame. Air sacculitis, fibrinous pericarditis, fibrinous perihepatitis, and coligranuloma were major criteria for presumptive diagnosis of colibacillosis on PME. The first 40 for both broiler and layer birds totaling 80 that fulfilled the criteria were selected as samples, each representing a commercial farm. All necessary information on daily management practices and previous treatments were obtained from farmer’s record book or sheets or face to face interview. Avian pathogenic E. coli was isolated from aseptically collected liver samples and confirmed by biochemical tests. Antibiogram of the isolates were investigated by means of Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. E. coli was isolated from all liver samples taken for the culture. It was found that E. coli were resistant most substantially towards Cephalexin (81.2%) and Amoxycillin (81.2%) followed by Tetracycline (78.8%), Colistin sulphate (n=50, 62.5%). Chloramphenicol (61.2%), Ciprofloxacin (55.0%), Enrofloxacin (53.8%), Levofloxacin (28.8%), however, no resistance was found against amikacin. The proportion of E. coli isolates that were resistance against Colistin sulphate (p<0.05), Chloramphenicol (p< 0.05), Tetracycline (p<0.001), Ciprofloxacin (p<0.01), Enrofloxacin (p<0.05) and Gentamicin (p<0.01) were significantly higher in layers compared to that of broilers. In conclusion, avian pathogenic E. coli were resistant towards several antibiotic molecules commonly used in commercial poultry of Nepal, and the resistance was higher in layers compared to broilers.
      PubDate: 2017-12-21
      DOI: 10.3126/nvj.v34i0.22859
      Issue No: Vol. 34 (2017)
       
  • Surveillance of Avian influenza in Faecal Samples of Wild Birds at
           Sauraha, Chitwan National Park

    • Authors: Md. Hus. Azad, P. Manandhar, D. Sedai
      Pages: 18 - 25
      Abstract: Wild birds are the carrier of Avian influenza virus as reservoir. They spread virus through faecal drops. Considering this fact, a study was carried out to detect the avian influenza virus in fresh fecal swabs in Chitwan National Park, Sauraha. A total of 40 samples were collected from Baghmara Buffer zone community forest,30 samples from Rapti river bank and 10 samples from National trust for nature conservation areas. The faecal samples were collected during the summer season (March). The test was carried out by using a rapid test kit (synbiotic kit) USA. On rapid test, all the 80 samples were negative. All 80 samples were further inoculated in nine days embryonated eggs for haemagglutination tests for the confirmative diagnosis that showed negative result. Preliminary diagnosis revealed that wild birds were free from Avian Influenza in Chitwan National Park region.
      PubDate: 2017-12-21
      DOI: 10.3126/nvj.v34i0.22860
      Issue No: Vol. 34 (2017)
       
  • Effects of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 Outbreak in Nepal from
           Financial and Social Perspectives: A Case Study

    • Authors: S. Karki
      Pages: 26 - 35
      Abstract: The outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 have serious public health, economic and social implications. After the first two report of HPAI H5N1 outbreak in Nepal in Jhapa in 2009, a third outbreak was reported in Pokhara the following year where more than 11,000 birds were culled to control the disease. However, the financial and social effects of the Pokhara bird flu outbreak were never assessed. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the local financial and social effects of HPAI H5N1 outbreak in Pokhara and to understand farmers and consumers perceptions on bird flu and the control measures implemented by the government. A total of 200 people including poultry farmers, butchers, veterinary drug dealers, feed suppliers, and consumers were interviewed using the semi-structured questionnaire. The result showed that the direct loss of Pokhara bird flu outbreak from the culling of birds was more than 4.5 million Nepali rupees. The small scale commercial and backyard farmers and the butchers were the most affected from this outbreak. A large proportion of the consumers temporarily stopped to consume chicken meat and shifted to other meat sources. Most of the participants in this study had at least heard about the bird flu. The farmers were unhappy by the compensation provided by the government and perceived that the government control efforts were not satisfactory and were provided little assistance for their rehabilitation. In conclusion, there was a momentary local financial and social effect of the Pokhara bird flu outbreak which may not very important from the macroeconomic point of view but is important for the affected small-scale farmers and the butchers. It is recommended that the government review their policy and provide small scale commercial and backyard farmer a compensation that is closer to the market price and promote largescale poultry farmers to go for insurance.
      PubDate: 2017-12-21
      DOI: 10.3126/nvj.v34i0.22861
      Issue No: Vol. 34 (2017)
       
  • Study of Hematological and Serum Biochemical Profile in Preparturient
           Murrah Cross Buffaloes in Chitwan District

    • Authors: R. Acharya, P.B. Pal
      Pages: 36 - 40
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to establish the reference values for hematology and serum biochemistry of pre-parturient Murrah crossbred buffaloes of Western Chitwan (Bharatpur Metropolitancity). The study was cross-sectional in which31 apparently healthy pregnant Murrah cross buffaloes ranging from 5-8 years were selected randomly after confirmation by rectal palpation. Blood samples collected from jugular vein were stored in EDTA tubes for hematological analysis and for biochemical analysis centrifuged at 1500 rpm for 20 minutes to separate serum after 1 hour of collection. Hematological indices were determined manually using routine laboratory techniques and serum biochemicals were analysed using automated analyzer (Dimension RXL). Serum biochemicals like Glucose, BUN, Creatinine, Calcium, Phosphorous, Magnesium, AST, ALT, total serum Protein and albumin level were found within the normal range. Similarly, hematologic indices Hb, PCV, Platelet counts, RBC counts, WBC counts, and differential leukocyte counts were also in normal ranges. However, eosinophil (7.83±0.82), and monocyte (4.4±0.53) counts were higher at significant numbers which suggests gastrointestinal parasitic infestations and/or allergic diseases along with some chronic infectious diseases in the buffalo herd of Bharatpur Metropolitancity in western Chitwan.
      PubDate: 2017-12-21
      DOI: 10.3126/nvj.v34i0.22892
      Issue No: Vol. 34 (2017)
       
  • Evaluation of Ovsynch Protocol on Reproductive Performance of Anestrous
           Buffaloes during Breeding Season in Chitwan, Nepal

    • Authors: C.N. Kharel, B. Devkota, S.K. Sah, R.K. Karki
      Pages: 41 - 50
      Abstract: This study evaluated the effectiveness of Ovsynch/FTAI protocol (day 0 fertirelin inj. 100μg I/M, day 7 cloprostenol inj. 500μg I/M, day 9 fertirelin inj. 100μg I/M, and day 10 fixed time artificial insemination 18 hours after second injection of fertirelin) in anestrous buffaloes of Chitwan, Nepal (n=14). Protocol was evaluated in terms of estrus characteristics, ovulation and pregnancy rate. Responses were analyzed by grouping the buffaloes based on type of anestrus, length of anestrus, body condition score (BCS), milking status, parity, age, management condition, follicle count on day of second GnRH treatment and site of semen deposition. Intensity of estrus characteristics on day of AI was mild. Major estrus signs observed were uterine tonicity, alertness, mucus discharge on rectal manipulation of internal genitalia, swelling of vulva and teat engorgement. Mucus discharge on rectal manipulation of internal genitalia and teat engorgement were clearly noticed in 50 % buffaloes. There was higher tendency (P=0.08) of estrus expression by buffalos with anestrous period of 10 months or lower compared to those with anestrous period longer than 10 months. Overall ovulation rate was 85.7%. Pregnancy rate to FTAI was 28.6% (22.2% and 40% in true anestrous and silent estrus buffaloes). 64.3% (66.7% and 60% of true anestrous and silent estrus) buffaloes were pregnant when checked at 102 days of FTAI including subsequent breeding. Although Ovsynch/FTAI seems to be alternative breeding technique in silent estrus buffaloes, further study with increased sample size is recommended. This protocol can potentially be used for resumption of ovarian cyclicity in true anestrus buffaloes.
      PubDate: 2017-12-21
      DOI: 10.3126/nvj.v34i0.22902
      Issue No: Vol. 34 (2017)
       
  • Commercial Fattening of Buffalo Calves for Economic Meat Production

    • Authors: J. Banjade, N.R. Devkota, D.K. Yadav, N.P. Chaudhry
      Pages: 51 - 59
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted on buffalo calves at Livestock farm of Regional Agriculture Research Station, Khajura, Nepal aiming to strengthen practice of commercial fattening. Experiment was done for a period of 7 months during the year 2015 with the main objective to develop low cost buffalo fattening technology emphasizing feeding management. Sixteen male buffalo calves aged 10-12 months were purchased from livestock haat bazaar at Rambhapur, Banke district and from farmers' field. The experiment was conducted in a Randomized Complete Block Design with 4 treatments each replicated four times. The treatment details were T1: Control- Farmer's practice, T2: Feed 1 + roughage adlib (straw and green at 3:1 ratio), T3: Feed 2 (Urea 2% and molasses 10 % of concentrate) + roughage ad lib (straw and green at 3:1 ratio),T4: Feed 3 (Oil seed cakes 20 %, soybean cake 10 %, urea 1%, Molasses 5 % of concentrate) + roughage ad lib (straw and green at 3:1 ratio). The dry matter requirement was fulfilled at the rate of 3 % of body weight. The concentrate was supplied at the rate of 25 % of total dry matter requirement and rest were fulfilled from roughages i.e straw and green forage at the ratio of 3:1. The buffalo calves were vaccinated against FMD and HS. Drenching was done at the beginning and during middle of the experiment. The results showed that the significantly higher average daily gain (g) was found for T2 (508.34 g) followed by T4 (503.57). Based on economic analysis the net benefit per animal was found highest on T3 i.e urea molasses supplemented group without soybean cake supplementation Rs 2853.
      PubDate: 2017-12-21
      DOI: 10.3126/nvj.v34i0.22903
      Issue No: Vol. 34 (2017)
       
  • Beneficial Effects of Stinging Nettle Supplementation on Milk Production

    • Authors: D.R. Khanal, I Tiwari, R. Bastola, C.R. Upreti
      Pages: 60 - 68
      Abstract: After having demonstrated the beneficial effects of stinging nettle supplementation in poultry and pigs, a month long on-station pilot trial in 10 lactating cattle of second to third stage of parity at Cattle Research Programme at Nepal Agricultural Research Council, Lalitpur was carried out. Daily supplementation of 20 gm nettle powder to dairy cattle resulted in enhanced milk production by 0.9 litres on an average compared to milk yield before nettle supplementation (3.2 litres/day versus 4.1 litres/day). After the on-station pilot trial; an on-farm trial in Tanahun, 150 km west of Kathmandu was carried out in 12 lactating Jersey cross cows by daily supplementation of 20 gm (T1) and 40 gm (T2) of nettle powder in two groups (n=4 cows/group) of cattle and productive performance was compared with control. Milk yield in terms of quantity and quality was recorded one week prior and during nettle supplementation. Qualitative analysis of milk samples was done every 14 days to measure levels of milk fat, solid non-fat and milk protein using Lactoscan. Available data on on-farm trial showed that there was increment in milk production in both treatment (T1 and T2) groups by 8.08% and 10.19%, respectively against control. Similarly, fat percentage was also increased compared to fat level prior to nettle supplementation in both T1 (3.52% vs. 4.15%) and T2 (3.46% vs. 4.46%) groups while in control group there was very negligible change (3.24% vs. 3.33%). Likewise, there were also remarkable increment in solid non-fat (SNF) and milk protein in nettle fed groups against control. Furthermore, overall body condition score in nettle supplemented group was better than that of control towards the end of supplementation. Our findings exhibited the beneficial effects of stinging nettle supplementation in enhancing the quantity and quality milk yield besides improving body condition score of the dairy cattle.
      PubDate: 2017-12-21
      DOI: 10.3126/nvj.v34i0.22904
      Issue No: Vol. 34 (2017)
       
  • Progressive Pathological Changes in Sub-clinical Experimental
           Para-tuberculosis in Goats

    • Authors: U.M. Singh, B.N. Tripathi, O.P. Paliwal
      Pages: 69 - 84
      Abstract: An experiment was carried out to study the development of sequential histological lesions and efficacy of certain diagnostic tests in experimentally induced subclinical paratuberculosis infection in goats. Twelve goats of 8-12 weeks age were infected with 4.23 x 109 Mycobacterium avium subsp. Paratuberculosis on 8 occasions. Eight goats were kept as in-contact controls and 4 as uninfected controls. Diagnostic tests, gross and histopathological studies were carried out at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months post-infection. Two goats were positive in the AGID test at 12MPI. Three goats, one at 9 MPI and two at 12 MPI were positive in faecal culture. Tissue PCR detected one goat positive each at 9 and 12 MPI. Six (50%) of 12 infected goats had gross and histological lesions. Marked enlargements of the mesenteric lymph nodes were observed in the early stages (3 and 6 months post infection) of infection. Mucosal thickening and corrugation of the jejunal and ileal mucosae, enlargement and oedema of the mesenteric lymph nodes, dilatation of lymphatics and gelatinisation of mesenteric fat were observed in goats euthanised at 9 and 12 MPI. Histological lesions consisting of flat and broad villi with mild infiltration of lymphocytes and macrophages in the intestinal villi and crypts were common at 3 MPI and 6 MPI. Focal infiltration of macrophages in Peyer's patches and giant cells were found in the mesenteric lymph nodes at 6 MPI. Broadened villi and increased infiltration of lymphocytes and macrophages with Langhan's giant cells were observed in the villi and crypts at 9 MPI and 12 MPI goats. Acid-fast bacilli were detected in 3 goats, one each at 6, 9 and 12 MPI.
      PubDate: 2017-12-21
      DOI: 10.3126/nvj.v34i0.22905
      Issue No: Vol. 34 (2017)
       
  • Effect of Breed and Gender on Hematological Parameters and Some Serum
           Biochemical Profiles of Apparently Healthy indigenous Sheep of Nepal

    • Authors: N. Amatya Gorkhali, S. Khanal, S. Sapkota, M. Prajapati, Y.K. Shrestha, D.R. Khanal
      Pages: 85 - 94
      Abstract: This research was conducted to investigate the effect of some factors such as breed and sex on biochemical and serum parameters as well as to establish normal physiological reference values for indigenous breed of sheep of Nepal. Blood sample were collected from 25 apparently healthy sheep (11 males and 14 females) from on station flock at Khumaltar, Nepal Agriculture Research Council (NARC) were used. In case of serum biochemical parameters, overall LS mean for total Protein (TP) was less than physiological range while Albumin (Alb) was recorded higher than normal physiological range. The breed differences were observed in TP where Lampuchhre sheep (lowland sheep) showed the lower value than hill sheep breeds (Baruwal and Kage sheep) taken in the study. The same breed exhibited gender variation in the same parameter with values in males were significantly higher (P<0.05) than females. Comparing LS Mean for Alb and Phosphrous (P) for Nepalese sheep, value recorded for females were found to be significantly higher P (<0.05) than males in case of serum Alb while serum P was significantly lower (P<0.05) in females. For RBC indices, Nepalese sheep exhibited higher Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) was higher than normal physiological range. LYM and NE value was significantly higher in Kage breed in comparison to Lampuchhre and Baruwal. The highly significant gender variation for Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) (P<0.01) and Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin MCH (P<0.05) where female showed the higher value than males. The result of the preliminary study revealed the breed and sex variation in case of hematological and biochemical indices Further research with more number of samples is warranted for concrete information which could be used to monitor animal health status to improve the management and conservation of these breeds.
      PubDate: 2017-12-21
      DOI: 10.3126/nvj.v34i0.22906
      Issue No: Vol. 34 (2017)
       
  • Status of Brucellosis in Dairy Cattle of Kapilvastu and Bhaktapur
           Districts of Nepal

    • Authors: B. Ghimire, S. Thapa Chhetri, D.R. Khanal
      Pages: 95 - 100
      Abstract: Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that causes abortion in dairy cattle. To find out its status, serological tests were conducted, during June-July 2013, in 48 sera samples from dairy cattle (23 from Kapilvastu and 25 from Bhaktapur districts) having the recent history of abortion. Out of 48 samples 6 (12.5%) were positive on Rose Bengal Plate Test. Among 6 positive samples, 2 (8.69%) were from Kapilvastu and 4 (16%) from Bhakhtapur. Considering the positive cases of brucellosis in the dairy pocket areas and its threat of transmission to other animals and human, a suitable preventive and control measures including the regular test and segregation of sero-positive animals, effective quarantine, legislative measures and awareness programs for farmers, veterinarian, technicians and stakeholders are recommended.
      PubDate: 2017-12-21
      DOI: 10.3126/nvj.v34i0.22907
      Issue No: Vol. 34 (2017)
       
  • Accuracy of Pregnancy Diagnosis with Commercially Available Progesterone
           Kit in Dairy Cows

    • Authors: A.K. Sah, R. Bastola, Y.R. Pandeya, L. Pathak, M.P. Acharya, D.R. Khanal
      Pages: 101 - 106
      Abstract: Present study was carried out for the accuracy of commercially available progesterone ELISA kit at NCRP farm in the fiscal year 2015/16. Twenty crossbred Jersey and Holstein dairy cows were selected at different time periods of post insemination. Blood serum was collected in those animals and progesterone was quantified with the commercially available progesterone ELISA kit. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed by rectal palpation and Ultrasonography (USG) as a Gold standard and compared for the accuracy to ELISA kit. Results of the ELISA kit revealed the accuracy of the kit to be only 80 % with high sensitivity 92 % and very low specificity 57 % at 95 % confidence interval. Out of twenty artificially inseminated cows, thirteen were pregnant and seven were non-pregnant by the Gold standard test with their significantly different mean progesterone (at P < 0.05) 8.93±1.10 ng/ml and 4.36±1.21 ng/ml respectively. Hence, it can be used in the early pregnancy diagnosis at only after 24 days of the insemination, however, progesterone quantification by ELISA is not the confirmatory tests for the pregnancy diagnosis as this results accuracy of only 80 %.
      PubDate: 2017-12-21
      DOI: 10.3126/nvj.v34i0.22908
      Issue No: Vol. 34 (2017)
       
  • Prevalence of Blood Parasites in Dogs of Kathmandu Valley

    • Authors: S. Phuyal, V.C. Jha, M. Subedi
      Pages: 107 - 112
      Abstract: Study in blood parasitic diseases in dog was carried out from August 2014 to November 2014 to find out the prevalence of haemoparasites in clinical cases of hyperthermia in dogs. Blood sample from 50 cases of hyperthermia were collected and examined for any blood parasites by the smear method. The haematological parameter (RBC, WBC, PCV, Hb, & DLC) of each sample was also assessed and analyzed. Data was analyzed to determine prevalence of various species of blood parasites to establish the correlation of the infections with age, sex and breed. Out of 50 samples examined, blood parasites were determined in 12 percent samples of which 2(4%) were positive for Babesia canis and 4 (8%) were positive for Ehrlichia spp. The percentage of infection was greater in female 4(16.67%) than male 2(7.14%). The prevalence of blood parasite was higher in German shepherd. The prevalence of blood parasite was higher in 2-4 years of dogs. To determine significant difference between the hematological parameter of infected and non-infected cases, t-test was need (R, version 3.0.3). The confidence level for the analysis was set at 95percent with significance level assessed at p< 0.05. The study between the infected and non-infected host revealed statistically significant difference in PCV, Neutrophil and Eosinophil. Whereas other parameters did not have any significant difference. The mean PCV was significantly low (P <0.05) in infected dog than in non-infected dog. Mean Neutrophil was significantly decreased whereas Eosinophil was increased in infected dogs than in non-infected dogs.
      PubDate: 2017-12-21
      DOI: 10.3126/nvj.v34i0.22909
      Issue No: Vol. 34 (2017)
       
  • Study of Tuberculosis in Rhesus macaques of Nepal

    • Authors: S.P. Shrestha, D. Shrestha, M. Prajapati, S.P. Shrestha
      Pages: 113 - 118
      Abstract: Tuberculosis is one of the prioritized zoonotic diseases in Nepal producing severe health hazard in humans and animals including both wildlife species and livestock species. It is also one of the most important bacterial diseases of nonhuman primates, especially macaques which is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. bovis. A study was conducted from 2010 to 2012 in macaques of Nepal to find out the status of tuberculosis. Altogether 326 macaques were tested for tuberculosis by Intradermal Skin test on the eyelid and M. tuberculosis/M. bovis antibody testkit. Out of 326 macaques tested, 62 were found positive for the tuberculosis. So, the overall prevalence rate of tuberculosis in rhesus macaques was found to be 19.02%. From the study it is concluded that not only humans, but the monkeys are also equally vulnerable to this disease condition and produce more severe health hazards, resulting even in death. These macaques should also be given priority concerning this as they may pose risk to other wild life species and humans. More researches should be directed towards exploring disease condition and status in these animals to protect other wildlife species and human contacting this disease.
      PubDate: 2017-12-21
      DOI: 10.3126/nvj.v34i0.22910
      Issue No: Vol. 34 (2017)
       
  • First Record of Argulus japonicus (Crustacea: Branchiura) on Cyprinus
           carpio in Nepal, with Additional Notes on Morphology and Prevalence of A.
           Japonicus and Its Treatment

    • Authors: A. Rayamajhi, S. K.C., S. G.C., P. Kunwor
      Pages: 119 - 127
      Abstract: The present study recorded the parasite Argulus japonicus (Crustacea: Branchiura) as the first discovery in Nepal. The description was based on using 11 males (4.12 mm average TL) and 5 females (4.18 mm average TL) of Argulus japonicus which were collected from Godawari fish farm, Lalitpur. Biological behavior of one summer old common carp (Cyprinus carpio) infected with Argulus japonicuswere sluggish movement, jumping and poor growth grown in earthen pond in winter at water temperature 15.5 ºC and pH 7.4. Heavily infected fishes showed brown-grey to reddish points throughout their body surface, especially on the caudal fins and on the body portion. Prevalence rate of this parasite was 80% in infected common carp fish with an average weight 261.80±85.12 g and length 22.9±4.9 cm. Argulus mean intensity count was averaged 10.2 per infected fish with relatively high infestation in body surface (2.8±3.9) followed by caudal fin (1.8±4.5) and dorsal fin (1.1±1.5). Prevalence rate of this parasite in treated common carp reduced by 95% and Argulids assembled in several regions of the fish was in average 0.1/treated fish by feeding Duroclean treated feed. Duroclean, an aquaculture drug was found effective to control this parasite. The effective dose of the drug was 0.3 g per kg fish feed and fed for 3 days consecutively with one day off and then again for 2 days.
      PubDate: 2017-12-21
      DOI: 10.3126/nvj.v34i0.22911
      Issue No: Vol. 34 (2017)
       
  • Plant Bio-resources used in Ethno-veterinary Practices in Jumla District

    • Authors: R.R. Gyawali, H.R. Paudel
      Pages: 128 - 134
      Abstract: Jumla is one of the districts in high mountain region of Nepal from where the medicinal and aromatic plants, their parts and products are exported annually. A study was carried out from March to June 2014 to document the plant resources used in ethno veterinary practice by local people. Focal group discussions and key informant interviews were carried out to enlist plant bio resources used as ethno veterinary medicines. It was revealed that people used 42 plant resources to correct 28 different ailments in animals. Among the listed plant resources, about 87% were the home products of the district. Hence, the study led to the conclusion that there is opportunity to explore the locally found medicinal plants as ethno veterinary medical practice and commercial veterinary herbal medicine.
      PubDate: 2017-12-21
      DOI: 10.3126/nvj.v34i0.22915
      Issue No: Vol. 34 (2017)
       
  • Impact of Climatic Variability on Sheep Husbandry Practices at Lamjung
           District

    • Authors: S. Ghimire, J.L. Yadav, N.R. Devkota, S. Singh
      Pages: 135 - 143
      Abstract: This study was done with 70 households of Uttarkanya and Bhujung VDC of Lamjung district to assess the impacts of climatic variability on sheep production and to document their adaptation practices to mitigate this variability. Household interview with structured-questionnaire were used to collect primary information, and secondary data was collected from District Livestock Service Office, Lamjung, Central Bureau of Statistics and Department of Hydrology and Meteorology. This study found that more than 80% of the farmer's perception about climatic parameters matched to those recorded by department of hydrology and meteorology. Similarly, the trend of sheep rearing in Lamjung district was found in decreasing whereas youths are least attracted to sheep farming, posing serious threat to the sustainability of sheep farming in the area. The study found that the climate change has affected sheep production and livelihood of farmers since many years. Analysis of climate data of Khudi region of Lamjung district showed increase in maximum temperature from 28.32°C to 28.63°C with an average change of 0.002°C per year and increase in minimum temperature from 15.03°C to 16.38°C with an average change of 0.015°C per year in past 20 years, resulting in hotter summer and warmer winter. Similarly, rainfall has shown decreasing trend associated with erratic patterns. Most important risk factor affecting sheep farming was increase in occurrence of different types of diseases due to climate change which was significantly different (P<0.01). Farmers perceived decreased availability of grasses and pasture species in most cases in comparison to 10 years ago which was statistically significant (P<0.01). Farmers have started adaptation measures that include shifting grazing zones to increase in access to pasture; preserve the forages and grasses for dry season; using regular vaccination and deworming against diseases and parasites; and constructed dipping tank to remove external parasites. These activities have helped sheep farming to adapt to climatic variability.
      PubDate: 2017-12-21
      DOI: 10.3126/nvj.v34i0.22916
      Issue No: Vol. 34 (2017)
       
  • Milk Marketing and Dairy Value Chain Development in Nepal in Relation with
           Climate Resilience Effort in the Present Context

    • Authors: B. Sharma
      Pages: 144 - 151
      Abstract: Nepal is agricultural country with a special focus on dairy sub-sector. Almost 80% of milk in market, which have been produced by small holder farmers with a well- developed dairy value chain. Ministry of Livestock Development (MoLD) has given due importance for milk production providing support on feed and forage programs to the farmers as well as introducing crossbreeding programs to uplift the genetics of local cattle and buffaloes. By 2018, the country shall be self-sufficient in milk production, where the requirement of 91 lit of milk per person per year is expected to be achieved. Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) emerges as a major health hazard in dairy sector apart from Hemorrhagic Septicemia (HS) and black quarter (BQ). The incidence of clinical and subclinical mastitis is still high in dairy pocket areas. Moreover, the seasonal fluctuation of milk production is hampering the growth of dairy sector. The need of product diversification and powder milk production are of immense important in long run to sustain dairy sub-sector in Nepal. MOLD has given priority for four pillars for livestock development namely animal feed, animal breeds, animal health and livestock marketing. That sector on balanced development program will lead to increase on milk, meat, eggs, nutrition, and food security in the nation.
      PubDate: 2017-12-21
      DOI: 10.3126/nvj.v34i0.22917
      Issue No: Vol. 34 (2017)
       
  • Alternatives to Fight Against Coccidiosis: A Review

    • Authors: K.P. Acharya, N. Acharya
      Pages: 152 - 167
      Abstract: Coccidiosis is one of the most important parasitic diseases of poultry with economic losses. The loss is mainly due to the poor feed conversion and increased mortality. Nowadays, farmers rely heavily on prophylactic and therapeutic use of chemical compounds for the management of coccidiosis. The conventional anti-coccidials, however, are associated with residual effects and increased resistance. Similarly, increasing consumer awareness and their pressure for natural food has increased governmental pressure basically. Because of regulatory change, there is increasing pressure to phase out the chemical anticoccidials in diet of farm animals. Moreover, there are renewed management practices as alternatives that are safe, little/no residual effects, and economical. Non-conventional compounds such as Mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS), organic acids, phyto-chemicals, probiotics and essentials oils have shown encouraging result against coccidian growth in intestinal mucosa of chicken and turkey. But, comprehensive studies on chemical structure, modes of action and residual effects is needed to unravel their applicability and effectiveness in the field conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-12-21
      DOI: 10.3126/nvj.v34i0.22918
      Issue No: Vol. 34 (2017)
       
 
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