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  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 220 journals)
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Folia Veterinaria
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0015-5748 - ISSN (Online) 2453-7837
Published by Sciendo Homepage  [389 journals]
  • Dermatological Diseases in Dogs ‒ A Survey in Veterinary Facilities

    • Abstract: Skin diseases in dogs are very often the reason for visiting the veterinarian. For the successful management of a dermatological disease, accurate diagnosis, correct setting of the treatment and cooperation of the owner are necessary. This article provides a summary of information related to the diagnosis and treatment of skin diseases in dogs obtained from 50 veterinary facilities in Slovakia. In the monitored veterinary facilities, the most common dermatoses are skin diseases due to immune disorders, followed by bacterial and parasitic skin diseases. For the prevention of external parasites (ticks, fleas), tablets containing fluralaner, sarolaner and afoxolaner are increasingly preferred, even though spot-on preparations, especially those containing fipronil, maintain a constant position in prevention. Among the most commonly used ATBs in the treatment of skin bacterial infections are amoxicillin with clavulanic acid and cephalexin. Currently, the veterinary medicine with the active substance oclacitinib and the medicine containing lokivetmab are coming to the fore in the treatment of allergies in dogs, while veterinarians are trying to limit the use of glucocorticoids.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Dec 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Physiological Responses in Broiler Chickens Administered Lycopene During
           the Hot-Dry Season

    • Abstract: This study evaluates the effects of lycopene administration on body weight, mortality, cloacal temperature, and haematological responses, in broiler chickens exposed to heat stress. 40 day-old broiler chicks were divided into control and lycopene groups, 20 chickens each. Each bird in the control group received olive oil (1 ml.kg−1), and lycopene at 10 mg.kg−1 mixed with olive oil was given to each bird in the lycopene group by oral gavage once daily for 28 days. The dry- and wet-bulb temperature of the broiler chickens’ pen was recorded three times daily from days 8 to 28. The body weights were measured weekly. The incidence of mortality was recorded. The cloacal temperatures were measured on days 14, 21 and 28. The blood samples were collected for haematological analyses, on day 28. The results indicated a high overall temperature-humidity index (31.24 ± 0.43 oC) of the thermal micro-environment of the broiler chickens. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in body weight. The percentage mortality in the control group was relatively higher compared to the lycopene group. Lycopene reduced the cloacal temperature responses and the daily fluctuations in broiler chickens. The decreased (P < 0.05) heterophil:lymphocyte ratio and percentage erythrocytes haemolysis were recorded in the lycopene group. In conclusion, lycopene administration reduced mortality and improved cloacal temperature and haematological responses without exerting any significant beneficial or negative effects on the body weight in broiler chickens exposed to heat stress.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Dec 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • The Hygienic Quality of Meat Produced in a Lgeria: Meta-Analysis

    • Abstract: This meta-analysis aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the hygienic quality of meat in the context of Algerian meat production. A systematic literature search was conducted across various databases, yielding a pool of studies assessing the microbial contamination levels in different types of meat, including: poultry, beef, lamb, camel, sausages, and minced meat, within Algerian slaughterhouses and butcheries. A total of 25 studies met the inclusion criteria, with a combined sample size of 550 meat samples. The selected studies employed standardized methods for microbial enumeration: Total aerobic mesophilic bacteria (TAMB). The collected data were synthesized using random-effects meta-analysis models to estimate the pooled mean bacterial counts, as well as to explore potential sources of heterogeneity. The results of this meta-analysis, revealed considerable variation in bacterial counts across different meat types and sources. The overall pooled, mean bacterial count was 5.15 colony-forming units per gram (CFU.g−1), with significant heterogeneity observed (I² = 87.52 %, P < 0.001). Subgroup analyses indicated that bacterial counts were notably higher in butcher shops, highlighting the need for targeted interventions to improve hygiene practices in these areas. Furthermore, sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess the influence of individual studies on the overall results, and publication bias was evaluated through a funnel plot. In conclusion, this meta-analysis provides valuable insights into the hygienic quality of meat in Algerian meat production, emphasizing the significance of TAMB as an informative indicator. The observed variations in bacterial counts underscored the importance of hygiene practices throughout the meat supply chain, from farm to consumer.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Dec 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Bacterial Vector-Borne Zoonotic Diseases and One Health Approach. A Review

    • Abstract: One Health is a collaborative, multisectoral, and transdisciplinary approach with the goal of achieving optimal health outcomes recognizing the interconnection between people, animals, plants, and their shared environments. The main goal of this paper is to highlight the significance of the One Health concept in relation to the large group of diseases that transmits through arthropods and their worldwide distribution, with a closer look at the zoonoses. The importance of knowledge increases as the globalization and climate changes increases the likelihood of transmission, as both cause favourable conditions for transmission of bacteria and viruses. The increase in reservoir abundance, climate change, changing habitat structure, socio-political changes, and import of animals for welfare reasons, trade and traveling are considered to be potential factors for the pathogen and vector introductions to new areas. This article highlights the selected agents of bacterial zoonoses as sources of human and animal diseases and shows the number of cases of Lyme disease, which is the most common bacterial tick-borne disease in humans in Slovakia and Norway, and the trend in incidence over the past twelve years.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Dec 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Monitoring of Reproduction Activity on Algerian Dairy Cattle Farms

    • Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the reproductive monitoring activity in Algerian dairy cattle herds. A participatory survey was conducted with 75 veterinarians and inseminators affiliated with the National Centre for Artificial Insemination and Genetic Improvement (CNIAAG). Reproduction monitoring represents a primary activity for 12 % of the veterinarians. Only 10.8 % of veterinarians earn more than 50 % of the yearly global revenue from reproductive activities. 85.3 % of the veterinarians fix the herd monitoring objectives, 64 % use a paper notebook to manage breeding data, and only 22 % establish a reproduction statute inventory. The most requested information before the visit is the last mating (80 %), oestrus (80 %), and calving (90.7 %) dates. Monthly routine fertility visits were practiced by 32 % of the interviewed veterinarians, and only about half of them (52 %) checked the cows systematically at post-partum. The pregnancy diagnosis is practiced by 72 % of veterinarians at 56.71 ± 22.82 days postpartum and confirmed at 91.85 ± 26.94 days postpartum. Furthermore, 73 % of the respondents systematically examined non-pregnant cows after 3 matings; however, only 48 % simultaneously recorded the cows’ body condition score. Regarding postpartum genital pathology control 38.7 %, 22.7 %, and 26.7 % of veterinarians always perform manual transrectal exploration of the genital tract, vaginoscopy, and ultrasonography, respectively. While, 73 % of them examine the cows’ cyclicity when evaluating uterine involution. A substantial proportion of veterinarians included monitoring feed, milk quality/mammary disease, and livestock diseases, in their regular visits. The dairy farmers must be advised of the economic benefits of routine fertility monitoring to achieve good herd reproductive traits.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Dec 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Body Characteristic of Drones of Different Origin

    • Abstract: Computer-based methods help beekeepers and scientists in apidology and bee research. Using software Optika Vision Pro in this study, three body morphological characteristics has been applied to honeybees’ drones (Apis mellifera carnica) of different origin in identification of difference among them. All three measured body morphological characteristics (body length, forewing length, and head length) were statistically different between drones originated from colonies with mated queens and drones originated from colonies with unfertilised queen and/or with unfertilised worker bee(s), respectively, thus making them potentially more successful in queen fertilization and secondary colony development and productivity.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Dec 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Comparison of NDVI-2 Vaccine EID Titre Values After Three Weeks of Freight
           Under Cold Monitored Storage Condition

    • Abstract: The EID50 titres per dose values of three batches of NDVI-2 were determined as log10 EID50 7.7, 7.6 and 6.8 after production, against reference EID50 5.5 per dose. These values were log10 EID50 2.2, 2.1 and 1.3 above the reference EID50 for NDVI-2. These vaccines were re-evaluated at PANVAC laboratory Debre-Zeit, prior to release. The initial EID50 values were compared with EID50 values obtained by the certifying laboratory, after three weeks of cold monitored freight. The packaged vaccine cold storage temperature of +1.9 oC prior to the shipment, was recorded with the aid of a temperature logger. The temperature logger was set to record and retain packaged vaccine cold storage temperature at hourly intervals during the freight. At the end of three-week freight, the temperature logger readings were analysed, and temperature range of -2.48 oC to 7.7 oC was observed throughout the freight. However, sudden rise in packaged vaccine storage temperature from 7.7 oC to 22.28 oC was noticed on the last day of freight. The initial EID50 titre per dose values, when compared with EID50 log10 6.5, 6.8, and 6.6 per dose obtained by the certifying laboratory after the cold monitored freight and re-evaluation, showed EID50 titre loss of log10 EID50 1.2, 0.8 and 0.6, respectively. The observed EID50 loss could not invalidate these vaccine batches, considering that these had an initial EID50 titre per dose values that were well above the reference EID50 titre for NDVI-2. In Nigeria, and to our knowledge, this is the first recorded monitored cold storage temperature transit for NDVI-2.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Dec 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Serum Biochemical Profile During Early, Mid, Late Pregnancy, and Calving
           Periods in Dairy Cows in Algeria

    • Abstract: This study aimed to assess the impact of pregnancy on biochemical indices of dairy cows raised in a semi-arid region of western Algeria. A private farm provided forty dairy cows for this study. The cows were divided into four groups based on their pregnancy stages: G1 included pregnant cows at 3 months, G2 included pregnant cows at 6 months, G3 included pregnant cows at 9 months, and G4 included lactating (calving) cows for 1‒2 months. All of the cows were raised under the same environmental and management conditions, following the regional customs. Twelve biochemical parameters were measured, including cholesterol (CHO), triglycerides (TG), total protein (TP), albumin (Alb), globulin (Glob), urea (Urea), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and magnesium (Mg). The results of the study showed no significant difference (P > 0.05), in the concentrations of various biochemical constituents, among the four groups of dairy cows. The mean value of Glob slightly increased in early pregnancy, compared to late pregnancy, and non-pregnant cows. AST exhibited a significant difference, between non-pregnant, and early-pregnant cows. ALT levels significant decreased in late pregnant cows, compared with early-pregnant cows. Additionally, Ca levels showed a slight increase, during late pregnancy, compared to non-pregnant cows. As this is the first study of its kind on dairy cows in Algeria, the data generated during this research demonstrated the good management of the herd and can serve as valuable reference values for the scientific community.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Dec 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Effects of Intravenous Glucose on Blood Potassium in Cattle

    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to confirm whether a rapid intravenous glucose administration can lead to a significant drop in blood potassium levels in cattle. For this study, seven cattle were used according to internationally recognized guidelines for animal welfare. Glucose at a dose of 1 g.kg−1 body weight was administrated intravenously and then blood samples were taken before and 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours after administration of glucose for measurement of potassium and glucose blood concentrations. For statistical analysis of glucose effects on both glucose and potassium levels one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for repeated measures was used. ANOVA showed a strong significant effect of the glucose administration on plasma glucose levels (P < 0.001). The glucose administration resulted in a mean plasma increase from 4.2 mmol.l−1 to 21.2 mmol.l−1 within the first minutes after the administration followed by a steady decrease back to the initial values. In contrast, ANOVA showed no significant effect of the glucose administration on plasma potassium levels. In conclusion, the glucose does not have a potassium-lowering effect when administered in a single large intravenous dose.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Dec 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Versus , Replacement or Dynamic Prevalence'

    • Abstract: Nosematosis is currently a frequently discussed disease of bees caused by two species of microsporidia: Vairimorpha apis, and Vairimorpha ceranae. Vairimorpha apis represents the original species of Apis mellifera parasite, and Vairimorpha ceranae, is a species introduced from Asia. In the last two decades, epidemiological data on the growth of the prevalence of V. ceranae infection have increased, which has led to its dominant position at the expense of its congener V. apis, practically all over the world. This process is assumed to be the result of asymmetric competition within the host, where V. ceranae, showed a better ability to adapt to higher temperatures, which was first manifested by its spread in warmer climate zones. However, several results of studies from recent years somewhat unexpectedly showed that it is premature to talk about the complete replacement of V. apis by V. ceranae. They pointed to a greater influence of seasonality and average temperatures in winter and summer in a given year on the result of the current prevalence of infection and co-infection of Vairimorpha spp., regardless of the climatic zone in which the colonies were located. Considering the different clinical and subclinical manifestations of infection caused by V. apis, and V. ceranae, and its impact on the defense, survival and productivity of bee colonies, the aim of our work was to analyze the factors affecting the distribution and prevalence of Vairimorpha spp.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Dec 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Radiographic Pelvimetry in Relation to Dystocia in Bulldogs

    • Abstract: Dystocia is a common complication of parturition in the breed of English Bulldogs, where most females are not able to have a natural parturition and many litters are delivered by caesarean section. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diameter of the pelvis of 11 females of English Bulldogs through radiographic pelvimetry and do proper measurements to observe if there are any correlations between a narrow pelvic canal and dystocia detected in the breed. The external parameters were also assessed to look for any differences between weight, height, and length in relation to the dystocia in the breed. The mean weight of the dogs with natural parturition was 21.25 ± 0.91 kg, whereas the females which had undergone caesarean section was 25.16 ± 1.44 kg (P = 0.0004). A P-value shows strong evidence for the hypothesis of this study as a possible factor of dystocia of the breed. The values of height and length in the category of dams which had undergone natural parturition were in cm 44.8 ± 2.48 (length) and 36.1 ± 0.98 (height). In the category of dogs which had undergone caesarean section, the parameters were in cm 45.4 ± 2.60 and 36.0 ± 1.58, respectively. The P-value for length were 0.72 for length and P-value for height were 0.83. Difference between the diameter of the pelvis in the two groups of English Bulldog females was P = 0.12, so there is no significant evidence. However, it could be significant for a possible future study with a higher number of animals for measuring pelvic diameter.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Oct 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Pinealocytes and Glia Cells in the Pineal Gland of the African
           Straw-Coloured Fruit Bat ()

    • Abstract: The mammalian pineal gland is a structure that in recent years has been extensively studied, due to its functions and the hormones it produces. Bats are the only known flying mammals, with the order having a large number of species. This study was carried out to investigate the gross and histological features of the pineal gland of the Eidolon helvum, the African fruit bat, using male and female subjects. Eight free flying E. helvum (4 males, 4 females) were captured using mist nets. The pineal gland was grossly observed to be very small in size, oval in shape, and covered by the pia mater. Histological examination revealed two populations of pinealocytes – Types I and II – oval structures possessing acidophilic cytoplasm and large, round nuclei. Pinealocytes were seen to appear singly or in clusters, having no particular arrangement. Sexual dimorphism was observed, with the females having less density in population of pinealocytes at the peripheral region of the gland. This was consistent in all subjects examined. Astrocytic appearance was typical with long and slender processes, and perivascular and capsular microglia were observed. The glia cells were observed to be abundant in the parenchyma and around the capsule. There was no sensitivity to NeuN antibody. Results obtained may find application in behavioural and comparative neuroscience.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Oct 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Biochemical Markers of Liver Damage in Cattle Naturally Infected with
           Fasciola Hepatica

    • Abstract: Fascioliasis is a worldwide spread parasitic disease with a high impact on the economy and public health in many countries. Therefore, it is important to apply prevention, effective treatment, and education campaigns, to prevent the disease. This work aimed to determine the biochemical markers of liver damage caused by Fasciola hepatica during 21 days (D0 – D21) post albendazole (ABZ) therapy in the blood sera. This study included 24 cows naturally infected with Fasciola hepatica, randomly divided into a control group (n = 12) and a group treated per os with ABZ (7.5 mg per kg body weight) (n = 12). The activity of hepatic enzymes – aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and cholestatic enzymes – gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), were measured in both groups. The activity of AST has significantly increased in the course of the experiment (D0 – D21) in both groups (P < 0.001). ALT activity during D0 – D21 was significantly decreased in both groups (P < 0.001). Activity of GGT was not significantly changed in the control group in the course of the experiment (P > 0.05). Contrarily, the activity of GGT in the treated group was significantly decreased (P < 0.01) during D0 – D21. The activity of GGT in the blood sera of the treated group was significantly lower in comparison with the control group in D7 and D21 (P < 0.01). This decreased GGT activity in the blood sera of the treated group may be caused by the effect of albendazole resulting in fasciola elimination and bile flow improvement. The results of ALP determination show no significant changes in ALP activity between groups. This can lead to the conclusion that the most useful marker of cholestasis caused by F. hepatica is the GGT activity and may help to evaluate the ABZ therapy effect in cattle.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Oct 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Evaluation of Nutrition According to Milk Metabolites and Components in
           Seasonal Dependence in Dairy Cows

    • Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutrition according to the milk metabolites and components during the seasonal dependence of the dairy cows. In the summer time, it was confirmed that significantly lower content of milk protein and fat (P < 0.001) and lower milk, protein, and fat yields (P < 0.001) occurred, compared to the autumn period. The content of milk lactose was not statistically significant (P > 0.5). The evaluation of nutrition according to protein in milk and milk urea in the summer period was confirmed in the 2nd group of milk samples which represented 53 % of the group’s higher content of milk urea, higher content of urinary nitrogen excretion, and a lower nitrogen utilization efficiency compared to the 1st group of milk samples. The autumn period was confirmed in the 2nd group of milk samples which represented 53 % of the group with higher milk yield and lower content of milk proteins and milk fat compared to the 1st group of milk samples. The evaluation of nutrition using the analysed content of milk urea and proteins in milk represents a suitable tool for evaluating the impact of malnutrition or overfeeding of energy and protein on milk production and other components.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Oct 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Animals’ Logistics and Protection with a Focus on Slaughter Animals
           During Transport in Accordance with the Rules

    • Abstract: This paper is devoted to the transport of slaughter animals. There are obstacles that needs to be pointed out, removed, and resolved. General requirements for the movement of slaughter animals within the Union have proven to be an unjustified administrative burden and costly. It also presents how important is to keep and follow all the rules provided by European Union to prevent any issues and keep the animals in good conditions and welfare during the transport. Bad conditions and not keeping the rules during animal transport can cause the stress of the animals and have a huge effect on their health. The stress can cause injuries and even a death of the animals that were healthy and had no signs of any sickness before the transfer. The main goal of the paper is to present the circumstances under which safe transport depends on choosing the correct logistical management, starting with the proper vehicles. Specific rules apply depending on the type and quantity of animals transported. The paper explains and summarizes the special establishment for road transport, including all mandatory actions, documents, and data centralisation (COMEX, TRACES, IMSOC).
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Oct 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Dysplasia of in Dogs

    • Abstract: This article provides a comprehensive analysis of dysplasia trochlea in dogs, summarizing the most recent findings in the field and highlighting important new findings, as well as, areas that require further research. The anatomy of the knee and the trochlea femoris, as well as its function in maintaining knee joint stability, are covered in the first section. The accurate diagnosis of orthopaedic disorders, and injuries are necessary for efficient treatment, and this is made possible by understanding the anatomy of the knee. The factors that can affect the onset, development, and course of the disease are included in the section that follows, which discusses the etiology, and pathophysiology. Veterinary surgeons must measure trochlear femur dysplasia in dogs in order to determine the severity of the condition and the best course of treatment. It is typically assessed by looking at X-ray images and assigning a score, however, this can differ from one individual to another. New measurement techniques that give a better level of objectivity and precision, like CT scans or MRIs, are now being tested.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Oct 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Occurrence, Activity and Control Options Against Biting Midges (Diptera: )
           in Horses

    • Abstract: Biting midges are insects which annoy horses as they cause discomfort and by the sucking of blood, they cause painful lesions that, in certain cases, can trigger acute allergic reactions. They also act as potential vectors of many pathogens of bacterial, viral and parasitic origin. The aim of this study was to investigate seasonal dynamics, abundance and species composition of biting midges, and implementing protection options at the Equestrian centre of the University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy (UVMP) in Košice in the years 2021 and 2022. During this time period (of 2021 and 2022), we captured 4797 biting midges. Our results showed that in 2021 the most frequently captured species were C. obsoletus/C. scoticus (prevalence 86.6 %), followed by C. punctatus and C. pulicaris (prevalence 5.37 % and 3.86 %, resp.). In addition, C. lupicaris, C. newsteadi, C. furcillatus, C. festivipennis, C. slovacus, C. tauricus, C. clastrieri, C. dewulfi, C. fagineus and C. circumscriptus were identified as the minority species. In this year, the highest abundance of these insects (1758 biting midges) was observed at the end of June. In 2022, we detected a clear dominance of C. obsoletus/C. scoticus (prevalence 97.0 %) and the highest number of biting midges (655) was captured in mid-May). In this year, the minority species included, C. pulicaris, C. punctatus and C. lupicaris. The identification of the host blood showed that man (Homo sapiens) was the dominant host, namely of 80 % of the examined biting midges of species C. obsoletus/C. scoticus, C. dewulfi, C. punctatus and C. festivipennis. In one female of species C. fagineus we identified the host blood from horses (Equus caballusi). In 2022, we detected the blood of a domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in the species of C. obsoletus/C. scoticus.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Oct 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Comparison of the Efficiency of Diagnostic Tests Used to Prove Giardiasis
           in Terms of their Practicality and Use in the Veterinary Clinical Practice
           

    • Abstract: Giardiasis is a protozoan disease that affects the health of animals, as well as other humans all over the world. Based on its host spectrum and genetic variability, Giardia duodenalis is classified into 8 assemblages (A–H). The present study was aimed at comparing the efficiency of the three most frequently used methods (the flotation method, the SNAP test and the ELISA assay) for the detection of giardiasis in carnivores in terms of the applicability thereof for the scientific purposes and the practicality of their application in the veterinary clinical practice. In the period from March 2020 to February 2022, a total of 173 faecal samples (141 samples collected from shelter dogs; 28 samples from pet dogs; and 6 samples from working dogs) were examined by applying the flotation method. The prevalence of Giardia duodenalis identified by the flotation method was 25 %. The SNAP test conducted with the fresh faecal samples revealed the high-level efficiency of 96 %, whereas the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) achieved the efficiency of 65 %. By applying the nested PCR method, five samples were positively tested for assemblages C and D (G. canis) by the amplification of the bg and tpi loci. The dogs from shelters which were positive for G. duodenalis were also presented with a coinfection caused by other intestinal parasites, such as Trichuris vulpis (28.0 %) and parasites from the Ancylostomatidae family (8.0 %).
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Oct 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Topical Application of Hypothermia in a Porcine Spinal Cord Injury Model

    • Abstract: Spinal cord injuries (SCIs) are catastrophic events in humans and animals. They often result in permanent loss of motor, sensory, and autonomic functions caudally from the site of the spinal cord (SC) lesion. The natural history of spontaneous recovery from SC trauma is disappointing and currently available therapeutic interventions fail to operate. Hence further research using bigger experimental animals or primates is necessary. The results of this study performed by the authors in 21 Göttingen-Minnesota-Liběchov female minipigs (3 sham controls, and 18 members of an experimental subgroup) showed that these animals are suitable for SCI research. All mini-pigs survived rather complex experiments carried out in general anaesthesia induced by 5 % thiopental solution administered i.v., maintained by endotracheal inhalation of 1.5 % sevoflurane with O2 as well as a subsequent 9-week monitoring period. The experimental procedures comprised of L3 laminectomy, SCI inflicted by computer-controlled metallic piston crushing the SC with 8N, 15N, or 18N force. After the SCIs there were 9 minipigs left over during the next 5.5 hours in general anaesthesia, without application of hypothermia, then the surgical wounds were sutured, and the animals were allowed to awaken under supervision. Just 30 min following SCIs was in 6 mini-pigs started with the 5-hour application of 4 °C saline via perfusion chambers placed at the epicenter of the SCI, the chambers were removed, surgical wounds sutured, and animals were allowed to awaken. Just 30 minutes following the SCIs, there was in 3 minipigs started with a 5-hour administration of ≈24 °C saline at the epicentre of the SCIs, and then the perfusion chamber was removed, surgical wounds sutured, and the animals were allowed to awaken. The 5.5-hour local hypothermia and protracted general anaesthesia required monitoring of rectal temperature, and external warming of the minipig, if the temperature dropped below 36 °C. The currently available information on the therapeutic capacity of the method, and all technical aspects of its routine employment, needs validation in further experiments and preclinical trials.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Oct 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Occurrence of Tet Gene-Bearing Antimicrobial-Resistant From Dairy Farms in
           Nigeria

    • Abstract: This study focused on antibiotic resistance genes as emerging contaminants with potential global human health implications. Intensive livestock farming has been identified as a major contributor to the spread of resistant bacteria and genes. The study examined antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli and tetracycline-resistant genes in raw milk from commercial dairy farms in Kano State. Out of 300 registered farms, 54 (18 %) were purposively sampled for the study. A total of 313 milk samples were collected and processed through enrichment and inoculation on selective media for Escherichia coli isolation. The antibiogram pattern of the isolated Escherichia coli strains was assessed using the disk diffusion method. The results revealed resistance to various antimicrobial agents, with no resistance to quinolones but high resistance to ampicillin (100 %), erythromycin (73.3 %), and tetracycline (46.7 %), among others. The multiplex polymer-ase chain reaction was conducted on all Escherichia coli isolates to detect tet genes (tet A, B, C, D, and M), and one isolate carried the tet M resistance gene, while six (40 %) others carried the tet A resistance gene. The study concludes that a significant proportion of the cultured Escherichia coli strains were resistant to one or more tested antibiotics, indicating a potential public health threat associated with Escherichia coli contamination in raw milk. We recommend implementing robust regulatory policies governing the use and sales of antimicrobials in animal production. Furthermore, we suggest further investigation into other resistant genes that these isolates might carry to better understand the extent of antibiotic resistance in the region.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Oct 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
 
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