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Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.21
Number of Followers: 1  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0898-7564 - ISSN (Online) 2470-4083
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1176 journals]
  • Evaluation of a Novel Veterinary Dental Radiography Artificial
           Intelligence Software Program

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      Authors: Markay L. Nyquist, Lisa A. Fink, Glenna E. Mauldin, Curt R. Coffman
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.
      There is a growing trend of artificial intelligence (AI) applications in veterinary medicine, with the potential to assist veterinarians in clinical decisions. A commercially available, AI-based software program (AISP) for detecting common radiographic dental pathologies in dogs and cats was assessed for agreement with two human evaluators. Furcation bone loss, periapical lucency, resorptive lesion, retained tooth root, attachment (alveolar bone) loss and tooth fracture were assessed. The AISP does not attempt to diagnose or provide treatment recommendations, nor has it been trained to identify other types of radiographic pathology. Inter-rater reliability for detecting pathologies was measured by absolute percent agreement and Gwet's agreement coefficient. There was good to excellent inter-rater reliability among all raters, suggesting the AISP performs similarly at detecting the specified pathologies compared to human evaluators. Sensitivity and specificity for the AISP were assessed using human evaluators as the reference standard. The results revealed a trend of low sensitivity and high specificity, suggesting the AISP may produce a high rate of false negatives and may not be a good tool for initial screening. However, the low rate of false positives produced by the AISP suggests it may be beneficial as a “second set of eyes” because if it detects the specific pathology, there is a high likelihood that the pathology is present. With an understanding of the AISP, as an aid and not a substitute for veterinarians, the technology may increase dental radiography utilization and diagnostic potential.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2024-02-07T07:44:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564231221071
       
  • Intraoral Radiographic Study of the Pulp Cavity of the Shortfin Mako Shark
           (Isurus Oxyrinchus)

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      Authors: Gabrielle Silvestre R.C. Albuquerque, Karoline Maia, Thiago Prescinotto, Marco Antônio Ferreira da Silva Junior, Marcos Vinicius Silva, Carlos Eduardo Malavasi Bruno
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.
      The shortfin mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus) is a large pelagic predator that inhabits coastal and ocean waters. It has several teeth arranged in rows that run from the rostral to the lingual face. These teeth are in several stages of maturation, where the teeth closest to the rostral face are more mature and functional and the teeth closest to the lingual face are still in development. The tooth supply of the shark is unlimited throughout its life. The mechanism of tooth replacement follows that, when the front teeth are discarded physiologically, the posterior teeth replace it. This study us used a head and dental arch of I. oxyrinchus. Intraoral radiographs were obtained with the aim to show details of the pulp cavity. The study concluded that the pulp diameter varies according to the stage of dental maturation.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2024-01-31T09:03:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564231226163
       
  • Prevalence of Tooth Resorptive Lesions in 120 Feline Dental Patients in
           Israel

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      Authors: Erez Cohen-Mivtach
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.
      Tooth resorption (TR) is a common dental condition seen in domestic cats, with a reported prevalence of 29-37.5% in clinically healthy cats and 60.8-67% in cats presenting for dental problems. Radiological and medical records of 120 cats that underwent dental treatment at a private veterinary clinic in Israel between October 2015 and February 2023 were reviewed. Records in which full-mouth radiographs had been obtained were included in the study. Radiographs were screened for TR according to the AVDC classification. Teeth affected by TR were identified in 79/120 (66%) cats. The mean age of cats with TR and non-TR was 8.3 and 6.2 years, respectively. The median age of the TR and non-TR cat populations was 8 and 7 years, respectively. A correlation was found between the number of teeth affected per cat and the age in TR cats. Cats 10 years of age and older, had a TR prevalence of 83.3%. The teeth most commonly affected by TR (82.3%) were the mandibular fourth premolar teeth (308,408).
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2024-01-31T09:02:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564231226082
       
  • Novel Management of Masticatory Myositis in Three Dogs with a Selective
           Janus Kinase (JAK-1) Inhibitor

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      Authors: Michael C. Congiusta, Christopher Snyder, Jason W. Soukup, Neoklis Apostolopoulos
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.
      Masticatory myositis (MM) is an inflammatory myopathy reported in dogs and is characterized by inflammation of the masticatory muscles (temporalis, masseter, and pterygoid muscles). Immunosuppressive therapy is the current recommended treatment for MM and may involve glucocorticoids, cyclosporine, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, leflunomide, or a combination of these treatments that are slowly tapered to the lowest effective dose. However, side effects from multimodal medical therapy and complications associated with MM relapses have been reported. The purpose of this case series was to report oclacitinib as a treatment alternative to traditional medical management of MM. The intent of this alternative is to manage side effects from glucocorticoid use. Oclacitinib (1mg/kg per os q12h) was used solely for treatment of MM in three dogs. The dogs were followed up to>6 months after oclacitinib administration. An increase in oral range of motion, as determined by gape angle, was noted in all three dogs. However, a corresponding drop in antibody titers (2M fiber) did not occur. All dogs showed improvement in overall clinical management of MM, side effects from glucocorticoids, and clinical signs related to chronic prednisone use. Larger controlled trials with consistent measurements (interincisal distance, gape angle) and 2M fiber antibody titers are indicated to further assess validation of oclacitinib treatment of MM. The clinical outcome of all dogs was considered successful.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2024-01-09T06:53:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564231219925
       
  • Instructions for Authors - JOVD

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      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2024-01-03T08:27:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564231222350
       
  • Dental Abnormalities in Two Dental-Skeletal-Retinal Anomaly-Positive Cane
           Corso Dogs: A Case Series

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      Authors: Alexandra T. Brown, R. Michael Peak, Christopher W. Smithson, Cindy Bell
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.
      Dental-skeletal-retinal-anomaly (DSRA) is a newly described collagenopathy in Cane Corso dogs. The causative mutation has been linked with splice defects within the melanoma inhibitory activity member 3 (MIA/3) gene that codes for the TANGO1 protein. This case series presents the first dental-related radiographic and histopathological abnormalities in two dogs with genetically confirmed DSRA. The clinical, radiological, and histological features are similar to those reported for MIA3/TANGO1 splice defects previously reported in humans and knockout mice. Common clinical features of these patients include generalized opalescent discoloration of the permanent dentition (intrinsic dyschromia), enamel defects, fractured teeth, vision loss, shortened physical stature, and orthopedic abnormalities that resulted in chronic, early-onset lameness. Intraoral radiography revealed delayed dentin deposition, evidence of endodontic disease, and dental hard tissue loss in both cases. Histopathologic findings for both cases were consistent with dentinogenesis imperfecta (DGI). DSRA exhibits autosomal recessive heritability and commercial diagnostic tests are now available. Clinicians should be aware of the etiopathogenesis, genetic inheritance and associated comorbidities in order to treat and counsel clients on the management of this condition. It is recommended that all breeding individuals be tested, and carriers be sterilized or omitted from the breeding population. This case study describes intraoral diagnoses, treatments, and follow-up of two DSRA-positive dogs.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2023-12-26T06:41:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564231215170
       
  • Intraoral Radiographic Interpretation Agreement Between Veterinary
           Students, Veterinary Dental Residents and Veterinary Dental Specialists

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      Authors: Kristina Feigin, Christopher Snyder, Joyce Tai, Kevin Stepaniuk, Scott Hetzel
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.
      This study evaluated observer variations in the interpretation of radiographic evidence for periodontal disease, tooth resorption, and endodontic disease in dogs. Forty dental radiographs were evaluated for 12 different parameters (periapical destruction of bone, wider than expected root canal, narrower than expected root canal, apical root resorption, loss of alveolar bone, external surface resorption, external replacement resorption, external inflammatory resorption, external cervical root resorption, internal surface resorption, internal replacement resorption, internal inflammatory resorption). Interpretations by 20 veterinary dentists, 10 veterinary dental residents, and 10 veterinary students were analyzed for consistency within groups and between groups by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs [95% CI]). Additionally, the agreement rate between groups compared to histopathological diagnosis, when available, and to a consensus group were evaluated. The results showed fair to good interobserver agreement for all participants when looking at all questions simultaneously (0.578 [0.515-0.635]) and with the consensus group (0.483 [0.451-0.517]). However, questions pertaining to various types of tooth resorption scored the lowest ICCs ranging from 0.005 (−0.311 to 0.321) to 0.189 (−0.105 to 0.402) across individual groups. Students had the lowest agreement compared to the consensus group for all questions (0.383 [0.347-0.421]) with fair to good agreement involving groups of residents (0.501 [0.465-0.538]), recently boarded diplomates (0.541 [0.506-0.578]), and more experienced diplomates (0.545 [0.510-0.582]). While dental radiographs are essential for clinical decision making, this study shows that interpretation of radiographs is highly subjective.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2023-12-22T07:35:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564231221344
       
  • Age of Dental Apical Closure in Domestic Cats

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      Authors: Dilraj S. Goraya, Naomi K. Hoyer, Jennifer Kelley, Sangeeta Rao, Mary Nehring, Susan Van de Woude, Jennifer E. Rawlinson
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.
      Data on the age of apical closure in felines is limited. Moreover, differences in age of apical closure between male and female cats have not been studied. The aim of this study was to determine the timing of apical closure in cats and determine if sex or position in the dental arch affected closure. In this retrospective descriptive study, intraoral radiographs were obtained at monthly or multiple-monthly intervals for 18 cats. Nine were intact females and 9 were neutered males, ranging from 6 to 9.4 months of age at the start of the study which ranged over an 8-month period. Radiographs were evaluated to establish age of apical closure for all canine teeth as well as the mandibular premolar and molar teeth. Mandibular canine tooth apices closed between 10 and 12 months of age and maxillary canine tooth apices closed between 12 and 14 months of age. The mesial and distal root apices of both the mandibular third and fourth premolar teeth closed between 8 and 9 months. The mandibular first molar tooth mesial and distal root apices closed between 8 and 8.5 months. Root apices of canine teeth closed earlier in female cats than in male cats with mandibular canine tooth root apices closing significantly earlier than maxillary canine tooth roots in both sexes. These findings suggest that there are notable differences in age of apical closure between male and female cats and discernible trends in timing of apical closure among teeth in the dental arcade.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2023-12-20T07:40:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564231220682
       
  • Maxillary Cystic Ameloblastic Fibroma in a Dalmatian Mix

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      Authors: Kayla Steffes, Jorden Manasse
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.
      A 6-month-old intact male Dalmatian mix puppy was presented for the evaluation of left maxillary swelling due to a suspected cyst and an unerupted left maxillary canine tooth. Removal of the unerupted left maxillary canine tooth (204) and enucleation of the cyst was performed, followed by histological analysis, which identified the maxillary swelling to be a cystic ameloblastic fibroma. Ameloblastic fibromas are rare in companion animals, and to the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first cystic variant reported in dogs. The clinical, radiographic, cone beam computed tomography, and histological findings of this case are discussed and compared with the findings of previously documented human and domestic animal cases.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2023-12-18T04:57:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564231219100
       
  • Masticatory Myositis in a Guinea Pig (Cavia porcellus): A Case Report

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      Authors: Bruna Emely Pereira Barbosa, Roberto Silveira Fecchio, Marcel de Freitas Lucena, Enrique Yarto-Jaramillo
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.
      Masticatory myositis is an autoimmune neuromuscular disorder that affects the muscles of mastication. The affected individual has difficulties in opening or closing the mouth, pain, and swelling in the acute phase, and significant atrophy of the affected musculature in the chronic phase. A guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) with a history of chronic hyporexia, recurrent cheek teeth overgrowth, and loss of facial silhouette, was suspected of having masticatory myositis. The disease was confirmed by computed tomography and histopathological examination of muscle fragments. The patient was treated with a protocol involving corticosteroids and gabapentin, and occlusal correction procedures.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2023-12-15T07:06:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564231218416
       
  • Regional Anesthesia of the Dentition in Bennett's Wallaby (Macropus
           rufogriseus): Anatomical Landmarks and Approaches Assessed with Computed
           Tomography and Gross Dissection

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      Authors: Bridget Walker, Amy Stone, Jennifer N. Langan, Eric T. Hostnik, Amy B. Alexander
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.
      Dental disease is common in captive-managed macropods, including Bennett's wallabies, and is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Dental extractions and debridement of diseased tissue is often necessary for those undergoing treatment for severe dental disease. Regional anesthesia of the dentition is considered standard of care for domestic animals undergoing orofacial surgery, however, it is not routinely performed in macropods due to limited information on dental anatomy and block approaches. Regional block descriptions for the infraorbital, maxillary, inferior alveolar, and mental blocks in domestic dogs and cats were evaluated and adapted for use in Bennett's wallabies based on descriptions of their anatomy and examination of 2 skulls. These approaches were then performed on cadaver heads with iohexol and methylene blue dye, and block placement was assessed on computed tomography scans and by gross dissection. All block approaches described in this study resulted in appropriate placement of regional anesthesia of the dentition in Bennett's wallabies. They can thus be used by clinicians to improve the intra and postoperative pain control of patients and provide a high level of veterinary care.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2023-12-15T01:57:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564231219179
       
  • An “Unfading” Color Aligns with the Concept of Lasting Oral
           Health

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      Authors: David E Clarke
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2023-12-13T03:53:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564231220150
       
  • Treatment of Oral Disease in Eight Pet Pot-Bellied Pigs (Sus scrofa
           domesticus): A Case Series

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      Authors: Cindy Vaca, Naomi Hoyer, Margaret Smith, Jennifer Rawlinson
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.
      Evidence of porcine oral pathology in client-owned domestic pigs has been reported in recent literature. The most common abnormalities are missing teeth and periodontal disease. This case series reviews the diagnosis and treatment of dental disease in 8 pet Vietnamese Pot-Bellied Pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) over a 6-year period (2015-2021). Inclusion criteria included pigs over 1 year of age that had at least 2 sequential visits involving photographs, full-mouth intraoral radiographs, and dental charting. Eight pigs were identified for study inclusion. The study population included 4 castrated males, 3 spayed females, and 1 intact female. The 8 subjects had a total of 28 visits. Fifty-five intraoral dental extractions were performed and complete healing of 44 extraction sites was observed (11 sites were lost to follow up). Canine tooth reduction was performed on 52 tusks in 7 pigs with exposure of 1 pulp that was treated by partial pulpectomy and direct pulp capping. Restoration of carious lesions was performed on 4 teeth. The most commonly extracted teeth were the right and left maxillary first molars (10 of 47 teeth). Reasons for tooth extraction included: periodontal disease, complicated crown fracture, nonvital +/− periapical pathology, and persistent deciduous teeth. Additional treatments ranged from type 1 crown lengthening with restoration of carious lesions, tusk trimming, closed and open root planing, dental extractions, ultrasonic scaling, and polishing. This article stresses the importance of routine dental healthcare and early intervention for periodontal disease in pigs.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2023-12-13T03:52:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564231217933
       
  • The Presence of Bacteremia in 13 Dogs Undergoing Oral Surgery Without the
           Use of Antibiotic Therapy

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      Authors: Melissa Blazevich, Chanda Miles
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.
      This study aimed to assess if transient bacteremia developed from dental scaling, root planing (SRP) and dental extraction(s), if the bacteria originated from oral flora, and if the amount of bacteremia produced would warrant the use of pre-, intra-, or post-operative antibiotic therapy in healthy canine patients. Blood cultures were obtained from 13 healthy dogs with chronic periodontal disease that necessitated the extraction of one tooth or multiple teeth. Patients included did not receive any antibiotic therapy for a minimum of 2 weeks prior to their scheduled procedure and did not receive antibiotic therapy intra- or post-operatively. Blood collection occurred at specific time increments to determine the presence of bacteremia and if clearance of the bacteremia occurred post-procedure. The study found transient bacteremia developed at different time increments throughout the dental procedure. At the time of the final sample collection, no bacterial growth was evident in any of the blood cultures. Results of the blood cultures indicated that only four of 13 dogs had evidence of bacterial growth at any one of the time increments; however, by the final collection, there was no bacterial growth suggesting the transient bacteremia had cleared without the use of systemic antimicrobial therapy. The study findings indicate that systemic antibiotic usage is not warranted for severe periodontal disease where an episode of transient bacteremia is produced from SRP and dental extractions in an otherwise healthy patient.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2023-11-24T06:45:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564231207208
       
  • Evaluation of 3D-Printed Dog Teeth for Pre-clinical Training of Endodontic
           Therapy in Veterinary Dentistry

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      Authors: Vanessa Graciela Carvalho, Nicole Bernart Casara Bordim, Denise Tabacchi Fantoni, Lenin A. Villamizar-Martinez
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.
      Artificial teeth in dental training have become a valuable tool for students to gain hands-on experience in a safe and controlled environment. This training method allows students to practice various dental procedures and develop their skills without putting patients at risk. Artificial teeth can be used to simulate dental conditions, allowing students to gain experience in dealing with various situations and techniques. Although previous studies in human dentistry have demonstrated the feasibility of using 3D-printed teeth for teaching endodontic procedures such as root canal therapy, similar research has yet to be conducted in the veterinary field. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of creating 3D-printed teeth from an adult dog skull and validate their use as an alternative training tool for root canal therapy in this species. For this, cone beam computed tomography images from a medium-sized dog skull were used to replicate its teeth using a digital 3D printing system. Then, artificial mandibular first molar teeth and a 24-question survey were sent to specialized veterinary dentistry practitioners in Brazil to assess their perception of the model's characteristics during endodontic treatment. In conclusion, it was feasible to create 3D-printed models of dog teeth with high accuracy for the endodontic system. Despite the differences in the properties of the two materials between natural and artificial teeth, it was possible to use the artificial tooth as a training device for conventional endodontic treatment in dogs. The reliability level for the survey was reported as good, displaying a reliability coefficient above 0.86.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2023-11-08T06:47:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564231210409
       
  • Abstracts for 41:2 (March 2024)

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      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2023-11-02T05:32:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564231210101
       
  • Radiographic Outcome of Vital Teeth Treated with Prosthodontic Crowns in
           Dogs: 26 Cases (2015-2017)

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      Authors: Grace K. Brown, Katherine Kling, Michael Balke, Lisa Fink
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.
      This retrospective study evaluated the effects of prosthodontic crown placement on tooth vitality. Prosthodontic crown placement may be indicated for vital teeth affected by attrition, abrasion, uncomplicated crown fractures, enamel defects, and enamel hypoplasia. This study evaluated 26 vital teeth in 17 patients at the time of crown placement and after 1-year following crown placement. Dental radiographs were used to determine vitality of the 26 teeth. Twenty-five teeth were found to be vital and 1 tooth was non-vital 1-year after crown placement. These results demonstrated that tooth vitality was maintained after titanium alloy crown placement to treat crown attrition, abrasion, uncomplicated crown fractures, and enamel defects.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2023-10-30T08:26:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564231208045
       
  • Development and Application of a Weighted Gingivitis and Periodontitis
           (W-G/P) Score System in Cats

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      Authors: Colin E. Harvey
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.
      The adaptation for use in cats of a weighted periodontal scoring system developed in dogs is described. The system uses standardized methods to score the extent of gingivitis and periodontitis of buccal tooth surfaces, weighted by size of teeth and adjusted for missing teeth and size of the cat.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2023-10-30T06:51:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564231208046
       
  • Dentinogenesis Imperfecta in a 1-Year-Old Female Labrador Retriever Dog: A
           Case Report and Literature Review

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      Authors: Katherine Venet
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.
      Dentinogenesis imperfecta is a rare, autosomal dominant, hereditary disorder that occurs in humans and animals. In humans, known causative genetic mutations have been elucidated; however, veterinary literature on the topic is limited. This case report describes a 1-year-old female Labrador Retriever who presented for evaluation of generalized discoloration of the permanent dentition with historical discoloration of the deciduous dentition. Radiographic and histopathological findings will be discussed, as well as an in-depth review of the current human and veterinary literature pertaining to the pathogenesis and treatment options for dentinogenesis imperfecta.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2023-10-24T03:57:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564231208359
       
  • Characterization of Canine Gingival-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and
           Their Exosomes

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      Authors: Yikuan Ji, Wenkang Jiang, Fulan Zeng, Daofu Zou, Shaofang Li, Xianying Zhang, Qiong Zhu, Quanming Liang, Meidi Li, Dongsheng Li
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.
      Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be isolated from numerous tissues and have the potential for self-renewal and multidirectional differentiation. Evidence is accumulating which suggests that MSCs are also present in the gingival tissue. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of collecting, purifying, and amplifying gingival-derived MSCs (GMSCs) from canine gingiva and to obtain GMSC-derived exosomes (GMSC-exo). GMSCs were isolated and cultured; furthermore, cellular immunofluorescence demonstrated that GMSCs possess characteristic MSC markers, and in vitro differentiation was induced, indicating that GMSCs can differentiate into multiple lineages. GMSC-exo was successfully extracted from GMSCs supernatant and found that they exhibit the typical characteristics of exosomes as analyzed by transmission electron microscopy, nanoflow analysis, and western blotting. GMSC-exo promoted the proliferation and migration of Madin–Darby canine kidney cells. It was concluded that canine gingiva is a good source of MSCs. Additionally, GMSC-exo is a potentially promising cell-free therapeutic tool for the treatment of canine gingival diseases.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2023-10-16T11:08:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564231206459
       
  • Outcome of Permanent Canine Teeth Following Extraction of Linguoverted
           Deciduous Mandibular Canine Teeth in 28 Dogs

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      Authors: Davin Ringen, Naomi Hoyer, Patrick Vall
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.
      Linguoverted mandibular canine teeth (LMC) are a common cause of class 1 malocclusion, which may result in a traumatic occlusion. When deciduous LMC are diagnosed, extraction is commonly performed to alleviate traumatic occlusion. This retrospective study was designed to observe the outcome of the permanent dentition in dogs with a class 1 malocclusion receiving treatment for deciduous LMC. Medical records from a veterinary dental referral hospital were used to identify patients that underwent extraction of deciduous LMC's prior to the eruption of the permanent mandibular canine teeth. The permanent occlusion was then evaluated once the permanent mandibular canine teeth were erupting. Of the 28 dogs identified and treated for deciduous LMC's, 78.6% (22/28) had a normal permanent occlusion. The 6 patients identified with permanent LMC's were all diagnosed when the patients were between 20 and 29 weeks of age. Of these 6 patients, 5 received gingivectomy and gingivoplasty treatment to correct the permanent LMC. Treatment was declined by the pet owner of the sixth patient. Overall, the majority of dogs in this study with a class 1 malocclusion and deciduous LMC's treated with extractions prior to the eruption of the permanent mandibular canine teeth had a normal permanent occlusion.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2023-10-11T06:47:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564231206036
       
  • Commissurotomy Using Carbon Dioxide Laser in 67 Dogs

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      Authors: Abigail Sharp, Mark M. Smith, Kendall Taney, Alexander R. Sharp
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.
      Commissurotomy is a surgical technique whereby the lip commissure is incised. Indications for commissurotomy include cheiloplasty, partial commissurectomy, or access to the caudal portion of the maxilla or mandible for oral surgery. Carbon dioxide (CO2) laser was used for commissurotomy in dogs for partial commissurectomy (n = 7) or access for oral surgery (n = 60). All dogs had oral or maxillofacial neoplasms that required resective surgery. The CO2 laser was used to perform commissurotomy or commissurectomy, as indicated. Commissurotomy healing was evaluated at 2 weeks with longer-term follow-up of a minimum of 6 weeks (104.6 ± 99.2 weeks) postoperatively. Postoperative complications related to commissurotomy (n = 6) included mucosal dehiscence (n = 3) less than 1.5 cm, lip margin dehiscence (n = 2) less than 1.0 cm, and complete commissurotomy wound dehiscence (n = 1). Two wound dehiscence cases, including the complete wound dehiscence, had uncomplicated healing following revision surgery. Minor marginal and mucosal dehiscence cases healed by the second intention. Periwound edema ranged from mild to severe and resolved by the 2-week postoperative examination. Statistical analysis showed that complications associated with commissurotomy/commissurectomy were independent of the type of surgical procedure, tumor type, and surgical margin evaluation when using the CO2 laser. Commissurotomy using CO2 laser provided rapid and unimpeded exposure with minimal hemorrhage of the caudal maxilla and mandible for resective oral and maxillofacial surgery.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2023-10-06T06:07:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564231206460
       
  • Antibiotic Use in Dental Care of Dogs, Cats, and Rabbits in Sweden

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      Authors: Ditte Ljungquist, Magnus Andersson, Marlene Areskog, Anna-Maria Andersson
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.
      Antimicrobial resistance is one of the largest threats to global health. In society as well as in healthcare facilities, antimicrobial resistance is rapidly increasing with the main reason being overuse and misuse of antibiotics combined with inadequate infection prevention. For humans, dental care accounts for about 10% of all antibiotic prescriptions, making it an important target for antibiotic stewardship interventions. Corresponding figures for veterinary care are currently lacking but dental disease is frequently diagnosed in small animals. An important first step in the work towards prudent use of antibiotics is to understand antibiotic prescription habits and through that estimate the adherence to veterinary antibiotic guidelines as well as the need for education, training, and improved policies. The aim of this article is to present the results of a multicentre point prevalence survey sent to Swedish IVC Evidensia practices during autumn 2021 to recognize the use of antibiotics associated with dental treatments in dogs, cats, and rabbits. During the study period, 4.4% of the dental patients in Swedish IVC Evidensia small animal veterinary practices received antibiotics. The most used antibiotics prescribed were ampicillin, amoxicillin, and clindamycin indicating an overall high level of compliance to veterinary dental guidelines. This article demonstrates that Swedish veterinarians use antibiotics prudently in small animal dentistry and the results may be used as a future global benchmark.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2023-09-08T06:28:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564231189655
       
  • Utilization of a Decellularized Skin Scaffold for Repair of a Cleft Palate
           in a Dog: A Case Report

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      Authors: Adriano Dall’Olio, Gustavo Matias, Hianka Carvalho, Ana Claudia O. Carreira, Thais Campanelli, Vitoria Batista, Julia Dantas, Paulo Fratini, Maria A. Miglino
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.
      Cleft palates are oral deformities that mostly affect puppies. They are frequently extensive and characterized by bone and palatal mucosa malformation. This deformity is a serious condition that may result in the death of the dog, therefore surgical treatment is recommended. Tissue bioengineering has emerged as a valuable option to treat cleft palates by applying acellular biological scaffolds as grafts. This case report proposed a new approach for surgical correction of canine cleft palate through a grafting technique using a decellularized scaffold. A decellularized portion of skin was implanted to correct a large cleft palate in a 3-month-old female Pug dog. The skin fragment was obtained from a dog cadaver and a decellularization protocol was performed. Under general anesthesia, a bilateral mucoperiosteal separation of the entire length of cleft margins was performed, and the scaffold was then positioned between the tissue and the bone palate. The interaction of the grafted scaffold with the oral mucosa and palatine layers resulted in total cleft closure, without postsurgical rejection or infection, indicating the applicability of this technique in dog's cleft palate correction. This is the first reported case demonstrating this new technique, which resulted in full cleft closure and healing.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2023-08-30T07:03:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564231197146
       
  • The Effect of Subacute Oral Folic Acid Treatment on Growth of
           Porphyromonas gulae in Dogs

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      Authors: So Shirahata, Yumi Katayama, Mao Kaneki, Jumpei Uchiyama, Tomoki Fukuyama
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.
      Periodontitis is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases in humans and animals. It is a multifactorial disease resulting in attachment loss and tooth loss. Therefore, preventive dentistry, such as daily teeth cleaning or providing dental chews from puppyhood is essential. This study aimed to find an alternative option for preventive dentistry by examining both in vitro and clinically, the antibacterial, antihalitosis, and anti-inflammatory effects of folic acid (FA) in dogs with periodontal disease. The antibacterial and antihalitosis responses of FA were evaluated in vitro using Porphyromonas gulae, a bacterium that plays a significant role in the development of periodontal disease in dogs. Anti-inflammatory responses, such as secretion of IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 induced by P. gulae infection in human gingival epithelium have been studied. This study used dogs with P. gulae-associated periodontal diseases and was conducted by providing a dental chew containing 0.13% FA for 28 days. The viability and halitosis production (hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan) of P. gulae was significantly inhibited by FA in a dose and time-dependent manner. IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 secretion were also significantly suppressed by FA treatment in a dose-dependent manner. In vitro bactericidal, antihalitosis, and anti-inflammatory effects of FA were confirmed in dogs with P. gulae-associated periodontal disease. One month of oral treatment with 0.13% FA-containing dental chews significantly reduced halitosis as well as P. gulae activity. This study suggests that oral treatment with FA can be a preventive option for periodontal disease in dogs as well as humans.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2023-07-27T08:01:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564231189650
       
  • Evaluation of Dental Enamel Thickness in Maxillary Teeth of Alouatta
           guariba clamitans, Alouatta caraya, and Sapajus nigritus by Cone Beam
           Computed Tomography

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      Authors: Andreise C. Przydzimirski, José V. B. Maciel, Gabriela C. Luiz, Rogério R. Lange
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.
      Tooth enamel thickness is widely studied in primates and is important in differentiating taxa and in interpreting diet and feeding behavior. The objective of this study was to measure enamel thickness and discuss whether the results can be associated with different feeding patterns. Thirty-four syncraniums of Alouatta guariba clamitans, Alouatta caraya, and Sapajus nigritus were subjected to cone beam computed tomographic (CBCT) scans, and the dental enamel was measured in different regions of the crown using the multiplanar reconstruction tool. The differences observed indicate that for many variables and teeth, A. guariba clamitans showed significantly higher values compared to the other 2 species, with the exception of the cuspid region. Although the A. guariba clamitans is a folivorous species, it showed thicker enamel for most of the variables. CBCT was efficient in performing the measurements, allowing analysis of the syncraniums.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2023-07-04T07:23:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564231184330
       
  • Treatment of Worn Tusks Using Metal Crowns in Two Young Captive Walruses
           (Odobenus Rosmarus)

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      Authors: Loïc Legendre
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.
      Two young walruses, recently transferred to the Vancouver Aquarium, presented with severe abrasion to their tusks. The walruses were sedated, and clinical examination and radiographs of the tusks showed that the pulp chambers were not exposed. The tips of the tusks were then prepared to receive metal crowns. Vinyl polysiloxane impressions were obtained and sent to the laboratory for chrome-nickel crown fabrication. A week later, the crowns were cemented onto the tusks and remained in place on follow-up examinations.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2023-06-27T07:53:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564231181639
       
  • Evaluation of a Thiol-Detection Test to Assess Tooth Brushing Efficacy in
           Dogs

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      Authors: Karolina Brunius Enlund, Nadja Rahunen, Sofia Thelander, Lena Olsén
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.
      Periodontal disease affects more than 80% of dogs over 3 years of age, making it the most common disease in dogs seen in veterinary clinics. Gingivitis, the early-stage of periodontal disease, may be reversible with tooth brushing. Thiol, a sulfuric compound, has previously been shown to correlate with the degree of periodontal disease. In this study, a thiol-detection test was used to investigate daily tooth brushing efficacy in dogs. Twenty-two beagle dogs were subjected to daily tooth brushing for 2 weeks. Gingival index (GI), plaque index (PI), calculus index (CI) and thiol were assessed before treatment (day 1), after 1 week (day 7), after last treatment (day 14), and 2 weeks after treatment finished (day 29). Degree of stress was also assessed using a fear, anxiety and stress (FAS) scale. Both 7 and 14 days of daily tooth brushing showed an improvement in oral health. Thiol decreased significantly and GI and PI improved significantly after 1 and 2 weeks of brushing. No significant improvement in CI was shown. After an additional 2 weeks without brushing, GI and PI had returned to baseline levels. Stress levels decreased from day 1 to day 14. This study suggests that a thiol-detection test can be used to assess tooth brushing efficacy. Tooth brushing has a positive effect on the oral health in dogs as soon as 7 days after commencement.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2023-06-22T07:19:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564231179898
       
  • Keratinized Odontogenic Cysts in a Malayan Tiger (Panthera tigris
           jacksoni)

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      Authors: Alison Jeffrey, Marjory Artzer, Sara Gardhouse, Jasmine Sarvi, Anastasia McHaney, Cindy Bell, Douglas Winter
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.
      A 14-year-old male intact Malayan tiger (Panthera tigris jacksoni) was presented for a routine annual wellness exam and comprehensive oral health assessment and treatment, during which an odontogenic cyst was incidentally diagnosed from radiographs. Prior to a second immobilization for computed tomography (CT) and surgical removal of the cyst, the tiger developed anorexia, lethargy, and reluctance to train, which were clinical signs suspected to be reflective of pain secondary to the odontogenic cyst. A CT scan of the skull revealed 2 odontogenic cyst lesions associated with teeth 204-207 and 208-209, and associated tooth root resorption, focal lysis of the maxilla, communication with the left nasal passage, thinning of the ventral margin of the left orbit and maxillary foramen, and left mandibular lymphadenopathy. Complete enucleation of each cyst wall and surgical extraction of associated teeth were performed. Histopathologic findings were consistent with an odontogenic cyst containing keratinized stratified squamous epithelium, keratin debris within the cyst lumen, and a lymphoplasmacytic inflammatory infiltrate. Postoperatively, the tiger recovered uneventfully, clinical signs resolved within 2 weeks and have not recurred at the time of publication of this article. Similar keratinized odontogenic cysts are described in dogs, and there is only one other case report in a felid. This is the first known report of an odontogenic cyst in a tiger and of a keratinized odontogenic cyst in a nondomestic species.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2023-06-20T07:21:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564231184112
       
  • Compound Odontoma and Dentigerous Cyst Associated With an Unerupted
           Maxillary Canine Tooth in a Weimaraner Dog: A Case Report

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      Authors: Lara Bartl, Cynthia Bell
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.
      A 7-month-old, male, Weimaraner dog was presented for maxillary swelling. Clinical evaluation including radiographs and computed tomography revealed a large cystic lesion, unerupted right maxillary canine tooth, and mass presumed to be a compound odontoma. The cyst and mass were expansile and occupied a large portion of the nasal cavity displacing anatomical structures of the maxilla. The mass was excised via curettage through an intraoral surgical approach and the unerupted tooth and cystic lining were removed. Histopathology supported dentigerous cyst and compound odontoma. This case confirms the first report of concurrent development of dentigerous cyst and compound odontoma in a dog with successful treatment and 18-month follow-up with no recurrence.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2023-06-20T07:21:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564231181053
       
  • Clinical Characterisation of Caudal Traumatic Malocclusions and Treatment
           Outcomes in Cats (2018–2022)

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      Authors: Martin F. A. Hamilton, Lorraine A. Hiscox
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.
      Caudal malocclusions in cats may result in a variety of traumatic lesions affecting the soft tissues of the ipsilateral mandible such as fovea, gingival cleft, and proliferative lesions. Fifty-one cats diagnosed with a traumatic caudal malocclusion were compared with a control hospital population and evaluated for prevalence with respect to breed and sex. Twenty-two cats that were treated had radiographic, clinical findings, and the outcome of treatment (extraction or odontoplasty) recorded. Maine Coon, Persian, and male neutered cats were overrepresented while Domestic Shorthairs were underrepresented within the study population. Radiographically, 50% of the fovea lesions had an area of decreased bone density in the region of the lesion and none of these had evidence of periodontal disease. All gingival cleft lesions had radiographic changes consistent with periodontal disease. 15.4% of proliferative lesions presented with radiographic changes, with only half of those presenting with both radiographic and clinical evidence of periodontal disease. Eleven cats were treated by odontoplasty and eleven by extraction. One cat treated by odontoplasty developed new lesions caudally, and another had persistence of the initial lesions. Two cats in the extraction group developed new lesions rostral to the extracted teeth. In most instances, odontoplasty or extraction resulted in successful soft tissue lesion resolution. In rare cases, additional treatment was necessary due to either persistence or development of new lesions.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2023-06-14T06:41:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564231181055
       
  • The Effectiveness of Liposome-Encapsulated Bupivacaine Compared to
           Standard Bupivacaine for Anesthesia of the Maxilla in Dogs

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      Authors: Kyle Bartholomew, Lesley J. Smith
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.
      Medical and surgical procedures involving the canine maxilla can be painful both during and for several hours post-procedure. The length of this pain may exceed the predicted duration of standard bupivacaine or lidocaine. The goal of this study was to determine the duration and efficacy of sensory blockade of the maxilla produced by liposome-encapsulated bupivacaine (LB), compared to standard bupivacaine (B) or saline (0.9% NaCl) (S), when administered as a modified maxillary nerve block in dogs. Eight maxillae were studied bilaterally from 4 healthy dogs of the same breed and similar age. This prospective, randomized, crossover, blinded study evaluated a modified maxillary nerve block using 1.3% LB at 0.1 mL/kg, 0.5% B, or S at an equivalent volume. An electronic von Frey aesthesiometer (VFA) was used to evaluate mechanical nociceptive thresholds at 4 locations on each hemimaxilla at baseline and at specific intervals up to 72-h post-treatment. Both B and LB treatments resulted in significantly higher VFA thresholds when compared to S. Dogs that received B had VFA thresholds significantly higher than S for 5 to 6 h. Dogs that received LB had thresholds significantly higher than S for 6 to 12 h depending on the site of measurement. No complications were observed. Maxillary nerve block with B provided up to 6 h, and LB 12 h, of sensory blockade depending on the site tested.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2023-06-13T05:43:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564231179885
       
  • Evaluating the Role of Inorganic Elements of Camelus Dromedarius Saliva in
           Protecting Enamel Against Tooth Surface Loss

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      Authors: Khalid Al Razaiki, Khalid Al Khaldi, Nutayla Al Harthy, Ayida Al Wahaibi, Abubaker Qutieshat
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this study was to provide insight into the role of camel's saliva in protecting enamel against erosion and to evaluate the levels of salivary sodium, potassium, calcium, and phosphate ions among 2 groups of camels, those with low-grade tooth surface loss and those with high-grade tooth surface loss. Twenty-eight healthy camels, 5 males and 23 females, aged 20 months to 10 years, were divided into 2 groups. Group I comprise camels with “low-grade tooth surface loss” and Group 2 with “high-grade tooth surface loss.” Unstimulated saliva was collected by a draining method. The samples were then analyzed for sodium, potassium, calcium, and phosphate concentrations using automated chemistry analysis. Data were then statistically analyzed using the unpaired Student's t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient test. The study found the salivary calcium and phosphate concentrations were significantly lower in the “high-grade” erosion group, in comparison with the other group (P 
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2023-06-02T06:58:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564231177575
       
  • A New Experimental Technique for Complete Extraction of Mandibular First
           Molar Teeth in Rats

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      Authors: Abbas Moghadam, Niloofar Moghadam, Vahid Doremami, Saeede Pishghadam, Afsaneh Mafi
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.
      Intact extraction of the mandibular first molar tooth is an interesting model for studies of alveolar bone healing. The aim of this study was to describe a new experimental technique for extraction of rat mandibular first molar teeth with crown and all 4 roots intact using controlled forces applied to the teeth. One hundred and twenty female Sprague-Dawley rats were used from a center for experimental animal research. Animals underwent general anesthesia and were then placed in a special dental unit (designed by Moghadam) for the extraction of rat teeth. After syndesmotomy, luxation of the tooth began with a tipping movement in the buccal direction with a very low range of motion for 1 s. A tipping movement in the lingual direction was then used to continue luxation. After a maximum of 10 repetitions, the tooth was left alone for 30 s. After 3-4 stages of this cycle, the tooth loosened. To complete the luxation, the same forces were applied in the buccal and lingual directions with larger amplitude for 3 s. After this step, the tooth was loose enough to be easily extracted. The alveolus was then sutured closed. The results showed no hemorrhage or fracture of crowns and mesial or distal roots, and only 8% of the buccal and lingual roots fractured. The technique designed and used in this study was shown to be an effective model for complete molar tooth extraction in the rat. This technique could also be used in the treatment of other rodents.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2023-06-01T05:56:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564231177576
       
  • Assessment of the Occupational Radiation Dose from a Handheld Portable
           X-ray Unit During Full-mouth Intraoral Dental Radiographs in the Dog and
           the Cat – A Pilot Study

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      Authors: Lenin A. Villamizar-Martinez, Jeannie Losey
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.
      Occupational radiation protection is an important consideration in small animal clinics world-wide. With the increased use of portable handheld X-ray devices in veterinary dentistry, concerns related to occupational radiation protection are being raised. Annual occupational dose limits for dental workers are expressed as Total Dose Equivalent (TDE) or Effective Dose. The permitted TDE can vary depending on the anatomical region, ranging from 50 millisieverts (mSv) for the external whole body exposure dose to 500 mSv for external exposure of the skin or an extremity. Although several studies have been performed in human dentistry to establish the amount of backscatter radiation produced using portable handheld X-ray devices, no similar research has been conducted in veterinary dentistry. This study aimed to determine the TDE while acquiring a full mouth intraoral radiograph set in dogs and cats and to estimate the TDE for a handheld X-ray device's operator. For this, the backscatter radiation dose recorded by three sets of monitoring dosimeters located in strategic anatomical areas of the operator was assessed after taking one hundred intraoral radiographs in each group. The study concluded that the backscatter radiation levels were far below the permitted annual occupational doses in the three patient groups of this study. Even though the portable handheld X-ray unit was demonstrated to be a safe dental radiographic unit regarding backscattering radiation, the operator's eye, ovary, and breast regions were exposed to unnecessary radiation.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2023-05-24T05:58:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564231175596
       
  • Morphological Assessment of the Temporomandibular Joint in Asymptomatic
           Brachycephalic Dogs Using Computed Tomography

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      Authors: Emilie Paran, Sarah Bouyssou, Alison King
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.
      Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) incongruity and morphological variations can result in clinical signs but have also been reported in asymptomatic brachycephalic dogs. The purpose of this study was to assess TMJ morphology in a group of brachycephalic dogs using computed tomography (CT). French Bulldogs, English Bulldogs, Boxers, Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCS), Chihuahuas, Lhasa Apsos, Pugs, Shih Tzus, and Staffordshire Bull Terriers were retrospectively enrolled. The severity of the TMJ morphological changes was determined using a modified 5-grade classification system. The intra- and inter-observer agreements were calculated. One hundred fifty-three dogs were included. When evaluating the medial aspect of the TMJ in the sagittal plane, there was a spectrum of variations in the shape of the head of the condylar process of the mandible, the mandibular fossa and the retroarticular process ranging from a rounded concave TMJ with a long retroarticular process to a flattened TMJ with an absent process. Variations in the articular surface of the head of the condyle in the transverse plane ranged from flat, through curved and trapezoid to sigmoid. The prevalence of severe TMJ dysplasia (grades B3 and C) in the CKCS and French Bulldog was high (69.2% and 53.8%, respectively). The intra- and inter-observer agreements were moderate. Variations in TMJ morphology exist in asymptomatic brachycephalic dogs. Marked changes seem to be highly prevalent in the French Bulldog and CKCS and should be considered a breed variation. The TMJ classification described in this study could be used to standardize assessment of canine TMJ morphology. However, further research is needed to determine its clinical application.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2023-04-28T05:21:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564231171529
       
  • Surgical Treatment of Facial Abscesses and Jaw Osteomyelitis of Dental
           Origin Using Extraoral Tooth Extraction in the Domestic Rabbit: A Case
           Series

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      Authors: Nicolas Girard
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.
      The treatment of facial abscesses of dental origin is difficult as jaw osteomyelitis in rabbits is mainly associated with a thick caseous pus that is particularly difficult to drain. Precise identification of the teeth involved in the infected site with the use of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) was expected to ensure a favorable surgical treatment plan without a long-term local antibiotic strategy or local marsupialization. The first part of the study compared multi-planar reconstruction (MPR) and 3D reconstruction complemented by a maximum intensity projection filter (MIP). The surgical part of the study included rabbits with documentation of the treatment outcome for a period greater than one month after surgery and having had at least one post-operative CBCT demonstrating the achievement of surgical extraction. MPR is significantly more efficient than MIP techniques for alveolar bone (P 
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2023-04-13T05:27:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564231168985
       
  • Endodontic Treatment of a Maxillary Incisor Tooth in a Chimpanzee (Pan
           troglodytes)

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      Authors: Wataru Saito, Tomoko Ikawa, Takumi Ogawa, Yasuko Momoi, Akihisa Kaneko, Takako Miyabe-Nishiwaki, Ikuma Adachi, Masaki Tomonaga, Juri Suzuki, Takatsugu Yamamoto
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.
      Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) with teeth severely damaged by dental caries and/or periodontal disease are often managed with medication and/or tooth extraction. A common endodontic treatment for severely decayed teeth in a 26-year-old female chimpanzee is reported. The left maxillary central incisor tooth had lost its crown, probably due to trauma that was not recent, and it had a fistula most likely due to chronic apical periodontitis. The diagnosis was confirmed radiographically before treatment. To treat the infected root canal, endodontic treatment used in humans was adapted for a chimpanzee. After the treatment, the tooth was sealed using an adhesive resin composite. At 11-years post-treatment, there were no signs of recurrence of the lesion or of failure of the tooth seal. The results of this case report suggest that common endodontic treatments used in humans are also effective in chimpanzees.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2023-04-05T06:34:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564231164738
       
  • Evaluation of Three Methods of Sensory Function Testing for the Assessment
           of Successful Maxillary Nerve Blockade in Horses

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      Authors: Amelie McAndrews, Laura Zarucco, Klaus Hopster, Darko Stefanovski, David Foster, Bernd Driessen
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.
      Maxillary nerve blocks (MNBs) commonly facilitate dental surgeries in standing horses. The goal of this prospective, blinded, cross-over design trial including 15 client-owned horses was to evaluate 3 methods of sensory function testing for confirming a successful MNB. Testing was performed bilaterally before sedation, 5 min after sedation, and 15 and 30 min after MNB with 0.5% bupivacaine and involved a needle prick dorsal to each naris, hemostat clamping of each nostril, and gingival algometry (measuring sensitivity to pain). Responses to stimulation were numerically scored and scores were summed up to a total score. Total score increases on the blocked side by ≥ 2 between baseline and 30 min Post MNB recordings signified a successful MNB. Sedation in the preceding 6 h, presence of sino-nasal disease, side of dental pathology, age, butorphanol administration, and detomidine dosing (µg/kg/min) throughout the tooth extraction procedure were recorded. In 73% of horses, MNB was successful. Sedation in the preceding 6 h (P = .732), age (P = .936), side of pathology (P = .516), and sino-nasal disease (P = .769) were not associated with total scores. Detomidine dosage and butorphanol use did not differ between horses in which the MNB was considered successful and for those in which it was not (P = .967 and P = .538, respectively). Scores obtained with gingival algometry were less closely associated with total scores (rho = .649) than those obtained with needle prick and nostril clamping (rho = .819 and .892, respectively). Therefore, needle prick and nostril clamping are considered the more reliable methods for use in clinical practice to determine the success of an MNB.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2023-04-04T06:30:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564231164769
       
  • Periodontal Pocket Therapy Using a Class IV Dental Diode Laser in Dogs: A
           Retrospective Analysis

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      Authors: Ilana Zuckerman, Judy Force, Alexandra L. Hanlon, Alicia J. Lozano, Wenyan Ji, Jamie G. Anderson
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.
      Class IV dental diode lasers have been introduced as a nonsurgical therapy for periodontal pockets in veterinary and human dentistry. This retrospective case series evaluates the use of Class IV dental diode laser therapy for abnormal periodontal pockets in a specialty veterinary dental practice. A hypothesis that the Class IV diode dental laser is a useful adjuvant modality in canine periodontal pocket therapy in the reduction of clinical pocket depth was made. This article discusses and demonstrates diode laser use in periodontal pocket therapy in a specialty veterinary dental practice and reviews the current literature. Inclusion in this study was limited to client-owned dogs with noted periodontal pocketing on any tooth type between 3 and 6 mm, which were treated with closed root planing (RP/C) and laser therapy who returned in 6 to 7 months for recheck of the pockets from the years 2017 to 2020. Twelve patients met the inclusion criteria. A total of 128 periodontal pockets were included in the study. Each periodontal pocket was a case receiving therapy. The mean periodontal pocket depth before the treatment is measured as 3.35 mm. The mean pocket depth of the periodontal pockets following treatment was 0.59 mm. The mean improvement in periodontal pocket depths after diode laser therapy when considering patient and tooth number using linear mixed-effects modeling was 2.63 mm (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.81-3.46, P 
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2023-03-22T07:19:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564231164493
       
  • Maxillary Ameloblastoma in an Asiatic Black Bear (Ursus thibetanus)

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      Authors: Brynn McCleery, Mary Thurber, Cassie N. Lux, Juergen Schumacher
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.
      An approximately 30-year-old intact female Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) was presented for annual examination and a history of ptyalism. A large 9.5 cm × 5 cm × 5 cm, firm, round mass was identified attached to the hard palate on physical examination. A computed tomography scan was performed, and the heterogeneous, mineral-attenuating mass was seen arising from the right aspect of the palatine bone and extending rostrally to the level of the last maxillary molars, caudally into the oropharynx, and dorsally into the nasal choana. Surgical debulking was performed to remove the portion of the mass within the oral cavity. Histopathologic analysis was consistent with a keratinizing ameloblastoma. Nine months postoperatively, the patient was asymptomatic for the tumor. The patient was euthanized 23-months postoperatively, and severe diffuse pustular dermatitis, growth of the ameloblastoma on the hard palate, and various degenerative and aging changes were noted on necropsy at that time. This is the first report of an ameloblastoma in a member of the Ursidae family.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2023-03-17T07:00:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564231163454
       
  • Effects of Probiotic Lactobacilli plantarum in Treatment of Experimentally
           Induced Periodontal Disease in Rabbits

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      Authors: Yeganeh Mehrani, Hossien Kazemi Mehrjerdi, Azin Tavakoli, Reyhaneh Shafieian, Amir Salari
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum in experimentally induced periodontal disease in rabbits. The incisor teeth of 24 rabbits were scaled under general anesthesia. Two weeks later, silk ligatures were placed at the gingival margin of the incisor teeth to induce periodontal disease. After confirming the presence of periodontal disease by periodontal probing four weeks later, incisor mucogingival flaps were created and gingival pocket lavage and debridement was performed. The rabbits were randomly divided into four groups. Group 1: Control; Group 2: Microencapsulated form of the probiotic; Group 3: Planktonic form of the probiotic; and Group 4: Biofilm form of the probiotic. The rabbits were euthanized eight weeks later, and gingival connective tissue and epithelium were resected for histopathological and histomorphometric evaluation. The results showed that the rate of epithelial regeneration was lower and bone regeneration was significantly higher in the treatment groups compared to the Control group. The highest level of bone regeneration was in Group 2 (Microencapsulated probiotic). There was no significant difference in bone regeneration observed between the biofilm and planktonic probiotic groups. This study showed that applying the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum in microencapsulated form improved bone regeneration in experimentally induced periodontal disease in rabbits.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2023-03-17T06:59:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564231163193
       
  • Post-operative Pain Assessment Following Tooth Extraction Using Liposomal
           Encapsulated Bupivacaine as a Local Anesthetic in Dogs

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      Authors: Teela L. Jones, Roberto Cediel, Stephanie Wolff, Kara Thomas, Erik H. Hofmeister
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.
      The objective of this study was to evaluate owner assessment of appetite, demeanor, and mouth soreness following dental extractions in dogs receiving either bupivacaine hydrochloride (BH) or liposomal encapsulated bupivacaine (LEB) for dental blocks. Thirty healthy, adult dogs requiring dental extractions were enrolled in the study. All procedures were completed with dogs under general anesthesia. A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug was administered subcutaneously in the preoperative period. Dogs were randomly assigned to receive BH or LEB. An owner assessment to evaluate appetite, demeanor, and soreness of mouth was completed at the end of both the first and second day after discharge from the hospital. The total of the owner assessments for day 1 and both days combined was significantly lower for dogs receiving LEB (P = .007). There were no differences in the number of extractions (P = .21), time from block to evaluations (P = .07), in-hospital pain assessments (P = .99), or number of dogs requiring rescue analgesia (P = .99). This study concluded, dogs that received LEB for dental blocks had improved appetite and demeanor, and reduced soreness of mouth, as evaluated by the owner two days postoperatively, when compared to dogs who received BH.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2023-03-16T05:46:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564231161226
       
  • Temporomandibular Joint Gape Angles in Normal and Painful Domestic Felines

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      Authors: Emily K. Renner, Graham Thatcher, Scott Hetzel, Christopher J. Snyder
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.
      The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the gape angles (temporomandibular joint range of motion with mouth opening) of conscious and anesthetized domestic felines and to compare gape angles with and without evidence of oral pain. This prospective study evaluated the gape angle of 58 domestic felines. The cats were grouped into painful (n = 33) and nonpainful cohorts (n = 25) and gape angles were compared during conscious and anesthetized conditions. Gape angles were determined based on measurements of the maximal interincisal distance and lengths of the mandible and maxilla followed by calculation of the law of cosines. The mean feline gape angle (standard deviation) was determined to be 45.3° (8.6°) and 50.8° (6.2°) for conscious and anesthetized felines respectively. There was no significant difference between painful and non-painful feline gape angles during conscious (P = .613) or anesthetized (P = .605) evaluations. There was a significant difference between anesthetized and conscious gape angles (P 
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2023-03-02T06:22:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564231157591
       
  • Liposomal Bupivacaine in Dentistry and Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. A
           Review of Human and Veterinary Literature.

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      Authors: Bill Kellner, Lauren Duffee
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.
      This article reviews the human and veterinary literature regarding liposome encapsulated bupivacaine use in dentistry and oral and maxillofacial surgery. The purpose of this review is to present available information on this local anesthetic in a manner that will allow veterinary dentists and oral and maxillofacial surgeons to use evidence-based information when considering incorporating liposomal bupivacaine into their practice. The twelve human clinical studies and three veterinary reports that met the literature search criteria do not support the use of liposomal bupivacaine in veterinary dentistry and oral and maxillofacial surgery.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2023-03-01T06:28:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564231157041
       
  • Maxillary Aneurysmal Bone Cyst in a Young Dog—A Case Report

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      Authors: Ingeling Bull, Cynthia M. Bell, Sigbjørn H. Storli
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Ahead of Print.
      This case report describes an aneurysmal bone cyst in the maxilla of a young dog. It describes the clinical presentation, diagnostics, management, and successful outcome of this highly unusual case. Bone cysts are described as benign, cavitated lesions within bone that are lined by reactive tissues. There is no epithelial lining in the lesions. Bone cysts usually contain hemorrhage or serosanguinous fluid. They usually appear in the long bones, and present as a swelling with or without pain.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
      PubDate: 2023-02-13T06:10:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08987564231152319
       
 
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School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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