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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0372-6827 - ISSN (Online) 2233-1360
Published by U of Sarajevo Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Seroprevalence and associated risk factors of Rift Valley fever and
           Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever viruses in livestock and their zoonotic
           potentials: A systematic review

    • Authors: Jemberu Alemu Megenas, Mengistu Legesse Legesse, Gezahegne Mamo Mamo
      Pages: 1 - 16
      Abstract: A systematic review was carried out to identify scientific articles documenting on seroprevalence of Rift valley fever and Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever infections of Livestock and human known to date to cause disease with associated risk in articles published from 2011 to 2021. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Statement (PRISMA) 2020 expanded checklist was used to summarize the article selection process. Search strategy was developed to retrieve eligible studies from PubMed (Medline)/OVOID, Animal Health and Production Compendium (CABI) and SciQuest (NZVA). The preliminary search retrieved 2,213 articles on the specified areas: 1,515 articles on Rift Valley Fever Virus, 698 articles on Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever Virus. Finally a total of 106, (64 on RVFV and 42 on CCHFV) openly available articles were retained for the review process from 30 and 23 different countries respectively. The articles were clustered in to three: articles on livestock sera, articles on human sera and articles from both human and different livestock (Cattle, Sheep, Goat and Camel) serum. The systematic review showed that pooled seroprevalence of RVFV (13.16%) and CCHFV (9.6%). The descriptive statistical analysis revealed statistical difference in the seroprevalence of Rift valley fever in sheep, Goat and camel (χ2 =771.857840, 787.903297, 358.448980; p-value=0.002971*, 0.008652*, 0.000000**) respectively in different countries. This systematic review reflects circulation of RVF and CCKF with complex ecology of vector-borne diseases and the establishment of sustained transmission and the emergence of human and/or animal disease influenced by multiple factors. Therefore, the review indicated that there should be an urgent need for both cost-effective and efficient surveillance systems that focus sampling in the right place at the right time.
      PubDate: 2022-03-31
      DOI: 10.51607/22331360.2022.71.1.1
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. 1 (2022)
  • Seroprevalence and associated risk factors for camel brucellosis in south

    • Authors: Karima Benfodil, Samir Ansel, Abdellah Mohamed Cherif, Said Fettata, Saliha Bounar-Kechihe , Khatima Ait Oudhia
      Pages: 17 - 26
      Abstract: Brucellosis is a disease caused by a facultative intracellular bacterium of Brucella genus. It affects broad range of mammalian hosts. Diagnosis is not based in clinical symptoms, a combination of serological, molecular and bacteriological tests was recommended to the detection of brucellosis infection. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of Brucella spp in camels by two serological tests: RBPT and ELISA and to identify the associated risk factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 132 camels from Ghardaïa and El Menia districts. A structured questionnaire was performed to collect data related to animals (age, gender, breed, herd size, husbandry system, history of abortion and geographical location). The seroprevalence obtained was 5.3 % and 1.4 % using ELISA test and RBPT, respectively.  Possible risk factors associated to the infection were analysed using univariate and logistic regression. The results showed a higher seroprevalence in females (P = 0.01) and animals living in flocks with history of abortion (P = 0.004, OR = 2.76, CI 95% = 2.37–104.54). Brucellosis is endemic in camels in Algeria and prophylactic measures should be taken to reduce the animals and humans infection. 
      PubDate: 2022-03-31
      DOI: 10.51607/22331360.2022.71.1.17
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. 1 (2022)
  • Organization and management of companion animal clinics in Istanbul
           established by veterinarians graduated from Istanbul University

    • Authors: Canberk Balaban, Nursen Ozturk, Halil Gunes
      Pages: 27 - 39
      Abstract: Besides being healthcare units, veterinary clinics are enterprises which contributes to national economy and supply employment opportunity for the public. It is important to know the clinic’s general structure, equipment facilities and provided services in order to determine the powerful and vulnerable areas of the companion animal sector and make required supports. In this study, a face-to-face survey was applied to veterinary clinic owners who graduated from Istanbul University and have veterinary clinics in Istanbul. The results indicated that most of the veterinary clinics are single-storey, have 2 exam rooms and have one operation room. Pet boarding and per coiffeur services were provided by the majority of the clinics but ambulance and parking lot was not sufficiently provided. Clinics have made various medical equipment investments and the number of clinics having diagnostic tools are high. In terms of the patient demographics, it was determined that 62.6% of the patients were cats and 32.8% of the patients were dogs. Majority of the patients were between 2-5 of age. Mini-small dog breeds were the dominant breeds which was followed by medium-size dog breeds. Sex distribution was determined as similar between cat and dog patients. Furthermore, it was found that 73.8% of the dogs and 65.7% of cats make regular visits. In conclusion, companion animal clinics in Istanbul were determined to have fragmented and independent structure which results in high competition. In order to be successful in this competition it was determined that veterinary clinics make investments on their medical equipment and diversify their services.
      PubDate: 2022-03-31
      DOI: 10.51607/22331360.2022.71.1.27
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. 1 (2022)
  • Influence of hyperthermia on dimensions of erythrocytes: Experimental
           preliminary study on rats

    • Authors: Emina Dervišević, Muhamed Katica, Zurifa Ajanović, Anes Jogunčić, Lejla Dervišević, Muamer Dervišević, Adis Salihbegović
      Pages: 41 - 52
      Abstract: The aim of these study was to examine how elevated body temperature effects on the diameter of red blood cells in the study group of rats. The total sample of 38 rats was divided into three experimental groups, depending on the exposure of temperature water of 37°C, 41°C and 44°C. The group of rats exposed to temperatures of 41°C-G41 and 44°C-G44 were divided into two subgroups: a subgroup on which an antemortem analysis was performed after exposure to a temperature of 41°C and 44°C for 20 minutes (G41-AM=7; G44-AM=8) and a subgroups on which a postmortem analysis were performed after death has occurred (G41-PM=8; G44-PM=8). Seven days before exposure to temperature, blood sampling was performed for all three study groups. After exposure to a temperature of 20 minutes, blood sampling was performed in control group KG37 and subgroups G41-AM and G44-AM. After exposure to temperatures of 41°C and 44°C in postmortem subgroups, sampling was performed after death (subgroups G41-PM and G44-PM). Morphometric analysis by Giemsa method involved the determination of the diameter (μm) of the examined erythrocytes. The mean value of erythrocyte changes in the examined groups of rats was: KG37=6.57 ± 0.45; G41-AM=6.90 ± 0.22; G41-PM=6.79 ± 0.42; G44-AM=6.68 ± 0.43 and G44-PM=6.32 ± 0.37. Results of T test showed that there is a statistically significant difference between the erythrocyte diameters of subgroup G41-PM and G44-PM (p=0.049). There are significant changes in the diameter of erythrocytes, where the value of temperature as well as the exposure time significantly affects the diameter of erythrocytes.
      PubDate: 2022-03-31
      DOI: 10.51607/22331360.2022.71.1.41
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. 1 (2022)
  • Identification of proteins of laminated layer of Echinococcus granulosus:
           Interface among host and parasite

    • Authors: Razika Zeghir-Bouteldja, Chafia Touil-Boukoffa
      Pages: 53 - 60
      Abstract: Cystic echinococcosis is one of the major echinococcosis which is caused by the larval form of tape worm Echinococcus granulosus. The chronicity of the parasitic infection is related to the strategies adopted by parasite to escape the host immuneresponse. Several studies were performed to clarify the host-Echinococcus granulosus interaction allowing the adaptation of the metacestode to the host. Many proteomics analyses allowed the identification of proteins in hydatid fluid, protoscoleces adult worm and hydatid walls. Our study is focused on the identification of proteins associated to the laminated layer which constitutes the interface between metacestode and the host immune response. In this context, protein extracts obtained were separated by SDS-PAGE and analyzed by nano-liquid chromatography-coupled tandem mass spectrometry. Our results revealed the presence of host proteins. Most of them were sera proteins and would be involved in the immune response indicating their involvement in the local inflammatory response and others involved in transport. Interestingly, our results also identified a few parasitic proteins such as glioma pathogenesis protein 1, paramyosin, and myoferlin. Globally, our study indicated the presence of proteins that might be involved in host-parasite interaction and pointed some of them as potential drug and vaccine targets.
      PubDate: 2022-03-31
      DOI: 10.51607/22331360.2022.71.1.53
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. 1 (2022)
  • Chlamydia abortus in dairy cattle: Serostatus and risk factors in Algerian
           northeastern high plateaus

    • Authors: Sana Hireche, Amir Agabou, Brahim El Khalil Bounab
      Pages: 61 - 71
      Abstract: Chlamydia abortus is a zoonotic abortifacient bacterium causing a large variety of diseases with detrimental economic impact, mainly in ruminants. A total of 345 cows belonging to 42 herds were randomly sampled to conduct a cross sectional study, aiming to establish the seroprevalence of this pathogen (using iELISA test) and its associated risk factors (through a questionnaire) in dairy cattle from Oum-El-Bouaghi and Setif provinces (Northeastern Algerian high plateaus). All over the studied zone, specific chlamydial antibodies were detectable in 58 cows (16.8%) belonging to 13 infected herds (30.9%). The individual animal seroprevalence ranged from 12.6% (18/143) to 19.8% (40/202) in Oum-El-Bouaghi and Setif respectively and the herd one varied from 30% (06/20) to 31.8% (07/22) as well. At the herd level, none of the tested factors had an effect on chlamydial antibodies prevalence; while at the individual animal level, associations (univariately evaluated with p<0.05) were recorded for herd size, deficient disinfection and origin of cows and feed. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed origin of cows to be protective and history of infertility as potential risk factor in Setif only. These results are clear evidences that C. abortus is endemic in our dairy cattle population, in which it plays some role in their decreased reproductive performances.
      PubDate: 2022-03-31
      DOI: 10.51607/22331360.2022.71.1.61
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. 1 (2022)
  • A cross- sectional study of Leishmania infantum infection in stray cats in
           Algiers’ suburbs, Algeria, and evaluation of serological and molecular
           tests for its diagnosis

    • Authors: Abdellah Mohamed Cherif, Aicha Yassmine Bellatreche, Khatima Ait-Oudhia
      Pages: 73 - 83
      Abstract: In the Mediterranean basin, the common and most important cause of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) is Leishmaniainfantum. Although dogs represent the main reservoir/ host of L. infantum,andthe most significant risk factor of ZVL, many cases of Feline leishmaniasis (FeL) have been reported within ZVL’s endemic areas.When no data existed, the present study was carried out: first to determine the prevalence of Leishmaniasis caused by L. infantumin stray cats in Algiers’ suburbs, Algeriaand, second,to evaluate the accuracy of serological and molecular tests and their reliable combination to be used in epidemiological surveys. A total of 388 blood samples from stray cats were tested with IFAT, ELISA and qPCR. The results showed that 17% were positive by IFAT, 22.42% were positive by ELISA and 36,6 % were positive by qPCR. The Kappa index (P < 0.05) showed a strong agreement between IFAT and ELISA(k= 0.83), and moderate agreement between IFAT and qPCR (k= 0.524). The sensitivity was 100 % for both ELISA and qPCR. Based on the results obtained, it is concluded that L. infantum was detected among cats in Asub, Algeria. However, further studies are necessaryto determine more accurately the role of cats in the epidemiological lifecycle of the protozoan and whether this species should really have considered as an alternative/ reservoir of leishmaniasis.
      PubDate: 2022-03-31
      DOI: 10.51607/22331360.2022.71.1.73
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. 1 (2022)
  • Intestinal impaction with Parascaris equorum in a captive zebra (Equus
           quagga boehmi) – A case report

    • Authors: Mirko Gajić, Edina Turan, Senad Prašović, Jovana Šupić, Amer Alić
      Pages: 85 - 89
      Abstract: The present report describes the case of small intestinal impaction with Parascaris equorum in captive zebra from the zoo “Pionirska dolina” in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. A massive burden of nematodes occluding the lumen of the small intestine was observed. In addition to severe trauma of the muscle of rear leg, intestinal impaction was probably the main cause of death in the presented case. Regular control of the feces for the presence of parasitic eggs, deworming and husbandry measures were commented.
      PubDate: 2022-03-31
      DOI: 10.51607/22331360.2022.71.1.85
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. 1 (2022)
  • Repair of left displaced abomasum in a cow with the TPS procedure using
           makeshift equipment

    • Authors: Mokhtar Benchohra
      Pages: 91 - 99
      Abstract: Due to the need for veterinary intervention when surgery is required to correct a case of left displaced abomasum (LDA) in cattle, less expensive alternative procedures have been developed. The toggle-pin suture (TPS) procedure offers a lot of benefits, as it is a minimally invasive procedure with a high success rate. The purpose of this report is to show that it is possible to perform the TPS procedure with an available and low-cost material. It is about a case of recurrent indigestion that had lasted about 15 days in a 7-year aged Holstein dairy cow. Examination of the digestive system revealed overload of rumen and decreased motility, but the most significant clinical finding was an area of tympanic hyper-resonant “ping” heard on the left side of the flank, mainly in the middle and dorsal aspect of the abdomen at the level of the 9th to 12th intercostal space, revealed by auscultation and percussion exam. The decision was made to proceed with TPS for the abomasum repair because of the poor body condition of the cow, which may not survive surgery. Then, we proceeded with a supportive treatment in order to prepare the cow for the abomasum repair, scheduled
      for the next day. The cow received an infusion of NaCl 0.9% and glucose 5%, and a general tonic injected via IM route. The improvised equipment consisted of: a medium trocar/cannula with a diameter of 10 mm to be used for rumen puncture, a 15 cm push rod, 5 cm rods made using a tube for bovine artificial insemination (5 mm diameter), and a lined fishing line (USP n°1) used to tie the rods. Iodine tincture 10% was used for disinfection of the equipment and for puncture site antisepsis. The cow was cast on her right side and rolled onto her back, and her front and rear legs were inserted separately. Auscultation and simultaneous percussion of the body wall between the umbilicus and xyphoid on the right side of the ventral midline for detection of “ping”, reveal the location of the abomasum and the site of trocarization. After local anesthesia had been applied at the elected trocarization points, two incisions of 1 cm each were made in the skin and the abdominal muscle. Then, the trocar/cannula was inserted through the incised points into the abdominal wall and then, in the abomasum; the trocar was removed and the cannula left in place. A bar suture was placed in the cannula and pushed into the abomasal lumen. The cannula was then removed, leaving the suture in place. Similarly, a second puncture was made about 5 cm from the first. Some abomasal liquid was allowed to escape prior to removal of the cannula; afterwards, the gauze was put between the threads, which were tied tightly. The cow was then rolled into the left lateral recumbency and allowed to stand. The recommended daily diet consists of 2 kg of wheat bran and 10 l of water, while avoiding roughage for 3 to 4 days, in order to achieve rumen emptying. The next day, the cow started defecating in large amounts; it got up easily and had a good reflex and appetite. We continued with anti-inflammatory (flunixin) and antibiotic (amoxicillin) drugs. In addition, neostigmine was administered to promote abomasum and small intestine motility. Starting from Day six, , the cow began feeding vetch-oat hay (3 kg twice a day). A week later, the cow showed a decrease in appetite and activity as well the presence of purulent discharge from the puncture site. This was most probably due to local peritonitis caused by the leakage of abomasal fluid into the peritoneal cavity, which led us to prescribe to the cow 3 days of penicillin/streptomycin treatment. At the same time, we cut the nylon thread suspected to be responsible for tissue reaction. With the persistence of slight purulent discharge, a final injection of Naxcel® was administered, following which the cow improved significantly, however, the puncture site remained firm to palpation. Over the course of 60 days of monitoring, the cow showed no problems, indicating the success of our experiment. We conclude that the use of available and inexpensive equipment to perform abomasal fixation by the TPS method is an easy and safe alternative for veterinarians practicing in countries with limited resources. However, we recommend to use a smaller gauge trocar/cannula and rods, and to opt for silk (4-5 USP) thread rather than the fishing line for rod fixation.

      PubDate: 2022-03-31
      DOI: 10.51607/22331360.2022.71.1.91
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. 1 (2022)
  • Opasnost od parazitskih zoonoza u povezanosti sa posljednjim valom
           migranata (4) - Lišmanioza

    • Authors: Franjo Martinkovic, Iva Štimac
      Pages: 101 - 125
      Abstract: Lišmanioza je invazijska bolest uzrokovana obligatnim intracelularnim parazitima roda Leishmania. Prenose ih ubodom
      invadirane ženke papatača (insekti potporodice Phlebotominae). Pripadnici roda Phlebotomus su biološki vektori na području Starog, a roda Lutzomyia na području Novog svijeta. Žarišta lišmanioze ljudi se nalaze u otprilike 90 zemalja tropskih i subtropskih regija te južne Evrope. Procijenjena je godišnja pojava od 50 000 do 90 000 visceralne te 600 000 do 1 miliona novih slučajeva kutane lišmanioze širom svijeta. Na području Sirijske Arapske Republike, Islamskog Emirata Afganistana, Republike Irak te Islamske Republike Iran najčešći izolirani uzročnici kožne lišmanioze su Leishmania tropica i L. major, dok je uzročnik visceralne lišmanioze L. infantum, osim u Republici Irak gdje je izolirana L. donovani. U Evropi, na području mediteranske regije visceralni i kožni oblik uzrokuje L. infantum, dok je L. tropica uzročnik kožnog oblika bolesti u Grčkoj. Posljednjih godina je zabilježeno povećanje broja oboljelih od lišmanioze uz širenje endemskih žarišta i pojavu bolesti u ne-endemskim područjima. Faktorom rizika se smatra prisutnost bioloških vektora roda Phlebotomus, stoga je potreban razvoj strategija za smanjenje broja vektora tokom sezone njihove visoke aktivnosti. Za određivanje potencijalnih promjena u pojavnosti lišmanioze na području Evrope potrebne su informacije o prisutnosti bioloških vektora i njihovom kretanju. U mobilnim populacijama poput migranata i izbjeglica, pojava bolesti prenosivih biološkim vektorima nije neočekivana, zato su osiguranje prava na zdravstvenu zaštitu i univerzalni pristup javnim zdravstvenim uslugama važni u prevenciji sekundarnih slučajeva i izbijanja bolesti.
      PubDate: 2022-03-31
      DOI: 10.51607/22331360.2022.71.1.101
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. 1 (2022)
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