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Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.21
Number of Followers: 1  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0898-7564 - ISSN (Online) 2470-4083
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1174 journals]
  • Thermographic Examination of the Gingiva of 16 Dogs

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      Authors: Kürs¸ad Yiğitarslan, Candemir Özcan, Bekir Cetintav
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.
      Gingivitis is a common periodontal disease in dogs and refers to inflammation of the gingiva. Gingival Index (GI), Papillary Bleeding Index (PBI) and Plaque Index (PI) are oral indices that describe the health status of the gingiva and which are based on human observation. Thermal changes due to inflammation are expected in gingivitis. Thermographic imaging, a wide-spread diagnostic tool in veterinary science, can be used for identification when there is abnormal body surface temperature in an area of the animal body. In this study, oral examination results and thermographic images obtained from 458 teeth from 16 dogs were used. Firstly, a thermal imaging procedure for diagnosis of gingival diseases of dogs was defined. Secondly, reference surface temperatures of tissues for each oral indices were determined. And thirdly, statistically significant thermal differences between the levels of each index was compared. The statistical analysis showed that there are significant thermal differences in some index levels and that presence or absence of plaque is an important etiologic factor in thermal examination of gingivitis. The study showed that thermographic images can be used to determine thermal changes in oral tissues of dogs with gingivitis.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2022-08-02T07:16:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564221117738
       
  • Abstracts for 2022 Veterinary Dental Forum, September 28th – October
           1st, Reno-Tahoe, Nevada, USA

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      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2022-07-19T06:27:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564221113404
       
  • Instructions for Authors - JOVD

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      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2022-07-14T08:12:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564221112315
       
  • Genomic Medicine in Periodontal Disease: Old Issue, New Insights

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      Authors: Nuno Gonçalves-Anjo, João Requicha, Andreia Teixeira, Isabel Dias, Carlos Viegas, Estela Bastos
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.
      Genetic variability is the main cause of phenotypic variation. Some variants may be associated with several diseases and can be used as risk biomarkers, identifying animals with higher susceptibility to develop the pathology. Genomic medicine uses this genetic information for risk calculation, clinical diagnosis and prognosis, allowing the implementation of more effective preventive strategies and/or personalized therapies. Periodontal disease (PD) is the inflammation of the periodontium induced mainly by bacterial plaque and is the leading cause of tooth loss. Microbial factors are responsible for the PD initiation; however, several studies support the genetic influence on the PD progression. The main purpose of the present publication is to highlight the main steps involved in the genomic medicine applied to veterinary patients, describing the flowchart from the characterization of the genetic variants to the identification of potential associations with specific clinical data. After investigating which genes might potentially be implicated in canine PD, the RANK gene, involved in the regulation of osteoclastogenesis, was selected to illustrate this approach. A case-control study was performed using DNA samples from a population of 90 dogs – 50 being healthy and 40 with PD. This analysis allowed for the discovery of four new intronic variations that were banked in GenBank (g.85A>G, g.151G>T, g.268A>G and g.492T>C). The results of this study are not intended to be applied exclusively to PD. On the contrary, this genetic information is intended to be used by other researchers as a foundation for the development of multiple applications in the veterinary clinical field.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2022-06-29T05:18:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564221109102
       
  • Correlation Between Radiographic and Histopathologic Findings Associated
           with Unerupted Teeth in Dogs

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      Authors: Jason P. Hutt, Mary Krakowski Volker, Melissa D. Sánchez
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.
      An association between unerupted teeth and dentigerous cysts is well known,– however little is known about the presence of disease and histopathologic changes in unerupted teeth without radiographic evidence of cyst formation. Forty-two dogs representing 25 breeds, ranging in age from 5 months to 12 years were selected based on radiographic evidence of an unerupted tooth or teeth, either as a primary complaint or incidental finding. Dogs meeting the study criteria were presented to a private dental referral practice within a period of eighteen months from December 2016 through May 2018. Patients were treated with conservative en bloc resection of the unerupted tooth and overlying bone as well as debridement of any cystic structure and biopsy of the samples collected. Radiographs were evaluated using criteria previously established to assess for evidence of a cyst., – A total of 68 unerupted teeth were identified; 63 (92.7%) were mandibular first premolar teeth. Of the 63 unerupted mandibular first premolar teeth, 28 (44.4%) had radiographic evidence of a cystic structure. Histopathology revealed that 21 of 28 (75.0%) had evidence of non-keratinizing stratified squamous epithelium consistent with a cyst lining. Of the remaining 35 of 63 (55.6%) mandibular first premolar teeth with no radiographic evidence of a cyst, 27 (77.1%) had no histologic evidence of epithelium associated with the impacted tooth. Notably however, the remaining 8 of 35 (22.9%) unerupted teeth without radiographic evidence of a cyst did have histologic evidence of non-keratinizing stratified squamous epithelium associated with the impacted tooth.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2022-06-17T06:10:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564221108520
       
  • Combined Gap and Interpositional Arthroplasty Utilizing Three-Dimensional
           Printed Model in a Dog with Temporomandibular Joint Ankylosis and
           Pseudoankylosis

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      Authors: Emily Renner, Graham Thatcher
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.
      Objective: To report the surgical treatment of a canine with both ankylosis and pseudoankylosis of temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Methods: The patient presented for inability to open his mouth. Facial asymmetry with normal dental occlusion was appreciated and computed tomography (CT) was performed. CT was used to diagnose ankylsosis and pseudoankylosis of left TMJ secondary to chronic maxillofacial trauma. A gap arthroplasty followed by interpositional arthroplasty using temporalis muscle fascia was performed to remove the site of fusion and prevent re-ankylosis between remaining cut boney surfaces. A three-dimensional (3D) printed skull for surgical planning and intraoperative spatial localization was employed. Results: Following preoperative and intraoperative evaluation of the 3D printed skull, the surgery was performed successfully without major complications. The patient's TMJ range of motion was markedly improved and remains improved as noted by inter-incisal distance measurements, ability to pant, and ease of chewing. Conclusion: A combined Gap and interpositional arthroplasty was assisted with the use of a 3D printed skull and immediately resulted in improved TMJ range of motion and patient quality of life. Three-month postoperative CT revealed stable ostectomies with no complications, with the exception of left-sided disuse masticatory muscle atrophy. Long-term follow-up is warranted. Clinical Significance: Three-dimensional printed skull models may be utilized preoperatively and intraoperatively to determine individual variants and landmarks, especially in cases where anatomical structures are difficult to recognize. Gap arthroplasty with interpositional myofascial transposition is an option for a patient with both anklyosis and pseudoankylosis of the TMJ.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2022-06-01T05:43:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564221100670
       
  • Unilateral, Rostral Maxillary Sinusitis Resulting from Displacement and
           Retention of an Alveolar Plug in a 4-Year-Old Horse

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      Authors: Gideon P. Stemmet, Mickaël P. Robert, Yolandi Smit
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.
      Sinusitis is a common occurrence in horses and often develops secondary to dental disease. Extraction of cheek teeth in horses is associated with variable degrees of complications and although postoperative displacement and retention of alveolar plugs has been identified as one such potential complication, few cases of resulting sinusitis have been reported. This manuscript describes a four-year-old Thoroughbred mare that was presented for chronic unilateral left-sided mucopurulent nasal discharge after extraction of the left maxillary second molar tooth two months earlier. Radiographic and computed tomographic (CT) examinations revealed a well circumscribed, soft tissue opacity in the left rostral sinus compartment. Intraoral examination revealed feed impacted in the alveolus of the extracted tooth and an oral sinus fistula. Upper airway endoscopy showed thick, purulent material at the nasomaxillary aperture. Sinoscopy showed unexpectedly clean frontal, dorsal conchal and caudal maxillary sinuses. The alveolar dental plug associated with previous exodontia became apparent within the sinus and was removed through the sinoscopy portal. Repeat endoscopies confirmed progressive clearance of the sinusitis during hospitalization. Unilateral nasal discharge returned three months later. An abscess within the sinus had formed. Complete resolution of the sinusitis was achieved after lancing the abscess and further sinus lavage. Sinoscopy through a frontal sinus trephination portal proved useful in diagnosis and treatment. Detailed evaluation of structures allowed for rapid establishment of adequate drainage and communication between all sinus compartments without osteoplastic surgery.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2022-05-30T06:35:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564221104206
       
  • Assessment of Extractions of Deciduous Mandibular Canine Teeth to Correct
           Linguoversion Malocclusion in 17 Dogs

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      Authors: Kirk Herrmann, Kendall Taney
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.
      A search of medical records at the Center for Veterinary Dentistry and Oral Surgery, Gaithersburg, MD was conducted to identify patients who received extractions of deciduous mandibular canine teeth to treat linguoversion. Patients were included if they were less than 5.5 months of age and had a diagnosis of deciduous class 2 or bilateral class 1 malocclusions. Treatment was considered a success if normocclusion of the permanent dentition was achieved at follow up evaluation. Seventeen patients represented 13 different breeds. No significant correlation was seen between age of treatment (mean age 3.34 months) or sex (11 males, 6 females). Six patients had class 1 malocclusions (35.29%) and eleven patients had class 2 malocclusion (64.71%). Of the six dogs treated for class 1 malocclusions, two had traumatic palatal contact and four had only minor soft tissue contact. Eleven cases of class 2 malocclusion were treated and of these there was one mild, six moderate, and four severe cases of mandibular distocclusion. All cases treated for class 1 malocclusions had a successful outcome resulting in permanent normocclusion (100%), while class 2 malocclusions had success in three of eleven cases (27.27%). The outcomes based on occlusion type were determined to be significant (p = 0.009). All participants had immediate relief of soft tissue trauma and no significant side effects of treatment were recorded. The results show that extractions of deciduous linguoverted mandibular canine teeth (LMC) can immediately improve traumatic impingement and may be a factor in providing a comfortable and functional adult occlusion. Further investigation with a larger sample size would be warranted.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2022-05-27T05:38:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564221099133
       
  • Dental Pain in Cats: A Prospective 6-Month Study

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      Authors: Isabel Palmeira, Maria João Fonseca, Céline Lafont-Lecuelle, Patrick Pageat, Alessandro Cozzi, Pietro Asproni, João Filipe Requicha, Joana de Oliveira
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.
      Dental pathology is among the most ubiquitous diseases in cats of all ages. Dental pain is yet to be fully understood in cats and therefore its presence is often missed. To better understand feline dental disease as a pain trigger during routine examination and whether disease severity correlates to the degree of pain, a 6-month prospective study in a cats’ only veterinary hospital in Portugal was conducted. Sixty-four cats that randomly presented for different clinical procedures were evaluated. Dental and periodontal abnormalities (primary dental parameters, PDP), as well as clinical signs related to dental pain (secondary dental parameters, SDP), were assessed. All cats underwent an oral cavity examination, upon which, the Feline Acute Pain Scale from Colorado State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital (CPS), was used in order to assess pain. Six PDP (periodontal disease, gingival index, calculus index, tooth resorption, tooth fracture and missing teeth) and five SDP (mouth discomfort, halitosis, hypersalivation, difficulty in holding food and several attempts at prehension of food), were compared with CPS pain scores. All SDP were significantly associated to higher CPS pain scores (p 
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2022-05-23T06:14:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564221103142
       
  • Past, Present, and Future Trends of Nickel Titanium Rotary Instrumentation

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      Authors: Melissa Guillory, Patrick Vall
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.
      This article reviews the historical development, properties, and trends of nickel titanium rotary instrumentation use for the veterinary endodontist.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2022-05-19T04:32:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564221098566
       
  • A Mass Spectrometric Approach to the Proteomic Profiling of the Canis
           lupus familiaris Acquired Enamel Pellicle on Hydroxyapatite Discs

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      Authors: Melissa M. Grant, Sabah Pasha, Taichi Inui, Iain Chapple, Steve Harris, Lucy Holcombe
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.
      The acquired enamel pellicle (AEP) is a multi-protein film attached to the surface of teeth, which functions to lubricate the dental surface, form an anti-erosive barrier and exhibits antimicrobial properties. The initiation of AEP formation occurs within seconds of exposure to saliva, a biofluid rich in protein species. While there have been many publications on the formation of human AEP there is little research on the composition of canine AEP during its acquisition. The aim of these studies was to explore the composition of canine AEP formation, utilising hydroxyapatite (HA) discs as a tooth substitute matrix, over time. Qualitative and quantitative proteomics techniques using tandem mass tag labelled peptides and LC-MS/MS were used to follow the formation of canine AEP on hydroxyapatite discs over the course of an hour. Proteins adsorbed to the HA surface included highly abundant proteins in canine saliva, antimicrobial proteins, protease inhibitors and the buffering agent carbonic anhydrase. Greater understanding of the canine AEP deepens fundamental knowledge of the early processes driving bacterial colonisation of the tooth surface and subsequent plaque accumulation.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2022-05-13T06:58:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564221097188
       
  • Radiographic Outcome of the Endodontic Treatment of 55 Fractured Canine
           Teeth in 43 Dogs (2013-2018)

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      Authors: Alexander I. Adrian, Michael Balke, Rebecca Lynch, Lisa Fink
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.
      Medical records from 4 private practice veterinary dentistry specialty clinics were reviewed for a 5-year period (2013-2018) to identify dogs that had a fractured canine tooth treated by root canal therapy and returned for subsequent follow-up evaluation. Evaluation criteria included the presence of complete medical records with diagnostic quality intraoral radiographs for each procedure visit with a minimum of 6 months between visits. Forty-three dogs with a total of 55 endodontically treated canine teeth were identified and evaluated. Root canal treatment outcome was defined as successful, no evidence of failure (NEF), or failure based on radiographic findings. Patient age, time from initial treatment to follow-up, obturation material used, radiographic quality of obturation (including voids, overfill, and retention of fractured endodontic files), radiographic evidence of periapical disease and/or presence of external inflammatory root resorption (EIRR), and the presence or absence of a full coverage metal crown were evaluated. Treatment was classified as successful in 51 (92.73%) teeth, NEF in 3 (5.45%) teeth, and failure in 1 (1.82%) tooth. The results suggest that endodontic treatment of fractured canine teeth in dogs is a successful treatment option that allows for retention of this functionally important tooth.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2022-05-12T12:54:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564221101091
       
  • Oral Pathology in Portuguese Dogs: An Eight-Year Biopsy-Based
           Retrospective Study

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      Authors: Leonor Delgado, Paula Brilhante-Simões, Justina Prada, Luis Monteiro
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.
      The oral cavity of the dog can be the site of several types of pathology including both benign and malignant lesions. The aim of this study was to analyze the frequency and clinical-pathological characteristics of oral lesions present in a cohort of Portuguese dogs. A retrospective observational cross-sectional study on 704 canine oral lesions submitted for histopathological diagnosis to a Veterinary Pathology Center in the north of Portugal from 2010 to 2017 was performed. Gender, age, location of the lesion and the histopathological diagnosis was analysed. From the 704 cases included, 307 (43.6%) were females and 397 (56.4%) males. The mean age was 9.53 ± 3.6 years-old (range 3 to 240 months). The site most frequently affected was the gingiva (n = 283; 40.2%). 342 (48.6%) cases were malignant neoplasms, most represented by oral melanoma (n = 129; 37.7%). 256 (36.4%) cases were benign neoplasms, most represented by fibromatous epulis of periodontal ligament origin/peripheral odontogenic fibroma (FEPLO/POF) (n = 208;81.3%). 106 (15%) were non-neoplastic lesions, most represented by gingival hyperplasia (n = 25, 23.6%). This study provides useful information about frequency and distribution of oral lesions in dogs over a period of eight years allowing valuable comparison with other countries and other species. The most common benign tumours were FEPLO/POF while oral melanoma was the most common malignant tumour.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2022-05-11T07:34:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564221098107
       
  • Mandibular Blastomycosis in a 5-Year-Old Dog

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      Authors: Caroline Washington, April Paulman, Barbara L. Stapleton
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.
      A case of localized oral mandibular blastomycosis is described in a five-year-old dog. Complete resolution of clinical signs and oral radiographic changes were seen following itraconazole therapy at 5 mg/kg/day for four and a half months. The patient remained free of Blastomyces at the one year follow up based on the Mira Vista Blastomyces urine antigen test by EIA (Enzyme Immunoassay)a. A literature review of localized blastomycosis cases in humans and dogs was performed, available diagnostic tests evaluated, and treatment comparisons made.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2022-05-03T11:42:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564221098166
       
  • The Effect of Two Different Doses of Astaxanthin on Alveolar Bone Loss in
           an Experimental Model of Periodontitis in Diabetic Rats

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      Authors: Aysan Lektemur Alpan, Metin Çalışır
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.
      This study evaluated the effects of astaxanthin (ASX) on alveolar bone loss, receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), and osteoprotegerin (OPG) activity in ligature-induced periodontitis in diabetic rats. Diabetes mellitus (DM) was induced with 50 mg/kg intraperitoneal streptozotocin in 40 male Wistar rats. The Wistar rats were divided into six experimental groups: non-ligated (NL; n = 6); ligature only (L; n = 6); DM only (D; n = 6); DM + ligature (DP; n = 6); DM + ligature + 1 mg/kg/day ASX (ASX 1 group; n = 8); and DM + ligature + astaxanthin 5 mg/kg/day ASX (ASX 5 group; n = 8). Silk ligatures were placed along the gingival margin of the left mandibular first molar tooth. The study duration was 11 days, after which the animals were euthanised. Changes in alveolar bone levels were clinically measured, and RANKL and OPG activities were immunohistochemically examined. Alveolar bone loss was the most significant in the DP group (p 
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2022-04-15T05:53:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564221093736
       
  • Clinical Evaluation of Intraoral Suture Patterns Using Poliglecaprone 25
           in Greyhound Dogs

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      Authors: Jane E. Pegg, Naomi Hoyer, Jennifer L. Kelley, H. Weir, Jennifer E. Rawlinson
      First page: 112
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.
      To evaluate healing and complications of extraction sites closed with a simple interrupted pattern (SI) and a simple continuous (SC) suture pattern in a prospective randomized clinical trial. Greyhounds were selected from a rescue with a standardized environment and naturally occurring disease. Surgical extractions were performed (35 sites) and all mucogingival flaps were closed with 4–0 poliglecaprone 25 using either SI or SC randomly assigned by surgical site. Oral healing/dehiscence, suture inflammation, suture loss, accumulation of debris, presence/nature of discharge, necrotic tissue and adjacent contact ulceration were evaluated. Fisher’s exact test was used to compare categorical data and two-tail T tests used to compare continuous data. Results showed SC was faster to apply. No new dehiscence events were detected after Recheck 1. There was no significant difference for dehiscence scores between SI and SC. A trend was seen towards more major dehiscence in the SI group. This study concluded SC is an alternative to SI for closure of occlusal surfaces in the mouth. Mandibular canine tooth extraction sites were more likely to have a high dehiscence score than all other sites combined regardless of surgical technique.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2022-03-21T08:35:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564221081861
       
  • A Semi-Automated Method for Measuring Biofilm Accumulation on the Teeth
           Using Quantitative Light-Induced Fluorescence in Dogs and Cats

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      Authors: Dale S. Scherl, Lori Coffman, Awais Mansoor, Bartek Rajwa, Valery Patsekin, J. Paul Robinson
      First page: 122
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.
      Oral health conditions (eg, plaque, calculus, gingivitis) cause morbidity and pain in companion animals. Thus, developing technologies that can ameliorate the accumulation of oral biofilm, a critical factor in the progression of these conditions, is vital. Quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) is a method to quantify oral substrate accumulation, and therefore, it can assess biofilm attenuation of different products. New software has recently been developed that automates aspects of the procedure. However, few QLF studies in companion animals have been performed. QLF was used to collect digital images of oral substrate accumulation on the teeth of dogs and cats to demonstrate the ability of QLF to discriminate between foods known to differentially inhibit oral substrate accumulation. Images were taken as a function of time and diet. Software developed by the Cytometry Laboratory, Purdue University quantified biofilm coverage. Intra- and intergrader reproducibility was also assessed, as was a comparison of the results of the QLF software with those of an experienced grader using undisclosed coverage-only metrics similar to those used for the Logan and Boyce index. Quantification of oral substrate accumulation using QLF-derived images demonstrated the ability to distinguish between dental diets known to differentially inhibit oral biofilm accumulation. Little variance in intra- and intergrader reproducibility was observed, and the comparison between the experienced Logan and Boyce grader and the QLF software yielded a concordance correlation coefficient of 0.89 (95% CI = 0.84, 0.92). These results show that QLF is a useful tool that allows the semi-automated quantification of the accumulation of oral biofilm in companion animals.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2022-03-08T11:12:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564221081991
       
  • Reliability of Electric Pulp Test, Cold Pulp Test or Tooth
           Transillumination to Assess Pulpal Health in Permanent Dog Teeth

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      Authors: Caroline Proulx, Yvan Dumais, Guy Beauchamp, Paulo Steagall
      First page: 133
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of electric pulp test (EPT), cold pulp test (CPT) and tooth transillumination (TTI) in the assessment of pulpal health in dog teeth. Forty-five client-owned dogs requiring tooth extraction or pulpectomy were included. For each patient, one affected and two control healthy teeth were evaluated with EPT, followed by CPT and TTI. Direct pulp inspection was used as a gold standard. The real pulpal health (vital or necrotic) was determined by the presence or absence of bleeding after creating access to the pulp chamber. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy of EPT, CPT and TTI were obtained for each pulp test using the binomial Clopper-Pearson exact method to establish confidence intervals. Forty-five affected teeth were tested. Forty-three were tested with EPT, CPT, and TTI, and two were tested solely with EPT and CPT. All dogs tested with EPT and TTI were included in the study whereas 21 out of 45 (47%) dogs tested with CPT were excluded. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy were respectively 0.96, 1.00, 1.00, 0.96 and 0.98 for EPT; 1.00, 0.89, 0.92, 1.00 and 0.95 for CPT; and 0.59, 0.95, 0.94, 0.67 and 0.76 for TTI. This study concluded that EPT is a highly reliable diagnostic test to evaluate pulpal health in dogs. The high accuracy of CPT is conditional on the patient's responsiveness to stimulation applied to its control healthy teeth. TTI was the least reliable test in the study.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2022-03-08T11:12:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564221076363
       
  • Occurrence and Progression of Dental Abnormalities in the Black Fronted
           Duiker (Cephalophus niger) Due to Deficient Diet and Extreme Weather
           Phenomena

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      Authors: Michael O. Samuel, Omowumi M. Femi-Akinlosotu, James O. Olopade
      First page: 142
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.
      This study aims to assess the contributory and predisposing effects of prolonged drought and climate phenomena on the occurrence of dental abnormalities among three age groups of the black duiker (Cephalophus niger). 36 skulls comprised of 18 females and 18 males were examined. Each group consisted of 8 kids (age range 0-10 months) (4 males and 4 females), 14 mature individuals (age range 1-3 years) (7 males and 7 females) and 14 adults (age range older than 3½ years) (7 males and 7 females). It was observed that the most severe defects occurred in mature and old females during prolonged drought. Morphologic disruptions of the dentition occurred more frequently on the mandible relative to the maxilla. 93% showed apical dental aberration. Bone resorption occurred in 30% and 6% of females and males respectively with profile aberrations at both time stages, tooth staining was observed in 40% of females and 8% of males, attrition accounted for 15% in each of both sexes, 28% and 3% of the females and the males had missing teeth respectively with more occurrence in the premolars and the molar teeth. Calculus was found in 4% and 9% of the females and males respectively. These findings may be useful in determination of likely age and season for occurrence of dental pathologies, in evaluation of response to irrigation and may provide information to assist in bioremediation of dental pathology.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2022-03-16T09:00:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564221083851
       
  • Diagnosis and Management of Furcation Lesions in Dogs – A Review

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      Authors: Amalia Zacher, Sandra Manfra Marretta
      First page: 151
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.
      The furcation is the anatomic area where the roots divide on a multirooted tooth. Periodontal disease causing alveolar bone loss can lead to furcation lesions of various stages. Once furcation involvement has occurred, the area can be more difficult to clean or treat due to the complex anatomy and morphology of furcations. Teeth with short root trunks, longer tooth roots, and roots with wide furcation entrance areas/degrees of separation and wide root divergence are considered better candidates for long term maintenance. Dog teeth possess many of these advantageous anatomic features compared to human teeth. Treatment options for teeth with furcation lesions include: closed debridement, open debridement, furcation plasty, tunneling, partial tooth or root resection, root separation (hemisection or trisection), regenerative therapies, or exodontia. There are many factors to consider in determining treatment options. The favorable and unfavorable characteristics for maintenance of teeth with furcation lesions are summarized. Home care and ongoing professional care are important aspects of periodontal disease control for any patient. Studies of systemic and local antibiotic therapies in human patients have not demonstrated reduction of furcation stages, and probiotic effects at furcation sites have not been specifically examined. Human review studies show that most molar teeth once deemed “hopeless” due to stage 3 furcation lesions can be maintained for at least 5 to 15 years with supportive periodontal therapy. Similar long term studies in dogs are needed to improve the evidence-based management of canine patients with furcation lesions.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2022-03-02T01:11:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564221076908
       
  • Dental Abnormalities in Immature Dogs with a History of Mandibular
           Fractures

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      Authors: Ana C. Castejon-Gonzalez, Alexander M. Reiter
      First page: 173
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.
      This study was performed to report the dental abnormalities encountered in immature dogs with a history of mandibular fracture. Dogs were included in the study if mandibular fractures were diagnosed by means of oral examination and diagnostic imaging, they were treated with non-invasive or minimally invasive methods, and there was a follow-up examination of at least 90 days after the initial presentation with the last follow-up visit occurring at 6 months of age or older. Eleven dogs met the inclusion criteria. Dental abnormalities occurred exclusively in those dogs that had sustained fracture of the mandibular body or fracture at the transition of mandibular body and mandibular ramus. A high number of developing permanent teeth located in or near the mandibular fracture were affected (73.5%). The most common dental abnormalities were failure of eruption or partial eruption (29.0%), resorption (22.6%), abnormal shape (19.4%), and enamel hypoplasia (16.1%). The majority of deciduous teeth (64.3%) in or near the mandibular fracture exfoliated uneventfully. Ten out of 11 dogs needed a surgical procedure to treat dental abnormalities after mandibular fracture healing. The development of the tooth germs located in or near a mandibular fracture is frequently affected. Radiographic evaluation of the area of trauma is recommended until eruption and full development of the teeth are completed.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2022-03-16T03:36:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564221082150
       
  • Characterization and Classification of Keratinized Odontogenic Cysts in 29
           Dogs

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      Authors: Jessica Johnson, Kristin Scott, Cynthia M. Bell
      First page: 182
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.
      This retrospective case series presents a unique group of odontogenic cysts that are lined by heavily keratinized epithelium and contain laminated keratin. Keratinized odontogenic cyst (KOC) is proposed as appropriate terminology for the described lesions. The series evaluates cysts from 29 dogs, including clinical presentation, diagnostic imaging, and histopathology. All 29 lesions occurred in tooth bearing regions of the jaws; 21 were maxillary and 8 were mandibular. These keratinized odontogenic cysts were unilocular or multilocular, and some demonstrated considerable expansion resulting in bone destruction. In 13 of 29 cases, there was evidence of tooth displacement associated with the expansion of the KOC. The KOCs did not have a distinctive radiographic appearance. 48% of the cysts had a soft tissue defect through which the keratin contents could be visualized. Cyst contents ranged from hard mineralized keratin to fluid consistency with soft flecks of keratin. The pathoetiology of KOCs is unknown; however, the biological behavior is benign and thought to be slowly progressive despite potential for locally destructive growth. Recurrence is uncommon when cyst enucleation and debridement are aggressive or when solid cysts are excised en bloc.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2022-04-01T06:24:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564221088726
       
  • Cystic Odontogenic Tumor with Features of Calcifying Odontogenic Cyst in 3
           Cats and a Dog

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      Authors: Samuel G. Babbitt, Cynthia M. Bell, Matthew Raleigh, Kevin Haggerty, Kristina Feigin
      First page: 194
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.
      This case series describes the clinical appearance, radiographic appearance and histopathologic features of 4 patients (3 cats and 1 dog) with unique cystic oral lesions that are consistent with a diagnosis of calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC). COC is a rare odontogenic lesion in humans that has not been previously reported in companion animals. Historically, COC in humans has been classified as a benign cystic neoplasm and as a non-neoplastic odontogenic cyst. Current classification favors the latter. The cases in this series also have ambiguous features regarding classification of the lesion as an odontogenic cyst versus benign neoplasia.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2022-04-12T07:47:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564221089403
       
  • Abstracts J Vet Dent, Issue 39:2

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      First page: 203
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2022-03-16T09:01:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564221085349
       
  • Instructions for Authors - JOVD

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      First page: 207
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2022-04-19T06:05:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564221096613
       
 
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