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  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 225 journals)
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Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2090-6269 - ISSN (Online) 2090-6277
Published by Assiut University Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Antimicrobial activity of starch-based biodegradable antimicrobial films
           incorporated with biosynthesized silver nanoparticles against multiple
           drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus food isolates

    • Authors: Omnia Ahmed, Fathy Khalafalla, Fatma Ali, Abdelrahim Hassan
      Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the antimicrobial activity of starch-based biodegradable antimicrobial films incorporated with biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) against multiple drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus food isolates. Herein, the in-vitro antimicrobial activities of Origanum marjorana (OM) leaf extract, OM essential oil, OM nano-emulsion, chemically synthesized Ag-NPs (chem-Ag-NPs), and OM-based biosynthesized Ag-NPs (bio-Ag-NPs) using OM extracts were determined against a cocktail of three pathogenic Staphylococcus (S.) aureus strains isolated from meat products, using the agar well diffusion assay (AWDA). Afterward, homemade starch-based biodegradable antimicrobial films (SBAF) were incorporated with the suitable antimicrobials, based on AWDA and preliminary experiments, and investigated for their antimicrobial properties against S. aureus cocktail through the disc diffusion assay (DDA). The obtained results showed that in WDA, bio-Ag-NPs (1mM) had a significantly higher antimicrobial activity than chem-Ag-NPs (1mM), with inhibition zones accounting for 23 and 19mm, respectively. Whereas both types of nanoparticles were significantly more potent in their antimicrobial properties than different concentrations of OM extract, essential oil, and nano-emulsion (p<0.05). In concern to SBAF incorporated with antimicrobials, SBAF incorporated with chem-Ag-NPs (SBAF/chem-Ag-NPs) showed a significantly stronger antimicrobial effect than SBAF incorporated with bio-Ag-NPs (SBAF/bio-Ag-NPs) in the DDA, while both types of films produced significantly larger zones of inhibition than other antimicrobials (p<0.05). These homemade biodegradable films incorporated with bio-Ag-NPs could be a good alternative to petroleum-based packaging (plastic) in food packaging applications and meanwhile improve food safety and quality. Further studies investigating the effectiveness of these films on bacterial isolates inoculated in real food samples are suggested.
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4
       
  • Evaluation of locomotor and morpho-histological effect for platelet rich
           plasma and silver nanoparticles on healing process of achilles tendon
           (Comparative experimental study in rabbits)

    • Authors: Sayed Fathi El-Hawari, Mohamed Salama, Bahaa Eldeen Abedellaah, Mohamed Elrashidy, Fatma Ali
      Abstract: Tissue engineering is a newer option provided encouraging results in orthopedic surgery. In the present study, we compare between platelet rich plasma (PRP) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in the healing process of achilles tendon. This comparison depending upon the evaluation of locomotor and morphohistological parameters for each treatment. The current study was carried out on 32 apparently healthy adult female rabbits. Locomotor evaluation was done through numerical score at intervals of 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks postoperatively. Morphohistological evaluation was performed through numerical score at intervals of 2, 3 and 6 weeks postoperatively. Results of the current study revealed that PRP and AgNPs were better than control group regarding to lameness, pain on complete flexion of tarsal joint, adhesion of tendon to the skin and signs of inflammation. However, PRP is better than both control and AgNPs groups in decreasing lameness and adhesion of tendon to the skin. Morphohistological examination revealed PRP is better than both control and AgNPs in improving color of the tendon. PRP and AgNPs were better than control group concerning collagen maturation, fibroblast number,  angiogenesis and surgical gap reduction. However, PRP is better than both control and AgNPs in decreasing signs of inflammation and increasing collagen maturation. We concluded that using PRP for treatment of ruptured achilles tendon provides better prognosis than AgNPs treatment. 
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4
       
  • Haematological Indices and Serum Electrolyte Constituents of Scavenging
           Muscovy Ducks (Cairina moschata) in Makurdi, North-Central Nigeria

    • Authors: Samuel
      Abstract: The study investigated the haemato-biochemical constituents of scavenging Muscovy ducks in Makurdi, Benue state, North-Central Nigeria to assess their health and stress status. A total of 20 apparently healthy adult Muscovy ducks (10 birds per sex) reared on scavenging system were used for the study.  Two sets of jugular venous blood samples were collected from each duck at point of sacrificing and analysed for haematological and serum electrolyte constituents. The result showed that sex did not significantly (P>0.05) influence all the parameters studied with values that were comparable to other works. The overall mean haemato-biochemical values from this study were 2.00x1012/L (red blood cell), 35.85 % (packed cell volume), 19.24 g/dL (haemoglobin), 98.43 pg (mean corpuscular haemoglobin), 57.21 g/dL (mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration), 187.38 fL (mean corpuscular volume), 132.00 x109/L (platelets), 14.56x109/L (white blood cell), 43.55 % (heterophils), 1.85 % (eosinophils), 52.55 % (lymphocytes), 2.05 % (monocytes), 0.92 (heterophil/lymphocyte ratio), 2.16 mg/dL (calcium), 157.00 mmol/L (sodium), 7.87 mmol/L (potassium), 112.17 mmol/L (chloride), and 9.37 mg/dL (phosphate). Therefore, the haemato-biochemical constituents of the scavenging Muscovy ducks from this study in comparison with available literature on healthy ducks possibly indicated normal health and low stress status of the birds.
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4
       
  • Potential risk of antimicrobial resistance related to less common bacteria
           causing subclinical mastitis in cows

    • Authors: Nesma Youssif , Nagah Hafiz , Mohamady Halawa , Mena Saad
      Abstract: Antimicrobials are an essential tool for intra-mammary infection control. This study was achieved to assess the resistance to antimicrobials as a risk associated with less common bacteria identified in subclinical mastitis (SCM) milk samples of dairy cows. The disc diffusion method was used for determining the resistance to antimicrobials. The interrelate resistance genes were also detected by polymerase chain reaction. The antimicrobial sensitivity test indicated that ampicillin, oxacillin, gentamicin, tetracycline, amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, oxytetracycline, and cephradine were highly resistant antibiotics against gram-positive bacilli microorganisms. However, the highest effective antibiotic against the investigated gram-negative bacilli isolates was gentamicin. The antimicrobial resistance genes investigation showed that the tetA(A) and blaTEM genes were expressed in all the Gram-negative bacilli isolates. The mecA and blaZ were positive in the investigated Staphylococcus chromogenes isolates. Sul1 gene was positive in all the examined Citrobacter amalanaticus, Enterobacter cloacae, and 50.0% of Klebsiella oxytoca isolates. The mph (A) gene was found in all Enterobacter species isolates. The significant (p< 0.05, p< 0.01) positive relationship between resistant antibiotics with each other in SCM dairy cows has assured the significant relation between these resistant antibiotics and the isolated species of SCM bacteria.
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4
       
  • Modified technique for recovery of infecting nematode larvae in different
           grass genera

    • Authors: Gustavo Delmilho, Ricardo Lopes Dias da Costa, Rafael Silvio Bonilha Pinheiro, Waldssimiler Teixeira de Mattos
      Abstract: Most gastrointestinal nematodes are in the grazing environment. As an option, the study aimed to evaluate an alternative technique for recovery of infecting larvae in various grass genera: Tyfton 85 (Cynodon dactylon) Capim–Vencedor (Megathyrsus maximus) Capim–Gordura (Melinis minutiflora) Capim–Marandu (Brachiaria brizantha), Setaria (Setaria anceps) Capim-Humidicula (Brachiaria humidicula) and Andropogon (Andropogon gayanus). The collection of samples and procedures were developed at the Institute of Animal Science, Nova Odessa, Brazil. The grasses came from isolated paddocks. Three subsamples were used: 1-control sample (AC1); 2-control frozen sample (ACC2); 3-infested sample (AI). AC1, after the process of larvae recoveries, served as control, the rest was frozen. After de-freezing, it was divided into two samples (ACC2 and AI). In ACC2, no larvae were observed. AI was infested with 1600 ± 30 L3 larvae of trichostrongylids, recovered from sheep manure. The larvae recovery procedures were applied to the samples in the three periods. The overall mean of recovery (±SD) and percentage of success was estimated (SISVAR®) in 1544.63 ± 1.31 larvae, 96.54 ± 17% respectively. There were no differences between grass genera, as well as between weeks, with near recovery numbers (p>0.05). The technique had satisfactory results in a short time.  
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4
       
 
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