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Folia Veterinaria
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0015-5748 - ISSN (Online) 2453-7837
Published by Sciendo Homepage  [389 journals]
  • The Effect of the Cryotherapy on the Health and Welfare of Dogs:
           Preliminary Study

    • Abstract: This study is focused on determining the cryotherapeutic effects in the treatment and welfare of dogs. We characterized the basic principles of cryotherapy as well as summarized and statistically processed the current state of the application of this form of therapy in a veterinary practice. Recent scientific studies have shown that cryotherapy is mainly effective in treating skin diseases and problems with the musculoskeletal system including minor injuries caused by excessive muscle strain. It can also be used in combination with anti-inflammatory drugs to treat the respiratory system. Moreover, cryotherapy can be an effective form of treatment for ageing. Our study involved a survey evaluation given to veterinarians in Slovakia, Czechia, and Hungary with a key question regarding their experiences with cryotherapy and cryosurgery in dog therapy. Statistical results demonstrated that Slovak veterinarians do not utilize cryo-methods satisfactorily. A summarization of the reasons could start a change in this unfavourable aspect in Slovak veterinary medicine and contribute to better promotion of cryotherapy application in the therapy of animals.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Yeasts of the Genus – Recent Findings

    • Abstract: The genus Malassezia is a medically important genus of yeasts that can colonize the skin of humans and other warm-blooded animals. The genus currently comprises 18 species of which four new species were identified recently. The most widely known species, M. pachydermatis, occurs in animals but was detected also in humans, namely at life endangering septicaemias and in prematurely born children. Proliferation of Malassezia occurs most frequently as a result of disturbances in the normal homeostasis of host immunity on the one hand and virulence of these yeasts on the other hand. The successful management of the disease depends on the therapeutic control of overgrowth of the yeasts and any concurrent bacterial infection by local or systemic anti microbial treatment, as well as, on identification and potential correction of the predisposing factors.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Detection of Some Virulence Factors in Staphylococci Isolated from
           Mastitic Cows and Ewes

    • Abstract: About 150 million families around the world are engaged in milk production. However, inflammation of the mammary gland (mastitis) remains a major problem in dairy ruminants that affects the quality of milk worldwide. The aim of this study was the examination of udder health with detection of contagious and environmental pathogens causing mastitis in 960 and 940 dairy cows and ewes, respectively. The presence of selected virulence factors such as: the formation of haemolysis, gelatinase, biofilm, hydrolyse DNA, and resistance to antibiotics with detection of methicillin resistance gene (mecA), were determined in selected virulence factors associated with isolated staphylococci. These isolated staphylococci with selected virulence factors can have untoward effects on the severity of mastitis. The results of our study indicated that, in addition to the major udder pathogens (S. aureus, S. uberis, and S. agalactiae) causing mastitis, non-aureus staphylococci (NAS), is a major risk to dairy cows and ewes. NAS, such as S. chromogenes, S. warneri, and S. xylosus isolated from infected animals with clinical and chronic mastitis, had the highest representation of virulence factors in comparison to less virulent strains. In addition, the isolates of S. aureus and NAS demonstrated 77.0 % and 44.2 % resistance to one or more antimicrobial classes from mastitic milk samples obtained from dairy cows and ewes, respectively. Due to the high resistance to β-lactamantibiotics in two isolates of S. aureus and two species of NAS isolated from cows’ mastitic milk samples, the presence of a methicillin-resistant gene mecA poses serious complications for the treatment and a serious health risk to milk consumers.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Evaluation of Urine Nitrogen Excretion as the Measure of the Environmental
           Load and the Efficiency of Nitrogen Utilization

    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between nutrition, the concentration of milk urea nitrogen (MUN) and the urinary nitrogen excretion in farm conditions and to use the MUN concentration as a tool to control protein nutrition and environmental load in dairy farming. Urinary N excretion was evaluated by an empirical model according to the intake and metabolic transformation of N to milk protein in selected farms was on average 208.8 ± 34.8 g with a range of values from 127.7 to 277.8 g N.day−1. The evaluated proportion of excreted N in relation to crude protein (CP) intake in the total mix ration (TMR) was statistically significant (R2 = 0.504; P < 0.0001). Urinary N excretion, evaluated according to the analysis of the MUN content, using selected regression equations, was on average 211.8 ± 24.3 g.day−1 with an individual variation of 157.2‒274.7 g.day−1 with a significantly higher positive correlation to the received CP in the TMR (R2 = 0.693; P < 0.0001). The evaluated effect of CP concentration in the TMR on urine N excretion confirmed the higher nitrogen excretion in the urine by 25.6 g per day with an increased CP in the TMR by 1 %. The proportion of urea nitrogen in the total N excreted in the urine was on average 80.5 %. The validation of the models for the prediction of nitrogen excretion, according to the MUN for the practical application on farms, was determined the best equation by Kaufmann a St-Pierre, which used available data from routine analysis of milk composition by the Breeding service of Slovakia. The MUN analysis offered a simple and non-invasive approach to the evaluation of the urinary N excretion, as well as, the efficiency of N utilization from feed to milk.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Toxic Effects of Cadmium on the Female Reproductive Organs a Review

    • Abstract: Cadmium (Cd) is a common environmental pollutant present in soil and associated with many modern industrial processes. Cadmium may adversely influence the health of experimental animals and humans and exert significant effects on the reproductive tract morphology and physiology. During embryonic development, cadmium suppresses the normal growth and development of the ovaries, and in adults it disrupts the morphology and function of the ovaries and uterus. The exposure to cadmium has adverse effects on the oocyte meiotic maturation affecting the structure of ovarian tissue. The distribution of follicles and corpus luteum in the ovarian tissues has been shown to be disrupted, affecting the normal growth and development of the follicles. In the ovarian cortex, the number of follicles at different stages of maturation decreased, and the number of atretic follicles increased. In the medulla, oedema and ovarian haemorrhage and necrosis appears at higher doses. Granulosa cells exposed to cadmium exhibited morphological alterations. Oocyte development was inhibited and the amount of oocyte apoptosis was higher. Cadmium exposure also caused changes in the structure of the ovarian blood vessels with reduction in the vascular area. Cadmium effects included increased uterine weight, hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the endometrial lining. Exposure to cadmium had specific effects on gonadal steroidogenesis by suppressing steroid biosynthesis of the ovarian granulosa cells and luteal cells. Progesterone, follicle stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone decreased significantly after CdCl2 administration. Cadmium can suppress the female’s ovulation process and cause temporary infertility.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • A Case Report in a Syrian Hamster with Hyperadrenocorticism Diagnosed and
           Treated with Therapeutic Trial

    • Abstract: This case report describes a practical approach for diagnosing and treating a 17-month-old Syrian hamster with hyperadrenocorticism based on: history, systemic signs, dermatological lesions, and therapeutic trial. The patient was monitored for 16 weeks while he was treated with trilostane and achieved hair regrowth and the resolution of systemic and demeanour signs.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • PCR Detection of an Eye Anomaly in a Family of Longhaired Collies

    • Abstract: Inherited eye diseases have been the subject of genetic research for many years. This paper focuses on the optimisation of the DNA test based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of Collie Eye Anomaly (CEA) in dogs. A small family of four longhaired Collies (parents and their daughters) with a confirmed positive clinical ophthalmologic examination of CEA served as the source of affected animals. Both PCR reaction conditions examined were suitable for detecting canine NHEJ1 gene mutation associated with CEA. One carrier was found in a small group of eleven randomly selected control healthy dogs. The PCR test confirmed the previous CEA-positive ophthalmological examination in Collies. The results indicated that all four family members of the examined longhaired Collies had a homozygous intronic deletion of 7799 bases in the canine NHEJ1 gene. The affected female Collies may potentially transmit this CEA-associated mutation to their puppies.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Analysis of Faecal pH in Piglets from Birth to Weaning

    • Abstract: The health of the gastrointestinal system of pigs is still a topical issue. When focusing on the youngest categories of pigs, we routinely evaluate it on the basis of appetite assessment and physical examination of faeces. A piglet’s gut health is also related to the development and changes of pH in the digestive system. Because there is little scientific work in this area, the aim of this study was to evaluate the physiological range of faecal pH in healthy suckling piglets from birth to weaning. Faecal pH measurements were performed in thirty-five suckling piglets at the time of the piglets’ birth, on the 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th day of their life. We found the mean pH values to be 6.38 ± 0.46 within 24 hours after birth; 7.14 ± 0.23 on the 7th day after birth; 7.23 ± 0.23 on the 14th day after birth; 7.42 ± 0.60 on the 21st day after birth; and 7.72 ± 0.61 on the 28th day after birth. Statistical analysis showed significant differences between the pH of the faeces of new-born piglets and the samples taken in the following weeks of the experiment (P < 0.05; P < 0.01; P < 0.001). Measuring faecal pH can be a simple, quick and inexpensive method used to determine the health status of piglets’ intestines.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Bacterial Etiologies of Subclinical Mastitis in Cows Jos Metropolis,

    • Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of subclinical mastitis and its contagious and environmental bacterial causes in dairy cows in Jos Metro polis of Plateau State. A total of 208 milk samples were collected aseptically from 52 lactating cows and subjected to the California Mastitis Tests (CMT). Milk samples were transferred into peptone water broth for enrichment, followed with bacteriological assays and biochemical identification of bacteria. Using R Commander version 3.6.2, data such as: breed, age, parity, lactation, and management system of cows were collected, and analysed to determine their relationship with bovine subclinical mastitis. Out of 208 quarter milk samples collected from 52 cows, 35.09 % showed subclinical mastitis. While the Cross-breed cows had 15 % subclinical mastitis recorded, the White Fulani had 78.13 %. Cows of the age 3 to 5 years had the highest prevalence of mastitis, while cows with 4 to 6 calves showed the highest prevalence in the parity category. The early lactation stage of these cows showed the highest prevalence. The environmental bacteria isolated where E. coli, K. pneumoniae, K. oxytoca, C. freundii, K. aerogenes, and Proteus sp. with E. coli having the highest frequency of 40.86 %, followed by K. Pneumoniae with 17.79 %. The contagious bacteria isolated were S. aureus, S. agalactiae, and Corynebacterium sp. with S. aureus occurring most with 69.71 %. This study concluded that the prevalence of subclinical mastitis is high in cows in the study area. It was also discovered that the breed of cow, age of cow, parity number, stage of lactation and husbandry systems have an impact on subclinical mastitis. S. aureus with the highest frequency, indicated that contagious microbes have more effect on subclinical mastitis than environmental microbes.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • The Efficiency of the Natural Collagen Coating in the Treatment of
           Extensive Chronic Defects of the Skin and Surrounding Tissues in Dogs

    • Abstract: The occurrence of extensive non-healing and chronic skin defects with loss of tissue substance in companion animals are a frequently solved problem. The management of the therapy of large-area defects and absent tissues is a challenge for setting up successful therapeutic management and achieving wound closure, satisfactory cosmetic effect, and restoration of the functionality of the damaged area. In veterinary medicine, we often encounter the failure of wound therapy methods commonly used in closing defects, as a result of which the defect closure time is prolonged. The longer the time required to close the defect, the greater the risk of microbial infection and complications associated with healing in the case of extensive damage to the surrounding soft tissues. Direct influence of the individual phases of healing with supportive alternative therapy appears to be a very suitable solution for the treatment of chronic wounds. To overcome the shortcomings related to partially efficient conventional wound dressings, efforts are oriented toward developing new and effective platforms for wound healing applications. Five patients referred to the Small Animal Clinic of the University Veterinary Hospital were included in this clinical study.Patients were referred to the clinic with extensive long-term non-healing wounds, necrosis and secernation, or ongoing infection, with loss of tissue substance, which showed signs of chronicity. After assessing the patient’s state of health and subsequent cleaning of the wound bed from contaminants and damaged tissues, collagen sponge Suprasorb® C was applied to the surface of the cleaned wound bed. The average time for the complete closure of the defect was 24.6 days since the introduction of the primary treatment. In all patients, we observed the complete closure of the defect, restoration of functionality of the damaged tissues, and achievement of a cosmetic effect without complications in the recovery process, which points to the excellent effectiveness of the collagen covering in the wound healing process.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Efficacy of Disinfectants Usage at Daily Live Bird Markets in Four
           North-Western States of Nigeria

    • Abstract: Maintaining strict biosecurity measures are essential in preventing disease spread from live bird markets (LBMs), which serve as a major intermingling area for poultry from different sources. This study evaluated the efficacy of disinfectants used in daily live bird markets of four north-western states in Nigeria. Seven different disinfectants were identified as commonly used in the LBMs. They were analysed by suspension and surface disinfection tests against standard strains of Escherichia coli, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Isolates from swab samples of birds’ cages in the LBMs were initially subjected to biochemical tests and, subsequently, susceptibility tests against commercial disinfectants. All of the 7 (100 %) disinfectants used in the LBMs killed/inhibited the growth of E. coli, S. Enteritidis, and S. aureus with the suspension test, while following the surface disinfection test, all 7 (100 %) killed/inhibited the growth of E. coli and S. Enteritidis but only 4 (57 %) killed/inhibited the growth of S. aureus. Seven (0.02 %) samples out of the 400 swabs were positive for E. coli comprising 1 (14 %), 2 (29 %), and 4 (57 %) from LBMs in Katsina, Kaduna, and Kano, respectively. There were varying growths of E. coli at different concentrations and exposure times. Six (17 %) of the LBMs sampled had and used disinfectants. E. coli was isolated from 1 (17 %) out of the 6 LBMs that had and used disinfectants and 5 (17 %) out of the 29 LBMs that did not have or use disinfect-ants. The standard organisms were most susceptible to orthobenzyl chlorophenol-based disinfectants and least susceptible to chlorophenol-based disinfectants. This study has shown the importance of the use of disinfect-ants in LBMs. There should be enforcement of disinfectants usage in LBMs for public safety.
      PubDate: Sun, 02 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Effect of Xylene Oral Exposure on the Mouse Uterus – A Preliminary

    • Abstract: Xylene is one of the environmental pollutants with a negative impact mainly on several organ systems. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of xylene on the uterus of mice. The study was performed on 12 adult female mice. Control mice (n = 6) were fed shredded pellets at a dose of 4 g per day. Xylene mice (n = 6) were fed the same diet at the same dose and orally administered xylene at 10 μl per day for 14 days. The mice were synchronized using the Whit-ten effect and introduced to males before the end of the procedure. Mice of both groups with no copulation plug were euthanized by cervical dislocation. The uteri were collected for routine histological and immunohistochemical analysis. The endometrial epithelium demonstrated vacuolar degeneration, mitotic cell activity, and the presence of leukocytes typical of metoestrus. Reductions of the endometrium, stroma, and myometrium were observed in the xylene mice. The xylene application did not have a significant effect on the superficial epithelium, or the size and number of uterine tubular glands. The immunohistochemical analysis of a proliferation marker PCNA revealed that the xylene increased its expression in the stroma, endometrial and myometrial cells, but did not significantly affect the superficial epithelial cells. The expression of an anti-apoptotic marker Bcl-xl in the xylene mice was stronger in the superficial epithelial, stromal, and endometrial cells. The Bcl-xl expression in the myometrial cells was similar to the controls. The results showed that the application of xylene stimulated the proliferation and exerted an anti-apoptotic effect on the uterine cells. However, the increased proliferation can lead to the malignant transformation of cells, resulting in their uncontrollable division.
      PubDate: Sun, 02 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • The Head and Neck Vascular Anatomical Variability in the Laboratory Rat
           and its Significance to Medical Science

    • Abstract: Laboratory rats are often used in experimental research of concern to human and veterinary medicine. There are several advantages of using rats as a scientific medium. In this study rats will be used as the scientific model as, previously discussed, they have proven their effectiveness in cardiovascular studies. The aim is to give a description of the cranial region, the head and neck of the rat as well as imaging of the vasculature of these regions to support the planning of surgical therapeutic methods to be applied to human and veterinary medical research. The research of the blood vessels morphology in anatomical studies is key to the prevention of ischemia during organ surgery. In recent times the laboratory rat has become one of the most popular models for experiments in medical research. Corrosion casts were prepared on the cranial arteries of the body of 20 adult Wistar rats using Duracryl Dental® and PUR SP as the casting medium. We found the absence of the brachiocephalic trunk in some cases. Thyroid arteries originated independently or by the short common trunk from the right and left common carotid artery. The facial artery originated by the short trunk with the maxillary artery, or by the linguofacial trunk with the lingual artery from the common carotid artery. The results of this study revealed that, the functional anatomical relationship between the rat neck and head structures are important for the development of medical research of concern to human and veterinary experimental medicine.
      PubDate: Sun, 02 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Intervertebral Disc Disease in Dogs – The Relationship Between
           Recovery and Timing of Surgery

    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between functional recovery and timing of surgery in dogs diagnosed with intervertebral disc disease treated surgically. Intervertebral disc disease is the most common spinal disease in dogs; it plays a significant role in the scientific field by its high prevalence. There is also an existing hypothesis that the faster the surgery is performed, the better the outcome will be. The data were collected during two years at one institution. The patients were neurologically assessed using the modified Frankel score when they were first diagnosed with intervertebral disc disease at the clinic and later after the surgery and during the following weeks. A total of 36 dogs were included in this study, represented by 13 different dog breeds and crossbreeds. In total 17 were females and 19 males. The mean age of the patients was 6.9 ± 2.97 years (range 2—15 years) and the mean body condition score was 3.5 within a scale of 1—5. Out of the 36 evaluated dogs, surgery was performed on 25 of them. The mean time of duration of clinical signs before surgery was 9 ± 13 days. The main limitation of this study was the small group of investigated dogs. Although the study was based on a small number of participants, the findings suggested that the timing of the surgery and recovery had a positive Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.39; implying that the timing of the surgery may have affected the recovery.
      PubDate: Sun, 02 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Are the Variations of the Vascular System in Neurology
           Underestimated '

    • Abstract: The spinal cord issues affect dogs and cats very commonly. The right diagnostics, therapy, and patient’s managements are challenging for almost all veterinarians. There exist many vascular anomalies such as: the vertebral arteries ectasia, hypoplasia and subclavian steal syndrome. These anomalies affect the patient’s neurological status directly. The modern diagnostic approaches (Computed Tomography [CT], and Magnetic Resonance Imaging [MRI]) help with the diagnosis of the vascular abnormalities of the spinal cord and various other vascular anomalies. The cervical part of the spinal cord is supplied with the spinal branches from the vertebral arteries. The vertebral arteries as the first branches arise separately from the subclavian artery and they exit the thoracic aperture and enter into the transverse foramen of the sixth cervical vertebra. The arterial system of dogs was studied in 14 dogs (carcasses), the average age of which was 7 years. The carcasses were divided into two groups: 11 dogs were studied by the corrosion casting method (Duracryl Plus) and 3 dogs were studied by contrast radiography (Urografin 76 %). We confirmed the standard origin and course of the left vertebral for all but one case. The right vertebral artery originated as an independent branch in 57.14 % of the cases; in the rest of them, we reported on the variability in origin and formation of inconstant branches. The formation of anastomoses was reported also. Our work contributed new information about the thoracic and cervical arterial system in dogs.
      PubDate: Sun, 02 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Molecular Detection and Characterization of Trypanosomes Infecting

    • Abstract: Traditionally managed cattle constitutes the main source of animal protein to humans in Nigeria. However, seasonal migration in search of pasture exposes them to several vector-borne infections such as the African Animal Trypanosomosis (AAT), which limits their productivity. In this study, blood samples from 130 cattle in Plateau and Nasarawa states collected from May to June, 2021 were examined by the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and sequencing methods to determine the prevalence of pathogenic trypanosomes. Overall, the DNA of T. vivax was detected in 19 out of the 130 (14.6 %) samples examined by the PCR. However, using the micro-hematocrit centrifugation technique, motile haemoparasites were detected in only six (4.6 %, confidence interval [CI] 0.5—6.9 %) of the samples. The higher prevalence of T. vivax was recorded in samples sourced from the abattoir than in samples submitted from the field in Plateau state (16.7 % versus 11.5 %). However, the reverse was the case in Nasarawa state (2.9 % versus 37.5 %). The difference in prevalence of T. vivax between the abattoir and field samples was significant (P = 0.009) in Nasarawa state, but not in Plateau state (P = 0.55). The mean PCV (Packed Cell Volume) of the trypanosome infected animals was lower than that of the non-infected animals, but the difference was not significant (P = 0.29). The internal transcribe spacer region (ITS) nucleotide sequences of T. vivax generated in this study were 100 % identical to each other and formed a monophyletic cluster with the sequences of T. vivax from different countries in the GenBank. AAT remains a major constraint to profitable cattle production and food security in Nigeria and deserves more attention.
      PubDate: Sun, 02 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Behavioural Patterns and Growth Performance of Male Wistar Rats Exposed to
           Cigarette Smoke: Effects of Curcumin and Hesperidin

    • Abstract: This study evaluated the behavioural responses of male Wistar rats to normal air or cigarette smoke (CS) and compared the effects of curcumin and hesperidin on growth performance. In experiment 1, male rats were randomised into two groups (n = 10): control and CS-exposed groups. During exposure (four weeks), the dietary and behavioural patterns were monitored. In experiment 2, forty-eight rats were distributed across eight groups (n = 6): normal control, CS control, CS + curcumin (10 mg.kg−1), CS + curcumin (20 mg.kg−1), CS + hesperidin (10 mg.kg−1), CS + hesperidin (20 mg.kg−1), curcumin (20 mg.kg−1), and hesperidin (20 mg.kg−1) for 6 weeks. Growth performance (feed intake, weight gain, and feed conversion ratio FCR) were assessed. In the first experiment, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the body weight of the CS-exposed group compared to the normal control, whereas feed intake was significantly (P > 0.05) lower in the CS-group. The time to access feed and water was higher in the CS-group, while other behavioural responses (locomotion, stand upright, climbing, stand and stare, sniffing, sitting, and digging) were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) compared with normal control, especially after two weeks. In the second experiment, weight gain, feed in-take, and FCR were significantly lower in the CS-exposed group compared to the control group, whereas treatment with curcumin and hesperidin, especially at the higher dose (20 mg.kg−1 b. wt.), significantly improved the growth performance of the CS-exposed groups. This study submits that CS exposure negatively impacts on the growth performance and behavioural patterns and demonstrates the potentials of curcumin and hesperidin in addressing these CS-provoked changes.
      PubDate: Sun, 02 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Macroscopic Parasitic Lesions of Sheep Meat at Two Slaughterhouses in the
           North of Algeria

    • Abstract: A total of 10,696 randomly selected sheep have been collected in two slaughterhouses in the north of Algeria (El Harrach and Boufarik) to determine the prevalence of muscular cysticercosis and macroscopic cysts of sarcosporidiosis, to find out the association between prevalence and potential risk factors, as well as to assess the distribution of these parasites in the surface’s muscles of slaughtered sheep. All of the slaughtered sheep carcasses were visually and carefully inspected. Cysticercosis and sarcosporidiosis were found in 220 (2.06 %) and 76 (0.7 %) sheep, respectively. For both diseases, the prevalence was significantly higher in females than males. The prevalence of Cysticercus ovis increased with age, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.0001), while all infected animals were old (over 5 years old) for sarcosporidiosis. For C. ovis, it didn’t have significant difference between the seasons, however, all sheep were infected in the spring for sarcosporidiosis. All the detected cysts of C. ovis were non-viable, and were more frequently detected in the heart (51.82 %), followed by the diaphragm (30.77 %) and the oesophagus (17.41 %). This anatomical distribution of C. ovis cysts showed a significant variation (P < 0.001) in different predilection sites. Whereas, for sarcosporidiosis, the species involved was identified as S. gigantea by histology and were distributed in the organs as follows: the skeletal muscles (38.15 %), the oesophagus (31.57 %) and the diaphragm (30.26 %); no significant difference were noted between the 3 sites. The present study has revealed that these parasites are present in Algeria. Appropriate control measures need to be introduced to eradicate these parasites in sheep.
      PubDate: Sun, 02 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Cytogenetic Analysis of a Mare and Her Foal with Suspected Genetic Causes
           of Disability

    • Abstract: Hereditary diseases represent a serious problem in horses, especially in terms of sport use and breeding. Nowadays, we know the genetic basis of several breed-specific inherited diseases. In this study, we focused on the cytogenetic analysis of the clinical case of a healthy mare and her foal with numerous malformations in order to confirm or disprove the suspicion of genetic causes of a disability in this offspring. We used conventional metaphase staining to analyse chromosomal aberrations – breaks and gaps. In general, the number of breaks exceeding the norm (2—3 breaks/100 meta-phases) may indicate the influence of the external environment with a potential teratogenic effect on the offspring during its mother gravidity. Compared to the norm, we found a slightly increased percentage of chromosomal aberrations in both the mother and the foal. As another method, we used karyotyping to assess the number and morphology of chromosomes, where in addition to conventional staining, we also applied differential staining of metaphases (G-banding). Multiplication, loss or rearrangement of chromosome segments are almost always associated with pathology. In the karyotypes we constructed, we observed changes in both individuals, compared to the international standard; in the mare, we probably recorded the mosaic form of her karyotype. In the foal, we found 64, XX with a suspected morphological change which was probably related to autosomal chromosome pair 31. The cytogenetic analysis of suspected individuals is also very beneficial for horse owners and breeders. Thanks to the combination of cytogenetic and modern molecular-genetic methods, we were able to identify individuals unsuitable for breeding.
      PubDate: Sun, 02 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Hereditary Eye Diseases in German Shepherd Dog

    • Abstract: Hereditary eye diseases occur to varying degrees in all dog breeds. Individual purebred breeds have specific predispositions to various eye disorders. The German Shepherd is diagnosed mainly with chronic superficial keratitis/pannus, but also with: distichiasis, plasmoma/atypical pannus, corneal dystrophy, persistent pupillary membranes, cataract, cone degeneration, retinal dysplasia, optic nerve hypoplasia/micropapilla, and limbal melanoma. Individual ocular abnormalities are manifested by characteristic clinical manifestations and ophthalmological findings. Some eye diseases can lead to blindness, others affect the comfort of life or work use of the dog to varying degrees. A thorough knowledge of individual ocular pathologies in a particular breed leads not only to the identification of the diagnosis but also to the correct assessment of the dog’s breeding usability.
      PubDate: Sun, 02 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
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