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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0372-6827 - ISSN (Online) 2233-1360
Published by U of Sarajevo Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Ecological state of the environment and phenotypic characteristics of
           mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck, 1873 in the Neum Bay (Bosnia and

    • Authors: Sadbera Trožić-Borovac, Jasmina Ićanović, Alma Imamović, Adnan Bijedić, Mirza Čelebičić
      Abstract: Mytilis galloprovincialis Lamarck, 1873 is a species widespread in the Adriatic Sea. Due to the its edibility, it is the first shellfish breed in Europe, and two farms have been registered in the Neum Bay. The paper analyzes native mussel populations of M. galloprovincialis from three populations (Neum Bay two and Mali Ston Croatia). For the purposes of the analysis, sampling was performed in the tide zone in May 2019. According to the WFD and typology, these three localities are in the type of coastal waters of polyhialine with fine-grained sediment. According to the average values ​​of physical-chemical and chlorophyll, Neum Bay is in the category of good ecological status, while Mali Ston is stated to be a reference site. Morphometric measurements of the right eyelid in 90 individuals (30 per locality) included external parameters (height, total length and width of the shell) as well as total weight, gut weight and shell weight. As the internal parameters, the characteristics of the ligament, retractor muscles and adductor muscles are analyzed. By the application of statistical analyzes (descriptive statistics, post Hoc analysis, correlation and descriptive statistics), differences in the total weight, length and parameters of the adductor and retractor muscles have been determinated. The species from Mali Ston are clearly separated from the species of the Neum Bay, which indicates more pronounced anthropogenic influences in the areas of the Neum town. Morphometric analysis is a powerful tool in monitoring the state of populations and in combination with genetic-molecular analysis can indicate changes in the environment. Determining pathogens in mussel species in Croatia, Slovenia and Italy is an impulse to control the condition of natural and breeding species, using various methods and analyzes.  
      PubDate: 2022-08-04
      DOI: 10.51607/22331360.2022.71.2.205
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. 2 (2022)
  • The pathophysiology of peritonitis

    • Authors: Samir Delibegović
      Pages: 133 - 152
      Abstract: Peritonitis signifies inflammation of peritoneum, whose cause is not specific. It can be regarded as local equivalent of systemic inflammatory response which is seen after any trigger of inflammation and referred to as systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Peritonitis takes place together with many, complex pathophysiological changes on systemic and cellular level.
      PubDate: 2022-08-04
      DOI: 10.51607/22331360.2022.71.2.133
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. 2 (2022)
  • Botulinum toxin: From the natural cause of botulism to an emerging
           therapeutic in veterinary medicine

    • Authors: Petra Šoštarić, Enida Članjak – Kudra, Ahmed Smajlović, Ivica Matak
      Pages: 153 - 173
      Abstract: Botulinum toxins are one of the most potent biological toxins known. They cause botulism in wildlife and livestock, and thus, are regarded as a problem in veterinary medicine. On the other hand, use of purified low dose pharmaceutical grade botulinum toxin serotype A (BoNT-A) in different human clinical implications such as movement, autonomic disorders, pain conditions have expanded in the last 30-40 years based on its long-lasting effects and a good safety profile. However, despite that, its use in veterinary practice is lagging far behind the already well-established use in humans. BoNT-A is not licensed for use in any veterinary medical condition, and overall, there are only few clinical trials and several case studies, the most notable being case reports and limited clinical studies of osteoarthritis and perioperative pain in dogs, lameness in horses, as well as the spasticity treatment in cats. Indications for BoNT-A use in veterinary medicine happen to be very similar when compared to human indications, which is not surprising due to pathophysiological similarities. This warrants further clinical research of novel indications of BoNT-A in veterinary medicine.    
      PubDate: 2022-08-04
      DOI: 10.51607/22331360.2022.71.2.153
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. 2 (2022)
  • Effects of Eucalyptus globulus leaf extract on growth performance, feed

    • Authors: Nasif Dawda Nurudeen, Christian Larbi Ayisi, Akwasi Ampofo-Yeboah
      Pages: 175 - 189
      Abstract: The effects of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. extract in diets of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758) were studied. Five diets (500 g each) supplemented with 0 ml (T 0), 5ml (T 5), 10 ml (T 10), 15 ml (T 15) and 20 ml (T 20) of E. globulus extract were fed to O. niloticus for 12 weeks. Group fed diet T 10 recorded the highest final weight (42.27 g), weight gain (36.97 g) and specific growth rate (3.72). The highest protein efficiency ratio (2.36), feed efficiency (0.70) and condition factor (1.31) were observed in group fed diet T 10. Compared to fish fed diet T 0, all groups fed E. globulus extract recorded significantly higher levels of crude protein content in the whole body. Hemoglobin concentration increased with increasing levels of E. globulus extract up to T 10 but decreased after further increase in E. globulus extract in diets. Increasing E. globulus extract levels in diets resulted in a significant decrease in aspartate aminotransferase. Group fed diet T 5 recorded the least (17.50) alkaline phosphate and was significantly lower than all other groups. Globulin concentration decreased with increasing E. globulus extract in diets. This study concludes that dietary administration of E. globulus promotes growth performance, feed utilization and increases the main hematological and biochemical parameters of O. niloticus fish. For optimum growth, 10 ml per 500 g (T 10) feed is recommended. This study provides new information on applications of eucalyptus and, at the same time, promotes rational development and utilization of eucalyptus resources.
      PubDate: 2022-08-04
      DOI: 10.51607/22331360.2022.71.2.175
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. 2 (2022)
  • Prevalence and associated risk factors of bovine mastitis in Ashulia,
           Dhaka, Bangladesh

    • Authors: Kazi Md. Al-Noman, Md. Ruknuzzaman, Mst. Nasrin Banu, Himangsu Sarkar, Md. Abdur Rahman, Ashleigh Pencil, Md. Ashraful Alam, Md Shafiullah Parvej
      Pages: 191 - 204
      Abstract: Mastitis is a devastating and critical infectious disease globally including in Bangladesh. Antibiotic treatment can cure the disease, but the cows will be unable to reverse their previous productive condition. Therefore, the identification of the possible risk factors and management of those factors is the only way to minimize the losses in the dairy sector. The present study was conducted to clarify the existing status of the disease and to find out the possible risk factors of the disease to adjust successful control measures. The result exhibited that, 57% of cows in the study area were infected by mastitis. Of these, subclinical mastitis was more predominant (85%) than clinical mastitis (15%). Most of the cows got an infection at 3.5 to 5 years of age in the 3rd to 4th lactation and during the early lactational stage (3 months). Principal component analysis and Pearson correlation matrix analysis revealed that high milk producers, intensive rearing system, improper hygiene during milking, new farms by unskilled farmers, and poor physical condition of the cows showed positive association to mastitis. However, an adaptation of an extensive or semi-intensive rearing system, as well as washing hands and udders before and after milking using antiseptic together with proper training of the farmers on scientific dairy farming, can reduce the prevalence of mastitis in the study area. This will be advantageous in decreasing antibiotic usage and lessening new antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains.
      PubDate: 2022-08-04
      DOI: 10.51607/22331360.2022.71.2.191
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. 2 (2022)
  • Socio-demographic characteristics and economic structures of companion
           animal clinics in Istanbul established by veterinarians graduated from
           Istanbul University

    • Authors: Canberk Balaban, Halil Gunes
      Pages: 219 - 232
      Abstract: This study was conducted in Istanbul in order to determine the socio-demographic characteristics and economic situation of the companion animal clinics which are operated by veterinarians graduated from the Istanbul University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. In total 199 veterinarians participated at the study and the survey was conducted face to face with clinic only owners. As a result, the average age of the clinicians was 43.8 and the professional experience 18.2 years. Time period between graduation and starting to professional life was 3.6 month. Most of the clinicians had positive insights regarding their graduated faculty and also the profession’s future. The average working hour was determined as 10.4 hours and most of the clinicians stated that they were not able to spare sufficiant time for their private life. In the study it was reported that pet owners’ average annual expenditure was found to be $ 402 for cats and $ 645 for dogs. For a single clinic the average number of veterinarians was determined as 2.4 and technicians was 0.8% as well as total number of employees was 5.1. The average monthly net income of the veterinarians was determined as $ 2796 and the average amount of uncollectible receivables was $ 3783 per clinic. The results of the study points that the companion animal industry in Istanbul should be improved in some conditions such as long working hours, number of qualified veterinarian/technicians and uncollectible receivables. In order to make contribution to this improvement goal, beside the medical traninig in the veterinary curriculum, technical and practical clinic management traninigs should also be echanced.
      PubDate: 2022-08-04
      DOI: 10.51607/22331360.2022.71.2.219
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. 2 (2022)
  • Evaluation of liver transaminases activities in lactating cows in
           different diet conditions

    • Authors: Ermin Šaljić, Maja Varatanović, Amina Hrković-Porobija, Amel Ćutuk, Sabina Šerić-Haračić
      Pages: 233 - 242
      Abstract: The aim of the study was to determine the correlation of liver transaminases’ activities levels in dairy cows in farm breeding with the parameters of milk gained after milking, in feeding conditions with and without the addition of sunflower oil. The study included 30 cows from the 2nd to 7th lactation divided into three groups with 10 heads in each. The first group (group A) consisted of cows at lower production level (13-15 kg of milk), the second group (group B) of cows at medium (19-21 kg of milk), and the third group (group C) of cows at higher production level (25-27 kg of milk). The cows were kept on a controlled feeding regime, common for lactating cows’ meals with the addition of sunflower oil. Milk control as well as milk and blood sampling were performed at the beginning, middle and at the end of the experiment, i.e. Day 1 (sampling 0), Day 21 (sampling 1) and Day 42 (sampling 2). Blood samples were taken by puncture of the V. jugularis with the aim of obtaining plasma and measuring liver transaminases: AST, ALT and ALP. Serum enzyme activity levels ranged within physiological limits. Statistically significant differences between groups of experimental cows were found after the addition of sunflower oil. Elevated level of AST activity was found in the context of a positive correlation with the amount of milk gained after milking in both feeding methods, i.e. with and without the addition of sunflower oil. Obtained results could indicate the necessary compensatory intensification of metabolic processes as a liver response to additional stress due to higher flow of fatty components.
      PubDate: 2022-08-04
      DOI: 10.51607/2331360.2022.71.2.233
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. 2 (2022)
  • Oncolytic activity of Newcastle disease virus strain zg1999hds on oral
           malignant melanoma in dog: A case report

    • Authors: Siniša Ivanković, Damir Stanin, Tihomir Kosjek, Ivan-Conrado Šoštarić-Zuckermann, Bratko Filipič, Hrvoje Mazija
      Pages: 243 - 254
      Abstract: Oral Malignant Melanoma (OMM) are the most frequent neoplasmsin dogs older than 10 years, and represent up to 7% of all malignant tumors in dog. Small breeds, with especially heavily pigmented oral mucosa are of greater risk to get the disease. The outcome of the OMM is related to the clinical stage at presentation e.g. tumor size, presence of local or distant spread of metastases, presence or absence of ulceration and anatomic site. The treatment of OMM consists of radical resection of the primary tumor, and considering the malignant behavior of the disease, radiotherapy, chemotherapy or immunotherapy could be introduced. Other forms of therapy such as immunotherapy using cytokines and specific vaccine have also been tested with controversial results. Oncolytic viruses have not been used in OMM treatment in dogs, although promising results with melanomas in humans were achieved. Described here is the efficacy of NDV strain ZG1999HDS given locally and systematically to a dog with OMM. After two sets of virus application the melanoma tissue had necrotized with evident neutrophilic demarcation of the remnants of the viable tumor cells in which melanin pigmentation was no longer present.      
      PubDate: 2022-08-04
      DOI: 10.51607/22331360.2022.71.2.243
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. 2 (2022)
  • Imunosni odgovori kože uslijed Leishmania spp. invazije (1)

    • Authors: Iva Štimac, Franjo Martinkovic
      Pages: 255 - 274
      Abstract: Invazija parazitima roda Leishmania rezultira razvojem lišmanioze, sve raširenije skupine bolesti koja zahvaća veliki broj ljudi diljem svijeta. Lišmanioza može imati različite ishode u rasponu od kožnih lezija i lezija sluznice do visceralizacije, ovisno o vrsti parazita i imunosnom odgovoru nositelja. Kao obligatni intracelularni parazit koji živi unutar makrofaga, lišmanija je evoluirala u strogom kontaktu s imunosnim sustavom nositelja razvijajući različite mehanizme za izbjegavanje ili moduliranje imunosnog odgovora. Tijekom invazija različitih vrsta lišmanija opaženi su i različiti odgovori imunosnog sustava nositelja koji su rezultirali uklanjanjem parazita, ali i doprinosom patogenezi čime se povećala složenost tijeka bolesti. Kao zaštitno sučelje između utrobnih organa i okoliša, koža se susreće s mnoštvom toksina, patogenih organizama i fizičkih stresora. Za suzbijanje navedenih napada na njeno mikrookruženje, koža ima veću funkciju od one fizičke barijere - predstavlja i aktivan organ imunosnog sustava. Imunosni odgovori u koži uključuju opremljenost imunokompetentnim stanicama i topljivim modifikatorima biološkog odgovora uključujući citokine. Glavni zadatak stanica imunosnog sustava kože je zadržavanje invadirajućeg patogenog uzročnika radi spriječavanja njegovog širenja na unutarnje organe i/ili, ako je moguće, njegovo uklanjanje.
      PubDate: 2022-08-04
      DOI: 10.51607/22331360.2022.71.2.255
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. 2 (2022)
  • Tretman i prevencija periodontalnih oboljenja

    • Authors: Senad Kovacevic, Faruk Tandir
      Pages: 275 - 285
      Abstract: Periodontalna oboljenja su skupina bolesti koje pogađaju potporni aparat zuba. Uzrok nastanka oboljenja je bakterijski plak koji se nakuplja na strukture periodonta. Gingivitis je početni stadij oboljenja i on prethodi nastanku periodontitisa. Manifestuje se pojavom crvenila, bolnosti i otečenosti inflamirane gingive. Razvojem bolesti gingiva se sve više povlači, što pogoduje prodoru bakterija u dublje strukture periodonta i stvaranju bakterijskog plaka na ovim strukturama. Mineralizacijom bakterijskog plaka nastaje kamenac koji još više doprinosi destrukciji periodonta. Vremenom dolazi do oštećenja periodontalnog ligamenta i cementa, da bi na kraju proces zahvatio alveolarnu kost što dovodi do pojave periodontitsa i pojave mobilnosti zdravih zuba uslijed destrukcije potpornog aparata. S toga je vrlo važno djelovati preventivno uklanjanjem bakterijskog plaka i zubnog kamenca skaliranjem. Ukoliko dođe do razvoja periodontitisa sa stvaranjem dubokih džepova na gingivi, periodontalna hirurška operacija postaje neizbiježna. Ovaj rad detaljno opisuje terapijske i preventivne postupke periodontalnih oboljenja koji imaju za cilj uspostavljanje i održavanje klinički zdrave gingive.
      PubDate: 2022-08-04
      DOI: 10.51607/22331360.2022.71.2.275
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. 2 (2022)
  • Istraživanje parazitarnih oboljenja divljači na području Federacije
           Bosne i Hercegovine s ciljem očuvanja i unaprjeđenja biodiverziteta

    • Authors: Jasmin Omeragić, Naida Kapo, Vedad Škapur, Darinka Klarić Soldo, Šejla Goletić, Adis Softić, Ermin Šaljić, Sabina Šerić-Haračić, Teufik Goletić
      Pages: 287 - 297
      Abstract: Područje Bosne i Hercegovine (BiH) karakterizira veliko bogatstvo divljači, ali su neke vrste sve rjeđe i ugroženije, naročito velike zvijeri (medvjed, vuk i ris). Da bi se populacija divljih životinja očuvala i razvijala jedan od važnih aspekata je analiza zdravstvenog stanja divljih životinja. Prema podacima Svjetske zdravstvene organizacije (World Health Organisation, WHO) 75% novih bolesti ljudi u zadnjih desetak godina uzrokovano je patogenima koji potječu od životinja ili od proizvoda životinjskog porijekla. Divlje životinje su važan faktor za bolesti ljudi i domaćih životinja jer nemaju granice u svom kretanju i mogu preći velike udaljenosti. Uz virusne i bakterijske bolesti svakako treba istaknuti i parazitarne bolesti (trihineloza, ehinokokoza, toksoplazmoza i dr.) koje
      imaju snažan ekonomski impakt i utjecaj na javno i zdravlje životinja. Cilj je bio istražiti parazitarna oboljenja divljači sa
      područja Federacije Bosne i Hercegovine (FBiH) s akcentom na očuvanje i unaprjeđenja biodiverziteta. U periodu od marta 2021. godine do maja 2022. godine, provedena su istraživanja parazita kod 13 vrsta životinja (n=983). U skladu s važećim zakonskim normativima, sakupljeni su uzorci fecesa na terenu i drugi uzorci od uginulih ili odstrijeljenih životinja prilikom nekropsije. Standardne parazitološke i molekularne pretrage provedene su u okviru akreditiranih laboratorija (BAS EN ISO/IEC 17025:2018), Univerziteta u Sarajevu - Veterinarskog fakulteta. Rezultati istraživanja daju relevantne pokazatelje za daljnje kreiranje strategija u cilju unaprjeđenja životne sredine. Također, kroz uključivanje mladih stručnjaka i studenata rezultati projekta imali su iznimno korisne aspekte, prije svega edukativne i naučne, podržavanjem naučno-istraživačkog rada i trajne edukacije.
      PubDate: 2022-08-04
      DOI: 10.51607/22331360.2022.71.2.287
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. 2 (2022)
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