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  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 225 journals)
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Sri Lanka Veterinary Journal
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2279-2090
Published by Sri Lanka Journals Online Homepage  [71 journals]
  • Phenotypic characterization of captive ponies in delft island, Sri Lanka

    • Abstract: he objective of the study was to phenotypically characterize the captive ponies that are present in Delft Island, Sri Lanka. Four qualitative traits and sixteen quantitative traits were measured in 10 ponies (9 males and 1 female). Collected data were statistically analyzed. The body weight of each pony was estimated, and information was collected regarding their management. Mean and Standard Deviation for each quantitative trait in centimeters were: face length 39.70 ± 4.22, face width 16.00 ± 1.67, ear length (left) 14.90 ± 0.92, ear length (right) 14.95 ± 0.79, muzzle circumference 39.55 ± 3.26, neck length 43.90 ± 2.39, neck circumference (at throat latch) 58.70 ± 5.46, neck circumference (at base) 78.85 ± 7.93, neck circumference (at midpoint) 65.75 ± 13.92, withers height 112.40 ± 5.44, rump height 109.60 ± 5.39, body length 67.45 ± 8.63, heart girth 119.30 ± 11.41, barrel girth 138.90 ± 12.27, cannon bone circumference (front) 18.90 ± 1.70, and cannon bone circumference (rear) 23.65 ± 1.55. Average weight was 85.66 ± 17.41 kg. Nine out of the 10 ponies were more than 7 years old. All the ponies had brown color coats with no markings on their bodies. The feral ponies present in the island are captured at a young age using ropes for taming. The expected lifespan is 20 years. The captive ponies are allowed free grazing and are not fed with concentrates or supplements. No regular deworming, vaccination or grooming is done. The captured ponies are not allowed to breed. Starvation and death during dry seasons are the most common issues. Published on 2020-12-30 00:00:00
       
  • A study of ultrasonographic characteristics of the cervix of bitches
           during anoestrus, oestrus, and pregnancy

    • Abstract: The main objective of the present study was to investigate the ultrasonographic characteristics of the cervix of bitches during anoestrus, oestrus, and pregnancy by using two-dimensional transabdominal ultrasonography. Ultrasonographic examinations were performed on 40 bitches using an ultrasound scanner (MyLab30vet, Esaote, Genoa, Italy) with a linear-array transducer (Esaote LA-522, Esaote, Genoa, Italy). According to the results, the cervix was a mild to moderate hyperechoic cylindrical structure lined by hyperechoic serosal margin in anoestrous bitches. The mean diameter of the cervix in anoestrus was 0.93 ± 0.37 cm (range, 0.59 - 1.81 cm), while the cervical canal could not be clearly demarcated by ultrasonography. However, in bitches in oestrus, the mean diameter of the cervix was 1.32 ± 0.11 cm (range, 1.2 - 1.45 cm). The cervical canal was visible as a hypoechoic irregular passage with the mean diameter of 1.5 ± 0.7 mm (range, 1.2 - 2.7 mm). In pregnant bitches, the mean diameter of the cervix was 1.57 ± 0.47 cm (range, 0.82 - 2.18 cm). The cervical canal of pregnant bitches was occluded with the cervical mucus plug which was heterogeneous echogenicity. The diameter of the cervix of pregnant bitches was significantly higher than that of bitches in anoestrus (P=0.001). Further, it was found that the diameter of the cervix increased when the pregnancy advanced. In conclusion, this study evaluated the morphological characteristics of the cervix in bitches during anoestrus, oestrus, and pregnancy. The findings of this study can be used as useful information to evaluate the cervix of bitches in clinical reproductive practice. Published on 2020-12-30 00:00:00
       
  • Effect of maternal antibodies on the immune response to different canine
           parvovirus vaccines and antibody response to selected vaccines

    • Abstract: Canine parvovirus (CPV) is the main cause of gastroenteritis and mortalities in young dogs worldwide. Despite vaccination, the outbreaks of canine parvovirus infection occur in many countries including Sri Lanka. Interference caused by maternally derived antibodies (MDA) is a main reason for vaccination failure. Present study assessed the level of CPV specific MDA in puppies prior to vaccination, the effect of MDA on the efficacy of different preparations of CPV vaccines and, evaluated the immunogenicity of selected CPV vaccines available commercially. Analysis of MDA in puppies born to vaccinated or unvaccinated mothers using commercially available point of care ELISA based test revealed the presence of protective levels of MDA titres at 8 weeks of age which can affect the immunogenicity of the vaccines containing inactivated virus or low viral titre (1000 HAU). The vaccines containing CCID 50 of ≥103-5 were able to induce antibody titres higher than protective level. Analysis of CPV-2 specific antibody titres, two weeks after completing the primary CPV vaccination (16-18 weeks of age) revealed that the dogs who received the vaccines containing CPV-2 or CPV-2b strain with >105 CCID 50 induced significantly high levels of mean antibody titre (vaccine “B”- p value = 0.004; vaccine “D” - p value = 0.022; vaccine “F”- p value = 0.032) when compared to the vaccine containing 1000 HAU. In conclusion, it was evident that the interference of MDA on CPV vaccines could be circumvented by using a live attenuated CPV vaccine having a high viral dose of CPV. Low viral dose vaccines and inactivated vaccines are not suitable for primary vaccination as those could be interfered by maternal immunity. Published on 2020-12-30 00:00:00
       
  • Review of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius infection in dogs and
           humans

    • Abstract: Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a Gram-positive bacterium and coagulase positive organism commonly found in dogs. It is colonized in over 90% of healthy dogs and is the most common cause of dermatological infection, otitis externa and second most common cause of urinary tract infection. S. pseudintermedius is an opportunistic pathogen and host associated factors may play a big role on pathogenesis of an infection than virulence genes found in its bacterial genome. Number of molecular characterization techniques have been optimized for outbreak investigation, and understanding the bacterial infection and diversity of individual strains in a population would be beneficial to determine the source of infection and control strategies. Pathogenesis has not been fully investigated in S. pseudintermedius although it was extensively investigated in Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrobial resistance is emerging in S. pseudintermedius and resistance was reported for the common drugs which are used in companion animal medicine. Methicillin resistance emerged in 1990 in Europe and the organism had been reported all over the world. Two epidemic clones of methicillin resistant S. pseudintermedius were identified as ST 71 and ST 68, European and North American epidemic clones, respectively. Multi drug resistance was reported both in methicillin resistant and methicillin susceptible S. pseudintermedius in dogs. S. pseudintermedius causes secondary infection in humans, and is often underreported or misdiagnosed as S. aureus in diagnostic laboratories. The organism is commonly found in dog bite wounds. Immunocompromised patients and people who suffer metabolic diseases are more susceptible for S. pseudintermedius when they have close contact with the canine host. Published on 2020-12-30 00:00:00
       
  • Diagnosis and surgical correction of pyloric stenosis in a dog – a
           case study

    • Abstract: Pyloric stenosis, which could occur as a congenital or acquired condition, is more common in dogs when compared with other domestic animals. This condition has not been reported in Sri Lanka probably due to unfamiliarity with it and lack of diagnostic facilities. This communication discusses the clinical signs, radiographic and ultrasonographic findings, and treatment of pyloric stenosis in a one-year old female Cocker Spaniel presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital (VTH), Peradeniya. The patient developed projectile vomiting and distended, gas filled abdomen after meals as clinical signs. Survey radiographic findings included the 'gravel sign' in the stomach. In ultrasonography, thickened pylorus was observed. Contrast radiographs after oral administration of barium sulphate suspension showed a delay of gastric emptying. All the above findings suggested that the patient had pyloric stenosis. Complete blood count and serum biochemistry demonstrated no abnormalities. Surgical intervention was performed as treatment, using Fredet-Ramstedt pyloromyotomy together with Heineke-Mikulicz pyloroplasty to clear the obstruction in the pyloric canal. Since there were no post-surgical complications, patient was discharged in 4 days following the surgery. The prognosis was satisfactory and the animal has been healthy after the surgery. The pyloric stenosis observed in this case could be congenital, with hypertrophy and subsequent stenosis gradually worsening over time. Published on 2020-12-30 00:00:00
       
  • Infectious bursal disease – a review

    • Abstract: Infectious bursal disease is a highly contagious disease that accounts for significant economic losses in the poultry industry around the globe including Sri Lanka. The causative agent is Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) in the genus Avibirnavirus of the family Birnaviridae. Among the two major serotypes of IBDV, clinical disease in poultry is caused by serotype 1, which is further classified into three pathotypes, classical virulent, antigenic variant and very virulent. Young chicken of three to six weeks of age are more susceptible for the disease and the clinical signs include exhaustion, prostration, dehydration, watery diarrhoea and ruffled feathers. The virus causes severe damage to lymphocytes in the Bursa of Fabricious of poultry. Consequent immunosuppression increases the susceptibility of the affected chicks to other diseases and cause unresponsiveness to vaccines. In spite of the control measures taken, IBD continues to be a major constraint in the poultry industry. This review extensively discusses the characteristics of the virus, its genome and the functions of each virus coded protein, circulating virus pathotypes and their emergence, host pathogen interactions, pathogenesis, and pathology of the disease. Further, we have reviewed and summarized the current information about the epidemiology of IBD in both local and global perspective, the available diagnostic techniques, prevention and control strategies and the challenges encountered in that process. Considering the enormous economic importance of IBD, this review is aimed to benefit the scientific fraternity, veterinary practitioners, veterinary students, researchers and diagnosticians, which will in turn help in the better and effective management and ultimately control of this disease. Published on 2019-12-29 00:00:00
       
  • Trans-perineal ultrasonographic monitoring of intravaginal transmissible
           venereal tumour regression with vincristine sulphate chemotherapy in dogs:
           a study of twelve cases

    • Abstract: Transmissible venereal tumour (TVT) grows mainly on the genitals of dogs. When such lesions develop in the vaginal passage, the process of clinical examination, diagnosis, and monitoring of therapeutic response are crucial in veterinary practice. The objective of this study was to investigate the usefulness of two-dimensional trans-perineal ultrasonography to monitor the therapeutic response of vincristine sulphate on intravaginal TVT in dogs. Twelve female dogs having lesions confirmed as TVT with cytological evaluation were used. TVT were categorized as multilobular (n=7), solitary (n=5), and heterogeneous (n=12). The maximum transverse diameter of tumour was assessed ultrasonographically while treating with vincristine sulphate 0.025 mg/kg, IV at weekly intervals. Owners were informed about the side effects of chronic vincristine sulphate chemotherapy such as development of pancytopenia, inappetence, and alopecia. Dogs were monitored for such adverse reactions during the study. The average maximum transverse diameter of tumour was 3.05±1.31 cm (range, 1.32 to 5.8 cm) before the treatment. A variation of therapeutic effect on tumour size was observed with trans-perineal ultrasonography. A significant reduction of the lesions was recorded between two to five weeks of the treatment in 11 dogs (P=0.00), with the highest reduction recorded one week after the treatment (P=0.01). Eight dogs showed thickened and hyperechoic foci on the vaginal wall with the highest average thickness of 0.36±0.08 cm after the complete remission of TVT. Based on the results in this study, it could be concluded that trans-perineal ultrasonography is a simple and noninvasive diagnostic modality to characterize and monitor the therapeutic effect of vincristine sulphate in dogs affected with intravaginal TVT in clinical practice. Published on 2019-12-29 00:00:00
       
  • Veterinary curriculum review and renewal at the University of Peradeniya,
           Sri Lanka

    • Abstract: A major review of the Bachelor of Veterinary Science (BVSc) program at University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka was undertaken under the umbrella of the Office International des Epizooties (OIE; World Organisation for Animal Health) Veterinary Education Twinning Program with the partnership of Massey University, New Zealand. The review process started with widespread consultation amongst the Sri Lankan veterinary profession and other stakeholders to identify areas in which changes were needed to the current competencies of veterinary graduates. The review was undertaken as a formal process of the University of Peradeniya, in alignment with the requirements and expectations of the Sri Lanka Qualifications Framework (SLQF). Content was aligned with the recommendations of the OIE on the competencies of graduating veterinarians and projections of national and global standards for the veterinary profession for at least the next two decades. Pedagogical revision has been based upon current best practices in veterinary medical education worldwide. Revision of clinical teaching has similarly aimed to ensure that graduates are well-equipped to meet the diverse expectations of animal owners in Sri Lanka. It has aimed to increase the scope of clinical teaching by drawing upon the breadth of clinical resources that are available throughout the country. Key changes to the program included the extension of its duration by one academic year in order to allow for a year of uninterrupted clinical teaching, alignment and amalgamation of related material, the introduction of problem-based learning modules, a significant reduction in lecture content with a parallel increase in tutorial and practical contents, elaboration of several courses related to industries that have recently gained improved importance in the country (e.g. equine, aquaculture, poultry), and introduction of several new courses to cover topics that had not been adequately covered previously. Finally, a program-long thread of material relating to the professional, ethical and inter-personal behaviour of veterinarians has been introduced. Presentation of the revised curriculum to the profession in Sri Lanka has been met with a high level of enthusiasm and a willingness to participate in its clinical teaching. Published on 2019-12-29 00:00:00
       
  • Antimicrobial resistance patterns of faecal E. coli and Salmonella in wild
           animals in eastern wildlife region of Sri Lanka

    • Abstract: Resistance to antimicrobials is a worldwide problem in both human and veterinary medicine. Exposure to antimicrobials is commonly attributed to the maintenance of resistance in bacterial populations. Commensals like Escherichia coli (E. coli) can easily acquire and transfer resistance genes. The present study was conducted to identify antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles of E. coli and Salmonella isolated from faecal samples of wild animals. During the period of December 2015 to June 2016, samples were collected from 26 birds, 25 mammals and three reptiles within the Eastern Wildlife Health Region of Sri Lanka, which covers approximately 125,576 hectares. Isolation rates of E. coli and Salmonella from faecal samples were 37.03% (20/54) and 18.51% (10/54) respectively. Nine of the 20 E. coli isolates (45%) were resistant to ampicillin and 7 (35%) to trimethoprim+sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline. Two E. coli isolates were resistant to more than 6 antimicrobials tested. All 20 E. coli isolates were susceptible to amikacin and imipenem and 19 (95%) were susceptible to ceftriaxone and gentamicin. Out of the 10 Salmonella isolates, four were resistant to ampicillin and tetracycline, while 2 were resistant to trimethoprim+sulfamethoxazole. Ten percent resistance was observed against each nalidixic acid, streptomycin, and ciprofloxacin. Multiple Drug Resistant (MDR, i.e. not susceptible to at least one agent in at least three antimicrobial classes) E. coli and Salmonella were recovered from Jungle Cat (Felis chaus), Jungle Fowl (Gallus lafayetti), and Serpent Eagle (Spilornis cheela). These AMR and MDR patterns indicate a threat to wildlife and the necessity of conducting a detailed study to identify the possible sources of wildlifecontamination. Published on 2019-12-29 00:00:00
       
  • Salmonella, Campylobacter and Escherichia coli in raw chicken meat,
           

    • Abstract: Salmonella, Campylobacter and Escherichia coli (E. coli) are common foodborne zoonotic bacteria with a significant risk of transmission through poultry and related products. Chicken is the most commonly available and consumed meat type in Sri Lanka, hence this study aimed to identify the occurrence of those microorganisms in retail chicken products that may be posing a direct risk to consumers. A total of 124 chicken samples of chilled or frozen raw meat, sausages, meat balls, and cooked chicken curries were purchased from retail outlets in Kandy municipality area. The presence of above organisms and the antimicrobial resistance profiles of E. coli isolates were tested utilizing standard methods. All types of samples except chicken curries were contaminated with Salmonella, Campylobacter and E. coli to different extents. Frequencies of contamination of sausages and meat balls with Salmonella and Campylobacter were lower than the contamination with E. coli. A higher proportion of loose sausages were positive for E. coli compared to packaged sausages. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of E. coli isolates indicated that all were resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline and streptomycin but susceptible to gentamicin, imipenem and amikacin. The study reinforces the importance of adequate cooking of chicken meat and meat products. Published on 2019-09-15 00:00:00
       
 
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