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Folia Veterinaria
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0015-5748 - ISSN (Online) 2453-7837
Published by Sciendo Homepage  [389 journals]
  • Phytobiotics and Their Antibacterial Activity Against Major Fish
           Pathogens. A Review

    • Abstract: This review focuses on the characteristic of major fish bacteria, antimicrobial resistance and antibiotic substitution in aquaculture. Nowadays aquaculture represents the fastest growing industry leading to the use of intensive and semi-intensive methods resulting in outbreaks of bacterial diseases. Antibiotics are used to treat and prevent these bacterial diseases, which can cause an increase in resistance. Many antibiotics applied in aquaculture were originally used in human medicine and many countries do not have strict limits for their application. Annually, more than 700 000 people worldwide die from bacterial infections caused by bacteria resistant to antibiotics and even though European countries have strict rules for the use of antibiotics, the death rate resulting from resistance represents more than 33 000 people per year. One of the options how to resolve this problem is the replacement of antibiotics with bioactive compounds of plant origin that exhibit strong inhibitory activity against pathogenic bacteria.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Jun 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Herd-Level Risk Factors for Lameness, Leg Injuries, Thin Body Condition
           and Mastitis on Algerian Dairy Farms

    • Abstract: This present study aims to investigate the relationship of herd characteristics and management practices with the prevalence of clinical and severe lameness, hock and knee injuries, thin cows, and mastitis at the herd level on Algerian dairy farms. Altogether 1210 dairy cows from 107 farms were examined and the clinical aspects related to studied affections were recorded. Multivariable regression models were built to analyse the relationship between the risk factors and the occurrence of health indicators. Overlay, the health outcomes were multifactorial, with pasture access (P < 0.001), scraping frequency (P < 0.01), and floor regularity (P = 0.05) as the main factors causing lameness. Factors associated with both hock and knee injuries (score ≥ 2) were lower cow number (P < 0.01), more days spent on pasture (P < 0.001), and poorer straw amount for bedding (P < 0.001). Some farming practice, in particular, providing proper amount of concentrate feeds (P < 0.001), higher scraping frequency (P < 0.01), thicker bedding (P < 0.001), and having younger dairy cows (P = 0.058), were associated with a lower within-herd prevalence of thin cows. While, more days on pasture increased the percentage of under-conditioned cows (P < 0.01). The inadequate hygienic conditions of the floor (P < 0.001), improper milking procedures (P < 0.05), and shorter dry period (P < 0.05) increased the clinical mastitis occurrence. Our results highlighted the specific management practices responsible for increasing health risks and provided useful information for the farmers and veterinarians to make preventive and controlling strategies for lameness, leg injuries, low body condition and mastitis on dairy farms.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Jun 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Dendrimers as Antimicrobial Agents in the Central Nervous System
           Infections. A Review

    • Abstract: Bacterial meningitis is a serious infection of the central nervous system that affects people all over the world. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis are the most common pathogens causing meningeal inflammation in Europe. Treatment with standard antibiotics is becoming ineffective, not only due to their inability to cross the blood-brain barrier, but also due to rising antibiotic resistance. As a result, novel therapeutics to combat the infection are required. A promising solution could be therapeutic nanomolecules, such as dendrimers, some of which have antimicrobial properties due to their chemical structure. Additionally, they may be decorated with a suitable therapeutic and central nervous system homing peptides to construct nano-drug delivery systems, which can effectively cross the blood-brain barrier. To synthesize safe dendrimeric nano-drug delivery system it is necessary to select the best dendrimer candidates with antimicrobial activity and to understand pharmacosafety, pharmacokinetics and dynamics. This review provides a brief overview of dendrimers and their antimicrobial properties as they have been studied in relation to the blood-brain barrier and existing antibiotics.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Jun 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Antifungal Activity of Selected Essential Oils Against

    • Abstract: The in vitro activity of Cinnamomum cassia, Melaleuca alternifolia, and Cymbopogon citratus essential oils and antimycotics clotrimazole, fluconazole, and ketokonazole against T. mentagrophytes was evaluated by the disc-diffusion method. The essential oils were tested at 5, 10, 20, 30, 50, and 100 % concentration. It was found that Cymbopogon, commonly called lemongrass, and cinnamon show stable results independent of the concentration used, whereas the efficacy of tea tree oil, significantly decreases with the decreasing concentration. When comparing the efficacy of antimycotics the largest zone of inhibition was obtained with clotrimazole, while fluconazole proved to be ineffective. We found that cinnamon and lemongrass are more effective than the antimycotics that we have used. Our study confirmed that some essential oils can be used for the treatment of dermatophytoses caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes and some of them are more effective than the commercial drugs.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Jun 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Definition, Assessment, Health Consequences and Management of Equine
           Obesity: A Review

    • Abstract: Obesity is a state of abnormal or excessive fat accumulation. Obesity in horses increases the risk of developing a variety of health issues such as: insulin dysregulation (ID), reduced athleticism, colic, abnormal reproductive performance, laminitis, endotoxaemia, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipaemia, impaired thermoregulation, pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction, and osteochondrosis. Obesity is a significant health and welfare issue in horses that may go unreported or unnoticed due to a caregiver’s (owner) neglect. Weight gain occurs when a horse’s energy consumption exceeds his or her physical energy needs. Obesity is best assessed via necropsy or upon in vivo assessment with deuterium oxide administration, although this is not feasible in a clinical environment. In practice, obesity is assessed by: body condition scoring, cresty neck scoring, ultrasono graphic assessment, morphometric measurements, or biochemical indicators in the blood. Dietary and exercise programs are the primary means of controlling equine obesity. Pharmacologic assistance (levothyroxine sodium and metformin hydrochloride), being a secondary approach, may be effective in some cases. Management involves a long-term plan that requires the horse’s caregiver’s effort and discipline, as well as the support and supervision of their veterinarian. This paper outlines the assessment, health consequences, and management of equine obesity.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Jun 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Knowledge, Attitude and Practices among Pastoralists and Animal Health
           Workers on Tick-Borne Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiosis in Plateau State,

    • Abstract: Tick-borne Spotted Fever Group Rickettsioses (SFGR) is a serious disease reported in low income communities of many developed countries. The dearth of information on the existence of SFGR in most developing countries particularly in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA) including Nigeria, has been attributed to many factors chiefly amongst which are; poor knowledge of the disease, limitation of diagnostic capacity, leading to misdiagnosis and under reporting of some infectious zoonotic diseases such as SFGR. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pastoralists (livestock farmers) and animal health workers’ knowledge, attitudes and perceptions/practices towards ticks and tick-borne SFGR affecting livestock in 3 Local Government Areas (LGA): i.e., in Plateau State, Nigeria and including Jos the Capital City of the State. A total of 141 semi-structured questionnaires were administered to respondents including 90 pastoralists and 51 health workers from different veterinary clinics. Interestingly, the pastoralists expressed no knowledge about SFGR, although 61.36 % reported a history of tick infestation. Among the animal health workers, about 76.47 % expressed some knowledge about the disease, but lacked knowledge of the diagnosis of the disease. The findings indicate that there was the need for an increase awareness on SFGR and its predisposing factors among relevant stakeholders in the Plateau State, Nigeria.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Jun 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • The Genetic Analysis of Potential New HEV-3 Subtype Identified on Pig Farm
           in Slovakia

    • Abstract: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) represents the causative agent of acute viral hepatitis in the world. The virus belongs to the genus Paslahepevirus, species Paslahepevirus balayani, which contains 8 different genotypes and at least 14 reference HEV-3 subtypes. Recently we have identified three isolates in a Slovakian pig farm as a new unclassified HEV-3 subtype. The aim of this study was to sequence and analyze additional regions of HEV genome for PER5 isolate, a representative isolate of potential new HEV-3 subtype. The phylogenetic analyses of 749 bp and 828 bp DNA fragments amplified from ORF1 revealed that both sequences fall outside two major clades (3abchij and 3efg) of the HEV-3 genotype as well as the other HEV-3 subtypes. The nucleotide identity with other HEV-3 subtypes indicated low values within the range 79.2–84.1 % as well. The results provide further support for the circulation of a new HEV-3 subtype in the pig farm in Slovakia.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Jun 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Brain Gross Anatomy and Cerebellar Histology of the Cattle Egret ()

    • Abstract: The structural parts of brain are similar in all vertebrates, but they differ in their complexity and organization. The avian brain for instance, is organised differently compared to mammals, with variations existing in the relative size and location of their structures. The cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis) is a cosmopolitan avian species native to Africa. Despite their economic importance as excellent sentinels in assessing environmental pollutants, there is a dearth of information on their neuroanatomy. Hence, we here investigated their gross morphological features and morphometric parameters, and the cerebellar histology. Twelve transcardi-ally perfused juvenile cattle egrets were studied, with the body and brain weights and brain linear measurements considered. The brain weight constituted 0.46 % of the total body mass, with a strong positive correlation recorded between the body and brain weights (r = 0.9204). Morphologically, the brain was lissencephalic, with the corpus callosum absent and the olfactory bulbs rudimentary with no discernible division into the olfactory bulb, olfactory tract and olfactory lobe. We observed prominent sagittal eminence and vallecula telencephali, as well as an obvious fovea limbica on the dorsal and lateral surfaces of the cerebral hemispheres, respectively. The diencephalic structures were completely covered by telencephalon, with the pineal gland occupying the polygonal space between cerebrum, optic lobe and cerebellum. The mesencephalic tectum appeared as a large oval bilaterally bulging structure with prominent optic tracts and constituted the bulk of the midbrain. There was a dorsal extension of the fourth ventricle into the cerebellum known as the ventriculus cerebelli and the cerebellar histology presented a persistent external granular layering suggestive of a potential for adult neurogenesis. Our data has added relevant literature on the cattle egret brain and could prove useful in comparative, developmental and evolutionary avian neuroanatomy.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Jun 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Incidence of Trichothecenes Deoxynivalenol and T-2 Toxin in Poultry Feed

    • Abstract: Trichothecenes are among the most important fusariotoxins. According to their chemical structure, they are divided into 4 groups (A – D). In terms of agriculture, trichothecenes of groups A and B are of greatest importance. In this study, the incidence of trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol and T-2 toxin) in mixed feed for broilers and turkeys were determined. Deoxynivalenol was detected in all analysed samples of feed mixture for broilers and turkeys (100 %) at an average concentration of 1.776 ppm; 0.675 ppm, respectively. T-2 toxin was present in 93.8 % of mixed feed for broilers at an average concentration of 36.625 ppb and in all of the tested samples (100 %) of turkey mixed feed (average level 25.899 ppb). The trichothecenes deoxynivalenol and T-2 toxin in feed samples for poultry did not exceed concentrations recommended by legislation.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Jun 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Welfare Assessment of Pack Donkeys in Amaru, Zaria Ancient City, Kaduna
           State, Nigeria

    • Abstract: Donkey welfare is becoming a subject of much interest; for decades, people around the world have voiced rising worry about it. There are no studies on donkey welfare in Nigeria. This study aimed to assess the welfare state of donkeys in Amaru, Zaria Ancient City, Kaduna State, Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was done to purposefully select 38 pack donkeys for welfare assessment based on the first level of the Animal Welfare Indicators (AWIN) for donkeys, which covered behaviour, health, feeding, and environment and housing. Information regarding age and sex was collected. The analysed data were reported in terms of frequencies and percentages. The prevalence of donkeys with no social contact, avoidance behaviour, and walking downside was 2.6 %, 5.36 %, and 40.56 %, respectively. The most common health problems are integumentary alterations, which include an unhealthy hair coat (86.8 %), skin lesions (86.6 %), alopecia (60.5 %), and deep wounds (47.4 %). Only 5.3 % of the donkeys were lame. Around 42 % had a body condition score of 2 (moderate), while the remaining 57.9 % had a body condition score of 3 (ideal). The donkeys were poorly kept and housed, as evidenced by the high prevalence of unsatisfactory shelter dimensions (100 %), dirty bedding (89.5 %), and insufficient bedding (89.5 %). The current study found that welfare issues are serious challenges for donkeys in Amaru, Zaria Ancient City, Kaduna State, Nigeria. As a consequence of the current findings, it is recommended that donkey welfare, policies and legislative frameworks that support animal welfare and inspect animal facilities in Nigeria should to be reviewed and enforced.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Jun 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Molecular, Morphological and Clinical Characteristics of Spontaneous
           Canine Colorectal Cancer – A Review

    • Abstract: Cross-species comparison analysis studies are of immense importance in veterinary and human oncological research. Of the various non-rodent species available, dogs have gained most attention as potential animal models for the study of colorectal cancer. Domestic dogs developed evolutionally through a mutually beneficial relationship with humans. Because dogs share the same environment as humans, they are exposed to the same potentially harmful substances which may act as carcinogens in both species. Intestinal adenocarcinomas in dogs are naturally occurring heterogeneous tumours, which have the characteristics of sporadic human malignancies and therefore are more suitable for detailed oncological study than most xenograft or genetically modified rodent models. Furthermore, the canine genome has been comprehensively analysed and sequenced to a 7.6-fold coverage, and a very accurate version of this sequencing is available for study. The purpose of this manuscript is to present a comprehensive review of published data related to colorectal cancer in dogs. In addition, data regarding interspecies comparison of molecular events driving canine and human intestinal carcinogenesis is presented.
      PubDate: Sun, 19 Mar 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Amylolytic and Cellulolytic Activities, the Digestibility of Dry Matter of
           Broiler Chickens After Feed Intake of Humic Substances

    • Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the effects of feed intake of humic substances (HS) on the cellulolytic and amylolytic activities, and the digestibility of dry matter (DM) in the chymus of the intestine and ileum of broiler chickens (Cobb 500). Four groups of birds (A, B, C, negative control; n = 120) were fed with mash diets (starter HYD1 230.20, grower HYD2 222.20, finisher HYD3 209.40 g crude protein (CP) per kg of DM) with the added HS from day 1 to 37 days as follows: A ‒ 0.7 % Humac nature; B ‒ 0.7 % Humac nature monogastric (HNM); C ‒ 0.5 % HNM (Humac Ltd., Slovakia). The cellulolytic activities were increased in the intestine in B/C by 2.50 (P < 0.01)/1.65 (P < 0.05) on day 3 and 1.02 (P < 0.001)/0.3 (P < 0.05) µmol.l−1.min−1.g−1 on day 24. There were observed higher values of digestibility coefficient of DM in the intestine (P < 0.05) in C by 15.14 % and 14.85 %, and in B by 20.73 % on days 17, 24 and 31, respectively. The enhancement of ileal digestibility of DM was observed in B by 7.38 % (P < 0.05) and CP in A and B by 3.7% and 6.1% (P < 0.05). The feed intake of HS favourably influenced the cellulolytic activities and increased the DM digestibility in the intestine and the ileum, as well as the CP digestibility in the ileum.
      PubDate: Sun, 19 Mar 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Synchronization of Ovulation and Timed Insemination in Lactating Dairy

    • Abstract: Successful reproduction of lactating dairy cattle, or in other words its reproductive performance is a limiting factor in the profit ratio of cattle breeding regarding market production. The aim of this research was to evaluate the success rate of synchronization protocols Ovsynch, Presynch/Ovsynch, and Double Ovsynch within the period of 24 months. The success rate of the 1st insemination, 2nd insemination, and after more than 2 inseminations was evaluated. The cattle were of Holstein Friesian breed with a milk yield of 10 200 kg. The animals were sorted into two categories – heifers (protocol Ovsynch) and primiparous, multiparous cows (protocols Presynch/Double Ovsynch). The research proved a 54 % success rate in the category of heifers after the 1st insemination. In the category of primiparous and multiparous cows was the success rate of 41 % after the 1st insemination, 39 % after the 2nd insemination, and 52 % after more than 2 inseminations for the Presynch/Ovsynch protocol. The success rate for Double Ovsynch protocol was 45 % after the 1st insemination, 42 % after the 2nd insemination and 51 % after more than 2 inseminations. The results for the given geographic region of Slovakia exceeded the average.
      PubDate: Sun, 19 Mar 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Testing of the Efficacy of Bee Probiotic Lactobacilli Under Conditions

    • Abstract: American foulbrood is amongst the most dangerous diseases of the bee-family affecting many honeybee colonies worldwide. In countries of European Union, based on veterinary legislation, the bee colonies tested positive to American foulbrood are eradicated with high economic losses. It is therefore necessary to look for effective prevention, especially by the using of natural ingredients such as probiotics. In this study, we used lactobacilli isolated from digestive tracts of adult healthy honey bees and selected based on their good probiotic properties and ability to inhibit the growth of Paenibacillus larvae. These isolates were identified as Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus plantarum. Night cultures of both strains were used for the preparation of probiotic suspensions and pollen was selected as an appropriate carrier for application of probiotic lacto-bacilli to the hives. Half a litre of pollen suspension was prepared for each hive. The suspension for experimental hives contained probiotic lactobacilli in concentration of 107–108 CFU.ml−1. Bees in control hives received pollen suspension without addition of probiotic lacto-bacilli. The suspensions were supplied to bees three times, once a week. Before and during administration of probiotics, samples of honey bees from each hive were taken every week and numbers of lactobacilli, P. larvae, enterobacteria and coliform bacteria were determined in their digestive tracts. Four weeks after the first administration of probiotic-pollen solution the numbers of lactobacilli were increased approximately by 0.5 log. Before starting this experiment, P. larvae (approx. 107 CFU.ml−1) were detected in digestive tracts of honey bees. In the experimental group after 3 weeks and in the control group after 4 weeks, no viable counts of P. larvae were found. The numbers of enterobacteria, coliform bacteria and Bacillus sp. decreased in both groups. During the experiment the health and condition of the hives were monitored. In addition, also monitored were: the development of the bee colony, the number of dead bees, the amount of hive debris, the aggressiveness of the bees, and the amount of honey spun; later during the autumn treatment also the fall of Varroa jacobsoni was noted. In the experimental and control groups, we recorded a decrease in the amount of hive debris. Only in the experimental group was a slightly above-average development of the bee colony, slightly above-average honey yields and a 70 % lower drop of Varroa mites. Based on these results, we assumed that the probiotic-pollen solution had a positive influence on the composition of microbiota in bee digestive tracts and it can increase resistance to P. larvae. It also had a positive effect on the health and condition of the bee colony. Probiotic-free pollen solution showed similar but weaker effects.
      PubDate: Sun, 19 Mar 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Effects of Injection of Inorganic Salts of Zinc and Copper on Performance
           and Serum Biochemical Indices of Two Strains of Broiler Chickens

    • Abstract: This study was composed of two experiments which investigated the response of two strains (Arbor Acre and Cobb 500, respectively) of broiler chickens to in ovo injection of inorganic salts of zinc, copper and their combination. A total of 300 hatching eggs [only 148 (59.20 %) and 232 (90.27 %), respectively, were fertile] each of Arbor Acre and Cobb 500 strains of broiler chickens were used in both experiments. These eggs were distributed into four treatments: control, in ovo inorganic Zn (80 µg.egg−1), Cu (16 µg.egg−1) and combined Zn and Cu (80 µg.egg−1 Zn and 16 µg.egg−1 Cu). The data obtained in both experiments were subjected to Completely Randomized Design (CRD) at the 5 % probability level. The results showed increased hatchability (P < 0.05) in eggs injected with the combination of inorganic salts of Zn and Cu in Experiment I and daily intake was influenced in both experiments. The carcass traits, organ development and gut morphometry were not significantly influenced by the treatment groups. The total serum protein and albumin of the birds were significantly (P < 0.05) increased by in ovo injection of inorganic salts of Zn and Cu at day 49 in the Experiment I. The study concluded that in ovo injection of inorganic salts of Zn at 80 µg.egg−1 and/or Cu at 16 µg. egg−1 could be adopted to increase feed intake with: attendant enhanced growth, enhanced immune response, increased albumin and total protein contents of blood serum in the strains of broiler chickens used.
      PubDate: Sun, 19 Mar 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Detection of Antibiotic Residues and Mycotoxins in Milk Using Competitive
           Immunochromatographic Tests

    • Abstract: As milk should be free from harmful substances before leaving the farm, this study provides the results of the analysis of the presence of β-lactam and tetracycline residues and Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in milk samples obtained within one year from Ireland and Slovakia. To evaluate the presence of β-lactam and tetracycline residues, Duplex BT Scan assay, produced by Zeulab S. L. was used. For the detection of AFM1, AflaM1 Scan (Zeulab S. L.) tests were used. Of a total of 69 raw cow’s milk samples analysed, 40 samples were obtained from the farms in Slovakia and 29 samples from the farms in Ireland. Among the 69 analysed samples, 17 (24.6 %) samples were tested positive for the presence of β-lactam residues, 12 (17.4 %) samples for tetracycline residues and 59 (88.4 %) samples for AFM1. Milk samples positive for antibiotic residues and mycotoxins were not acceptable and it is important that the reputation of milk as a healthy and safe food is protected worldwide. Dairy farmers and consumers want to be confident that milk and milk products are of high quality and free of all pharmacologically active substances and toxins.
      PubDate: Sun, 19 Mar 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Efficacy of Different Methods of General Anaesthesia in Pigs and their
           Influence on Haematological Parameters

    • Abstract: This study focused on how haematology parameters differ with different types of anaesthesia that is given to piglets. In this study 18 piglets were used divided into three groups. In each of these experimental groups a different combination of anaesthetics was used. The first group received the combination of azaperone, diazepam, and ketamine. In the second group, we used the combination of azaperone, xylazine, and ketamine. In the third group, the anaesthesia was induced by azaperone, diazepam, butorphanol and ketamine. Blood samples were taken from the piglets three times throughout the procedure and the relevant haematological parameters were determined. With respect to haematological values, the combination used in group 1 appeared as the best for the anaesthesia of pig-lets. The haematological values, such as MCV (mean corpuscular volume), were similar in all groups with the exception of the third group where the MCV and the MCH (mean corpuscular haemoglobin) were significantly lower 24-hour post anaesthesia compared to the other two groups. Lymphocytes in the first two groups showed a steady decrease, while in the third group their levels increased. The opposite trend was observed for the segmented neutrophils that showed a steady increase over the 24-hour period in the 1st and 2nd group while in group 3 their levels decreased. Abolishment of pedal and nasal reflexes to external stimuli applied every 15 min post ketamine administration was observed. The piglets in the 1st group showed no reflexes to external stimuli, while the worst responses were observed in the 2nd group where many of the piglets started to show reflexes very early within the experimental time.
      PubDate: Sun, 19 Mar 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Lyme Borreliosis in Dogs: Background, Epidemiology, Diagnostics, Treatment
           and Prevention

    • Abstract: Lyme borreliosis (LB) is a multisystemic tick-borne disease that can affect many organs and have various clinical manifestations in dogs. We attempted to summarise various aspects of Lyme disease: i. e., pathogenesis, epidemiology, benefits and risks of diagnostic approaches, treatment options, and prevention in dogs. Several diagnostic bottlenecks for LB in dogs and humans are compared. Because the occurrence of LB in both humans and dogs is closely related, monitoring its prevalence in dogs as sentinel animals is an excellent aid in assessing the risk of Lyme disease in a given geographic area. Although clinical symptoms in humans help clinicians diagnose LB, they are ineffective in dogs because canines rarely exhibit LB symptoms. Despite significant differences in sensitivity and specificity, sero-logical two-step detection of antibodies against Borrelia spp. (ELISA and Western blot) is the most commonly used method in humans and dogs. The limitations of the assay highlight the need for further research to develop new clinical markers and more accurate diagnostic tests. Due to the lack of a specific all-encompassing LB test, a definitive diagnosis of LB remains a difficult and time-consuming process in human and veterinary medicine. Understanding the disease prevalence and diagnostics, as well as preventing its spread with effective and timely treatment, are fundamental principles of good disease management.
      PubDate: Sun, 19 Mar 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Hindlimb Skeletal Morphology of the Helmeted Guinea Fowl ()

    • Abstract: The Guinea fowl (Numida meleagridis) is a semi-domestic bird whose commercial popularity is on the increase. The gross anatomy of the hindlimbs of 8 helmeted Guinea fowls of equal sexes were studied. The pubic shafts were free, thus they did not fuse ventrally to form a symphysis. The ilium had a quadrilateral and roughly triangular pre and post acetabular wings, respectively. A conspicuous renal fossa was observed in the post acetabular wing. An incomplete concentric obturator foramen, lacking a caudal margin, was formed by the ventral border of the ischium and dorsal border of the cranial pubic shaft, while a prominent ischiopubic fissure was formed by the same bones, caudally. The incomplete concentric nature of the obturator foramen created a common space between it and the ischiopubic fissure. The femoral major trochanter was more proximal than the head, while the minor tro-chanter and the head were on the same horizontal level. The femur lacked a visible pneumatic foramen. The tibiotarsus had a prominent cranial cnemial crest. The fibular spine terminated at the tibia mid-shaft, leaving one interosseous space. An intertarsal sesamoid bone was identified, indicative of an adult skeleton. Crests and channels depicted the hypotarsus. Vascular foramen was identified in the distal extremity of the tibiotarsus. Digit I was oriented to the planter direction.These results, and others, were compared with those of other birds in the available literature, and some morpho-functional paradigm of the Guinea fowl hindlimb skeleton was established.
      PubDate: Sun, 19 Mar 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Multilocus Sequence Typing as a Useful Tool for the Study of the Genetic
           Diversity and Population Structure of Spp.

    • Abstract: One of the most important aquatic parasites in industrialized countries, Cryptosporidium spp., is a major cause of diarrheal disease in humans and animals worldwide. The contingent evolution of cryptosporidia with hosts, host adaptation, and geographic variation contributed to the creation of species subtypes, thereby shaping their population genetic structures. Multilocus typing tools for population genetic characterizations of transmission dynamics and delineation of mechanisms for the emergence of virulent subtypes have played an important role in improving our understanding of the transmission of this parasite. However, to better understand the significance of different subtypes with clinical disease manifestations and transmission risks, a large number of samples and preferably from different geographical areas need to be analyzed. This review provides an analysis of genetic variation through multilocus sequence typing, provides an overview of subtypes, typing gene markers for Cryptosporidium parvum, Cryptosporidium hominis, Cryptosporidium muris and Cryptosporidium andersoni genotypes and an overview of the hosts of these parasites.
      PubDate: Sun, 19 Mar 2023 00:00:00 GMT
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