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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2625-2325
Published by Thieme Publishing Group Homepage  [233 journals]
  • Pathologic Mandibular Fracture Associated with Bilateral Dentigerous Cysts
           in a Dog

    • Authors: Jones; Rebecca Lauren, Gauthier, Olivier, Vallefuoco, Rosario
      Abstract: This report describes the management and computed tomographic (CT) follow-up of a pathologic fracture of the mandibular body associated with bilateral dentigerous cysts in a 16-month-old Boxer. Bilateral, rostral, mandibular lesions consistent with dentigerous cysts were identified by intraoral radiography and CT. The left cyst was associated with an open, mildly displaced mandibular fracture. Treatment of the cystic lesions consisted of surgical exposure, extraction of embedded teeth, curettage of the cyst lining, and placement of demineralized bone matrix. Reduction and stabilization of the fracture were achieved by interdental wiring combined with an intraoral splint. Follow-up examination and CT imaging were performed at 8, 18, and 85 weeks postoperatively. Complete fracture healing and resolution of both cystic lesions were confirmed at 18 weeks with no recurrence evident at 85 weeks. No complications were encountered. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case report of a pathologic mandibular fracture secondary to a dentigerous cyst in a dog, documenting the healing of dentigerous cysts via CT with progressive replacement of demineralized bone matrix by new osseous growth. Surgical treatment of the pathologic mandibular fracture and the bilateral dentigerous cysts resulted in an excellent clinical outcome.
      Citation: VCOT Open 2022; 05: e25-e29
      PubDate: 2022-03-14T00:00:00+0100
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0042-1742474
      Issue No: Vol. 05, No. 01 (2022)
  • Type II Monteggia Lesion with Complete Elbow Dislocation in a Cat

    • Authors: Schreiber; Kevin, Rousseau, Thomas, Gauthier, Olivier
      Abstract: A 2-year-old neutered male cat was presented for right forelimb non-weight-bearing lameness. A fracture of the proximal third of the ulna (associated with a caudal radio-humeral and humero-ulnar dislocations and a radio-ulnar dislocation) was radiographically identified, leading to a diagnosis of type II Monteggia lesion with complete elbow joint dislocation. The ulnar fracture was reduced and stabilized using an intramedullary pin. During surgery, the lateral collateral ligament and the annular ligament appeared disrupted. The radio-ulnar dislocation was reduced and stabilized, using a double-loop suture prosthesis passing through the metaphysis of the ulna and around the radial head. The radio-humeral dislocation was reduced and stabilized using a lateral collateral suture prosthesis. No postoperative complications were observed and the patient regained good elbow joint range of motion, with no significant lameness at 8 postoperative months.
      Citation: VCOT Open 2022; 05: e30-e35
      PubDate: 2022-03-02T00:00:00+0100
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0042-1742470
      Issue No: Vol. 05, No. 01 (2022)
  • Osseous Metaplasia of the Transverse Humeral Ligament in a 10-Year-Old
           Bengal Cat

    • Authors: Rodiño Tilve; Verónica, Maddox, Thomas, Ressel, Lorenzo, Pettitt, Rob
      Abstract: This report is of an osseous metaplasia of the transverse humeral ligament and secondary bicipital tenosynovitis in a 10-year-old Bengal cat. Computed tomography revealed the presence of an osseous bridge enclosing the bicipital groove, with ultrasonography confirming partial tear and inflammation of the bicipital tendon. Initial conservative management with intra-articular long-acting steroids failed to provide long-term improvement of clinical signs. Surgical excision of the osseous lesion resulted in complete resolution of lameness after surgery, confirmed by a 1-year follow-up. Histopathology of this lesion confirmed a well-differentiated osseous metaplasia of the transverse humeral ligament.
      Citation: VCOT Open 2022; 05: e6-e10
      PubDate: 2022-02-25T00:00:00+0100
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0042-1742472
      Issue No: Vol. 05, No. 01 (2022)
  • Knee Joint Distraction in a Dog as Treatment for Severe Osteoarthritis

    • Authors: Teunissen; Michelle, Mastbergen, Simon C., Spoelman, Dennis C., Lafeber, Floris P., Ludwig, Irene S., Broere, Femke, Tryfonidou, Marianna A., Meij, Björn P.
      Abstract: Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disease diagnosed in veterinary practice. There is no cure; where conservative treatment fails, a joint prosthesis is the last resort. In human OA patients, temporary distraction is a joint-preserving treatment which provides clinical and structural benefits, and postpones the need for total knee replacement for up to 9 years. In this single case, feasibility of knee joint distraction (KJD) was assessed in a 9-year-old female Dobermann with severe OA. Osteoarthritis of the left stifle joint was diagnosed clinically and radiographically. Knee joint distraction was applied for 7 weeks using a custom-made, hinged, external fixator. Follow-up of 1 year included owner questionnaires, orthopaedic examination, radiography, and force plate analysis. Additionally, synovial fluid biomarkers were assessed. Application and removal of the KJD frame were successfully accomplished without surgical complications. During KJD, the dog tolerated the frame well and maintained the use of the left hindlimb. Mild pin tract infection developed during the distraction period, which responded well to oral antibiotic medications. Owners reported clinical improvement during KJD and the follow-up period. This was confirmed by force plate analysis, demonstrating improvement from 3 months and onward. KJD proved to be a feasible strategy to treat end-stage OA in this single case; clinical efficacy remains to be determined in a larger cohort.
      Citation: VCOT Open 2022; 05: e11-e17
      PubDate: 2022-02-25T00:00:00+0100
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0042-1742471
      Issue No: Vol. 05, No. 01 (2022)
  • Deep Digital Flexor Contracture following Combined Tibial Plateau
           Levelling Osteotomy and Cranial Closing Wedge Ostectomy: A Case Report in
           a Dog

    • Authors: Price; Anya, Lopez, Daniel, Valenzano, Dominick, Frye, Christopher, Krotscheck, Ursula
      Abstract: This case report describes the use of a Z-plasty tenotomy and anastomosis to surgically lengthen the deep digital flexor (DDF) tendons of digits 2 to 5 of the pelvic limb in a 6-year-old male castrated Greyhound. The procedure was used to treat contracture of this tendon complex which developed after a series of complications secondary to proximal osteotomies utilized for the treatment of cranial cruciate ligament rupture. The dog was evaluated for lameness associated with left cranial cruciate ligament rupture and excessive tibial plateau slope; accordingly, a combined tibial plateau levelling osteotomy and cranial closing wedge ostectomy was performed. Postoperatively, the dog developed substantial DDF tendon contracture that led to severe digital hyperflexion and contributed to a non-weight bearing lameness. The dog received intensive rehabilitation therapy but failed to substantially improve; therefore, all of the weight-bearing left hindlimb DDF tendons were lengthened with a Z-plasty tenotomy and anastomosis followed by further rehabilitation. Follow-up evaluation 44 months postoperatively documented mild, intermittent left hindlimb lameness on gait observation and confirmed success of the Z-plasty procedure via ultrasonographic evaluation. Conservative treatment alone was unsuccessful in managing DDF tendon contracture in this dog. Z-plasty tenotomy and anastomosis of the DDF tendon allowed for return-to-acceptable function in this case.
      Citation: VCOT Open 2022; 05: e18-e24
      PubDate: 2022-02-15T00:00:00+0100
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0042-1742469
      Issue No: Vol. 05, No. 01 (2022)
  • Surgical Treatment of Congenital Radial Head Luxation in a Cat by
           Ostectomy of Radial Head

    • Authors: Verdese; Pauline, Manfredini, Sara, Formaggini, Luca
      Abstract: Congenital radial head luxation was diagnosed in a 7-month-old, neutered female cat that presented a right forelimb lameness. Clinical and radiographic examination revealed a caudolateral luxation of the right radial head, which was treated by radial head ostectomy. For months, postoperative radiographic recheck documented remodelling of the radial head, without humero-radial conflict, and clinical examination revealed resolution of lameness and restoring of the normal elbow range of motion. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case report of a congenital radial head luxation in a caudolateral direction in a cat that was successfully managed surgically with radial head ostectomy.
      Citation: VCOT Open 2022; 05: e1-e5
      PubDate: 2022-02-04T00:00:00+0100
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0042-1742473
      Issue No: Vol. 05, No. 01 (2022)
  • Intra-articular Injection of a Dextran Polymer Combined with Antibiotic
           Medications for Bacterial Infective Arthritis in Dogs: 14 Cases

    • Authors: Lazarus; Matthew A., Kim, Stanley E., Lewis, Daniel D., Johnson, Matthew D.
      Abstract: Objectives The aim of this study was to describe the use of an intra-articular delivery of a dextran polymer (IADP) for bacterial infective arthritis in dogs. Materials and Methods Cases of bacterial infective arthritis treated with IADP were reviewed. Resolution of infection was based on joint fluid cytology. Lameness scores, total nucleated cell counts, and per cent neutrophils were monitored throughout treatment. Results There were 14 dogs included in the study. The stifle was the most commonly affected joint. The median number of injections per dog was 3 with a median of 2 weeks between injections. Amikacin was combined with the dextran polymer in 13 cases and imipenem was used in 1 case. Concurrent oral antimicrobials were used in 12/14 cases, and surgery for infection was performed in 10/14 cases. Cytological evidence of infection resolved in 11/14 cases. Median lameness scores throughout treatment decreased from severe (grade ¾) at initial presentation to mild (grade ¼) at the final recheck. Median total nucleated cell counts and per cent neutrophils decreased from 40,000 white blood cell/µL and 91% to 2,200 white blood cell/µL and 4% respectively. A transient worsening of lameness was the main side effect documented in 5/14 cases. Conclusion Intra-articular dextran polymer combined with antimicrobials was generally well tolerated; however, the efficacy of IADP was unknown in this population since most dogs received concurrent oral antimicrobials and/or surgery.
      Citation: VCOT Open 2021; 04: e104-e110
      PubDate: 2021-11-22T00:00:00+0100
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1739460
      Issue No: Vol. 04, No. 02 (2021)
  • Osteoarticular Infection of the Shoulder Joint Due to Trichophyton Spp. in
           a Dog

    • Authors: Feline; Julien Alexandre, Cabassu, Julien Bernard
      Abstract: A 10-year-old Labrador Retriever was referred for persistent lameness due to chronic right shoulder pain, unresponsive to various pain management therapies. Radiographs indicated signs of severe degenerative changes in the joint. Synovial fluid analysis was not diagnostic. Septic arthritis was suspected based on computed tomography and clinical signs. Arthroscopy allowed joint exploration, tissue biopsies, and copious joint lavage. Trichophyton spp. proliferation was identified on antimicrobial culture and histological analysis on samples obtained during arthroscopy. Oral griseofulvin therapy was initiated. Two months later, the referring veterinarian decided to interrupt the treatment after a negative synovial culture despite persistent lameness. Euthanasia was elected upon after pain also appeared on the tarsus; a post-mortem exam was not authorized by the owner. The origin of the infection remains unclear as this patient had no skin lesions and its immunological status was unknown. However, dermatophytosis has been reported in healthy dogs without skin lesions. To the author's knowledge, this is the first report of an osteoarticular infection with a dermatophyte in a dog.
      Citation: VCOT Open 2021; 04: e99-e103
      PubDate: 2021-10-01T00:00:00+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1735842
      Issue No: Vol. 04, No. 02 (2021)
  • Internet Survey of Participant Demographics and Risk Factors for Injury in
           Competitive Agility Dogs

    • Authors: Evanow; Jennifer A., VanDeventer, Gretchen, Dinallo, Gina, Mann, Sabine, Frye, Christopher W., Wakshlag, Joseph J
      Abstract: Objective The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for an agility dog becoming injured during its career. We hypothesized that certain factors involved with the training, competition, age, sex, age of neuter, body condition, and management could be associated with the risk for injury. Study Design The outcome of interest in this cross-sectional survey design was injury versus no injury, and an initial univariable analysis screening was performed. All variables with a p-value of less than 0.20 in univariable analysis were entered into a multivariable logistic regression model. Manual backward stepwise removal was performed until remaining variables had a p-value of less than 0.05. Results Five-hundred responses were included in the analysis. In the final multivariable model adjusting for all other variables, breed, age, age at neuter, and level of competition remained associated with injury in the study population. Conclusion These findings support existing literature on the predispositions for injury with certain breeds and competition level. Our study further suggests, however, that there is a need to better understand how health decisions earlier in life may affect the prevalence for injury in the agility competitor, particularly regarding age at neutering and age of the competitor.
      Citation: VCOT Open 2021; 04: e92-e98
      PubDate: 2021-10-01T00:00:00+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1735843
      Issue No: Vol. 04, No. 02 (2021)
  • Spontaneous Regression and Reoccurrence of Osteosarcoma in a Canine Tibia

    • Authors: Obringer; Olivia, Coolman, Bradley, Crawford, Jason
      Abstract: A 32-month-old female Labrador Retriever mix-breed presented for right pelvic limb lameness with firm swelling on the lateral aspect of the stifle. Radiographs revealed a mass with periosteal elevation along the lateral cortex of the proximal tibia. Histology on a core biopsy sample was diagnostic for osteosarcoma. Surgical treatment was declined. Eight months post diagnosis, the patient was re-evaluated by the primary care veterinarian and had no lameness, pain, or tibial swelling. Sixty-three months later (5.2 years), the patient presented for cranial cruciate ligament ruptures. Radiographs revealed a smooth bony protuberance on the lateral aspect of the right proximal tibia in the area of the previous osteosarcoma. The patient underwent bilateral tibial plateau levelling osteotomies. The surgical recovery was uneventful with normal healing. Twenty-seven months following surgery, the patient returned for painful swelling around the right proximolateral tibia. Radiographs revealed an 8 × 9 cm osteoproliferative and osteolytic lesion of the proximal tibia. Osteosarcoma was confirmed via core biopsy. The bone tumour grew rapidly, and the patient was euthanatized 3 months thereafter. This case report demonstrates the unusual occurrence of an osteosarcoma in a young dog which spontaneously regressed. Ninety months (7.5 years) after clinical resolution of the initial tumour, osteosarcoma formed again in the same location. Lifetime patient monitoring with repeated clinical exams, serial radiographs, and multiple biopsies by the same surgeon, pathologists, and radiologist are unique features of this case report.
      Citation: VCOT Open 2021; 04: e86-e91
      PubDate: 2021-09-24T00:00:00+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1735844
      Issue No: Vol. 04, No. 02 (2021)
  • Osteopetrosis in a Domestic Shorthair Cat

    • Authors: Beishuizen; Rick, Caliskan, Nermin, Gröne, Andrea, Boroffka, Susanne A.E.B., Tryfonidou, Marianna A., Meij, Björn P.
      Abstract: The purpose of this case report was to describe a cat with generalized bone dysplasia, resembling osteopetrosis and Albers-Schönberg disease in humans. A 1-year-3-month-old, intact male, domestic shorthair cat had a 9-month history of multiple bone fractures without known trauma. Most fractures were treated conservatively and two by osteosynthesis. Bone healing occurred but recurring fractures eventually led to euthanasia. Radiographs, computed tomographic imaging, postmortem analysis and histopathologic examination revealed a generalized increase in bone density and mass with preservation of bone shape, obliteration of the bone marrow cavity and persistence of cartilage and primary trabeculae. Abuse and secondary bone diseases were excluded. History, diagnostic bloodwork, radiographs, computed tomographic imaging and histopathologic examination supported the diagnosis of inherited osteopetrosis and strongly resembled Albers-Schönberg disease in humans. The presence of osteoclasts suggested that the underlying pathology might be found in osteoclast dysfunction, deficient number of osteoclasts, inadequate recruitment of osteoclasts, or other micro environmental changes. In (young) cats that are presented with recurring fractures and the possible suspicion of abuse, inherited osteopetrosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis.
      Citation: VCOT Open 2021; 04: e79-e85
      PubDate: 2021-09-07T00:00:00+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1722735
      Issue No: Vol. 04, No. 02 (2021)
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