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Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.793
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2055-1169
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1175 journals]
  • Treatment of acquired pyloric stenosis via Y-U pyloroplasty in a Burmese
           cat

    • Authors: Aleksandra Preibisz, Pavel Slunsky, Claudia Sabine Schwedes
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports, Volume 8, Issue 2, July-December 2022.
      Case summaryAn 11-year-old female spayed Burmese cat was presented for chronic intermittent vomiting. Previous medical and dietary treatments were unsuccessful. Endoscopically, a narrow pyloric outlet was found and Y-U pyloroplasty was performed. The clinical signs disappeared postoperatively after treatment with a proton pump inhibitor and dietary management.Relevance and novel informationThis is the first case report of feline-acquired pyloric stenosis with documented histopathological findings from a full-thickness biopsy of the pyloric sphincter. In addition, this is the first case of Y-U pyloroplasty being conducted in a cat. The histopathological findings might help explain the pathogenesis of this disorder in cats.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports
      PubDate: 2022-11-29T10:04:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20551169221136466
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Corrigendum to ‘Antihypertensive treatment with telmisartan in a cat
           with amlodipine-induced gingival hyperplasia’

    • Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports, Volume 8, Issue 2, July-December 2022.

      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports
      PubDate: 2022-11-28T10:16:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20551169221137455
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Juvenile hyperinsulinism in a Maine Coon kitten

    • Authors: Matthew Kornya, Anthony Abrams-Ogg, Dominique Comeau, Jeff Caswell
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports, Volume 8, Issue 2, July-December 2022.
      Case summaryA 5.5 month-old intact male Maine Coon cat was presented to a referral hospital for a history of muscle fasciculations, lethargy and seizures associated with refractory hypoglycemia. Diagnostic testing for hypothyroidism, hyposomatotropism or hypoadrenocorticism, inborn errors of metabolism (ie, storage diseases and urea cycle disorders), infection or iatrogenic hypoglycemia were negative. An inappropriately high serum insulin level was noted in the face of marked hypoglycemia. The insulin:glucose ratio was 0.44 (
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports
      PubDate: 2022-11-24T07:15:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20551169221136473
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Zinc toxicosis in a cat associated with ingestion of a metal screw nut

    • Authors: Jane Yu, Elizabeth Jenkins, Juan M Podadera, Nicholas Proschogo, Ringo Chan, Lara Boland
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports, Volume 8, Issue 2, July-December 2022.
      Case summaryA 3-year-old female neutered domestic shorthair cat was presented for vomiting, inappetence and weight loss. The cat developed moderately regenerative anaemia, moderately increased alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase activities, hyperbilirubinaemia and prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time. Abdominal ultrasound identified gastric wall thickening and changes suggestive of pancreatitis. Gastroduodenoscopy identified a metal screw nut in the pylorus, which was removed with rat tooth forceps. Metal analysis and serum zinc concentration using leftover serum collected at admission were performed after screw nut removal. Serum zinc concentration was markedly elevated, confirming a diagnosis of zinc toxicosis. Metal analysis of the screw nut showed that the major metal component was zinc. The cat recovered after screw nut removal and supportive care. Clinical signs resolved and the serum zinc concentration reduced significantly after screw nut removal.Relevance and novel informationReports of zinc toxicosis in cats are scarce, possibly due to the more discriminating eating habits of this species. To our knowledge, this is the first report of zinc toxicosis causing haemolytic anaemia, liver enzyme activity increases, gastrointestinal signs and pancreatitis in a cat associated with ingestion of a zinc-containing metal object.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports
      PubDate: 2022-11-22T12:33:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20551169221136464
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Spontaneous remission of idiopathic minimal change disease in a cat

    • Authors: Catherine Broadbridge, Harriet Hall, Katie E McCallum
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports, Volume 8, Issue 2, July-December 2022.
      Case summaryA 5-year-old female neutered domestic mediumhair cat presented with acute onset hyporexia, lethargy, ascites, hypoalbuminaemia and ventral subcutaneous oedema. Further investigations revealed a bicavitary effusion, myocardial injury, hypercholesterolaemia and concurrent marked proteinuria. A panel of infectious disease tests yielded negative results. Nephrotic syndrome was suspected and renal biopsies were performed. Histopathology and electron microscopy confirmed a diagnosis of minimal change disease (MCD). The patient was successfully managed with benazepril, clopidogrel and a veterinary prescription renal diet. Follow-up two weeks later documented almost complete resolution of the cardiac abnormalities, absence of clinical signs and marked improvement in clinicopathological findings. The hypoalbuminaemia and proteinuria had resolved two months after presentation. At the time of writing, 13 months post-admission, the cat remained asymptomatic with no evidence of disease relapse.Relevance and novel informationMCD is rarely described in the veterinary literature, with only four cases reported to date. To our knowledge, this report describes the first case of successfully treated MCD-associated nephrotic syndrome in a cat without the use of glucocorticoid treatment.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports
      PubDate: 2022-11-07T06:15:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20551169221131261
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Transient myocardial thickening associated with acute myocardial injury
           and congestive heart failure in two Toxoplasma gondii-positive cats

    • Authors: Giovanni Romito, Federico Fracassi, Mario Cipone
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports, Volume 8, Issue 2, July-December 2022.
      Case series summaryIn this report, we provide detailed clinical, laboratory, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic descriptions of two Toxoplasma gondii-positive cats diagnosed with transient myocardial thickening (TMT) and acute myocardial injury (MI). In both cases, aetiological diagnosis was based on the antibody screening test (all cats had IgM titres ⩾1:64) and MI was demonstrated by a concomitant severe increase of the serum concentration of cardiac troponin I (5.1–23.6 ng/ml; upper hospital limit
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports
      PubDate: 2022-10-31T11:14:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20551169221131266
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Giant splenic myelolipoma in a cat with hyperthyroidism

    • Authors: Kerry E Rolph, Beatriz Vidana, Elinor Field
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports, Volume 8, Issue 2, July-December 2022.
      Case summaryA 15 shorthair cat presented after having fallen down the stairs. Examination by the referring veterinarian had demonstrated tachycardia and a large abdominal mass. The cat was referred for investigations. Blood tests demonstrated hyperthyroidism. A large, poorly vascularised abdominal mass was identified on ultrasonography. The mass was hyperechoic compared with the normal liver; however, the origin could not be determined. Fine-needle aspirate biopsies of the mass demonstrated extramedullary haematopoiesis. Surgical exploration revealed a 12 cm × 8 cm × 8 cm pale mass arising from the spleen. Histopathology determined this was a giant splenic myelolipoma.Relevance and novel informationSplenic myelolipoma is rarely reported in the domestic cat, with only five cases documented within the literature, and none of these having described giant myelolipoma. Indeed, giant myelolipomas are rarely reported in the human literature and are most commonly adrenal in origin. The pathogenesis of these masses is unclear; there have been several incidences in people with endocrine disorders, and it has been hypothesised that their occurrence may be related to endocrine stimulation. Here we report the first case of giant myelolipoma in a hyperthyroid cat.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports
      PubDate: 2022-10-11T05:41:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20551169221127889
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Percutaneous transvenous coil embolization of an extrahepatic
           portosystemic shunt in a cat

    • Authors: J Brad Case, Francesca P Solari, Federico Vilaplana Grosso
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports, Volume 8, Issue 2, July-December 2022.
      Case summaryA 10-month-old male domestic shorthair cat presented for surgical treatment of a congenital portosystemic shunt. The cat had a history of lethargy and ptyalism. Pre- and postprandial bile acids were markedly elevated. CT was performed, which revealed a single, congenital, left gastrophrenic, extrahepatic portosystemic shunt. A minimally invasive surgical approach was considered by transjugular percutaneous coil embolization of the venous shunt, which was performed without complications. Follow-up protein C and serum biochemical analyses were performed at 1, 2 and 5 months postoperatively, and were improved. The cat is alive and clinically normal 11 months postoperatively.Relevance and novel informationThis is the first report of percutaneous transvenous coil embolization for the treatment of an extrahepatic portosystemic shunt in a cat. The outcome was excellent in this patient, with no complications and complete resolution of clinical signs.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports
      PubDate: 2022-10-11T05:35:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20551169221126381
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Tooth aspiration in two cats following maxillofacial trauma

    • Authors: Yael Bar Giora, Tomer Weingram, Lior Altabet, Nadav Yair, Ido Kachtan, Yoav Bar Am
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports, Volume 8, Issue 2, July-December 2022.
      Case series summaryTooth aspiration is a rare occurrence in human medicine, and even more so in veterinary medicine. This report describes two cats that aspirated a tooth (one canine tooth and one premolar tooth) following maxillofacial trauma. One cat presented with dyspnoea, while the other showed no respiratory clinical signs. In both cases diagnosis was reached by obtaining routine thoracic radiographs, and successful retrieval of the teeth was achieved by bronchoscopy. Both cats recovered uneventfully.Relevance and novel informationTo our knowledge, this is the first report in the veterinary literature of tooth aspiration into the tracheobronchial tree following maxillofacial trauma. The scope of this case series is to raise awareness that tooth aspiration can occur following maxillofacial trauma and has the potential for serious complications if not diagnosed and treated promptly. Therefore, an oral examination must be performed in every maxillofacial trauma patient and missing teeth should be accounted for, even when respiratory clinical signs are not detected.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports
      PubDate: 2022-10-11T05:29:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20551169221125403
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Histopathological evaluation of the adrenal glands in a cat with primary
           hypoadrenocorticism and multiple endocrine disease

    • Authors: Emma Roberts, Melanie J Dobromylskyj
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports, Volume 8, Issue 2, July-December 2022.
      Case summaryA 6-year-old male neutered domestic longhair cat was referred for investigation of weight loss, hyporexia, vomiting and diarrhoea. The cat was diagnosed with primary hypoadrenocorticism, exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, cobalamin deficiency and a chronic enteropathy, and started on therapeutic treatment. Diabetes mellitus developed 4.5 months later, and the cat was started on insulin therapy. The cat was euthanased 10 months following the diagnosis of hypoadrenocorticism due to the development of status epilepticus, which was not associated with glucose or electrolyte abnormalities. Histopathological assessment of the adrenal glands at post-mortem examination documented lymphoplasmacytic adrenalitis, with the lymphocytic population being predominant. Immunohistochemical staining classified the lymphocytic infiltrate as T-cell rich, supportive of the cat’s hypoadrenocorticism being due to autoimmune disease.Relevance and novel informationThis case documents the novel use of immunohistochemical staining in combination with histopathology to further assess the adrenal glands in non-neoplastic-associated primary hypoadrenocorticism in a cat. This identified similar pathological changes to those previously described in dogs with autoimmune primary hypoadrenocorticism. Additionally, this is the first report of a cat with multiple endocrine disease that included primary hypoadrenocorticism and highlights that monitoring for the development of additional endocrine disease should be advised in these cases.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports
      PubDate: 2022-10-08T07:03:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20551169221125207
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Pharyngeal dermoid cyst causing partial upper airway obstruction in a cat

    • Authors: Lydia Koch, Peter Csebi, Karoline Lipnik, Gabriele Gradner
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports, Volume 8, Issue 2, July-December 2022.
      Case summaryA 2-year-old cat was presented with nasopharyngeal stridor and stertor. Radiographs of the upper neck region showed a mass lesion in the nasopharynx. A nasopharyngeal polyp was suspected, but an attempt at endoscopic removal failed, owing to fragmentation of the mass and excessive haemorrhage. A sample was taken and histology confirmed a dermoid cyst. CT was performed and the lesion was described as most likely to be a dermoid cyst, consistent with the histopathological findings. Surgical exploration and subsequent complete removal of the mass led to a full recovery.Relevance and novel informationThe nasopharyngeal location represents a previously unreported location of a dermoid cyst. This report raises awareness of dermoid cysts as a potential differential diagnosis within the nasopharyngeal region and highlights the importance of pre-interventional diagnostic imaging.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports
      PubDate: 2022-09-28T12:59:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20551169221122853
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Ventral cervical subcutaneous Aspergillus species fungal granuloma in a
           cat

    • Authors: Courtney Bartels, Alejandro Alvarez-Sanchez, Bharadhwaj Ranganathan, T William O’Neill, Katy L Townsend
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports, Volume 8, Issue 2, July-December 2022.
      Case summaryAn 8-year-old domestic longhair cat was evaluated for a right ventral subcutaneous cervical mass. Serial bloodwork and contrast-enhanced cranial and thoracic CT initially lacked ethmoturbinate lysis and showed a progressive, vascularized, right ventral cervical mass involving local lymph nodes. The mass was removed surgically on two occasions. Histopathology and fungal culture were diagnostic for a recurring sclerosing fungal granuloma and pyogranulomatous and eosinophilic lymphadenitis, consistent with Aspergillus species. The cat was treated with oral itraconazole; however, owing to the owner’s non-compliance in administering the medication and disease progression, the cat was humanely euthanized 3 years after diagnosis.Relevance and novel informationThe development of a cervical subcutaneous fungal granuloma of Aspergillus species in a domestic longhair cat before obvious maxillary, orbital or ethmoturbinate lysis on initial diagnostics is rare and suggests an early onset of lymphatic or hematogenous spread from a suspected nidus of infection within the sinonasal cavity.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports
      PubDate: 2022-09-22T07:08:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20551169221121916
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Long-term outcome after total scapulectomy for the treatment of
           osteosarcoma in a cat

    • Authors: Johannes M Pfitzer, Pavlos Natsios, Patricia Beer, Mirja C Nolff
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports, Volume 8, Issue 2, July-December 2022.
      Case summaryA 10-year-old neutered female domestic shorthair cat was presented for acute lameness of the right forelimb after a pathological fracture caused by scapular osteosarcoma. Total scapulectomy was performed, including the glenoid, and the humerus was sutured to the second rib via a bone tunnel in the humeral head. Two months postoperatively, the cat showed mild lameness without any other impairment or signs of pain. The owner reported that the cat was back to normal activity, including climbing and running. Follow-up checks 6 and 18 months after surgery were unremarkable. At the final follow-up, 33 months postoperatively, the cat showed mild lameness, but the orthopaedic examination was still non-painful. Walking fluoroscopy revealed a failure of the fixation of the humeral head, which was now travelling along ribs 1–4 with each step. The owner still rated the cat’s quality of life and leg function as excellent.Relevance and novel informationSuture fixation of the humerus to the second rib via a bone tunnel in the humeral head after performing total scapulectomy, and the long-term outcome of the procedure, has so far not been described in cats. While the technique initially led to full return of limb function, the fixation was found to have failed at 33 months after surgery, resulting in a gait alteration that did not impair activity or quality of life.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports
      PubDate: 2022-09-21T12:50:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20551169221121901
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Osteomyelitis associated with Bartonella henselae infection in a young cat

    • Authors: Jamie Hui, Kirk A Ryan, Nathalie Rademacher, Pradeep Neupane, Edward B Breitschwerdt
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports, Volume 8, Issue 2, July-December 2022.
      Case summaryA 1-year-old male intact domestic shorthair cat was evaluated for acute onset non-weightbearing left forelimb lameness and generalized peripheral lymphadenopathy. CT identified a monostotic aggressive bone lesion with an incomplete fracture of the left radial metaphysis. Bone aspirates yielded osteoblasts with minimal nuclear atypia. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a nodular spleen and lymphadenopathy; cytologically, both contained lymphoid hyperplasia. A urine histoplasma antigen test was negative. Bartonella henselae and Mycoplasma haemominutum DNA was amplified by PCR from peripheral blood. Indirect immunofluorescence documented strong B henselae immunoreactivity, with lower Bartonella vinsonii subspecies berkhoffii and Bartonella koehlerae antibody titers. After the administration of doxycycline and pradofloxacin for suspected Bartonella-induced osteomyelitis, lameness resolved rapidly. Six-week post-treatment radiographs identified healing of the affected bone, and Bartonella species enrichment blood culture was negative. B henselae antibody titers decreased four-fold over a year, supporting seroreversion.Relevance and novel informationB henselae is a flea-transmitted, host-adapted species, not previously implicated as a cause of osteomyelitis in cats. B henselae subclinical bacteremia is highly prevalent among cats; however, bacteremia has been associated with lymphadenopathy and febrile illness in cats. This report describes a unique clinical presentation in association with B henselae infection in a cat.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports
      PubDate: 2022-09-17T12:07:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20551169221124910
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Cerebral meningioma associated with extensive calvarium osteolysis and
           presumed intratumoral carcinoma metastasis in a cat

    • Authors: Alice Dussaux, Eymeric Gomes, Murielle Hurion, Elise Rattez, Vincent Mayousse
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports, Volume 8, Issue 2, July-December 2022.
      Case summaryA 10-year-old male neutered domestic shorthair cat presented with a 3-month history of weight loss, dysorexia and lethargy. Neurological examination revealed decreased mentation, absent menace response bilaterally and proprioceptive deficits affecting all four limbs; these findings were consistent with a forebrain disorder. Brain CT revealed an extensive asymmetric permeative osteolysis destroying two-thirds of the circumference of the calvarium and involving the right frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital bones, as well as the left parietal bone. This extensive bone lysis was associated with a large ‘plaque-like’ extra-axial subdural/pachymeningeal lesion extending within the soft tissues surrounding the calvarium. The cat was humanely euthanased. Post-mortem MRI was performed, which revealed a T2-weighted (T2W) hypointense subdural lesion and a T2W hyperintense circumferential extracranial lesion lining the right calvarium and left parietal bone. Histopathological analysis on a post-mortem sample of the lesion revealed a fibroblastic subtype of meningioma. Epithelial neoplastic cells were observed scattered through the meningioma, calvarium and surrounding muscular tissues, corresponding with presumed metastatic carcinoma.Relevance and novel informationTo our knowledge, this is the first report of an intracranial meningioma associated with such an extensive and diffuse calvarial osteolysis in veterinary medicine. This is also the first description of presumed metastatic inclusions (adenocarcinoma in this case) inside an intracranial feline meningioma, which is a rare phenomenon known as tumour-to-tumour metastasis in human medicine.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports
      PubDate: 2022-09-17T11:56:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20551169221122849
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Intra-articular osteoma in the stifle joint of a cat

    • Authors: Sebastian Jaenich, Grace Klass, Beate Bosch, Martin Unger, Pavel Slunsky
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports, Volume 8, Issue 2, July-December 2022.
      Case summaryA 13-year-old male castrated cat was referred to our clinic for a 2-month history of right hindlimb lameness. Radiographs and CT showed a solid bony mass within the stifle joint. The mass was resected by arthrotomy and osteotomy of the tibial tuberosity. Histopathological examination revealed the diagnosis of osteoma. Recovery from surgery was uneventful. At the 8-week follow-up examination, the cat was free of clinical signs.Relevance and novel informationFeline osteomas are rare; only few cases have been reported. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an intra-articular osteoma in the stifle joint of a cat and description of its surgical resection.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports
      PubDate: 2022-09-17T11:52:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20551169221122847
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Severe pericardial effusion in a cat with peritoneopericardial
           diaphragmatic hernia and incarcerated hepatic sarcoma

    • Authors: Susan V Ciaravolo, Elizabeth Dobson, Rebekah Liffman, Alison Stickney
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports, Volume 8, Issue 2, July-December 2022.
      Case summaryA 4-year-old female neutered domestic longhair cat was presented at a referral hospital for dyspnoea with a history of suspected pleural effusion. Thoracic ultrasonography demonstrated a large-volume pericardial effusion causing cardiac tamponade and a cystic mass within the pericardium. CT revealed a peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia (PPDH) caused by a defect of the ventral diaphragm. Herniated contents consisted of the right lateral and caudate liver lobes, and an associated cystic hepatic mass. Ventral midline coeliotomy was performed for herniorrhaphy and partial pericardiectomy, together with lobectomy of the incarcerated liver mass. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry diagnosed a poorly differentiated hepatic sarcoma with inflammation and remodelling in the adjacent incarcerated liver parenchyma. The patient developed metastatic sarcoma 2 months after surgery and was euthanased as a result.Relevance and novel informationPericardial effusion causing cardiac tamponade is a previously unreported sequelae to PPDH in cats. Reports on the presence of malignancy in incarcerated liver are scarce and the location is not typical for a sarcoma in this species.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports
      PubDate: 2022-09-17T11:50:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20551169221121926
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Diagnosis of post-attenuation neurological signs syndrome in a cat with
           refractory status epilepticus and clinical response to therapeutic plasma
           exchange

    • Authors: Lisa Niemann, Katrin Beckmann, Claudia Iannucci, Adriano Wang Leandro, Alessio Vigani
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports, Volume 8, Issue 2, July-December 2022.
      Case summaryAn 8-year-old female spayed British Shorthair cat that underwent surgical portosystemic shunt (PSS) attenuation developed progressive neurological signs 7 days postoperatively. Neurological signs progressed, despite medical management, and seizure activity became rapidly refractory to anticonvulsants. The diagnosis of post-attenuation neurological signs (PANS) was made based on the timing of the occurrence of clinical signs following surgery, absence of hyperammonaemia and suggestive MRI findings of the brain. The cat developed status epilepticus that required treatment with general anaesthesia and mechanical ventilation, from which the cat could not be effectively weaned without the recurrence of seizures. Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) was performed as a rescue therapy for PANS and associated refractory status epilepticus. A total of two plasma volumes were processed during one single TPE session. The seizure activity resolved immediately after the TPE session, the cat showed progressive improvement of neurological signs and remained stable thereafter. No significant complications associated with the TPE were observed. The cat was discharged 11 days after admission and was fully recovered.Relevance and novel informationThis is an unusual report of PANS diagnosed in a cat based on clinical and MRI findings. The cat developed refractory status epilepticus and had a positive outcome following TPE as rescue therapy. The MRI findings in this report could be useful for the diagnosis of PANS in cats. We speculate that TPE could be taken into consideration as a possible therapeutic intervention in PANS syndrome.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports
      PubDate: 2022-09-17T11:48:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20551169221121919
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Use of doxorubicin chemotherapy following debulking surgery in the
           treatment of a cat with mesenteric hemangiosarcoma

    • Authors: Kerry L Simon, Matthew R Cook, Brian D Husbands, Mackenzie E Long, Jessica A Hokamp, Timothy H Helms, Heather R Shive, Sarah Lumbrezer Johnson, Eric Hostnik, Laura E Selmic
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports, Volume 8, Issue 2, July-December 2022.
      Case summaryA 7-year-old male castrated domestic shorthair cat presented with a 5-day history of inappetence. A mid-abdominal mass was palpated and, on exploratory laparotomy, a cystic mass arising from the root of the mesentery was observed. The mass was drained, debulked and omentalized. Histopathologic examination and immunohistochemistry supported a diagnosis of hemangiosarcoma. Adjuvant doxorubicin was started and, prior to the third of five doses of doxorubicin, repeat abdominal ultrasound showed complete response of the primary tumor. Continued monitoring 240 days following histopathologic diagnosis revealed suspected metastasis to local lymph nodes, though the primary tumor remained absent on abdominal ultrasound. A second course of five doses of doxorubicin chemotherapy was completed. Serial abdominal ultrasounds demonstrated stable disease in the locoregional lymph nodes with no visible recurrence of the primary tumor. The cat presented 430 days following diagnosis with lethargy and inappetence. Abdominal ultrasound revealed suspected metastatic mesenteric and ileocolic lymphadenopathy, hepatic metastasis and peritoneal effusion, and the owner elected for humane euthanasia. Necropsy findings and negative immunohistochemical staining for lymphatic vessel endothelial receptor-1 were consistent with a metastatic mesenteric hemangiosarcoma.Relevance and novel informationHemangiosarcoma is an uncommon malignancy in cats, and few cases describing treatment have been reported. To our knowledge, this is the first report to describe the use of debulking surgery and adjuvant doxorubicin chemotherapy in the treatment of mesenteric hemangiosarcoma resulting in extended survival in a cat. Multimodal therapy can be considered for the management of cats with mesenteric hemangiosarcoma.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports
      PubDate: 2022-09-15T12:45:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20551169221121900
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Ultrasonographic and colour Doppler features of intrapancreatic splenic
           tissue in a cat

    • Authors: Anne-Lorraine Peschard, Wiktoria Jamont, Claire Shields, Anna Cronin
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports, Volume 8, Issue 2, July-December 2022.
      Case summaryA 2-year-old female neutered domestic longhair cat was referred for a 3-day history of lethargy and anorexia. Physical examination documented abdominal distension and pain, which, alongside marked electrolyte imbalances on blood biochemistry, was highly suspicious for a gastrointestinal obstruction. This was confirmed on diagnostic imaging, with abdominal ultrasonography also identifying an incidental, well-defined small lobular hypoechoic nodule adjacent to the tail of the spleen, with high vascularity on Doppler interrogation. This was identified as a focal nodule at the tip of the left limb of the pancreas at surgery, and resected via partial pancreatectomy. Histopathological examination confirmed intrapancreatic splenic tissue.Relevance and novel informationThis case report presents the first available ultrasonographic description and images of intrapancreatic splenic tissue in a cat. It is thought to be a benign lesion of low clinical significance and therefore defining its imaging characteristics may allow for improvement in diagnostic suspicion without resorting to excisional surgery.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports
      PubDate: 2022-09-13T07:27:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20551169221116869
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Lumbar intervertebral foraminal disc extrusion in a cat

    • Authors: Daniel Ryan, Giunio Bruto Cherubini
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports, Volume 8, Issue 2, July-December 2022.
      Case summaryA 10-year-old domestic longhair cat was presented for investigations into a 4-day history of acute-onset lethargy, hyporexia and right pelvic limb lameness. Based upon the neurological examination, a right femoral nerve localisation was suspected. Pelvic radiographs identified a dorsally displaced L5–L6 intervertebral disc, with subsequent MRI suggestive of a right L5–L6 neuritis secondary foraminal intervertebral disc extrusion. Medical management, consisting of rest and analgesia, resulted in near-complete resolution of clinical signs in 37 days.Relevance and novel informationTo our knowledge, this is the first report of a lumbar foraminal intervertebral disc extrusion in a cat and should be considered on the differential list for acute-onset pelvic limb lameness in the absence of neurological deficits.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports
      PubDate: 2022-09-09T06:57:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20551169221112068
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Histoplasma capsulatum, Toxoplasma gondii, Bartonella henselae and
           Bartonella clarridgeiae coinfections in an indoor-only Siamese cat

    • Authors: Alexandra Fuller, Petra Černá, Haley Jost, Maggie Williams, Sarah Shropshire, Michael R Lappin
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports, Volume 8, Issue 2, July-December 2022.
      Case summaryA 6-year-old male castrated Siamese cat was referred for acute-onset blindness and mydriasis. Physical examination revealed serous retinal detachment with panuveitis and systemic hypertension. Abdominal ultrasound showed suspected dilation of the cisterna chyli and abdominal lymphadenopathy. Aspirates of mesenteric lymph nodes revealed intrahistiocytic yeast organisms with mild-to-moderate pyogranulomatous inflammation. Fungal culture and ITS1 sequencing of the lymph node aspirates confirmed infection with Histoplasma capsulatum. PCR performed on whole blood was positive for Bartonella henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae, and Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM antibodies were detected in serum. The cat was prescribed prednisolone (0.5 mg/kg PO q24h), itraconazole (10 mg/kg PO q24h), clindamycin (13 mg/kg PO q12h), amlodipine (0.625 mg PO q24h), prednisolone acetate 1% drops (q6h) and ophthalmic lubricant for both eyes (q6h). The cat was doing well at home after 2 weeks of prednisolone, itraconazole and clindamycin administration, and no abnormalities were detected on repeat abdominal ultrasound 3 months later. The retinal detachment showed mild-to-moderate improvement at that time, but vision was not regained.Relevance and novel informationThis is the first report of coinfection of H capsulatum, T gondii, B henselae and B clarridgeiae in an indoor-only cat living in a H capsulatum non-enzootic area with no known travel history.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports
      PubDate: 2022-09-01T05:45:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20551169221118553
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Carotid pseudoaneurysm in a kitten after accidental puncture with a needle

    • Authors: Allyson Sterman, Vanna Dickerson, Andra Voges, Sarai Milliron, Dominique Wiener, Kelley M Thieman Mankin
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports, Volume 8, Issue 2, July-December 2022.
      Case summaryA 3-month-old intact male domestic shorthair kitten’s cervical region was inadvertently punctured during routine subcutaneous fluid administration. A swelling rapidly developed on the left lateral neck and continued to grow, despite compression. An emergency facility evaluated the kitten 48 h later and the swelling was determined to be blood. Fine-needle aspiration of the swelling resulted in further swelling of the mass on the neck. The kitten began showing signs of systemic shock, necessitating a blood transfusion. The kitten was referred to a tertiary facility 24 h later for further diagnostics and treatment. CT of the head and neck revealed a large fluid-filled mass with progressive contrast enhancement noted during the filling phase, consistent with active hemorrhage. A carotid pseudoaneurysm was suspected and surgery was recommended. The left carotid artery was ligated proximal to the pseudoaneurysm; hemorrhage continued and the swelling was further explored. A small connection to the carotid artery within the medial aspect of the swelling was identified and ligated. The kitten required autotransfusion and massive allotransfusion during surgery due to blood loss. Recovery was uneventful. A head tilt and Horner’s syndrome were noted postoperatively and improved over the following months. Histopathology was consistent with pseudoaneurysm.Relevance and novel informationThis is the first reported case of pseudoaneurysm in a kitten that was treated surgically, with massive blood transfusion and minimal complications. Early surgical intervention can result in excellent prognosis. The need for blood product administration should be anticipated.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports
      PubDate: 2022-08-25T11:48:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20551169221118554
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Feline eosinophilic sclerosing fibroplasia – a characteristic
           inflammatory response in sites beyond the gastrointestinal tract: case
           report and proposed nomenclature

    • Authors: Bianca Zampieri, Molly E Church, Koranda Walsh, Elizabeth M Lennon
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports, Volume 8, Issue 2, July-December 2022.
      Case summaryAn adult male neutered Russian Blue cat presented for a right-sided nasal mass with bilateral retropharyngeal and right mandibular lymphadenomegaly. Medial retropharyngeal lymph node excision with nasal mass biopsy revealed eosinophilic sclerosing lymphadenitis and eosinophilic and lymphoplasmacytic rhinitis, respectively. Bacterial culture of the lymph node grew Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and treatment with pradofloxacin was started. Despite initial improvement, clinical signs recurred after 9 months, and fine-needle aspirates of the right mandibular and left medial retropharyngeal lymph nodes showed eosinophilic and mastocytic infiltration. Bacterial culture of the left medial retropharyngeal lymph node grew P aeruginosa, and treatment with anti-inflammatory doses of prednisolone and, later, marbofloxacin was instituted.Relevance and novel informationThis report describes a case of feline eosinophilic sclerosing lymphadenitis diagnosed outside of the abdominal cavity and is the first case reported to be associated with P aeruginosa. Feline eosinophilic sclerosing lymphadenitis should be considered as a differential for lymphadenopathy occurring in areas other than the abdominal cavity. Feline eosinophilic sclerosing lymphadenitis may develop in cats due to a species-specific inflammatory response to chronic bacterial and fungal infections.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports
      PubDate: 2022-08-18T06:18:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20551169221117516
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Nasopharyngeal sialocoele with underlying auditory tube neoplasia in a cat

    • Authors: Julien Fritz, Audrey Belmudes, Edouard Cauvin, Nicolas Girard, Delphine N Rault
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports, Volume 8, Issue 2, July-December 2022.
      Case summaryAn 8-year-old cat was presented with recent signs related to upper airway obstruction. CT revealed a hypoattenuating mass, with rim enhancement, in the nasopharynx. Paracentesis yielded a viscous fluid, consistent with saliva on cytology. The sialocoele was aspirated, and surgical excision of the ipsilateral mandibular and sublingual salivary glands was performed. The sialocoele recurred 3 months later, associated with a polypoid structure in the auditory tube region. This was surgically extirpated. Histology was consistent with a tubulopapillar adenocarcinoma.Relevance and novel informationTo our knowledge, this is the first case report of a nasopharyngeal sialocoele with confirmed underlying neoplasia in a cat, and the first description of CT imaging features of a nasopharyngeal sialocoele in a cat.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports
      PubDate: 2022-08-17T11:04:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20551169221109011
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Intra- and postoperative opioid-sparing analgesia in a cat undergoing
           pelvic limb amputation

    • Authors: Francesco Santoro, Diego Castineiras, Johanna Kaartinen
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports, Volume 8, Issue 2, July-December 2022.
      Case summaryA combination of preoperative epidurally administered morphine, peripheral nerve blocks and postoperative wound irrigation with ropivacaine is described as an opioid-sparing analgesic protocol for a feline immunodeficiency virus-positive cat with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy undergoing hindlimb amputation. The reported strategy resulted in a lack of intraoperative sympathetic response, haemodynamic stability and adequate postoperative analgesia. No rescue analgesia was needed at any point.Relevance and novel informationThis report represents an example of how several locoregional techniques can be effectively combined to minimise the perioperative use of systemic opioids and their potential side effects in selected cases.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports
      PubDate: 2022-08-17T06:13:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20551169221116868
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Feline gastrointestinal eosinophilic sclerosing fibroplasia presenting as
           a rectal mass

    • Authors: Laura M Goffart, Alexane Durand, Martina Dettwiler, Simona Vincenti
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports, Volume 8, Issue 2, July-December 2022.
      Case summaryA 9-year-old neutered male cat was referred owing to dyschezia and weight loss. Abdominal CT revealed a heterogeneous mass in the rectum and thickening of one caudal mesenteric lymph node. The mass induced a focal rectal obstruction. Cytological evaluation of fine-needle aspirates showed signs of mixed inflammation for the rectal mass and a reactive lymph node. Because a definite diagnosis was not achieved, complete resection of the mass via a dorsal approach to the rectum was attempted. Histopathology confirmed complete removal and diagnosed feline gastrointestinal eosinophilic sclerosing fibroplasia (FGESF). The cat was treated with psyllium husks and lactulose after surgery. In the postoperative year, the owner reported normal behaviour, food intake and defecation of the patient. Dyschezia reoccurred 14 months after surgery. Imaging revealed recurrence of a rectal mass. Owing to clinical deterioration, the owner elected for euthanasia.Relevance and novel informationThis is the first report of rectal FGESF with dyschezia and weight loss as the main clinical signs. The case demonstrates an acceptable outcome for more than 1 year without additional immunosuppressive therapy, and emphasises that FGESF must be considered as a differential diagnosis for rectal masses in cats.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports
      PubDate: 2022-08-10T11:31:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20551169221114330
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Disseminated Mycobacterium avium infection in a cat on long-term
           ciclosporin therapy and potential latent infection of an in-contact cat

    • Authors: Jade Webster, Francesco Marchesi, Danièlle Gunn-Moore, Hayley Haining, Alison E Ridyard
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports, Volume 8, Issue 2, July-December 2022.
      Case summaryAn 8-year-old domestic shorthair cat receiving long-term ciclosporin treatment was evaluated for a history of weight loss and hyporexia. The main clinical finding was a cluster of enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes. Cytological examination of fine-needle aspirates showed granulomatous inflammation with abundant acid-fast bacilli. A diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection was confirmed by PCR. The cat’s clinical condition deteriorated rapidly despite appropriate antibiotic treatment and it was euthanased 2 weeks after initial presentation due to development of severe paraparesis and ataxia. Post-mortem examination revealed granulomatous inflammation affecting multiple lymph nodes and other organs with intrahistiocytic acid-fast bacilli consistent with mycobacteria when stained using Ziehl–Neelsen stain. Another cat in the same household was screened for infection using the interferon gamma release assay (IGRA), with the result being consistent with infection by non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), which includes MAC; however, it had no grossly detectable disease.Relevance and novel informationThis case report is an unusual presentation of disseminated MAC infection in a cat, which remains a rare diagnosis. Clinicians should be aware of unusual and rare presentations of this infection. The clinical findings, progression of disease and histopathology results add to the current clinical database for feline disseminated MAC infections. Another cat in the same household tested positive for NTM by IGRA without any gross disease. This was suggestive of latent MAC infection which, to our knowledge, has not been previously reported in an in-contact cat.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports
      PubDate: 2022-08-10T11:23:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20551169221109442
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Fluoxetine-induced urinary retention in a cat

    • Authors: Victoria K DiCiccio, Megan E McClosky
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports, Volume 8, Issue 2, July-December 2022.
      Case summaryA 2-year-old neutered male domestic shorthair cat presented for a history of several weeks of infrequent urination and hyporexia progressing to anorexia. The cat had been normal prior to being placed on fluoxetine to treat inter-cat aggression, after which it began to display weight loss, hyporexia and abnormal urination habits. The cat had been seen by various veterinary hospitals previously and treated for suspected feline lower urinary tract disease. When the patient still had urinary retention despite perineal urethrostomy surgery, it was presented for ongoing care. Contrast urethrogram showed a mild questionable proximal ureteral narrowing, but other diagnostics were unremarkable. The patient was trialed on various medications, including alpha-antagonists, cholinergics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and different analgesics with no improvement, but would reproducibly urinate only following administration of midazolam intravenously. Ultimately, the cat began urinating normally following the discontinuation of fluoxetine. The cat was urinating normally upon discharge, and when it presented for another complaint several months later, its weight, appetite and urination habits were normal.Relevance and novel informationFluoxetine is a commonly utilized medication in behavioral medicine. Despite its common use and reports of urinary retention secondary to this medication in humans, this potential side effect is not reported in various veterinary pharmacologic textbooks or the veterinary literature. To our knowledge, this is the first report in veterinary medicine to describe urinary retention suspected to be secondary to prolonged administration of fluoxetine at an excessive dose.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports
      PubDate: 2022-08-09T01:08:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20551169221112065
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Feline intralenticular Encephalitozoon cuniculi: three cases from
           California

    • Authors: Joie Lin, Barbara Nell, Taemi Horikawa, Mitzi Zarfoss
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports, Volume 8, Issue 2, July-December 2022.
      Case series summaryThree domestic shorthair cats from California presented to veterinary ophthalmologists with immature cataracts. Other presenting clinical signs included corneal edema, anisocoria, anterior uveitis, elevated intraocular pressure, blepharospasm and/or lethargy. All patients were immunocompromised due to concurrent diseases and/or immunomodulatory drugs. Diagnostics included serial comprehensive ophthalmic examinations with tonometry, ocular ultrasound, electroretinogram and testing for other causes of feline uveitis. Testing for Encephalitozoon cuniculi included serology, histopathology and/or PCR of aqueous humor, lens material or paraffin-embedded whole eye. Treatments included antiparasitic medication, anti-inflammatory medication and supportive care in all three cases. Surgical treatment included enucleation (one case), bilateral phacoemulsification and unilateral intraocular lens placement (one case) and bilateral phacoemulsification with bilateral endolaser ciliary body ablation and bilateral intraocular lens implantation (one case). Both cats for which serologic testing for E cuniculi was performed were positive (1:64–1:4096). In all cats, diagnosis of intraocular E cuniculi was based on at least one of the following: lens histopathology or PCR of aqueous humor, lens material or paraffin-embedded ocular tissue. The clinical visual outcome was best in the patient undergoing phacoemulsification at the earliest stage of the cataract.Relevance and novel informationEncephalitozoon cuniculi should be considered as a differential cause of cataracts and uveitis in cats in California, the rest of the USA and likely worldwide.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports
      PubDate: 2022-08-02T10:51:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20551169221106721
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Caval chemodectoma in a cat

    • Authors: Irene Martinez, Daniel Brockman, Katarzyna Purzycka
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports, Volume 8, Issue 2, July-December 2022.
      Case summaryAn 11-year-old male neutered domestic shorthair cat was presented with a 4-week history of an intermittent cough and dyspnoea. A pleural effusion was identified, which was confirmed as chyle. Echocardiography and CT revealed a 16 mm mass cranial to the heart, which was invading the cranial vena cava. Because of the location of the mass, it was assumed that chylothorax had developed as a result of direct disruption of the thoracic duct by the tumour or secondarily to central venous hypertension. An exploratory thoracotomy was performed, and the mass, which originated within the wall of the cranial vena cava, was excised with narrow gross margins. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry were consistent with a chemodectoma with residual tumour cells at the surgical margin. Given the residual microscopic disease, adjuvant treatment with toceranib phosphate was initiated. The cat remained well for the duration of treatment and was euthanased 31 months after diagnosis when CT identified recurrent pleural effusion, a heart base mass with cranial vena cava and azygos vein invasion.Relevance and novel informationChemodectomas are rare in cats, with only 13 cases reported in the literature to date, and all were located in either the aortic or carotid body. The reported survival with partial resection and/or subtotal pericardiectomy was 13–19 months. Treatment of feline chemodectomas with toceranib phosphate has not been previously reported. To our knowledge, this is the first description of the surgical management of a feline vena cava chemodectoma, combined with adjuvant toceranib phosphate, resulting in a prolonged survival.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports
      PubDate: 2022-07-05T07:00:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20551169221106990
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
       
 
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