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Advanced Research in Life Sciences
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2543-8050
Published by Sciendo Homepage  [370 journals]
  • Effects of Different Cryoprotectants, Cryoprotectant Concentrations and
           Extenders for Short Term Cryopreservation of African Catfish (Burchell,
           1822) Milt

    • Abstract: Aquaculture of Clarias gariepinus is on the increase in Africa. Among the challenges to its production is the scarcity and high cost of broodstocks and sacrifice of the male during induced breeding. Cryopreservation of the milt of the species is a solution to this challenge. However, cryopreservation success depends on right extender, cryoprotectant and concentration. Phosphate buffered solution (PBS) and freshwater ringer solution (extenders), Dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), glycerol and glucose (cryoprotectants) at 5% and 10% concentrations were used to investigate the best cryoprotectants, cryoprotectant concentrations and extenders for short term cryopreservation of Clarias gariepinus milt. Control using fresh milt was also set up. Fifteen each of matured male and female broodstocks of C. gariepinus, weighing between 1.1 – 2.0kg were used for the experiment. analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by comparison of means using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. Percentage data were calculated prior to analysis. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software (Version 16.0, 2005). Dimethyl sulphoxide + phosphate buffered solution (DP) had the highest fertilization rate of 65% and 78% for 5 and 10% cryoprotectant concentrations respectively. Lowest fertilization rate was in glucose + freshwater ringer solution (GF) with 5 and 10% concentration giving 5% and 8% fertilization. Fertilization in control was 88%. Hatching and survival followed fertilization trend with DP 10% > DP 5% > DF 10% > GLP 10% > DF 5% > GLP 5 % > GLF 10% > GLF 5% > GP 10% > GP 5% > GF 10% > GF 5%. Good quality sperm used, non-toxicity and high permeability of DMSO, osmolality effect of PBS on milt were some of the factors responsible for the success of the cryopreservation. 10% DMSO and PBS are the best cryoprotectant and extender for short term cryopreservation of African catfish milt for at least 5 days.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Prevalence and Antibiogram of Bacterial Species in Litter of Selected
           Poultry Farms in Idi-Ayunre Community, Oyo State, Nigeria

    • Abstract: The misuse and overuse of antibiotics within poultry sector of the animal agriculture threatens public health due to its aftermath effect arising from the release of resistant pathogens to the environment. This study investigated the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility status of bacterial species isolated from litter of selected poultry farms within Idi Ayunre, a poultry-dense community in Oyo State. Poultry droppings (5 g) was collected each from six (6) randomly selected farms and bacteria isolated using Brain Heart Infusion agar (BHI), MacConkey agar (MCA), Eosin methylene blue agar (EMB) and Salmonella Shigella agar (SSA) media respectively via pour plate technique. Bacterial isolates were identified via morphological and biochemical tests and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern determined via Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method using multi-disc antibiotics. Farm A had highest Total Heterotrophic Count (THC, 8.43 Log10CFU/mL) and Total Enterobacteriaceae Count (TEC, 6.32 Log10CFU/mL). However, Farm C had lowest THC and TEC (7.18 Log10CFU/mL and 4.48 Log10CFU/mL respectively), while Farm B had lowest Total Coliform Count (TCC, 4.70 Log10CFU/mL) with the highest being Farm D (6.08 Log10CFU/mL). Also Farm D had the highest (8.15 Log10CFU/mL) Salmonella-Shigella Count (SSC) with Farm E having the lowest (4.85 Log10CFU/mL). Isolates obtained were identified as Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus sp., Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas sp, Klebsiella sp., Escherichia coli, Citrobacter sp., Salmonella sp., Enterobacter sp. and Shigella sp. Across the farms, S. aureus, Bacillus sp. and E. coli were isolated, while Shigella sp. was isolated only from Farm D. The bacteria isolates were found to be multidrug resistant towards the tested antibiotics, showing susceptibility only to gentamicin and ofloxacin. This study therefore showed that birds’ droppings from poultry farms in Idi Ayunre community serve as carrier of multidrug resistant pathogens. Hence, the need for a cautious use of antibiotics among Idi Ayunre poultry farmers.
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Isolation and Study of the Nutritional Variability of Peripheral Layers of
           Barley Grains During Development

    • Abstract: Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the grain cereals widely cultivated for human and animal consumption. The objective of this study was to determine the components of the peripheral layer (PL) of 4 stages of development of barley grain (Hordeum vulgare L.) (Saida 183) by manual isolation, as follows, Mg, Mn, and Ca content shows a progressive decrease through the development cycle from (1.888; 0.0645; 8.345) mg/l DM in ripening stage respectively, while Fe and Zn are increased in maturation stage (0.663; 0.360) mg/l of DM. The K content presented an important increase from 7.7 mg/ml in the maturity with a value of 30 mg/ml. The average values of crude fiber content varied from 8.4 to 16.6. These values increase significantly with the development of the barley in different stages. The phytic acid content in the fourth stage (maturation) was 8.96±0.56 mg/g DM, and the proline content was very low in the first stage with a value of (2.474 ± 0.069) mg/ml DM and in the maturation stage the value was high with a value of (7.148 ± 0.248) mg/ml DM. The optical observation of the different microstructures and progressive changes that were undergone from the first filling stage of the mid-milk stage, soft dough stage, physiological stage, and ripening stage were studied. By optical observation, there is the formation of the first protective envelope of the grain, so all the tissues of the external pericarp that is grouped with the testa. The aleurone layer was structured in three rows with an important condensation of the cells of the albumen sub-structures that are involved in the storage.
      PubDate: Mon, 07 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Palmyra Palm ( L., Arecaceae) as a Valuable Resource for Livelihood
           Security in Odisha, India

    • Abstract: The present study (April 2015 to March 2018) is carried out to document and enlist the indigenous utilization pattern of Palmyra palm (Borassus flabellifer L.) in coastal districts of Odisha, India. The purpose of the research is to explore multipurpose use of Palmyra palm with the aim to suggest for proper marketing of the products which provides livelihood support to the rural people of Odisha. Exploratory assessment is made through field survey, literature consultations and key informant interviews. Various plant parts such as root, stem, leaves, inflorescence, seed, and fruit are used for various purposes including food, beverage, fiber, medicinal, and timber. This plant has been instrumental for indigenous people in providing a substantial livelihood through their own indigenous wisdom from collection to the processing of products. Certain measures for its better utility are suggested.
      PubDate: Mon, 13 Dec 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Date Scraps and Rumen Content Extract in Broiler Feed: Effects on Growth
           Performances, Carcass Yields, Meat Quality and Economic Efficiency

    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the effect on the production performances and carcass characteristics of local broiler chickens of replacing corn with cull dates from agri-food industries in oasis zones and of complementing this with rumen content extract from sheep abattoirs in the chickens’ feed rations. A total of 200 male and female day-old chicks of local stock, with an average weight of 25±2g, were divided randomly into 4 groups of 50 individuals, each group distinguished by the respective rate of substitution of corn by cull dates (0%, 20%, 30% and 40%) for a period of 48 days. Each group was divided into ten (10) cages of 5 subjects. The live weights after 48 days improved for all experimental groups, recording an increase of +162g (20%); +82g (30%) and +31g (40%). All of the characteristics remained unchanged for all groups with the exception of liver weight, which was lower in the experimental groups. Substituting until 40% of the corn by culls dates while adding 250 ml rumen content extract per kilogram of broiler feed increased the live weight and average daily gain compared to the control.
      PubDate: Mon, 13 Dec 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Morphobiometry and Growth Performances of Improved Genetic Types of
           Chickens (Gallus Gallus) Raised in Cameroon

    • Abstract: From July to November 2019, a study has been carried out in the locality of Ngaoundéré in order to contribute to a better knowledge of exotic hens. For this purpose, 190 improved strain chicks of one day-old with an average weight of 35.49±3.78g were distributed according to the type of feather. They were fed an iso-energetic and iso-proteic feed. Data on phenotype characteristics, growth performance, biometric data and carcass were determined. The main results show that three types of feathering were recorded with 16.4% of hens with bare necks and with feathered pits, 78.1% of hens with feathered pits and 5.5% of hens with normal feathers. The majority of hens were recorded with a single comb (75.3%), round mumps (71.2%), white pits (76.4%), black beaks (47.9%) and brown eyes (75.3%). In terms of zootechnical performance, the highest live weight (1758.00±322.20g) was recorded with naked-necked hens and feathered pits. The highest weekly average weight gain was recorded with yellow eyed hens (111.77±16.63g) followed by bare-necked and feathered pits (107.83±20.06g). Hens expressing the Na and Pti genes showed the best growth performance although carcass yield was not significantly affected by feather type. It was concluded that there is a very high phenotypic diversity in the so-called improved hens. However, despite their great potential, responsible management of this genetic resource should be encouraged in order to avoid genetic erosion of local poultry resources.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Constrains of the Multi-Sectoral Partnerships in Romania - Are Local
           Action Groups Sustainable'

    • Abstract: Local Action Groups (LAGs) are responsible for promoting social and economic development in their territories, by creating local development strategies (LDSs) funded through LEADER Programme. They are area-based multisectoral partnerships, formed from public, private and social stakeholders. The aim of this paper is to study the governance and sustainability of Romanian LAGs, using evidence from the Nord-West Development Region from Romania. Structured interviews with LAGs managers were used as a primary method for collecting data. The results show that LAGs are struggling to remain active during the transition periods between two editions of the program, questioning their capacity to function without LEADER funding. However, they report fewer major changes compared to the last transition, mostly focusing on partnership and territorial structure.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Isolation and Characterization of a New strain LG10 from an Unexploited
           Algerian Saharan Atlas

    • Abstract: An actinobacterial strain named LG10 was isolated from a Saharan Atlas soil (Laghouat, Algeria). The aerial hyphae were yellowish-white on all culture media with rectiflexibiles spore chains, suggested that this bacterium attached to Streptomyces. Furthermore, LG10 contained chemical characteristics that were diagnostic for the genus Streptomyces, such as the presence of LL-diaminopimelic acid isomer (LL-DAP) and glycine amino acid. The hydrolysates of whole-cell included non-characteristic sugars. Comparative analysis of the 16S rDNA sequence displayed a similarity level of 100% with Streptomyces puniceus NRRL ISP-5058T. The antimicrobial activity of the LG10 strain was better in the culture medium MB5. Streptomyces strains are good sources of bioactive compounds with multiple biological activities.
      PubDate: Sat, 03 Jul 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Antimicrobial Effect of Medicinal Plants on Microbiological Quality of
           Grape Juice

    • Abstract: The safety of plant-based food of plant origin is a priority for producers and consumers. The biological value of food products enriched with herbal ingredients is getting more popular among consumers. The present study was aimed to evaluate microbiological quality of grape juice enriched with medicinal plants. There were two varieties of grapes -Welschriesling and Cabernet Sauvignon and six species of medicinal plants used for the experiment: Calendula officinalis L., Ginkgo biloba, Thymus serpyllum, Matricaria recutita, Salvia officinalis L., and Mentha aquatica var. citrata. A total of 14 samples of juice were prepared and two of them were used as controls and 12 samples were treated with medicinal plants. Total microbial count, coliforms, lactic acid bacteria and yeasts and microscopic fungi for testing the microbiological quality were detected. All the samples were negative for lactic acid bacteria. There were neither coliform bacteria nor yeast and fibrous microscopic fungi present in some of the treated samples apart from the control samples. Coliform bacteria of 1 log cfu/mL were detected during the first testing and identified Proteus vulgaris in the control sample of grape juice of the variety Welschriesling. The yeast of the genus Candida was present in 2 log cfu/mL and it was detected during first and second testing in the control sample of Cabernet Sauvignon, unlike the other samples. The sample of grape juice with the addition of sage had the most significant inhibitory effect on total count of bacteria. The most common microorganisms in all samples were Bacillus cereus and Acinetobacter johnsonii, however, those microorganisms were absent during second testing due to the action of naturally occurring antimicrobials in the grapes.
      PubDate: Sat, 03 Jul 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Antimicrobial Activity of Selected Essential Oils against Bacteria
           Isolated from Freshwater Fish

    • Abstract: The aim of study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of ten essential oils against ten microorganisms isolated from fish. The following essential oils were tested: Cymbopogon nardus Rendle, Citrus limon, Leptospermum petersonii Bailey, Gaultheria procumbens, Pelargonium graveolens, Citrus paradisi, Citrus aurantifolia, Litsea cubeba Pers., Citrus reticulata Blanko, Vetiveria zizanoides. The disc diffusion method and microdilution method were used for determination of antimicrobial activity. Rhodotorula spp., Aerococcus spp., Aerococcus viridans, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus moraviensis, Aeromonas spp., Delftia acidovorans, Pseudomonas gessardii, Yersinia spp., Yersinia ruckeri, Yersinia enterocolitica were tested in the present study. The best antimicrobial activity of Leptospermum petersonii Bailey were found against Aerococcus spp., Enterococcus faecium, E. moraviensis, Delftia acidovorans, Pseudomonas gessardii, Yersinia ruckeri and Y. enterocolitica. Litsea cubeba Pers. was effective against Delftia acidovorans, Yersinia enterocolitica, Enterococcus faecium using the disc diffusion method. The best minimal inhibition concentration (MIC 50 - 1.5 µL/mL resp. MIC 90 - 1.6 µL/mL) was found for Litsea cubeba Pers. against Aerococcus spp. and Yersinia spp. using microdilution method.
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Apr 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Effects of Pomace Fertilization on some Phenological, Morphological and
           Biochemical characters of the Cherry tree in the Region of Tlemcen
           (Algeria): Case of the Black Bigareau and Sunburst

    • Abstract: Pomace is the solid residue by-product resulting from the extraction of olive oil. Their high content of organic compounds gives them the possibility of being used also as green manure. We have tried this amendment approach on two varieties of cherry grown in the Tlemcen region. The Sunburst and the Black Bigarreau. Its use in combination with N.P.K fertilizers increases the carbon content of the soil, boosts the formation of May bouquets, and improves the water-holding capacity of the clay-humic complex. The results of this study showed that olive pomace used as a fertilizer, alone or in combination with N.P.K mineral fertilizers creates an advantage on the phenological and biochemical aspect, especially on the Black Bigarreau variety.
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Apr 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Splenic and Leucocytic Responses in Wistar Rats Exposed to Chronic Doses
           of Hydromethanol Extract of Leaf in Feed

    • Abstract: To evaluate the effects of the hydromethanol extract of Helianthus annuus on leucocyte profile and spleen histology after prolonged exposure to Wistar rats. This study involved the incorporation of varied concentrations (2.50, 5.00 and 10.00 mg/10 g) of hydromethanol extract of H. annuus in feed and feeding same to Wistar rats for 90 consecutive days. Blood samples were collected from the retro-orbital plexus of the rats on days 30, 60 and 90, for leucocyte count. Histopathological examination of the spleen was also conducted. The extract treatment did not cause a significant (p >0.05) change in the leucocyte profile and the spleen histology in the treated rats when compared to the normal control rats. On day 90, the total leucocyte counts of 15.24 ± 1.47, 12.69 ± 0.84 and 16.29 ± 3.36 for the groups that were treated with extract 2.50, 5.00 and 10.00 mg/10 g feed respectively, were not significantly (p > 0.05) different when compared with the total leucocyte count (12.01 ± 0.77) of the control group. The findings suggest that hydromethanol extract of H. annuus do not have a significant effect on the leucocyte profile and the histology of spleen.
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Apr 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
 
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