A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 225 journals)
The end of the list has been reached or no journals were found for your choice.
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of Veterinary Research
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.287
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 4  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2450-7393 - ISSN (Online) 2450-8608
Published by Sciendo Homepage  [370 journals]
  • High prevalence of infection in fighting cocks in Thailand determined with
           a molecular method

    • Abstract: IntroductionAvian malaria caused by Plasmodium and the malaria-like parasites of the genus Haemoproteus has been regularly described in multiple regions worldwide. These parasites significantly affect many avian taxa, including domestic chickens and fighting cocks. There are limited epidemiological studies of these blood parasites in vertebrate hosts, especially in Thailand.Material and MethodsThis study used microscopic examination of blood samples and PCR amplification exploiting primers for nucleotide sequences of Plasmodium or Haemoproteus species based on the cytochrome b gene to determine the occurrence of Plasmodium spp. in fighting cocks.ResultsExamination of 249 blood samples of fighting cocks revealed that 41.37% (103/249) were positive for malaria by microscopic examination and 88.76% (221/249) were positive by DNA amplification. Sequencing and DNA analysis of 61 PCR products revealed that infection by Plasmodium juxtanucleare was the most common avian malaria in fighting cocks in Thailand followed by infections by Plasmodium gallinaceum; however, Haemoproteus infection was not discovered.ConclusionsThis study indicated that plasmodiasis is widespread in fighting cocks in Thailand although the prevalence was not clearly determined; therefore, prevention and control strategies for these protozoa should be improved, especially those for avoiding vector exposure and eliminating mosquito breeding sites.
      PubDate: Thu, 15 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Detection of a new emerging strain of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus 2
           (GI.2) in China

    • Abstract: IntroductionIn May 2020, an outbreak of rabbit haemorrhagic disease 2 (RHD2) caused by the rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus 2 (RHDV2, GI.2) occurred in Sichuan, China. The acute onset and short disease course resulted in rabbit mortality as high as 42.86%. Currently, basic research on the aetiology and genetic characteristics of GI.2 is lacking in China.Material and MethodsPathological changes in various tissues from infected rabbits were investigated and the viral genome was characterised. This study used RT-PCR, histopathology and scanning electron microscopy to identify the pathogen in samples from infected rabbits that had died. Phylogenetic trees were constructed based on whole genome sequence analysis, and recombination events were analysed.ResultsRT-PCR identified the presence of GI.2. Histopathology revealed liver cell necrosis and haemorrhaging into lung alveoli. Electron microscopy demonstrated spherical GI.2 particles that were 40 nm in size. The gene sequence length of the isolate was 7,445 bp (GenBank accession number MW178244). A phylogenetic analysis based on the genome of the isolated strain and 60 reference strains showed that the isolate was grouped together with GI.2 strain MT586027.1 in a relatively independent sub-branch. The results of the recombination analysis showed that the strain was recombined from the MT586027.1 (major parent) and MN90145.1 (minor parent) strains, and recombination breakpoints were at locations in the 2858–5137 nt range.ConclusionThe results of this study extend our understanding of the molecular epidemiology of GI.2.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Influence of natural and climatic conditions on the distribution and forms
           of contagious agalactia in sheep in Bessarabia, Ukraine

    • Abstract: IntroductionContagious agalactia of ruminants is an endemic disease caused by Mycoplasma agalactiae in flicting significant losses on farms in deaths and forced slaughter of sick animals, abortions, births of sick young animals, and reduced milk and wool production. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of hydrometeorological conditions on the distribution and forms of contagious agalactia in sheep in Bessarabia, Ukraine.Material and MethodsThe epizootic situation regarding contagious agalactia was studied during 2011–2021 on sheep farms in the south of the Odesa region in Bessarabia. Over two million blood samples from sheep aged 1–6 years were serologically investigated and the prevalence of agalactia was correlated with Selyaninov’s hydrothermal coefficient for each sampling year.ResultsHigh rates of infection of sheep with contagious agalactia (from 13.1% to 14.4%) were registered in 2012, 2016 and 2021, years which according to the hydrothermal coefficient of 1.0 were sufficiently moist. The lowest incidence rates, from 6.5% to 7.4%, were registered in the very dry 2013, 2014 and 2019 with hydrothermal coefficients of 0.5‒0.6. In sufficiently moist years, contagious agalactia of sheep manifested itself in the mastitic form, while in the dry period the mastitic form was half as prevalent, and the mixed, articular and ocular forms of the disease proliferated.ConclusionThe results indicate the circulation of Mycoplasma agalactiae among small ruminants in Bessarabia, and that the prevalence and the course of the associated disease depend on the humidity of the climate, i.e. the value of the hydrothermal coefficient.
      PubDate: Fri, 02 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • The impact of a modified anaesthetic protocol on animal survival and the
           characteristics of ventricular arrhythmias in the course of acute
           myocardial infarction in a domestic pig model

    • Abstract: IntroductionAcute myocardial infarction (MI) is one of the most common causes of death in humans in highly developed countries. Among its most frequent complications affecting the patient’s prognosis are cardiac arrhythmias: ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillation (VF).Material and MethodsThe study aimed to characterise arrhythmias in 19 pigs subjected to experimentally induced MI obtained by occlusion of the proximal left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery using an angioplasty balloon. The anaesthetic protocol was modified to reduce mortality by including procedures stabilising haemodynamic disorders which develop during episodes of ischaemia and arrhythmia. During 30 min of experimentally induced ischaemia, the heart rhythm was recorded using a 12-lead ECG. The time, frequency, and type of arrhythmias were analysed.ResultsVentricular arrhythmias were found in 94.74% of the treated pigs. The most common were ventricular premature complexes, reported in 88.89% of pigs with arrhythmia. Ventricular tachycardia was recorded in 66.67% and ventricular fibrillation in 50% of pigs with arrhythmias.ConclusionMyocardial infarction due to proximal LAD occlusion is characterised by a high incidence of ventricular arrhythmias, especially VT and VF. Because of the high survival rate, this MI porcine model may serve as a model for research on acute ischaemic ventricular arrhythmias in humans. Additionally, it reduces the total number of animals required for testing while yielding meaningful results, which is in line with the 3R principle.
      PubDate: Tue, 30 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Prevalence of virulence genes among strains isolated from food and carcass
           swabs of different animal origins in Croatia

    • Abstract: IntroductionEscherichia coli is present in the normal intestinal flora but some strains can cause intestinal and extraintestinal diseases, and research on its presence in food of animal origin is in the interests of public health. This study was designed to characterise E. coli strains according to their origin, their carriage of virulence genes specific for certain pathogroups, and phylogenetic group affiliation.Material and MethodsThe study was carried out on 100 E. coli strains isolated from food samples of various animal origin as well as pig and cattle carcass swabs. Isolation of the strains was performed using two methods. One method included colony count and the other an overnight enrichment of the samples. Isolation was followed by DNA extraction and detection of virulence genes and phylogenetic group with conventional and multiplex PCRs.ResultsIn this study, the most prevalent gene was EAST1 (20%) and strains which carried it were identified as enteroadherent E. coli. Other pathogroups were represented in lower incidences. Phylogenetic group analysis revealed the prevalence of the A and B1 groups, with B1 mainly present in game and cattle strains, while the majority of pig and poultry strains were assigned to group A.ConclusionThis study provides an overview of the presence of potentially pathogenic strains and E. coli phylogenetic groups in Croatia, for which the data are limited. Further microbiological and molecular research is required to examine the epidemiological situation in the country.
      PubDate: Tue, 30 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Haematological and chosen biochemical parameter assessment of the
           antioxidant system in red deer () blood in early and late pregnancy

    • Abstract: IntroductionThe aim of this study was to investigate changes in haematological parameters and the antioxidant system in the early and late pregnancy of red deer (Cervus elaphus).Material and MethodsBlood samples were collected from 30 red deer females 50 days after impregnation and 40 days before calving. Complete blood counts and stained blood smears were assessed. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR) activities, glutathione disulphide (GSSG), total glutathione, total bilirubin, total protein, albumin, uric acid, malondialdehyde (MDA), beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides, cholesterol levels and total antioxidant status (TAS) were measured.ResultsThe haematological characteristics of blood collected in the third trimester showed higher haemoglobin levels, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume (P < 0.05) and a lower mean cell haemoglobin concentration (P < 0.05) in comparison to samples collected on the 50th day after mating. Activity of CAT and MDA, LDL, and triglyceride levels were lower while GR, GSSG, total glutathione, total protein and BHB levels were increased in blood samples drawn in the third trimester compared with the first trimester blood samples. There were no changes in SOD, PON1 activities, TAS, bilirubin, albumin, HDL, cholesterol or uric acid concentrations.ConclusionRed deer’s compensatory mechanisms facilitate its optimal adaptation to seasonal changes evidenced by mild pronounced haematological disturbances and an effective antioxidant system during pregnancy.
      PubDate: Tue, 30 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Examination of immunogenic properties of recombinant antigens based on p22
           protein from African swine fever virus

    • Abstract: IntroductionThe single member of the Asfarviridae family is African swine fever virus (ASFV). This double-stranded DNA virus infects wild and farmed swine and loses the pig industry large sums of money. An inner envelope, capsid, and outer envelope are parts of the ASFV particle containing structural proteins playing different roles in the process of infection or host immune defence evasion. When expressed by the baculovirus system, the p22 protein from the inner envelope was found to induce partial protection against a virulent virus strain. This study aimed to express a part of this protein in a different system and evaluate its immunogenicity.Material and MethodsWe designed two proteins, the extracellular (C terminal) part of the p22 protein (p22Ct) and its fusion with the heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit from Escherichia coli (LTB-p22Ct), which is supposed to be a potent enhancer of the immune response. Both proteins were produced in the E. coli expression system and subsequently used for mice immunisation to analyse their safety and immunogenicity.ResultsThe protein fused with LTB did not show the expected adjuvant properties and did not prove safe, because abscess formation was observed after immunisation. In contrast, immunisation with the p22Ct protein alone induced a higher antibody titre but caused no adverse symptoms.ConclusionThese results show the high potential of the p22Ct region as an immunogenic protein for ASFV serological detection purposes.
      PubDate: Tue, 30 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Prevalence of tumours and tumour-like lesions in domestic and exotic
           animals from Lower Silesia and its surrounds in Poland in 2014–2017

    • Abstract: IntroductionAn analysis of samples originating from domestic and exotic animals from Lower Silesia but also from other parts of Poland was carried out based on research conducted in 2014–2017.Material and MethodsThe materials used for the study were 11,338 tumour samples taken in vivo during surgery and as biopsies and posthumously during necropsies. They were sent to the Department of Pathology at Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences for histopathological diagnosis.ResultsThe largest group were canine tumours, of which there were 9,745 (85.95%), followed by feline tumours, totalling 1,397 (12.32%), tumours from exotic animals (186; 1.64%), from horses (7; 0.06%), and from cows (2; 0.02%). A significant number of cases of animals suffering from more than one tumour were also found, which had not been frequently diagnosed previously.ConclusionThe number of neoplasms diagnosed in pets and exotic animals is increasing every year. The average animal age at diagnosis continues to fall. The greatest number of neoplasms were diagnosed in mixed-breed dogs and cats, and the number of tumours in a pure breed strictly correlated with breed’s popularity in the research period. Mesenchymal tumours are still the most prevalent type of tumours in dogs, while in cats epithelial tumours predominate. The neoplasm case pattern in animals conforms to that in humans in the same area.
      PubDate: Tue, 30 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Determination of anti-phage antibodies in calf sera following application
           of and -specific bacteriophages

    • Abstract: IntroductionThe widespread occurrence of drug-resistant bacteria has increased interest in alternatives to antibiotics for combatting bacterial infections, among which bacteriophages play an important role. The ability of phage proteins to induce an anti-phage immune response can significantly limit the effectiveness of treatment, which was the basis for the study described in this article. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of bacteriophages on the induction of an anti-phage humoral response in calves.Material and MethodsThe study was conducted using phage components of experimental preparations and sera from calves treated and not treated with phages. Levels of G, M and A immunoglobulins were analysed by ELISA. The assay plates were coated with whole Escherichia coli and Mannheimia haemolytica phages and selected phage proteins obtained in sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and two-dimensional electrophoresis. Neutralisation of phages by immunoglobulins was assessed by determining phage titres using double-layer plates.ResultsThe results confirmed an increased anti-phage response affecting all immunoglobulin classes in the calf sera. The highest significant (P ≤ 0.05) level of antibodies was observed for IgG in the sera of calves receiving phages. The phage neutralisation test showed a significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) in the reduction of phage titres in comparison to untreated calves.ConclusionDespite the induction of an anti-phage response, no significant negative effect on the antibacterial activity of phages was observed in vitro.
      PubDate: Fri, 12 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • The occurrence of (Bassi, 1875) in the wild cervid population in the Lower
           Silesian Wilderness – epidemiological and pathological aspects

    • Abstract: IntroductionFascioloides magna is a parasite of high veterinary importance due to its pathogenicity for wild and domestic ruminants. The aim of our study was to describe the presence of trematode infection in the red deer population in the Lower Silesian Wilderness, one of the established fascioloidosis foci in Central Europe, and to assess the overall prevalence of F. magna in the studied area. In order to achieve this, a coprological study of different cervid species was performed.Material and MethodsThe livers of 99 red deer were collected over three years and examined for the presence of trematodes. Prevalence and infection intensity was estimated and a histopathological analysis was performed. In addition, 172 faecal samples from red deer, fallow deer and roe deer were examined.ResultsBy year, Fascioloides magna was isolated from the livers of 2/30 (6.7%), 9/34 (26.5%) and 10/35 (28.6%) red deer. Severe hepatic lesions, including massive tissue damage, extensive fibrosis, and cirrhotic changes in the liver parenchyma were observed. Faecal examination revealed the presence of F. magna eggs, with a prevalence of approximately 40%, 50% and 53% in roe deer, fallow deer and red deer, respectively.ConclusionThe eggs of F. magna may be commonly excreted in the faeces of roe deer, as well as those of red deer and fallow deer. The presence of F. magna throughout the cervid population in the Lower Silesian Wilderness favours the risk of the trematode’s transmission to livestock or farmed deer.
      PubDate: Fri, 12 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Is serological monitoring a fit-for-purpose tool to assess the
           epidemiological situation of tuberculosis in the sylvatic species of
           European bison () in Poland'

    • Abstract: IntroductionBovine tuberculosis is one of the most dangerous zoonotic diseases. Despite the near-complete elimination of the disease from cattle breeding in Poland achieved in 2009, its re-emergence is now observed. Globally, the number of human cases is underestimated and the importance of free-living animals as reservoirs of tuberculosis is growing. As a species highly susceptible to Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex infection, the European bison (Bison bonasus) has a role in the transmission of the disease in Poland. The purpose of the investigation was to assess the epidemiological situation of tuberculosis in Polish European bison serologically.Material and MethodsA total of 460 serum samples were collected from 436 European bison from 15 out of 26 national populations between 2013 and 2020. An M. bovis ELISA was used, and its sensitivity and specificity were assessed with an eyelid tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon gamma release assay (IGRA).ResultsMycobacterium bovis antibodies were detected in nine serum samples. The presence of antibodies was found in two animals from the Białowieża Forest (1.2% of the population), and one each from the Borecka Forest (2.4%) and the Warsaw Zoo (14.3%). One European bison among the 14 sampled (7.1%) from Smardzewice was positive on five occasions. Other samples from Smardzewice and the Bieszczady Mountains, where tuberculosis had previously been reported, were negative.ConclusionsELISA testing is an effective, easy and cost-efficient tool for monitoring of tuberculosis-naïve populations. Serological testing in tuberculosis control programmes can significantly improve the detection of infected herds. Antibody ELISAs may supplement TST and IGRA, but cannot replace them.
      PubDate: Sat, 30 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Laboratory experience with the microscopic method for the detection of
           insects in poultry feeds

    • Abstract: IntroductionThe use of insects and their processed animal proteins (PAPs) for animal nutrition creates the need for research into methods useful for routine surveillance for their presence. The aim of this study was to evaluate a modified microscopic method for the detection of particles of insects in poultry feed.Material and MethodsA total of 90 samples including PAP of insects (Hermetia illucens and Tenebrio molitor), poultry feeds produced with different levels (0–27%) of insect PAP content, and other poultry feeds spiked with insect PAP at 1% were investigated using a modified microscopic method with a double sedimentation protocol.ResultsCharacteristic features of insects including cuticulae, muscles, bristles and tracheoles were determined in the microscopic images obtained. In all spiked samples, characteristic fragments of insects were detected. The fragments of muscle and tracheoles only indicated the presence of material from members of the insect class but could not facilitate identification of organisms to species level.ConclusionThe results obtained with this double sedimentation protocol for the isolation of insect PAP from feed for poultry have shown that the method can be used in routine analysis.
      PubDate: Sat, 30 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Expression of bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) gp51 protein in blood and milk
           cells of cows with leukosis

    • Abstract: IntroductionBovine leukaemia virus (BLV) is the retroviral causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis, the most common neoplastic disease of cattle and a serious problem worldwide. Its diagnosis is commonly by tests for antibodies recognising the p24 capsid protein and structural glycoprotein (gp) 51. With flow cytometry recently having come to veterinary immunology, applications for it may now include BLV. The study determined BLV gp51 expression in blood and milk lymphocytes of naturally infected cows by flow cytometry.Material and MethodsNineteen Polish Black and White Lowland breed cows aged 4–9 years and naturally infected with BLV and ten uninfected counterparts had blood and milk sampled and cultured. The immunological status of the animals was confirmed with ELISA and PCR. Dual-colour flow cytometry analysis was performed with specific monoclonal antibodies for lymphocyte cluster of differentiation (CD) markers and gp51 viral envelope protein and conjugates labelled with fluorescein isothiocyanate or phycoerythrin. Bovine leukaemia virus gp51 was confirmed in lymphocytes by immunofluorescence with anti-gp51 monoclonal antibodies.ResultsThe gp51 antigen was detected in blood and milk lymphocytes of infected cows, but the percentage of cells expressing it in milk was much lower than in blood. A depleted number of CD4+ lymphocytes, an augmented number of CD8+ lymphocytes, a lower ratio of CD4+ to CD8+ and a proliferation of CD19+ immunoglobulin M+ cells were also found.ConclusionThese proliferated cells were immature, gave no sign of a tendency to differentiation and were characterised by prolonged vitality.
      PubDate: Sat, 30 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Two centrifugal flotation techniques for counting gastrointestinal
           parasite eggs and oocysts in alpaca faeces

    • Abstract: IntroductionThe alpaca (Vicugna pacos) is a camelid native to South America, but the species has wide distribution outside its natural habitat and is found in various countries on other continents, Poland being one in Europe. Parasitic infections affect the productivity and health of alpacas. The aim of the study was to estimate the parasite loads in alpacas kept in Poland with the use of two direct centrifugal flotation methods.Material and MethodsA total of 248 faecal samples from alpacas from 12 provinces in Poland were examined for parasite eggs and oocysts with a modified Willis method (WM), and 59 samples were examined simultaneously with WM and a modified Stoll method (SM).ResultsThe WM detected eggs of Trichostrongylidae, and the SM oocysts of Eimeria spp. as the respective most prevalent parasite material. The eggs of Nematodirus sp., Nematodirus battus, Aonchotheca sp., and Trichuris sp. were detected in lower numbers in both methods. Oocysts of E. macusaniensis and eggs of Moniezia sp. were the rarest in WM, the former also being so in SM; eggs of Moniezia were absent in SM. The prevalence of Eimeria spp. was significantly higher as detected by SM than as detected by WM; however, the prevalence of eggs of Nematodirus spp. and trichostrongyles was significantly higher as detected by WM than as detected by SM.ConclusionWM is more accurate at detecting heavy gastro-intestinal nematode eggs, including those of trichostrongyles and Nematodirus, whereas SM is more accurate at detecting smaller coccidia from the genus Eimeria.
      PubDate: Sat, 30 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Simultaneous determination of pyrrolizidine and tropane alkaloids in honey
           by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry

    • Abstract: IntroductionPyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) and tropane alkaloids (TAs) are natural contaminants of honey and respectively hepatoxic and neurotoxic compounds. Because honey is a popular constituent of the human diet, it is relevant to warrant the safety of the product. For that reason, a method for simultaneous determination of PAs and TAs in honey based on liquid chromatography– mass spectrometry was developed.Material and MethodsThe analytical protocol used sulphuric acid extraction and solid-phase extraction purification. The developed procedure was subjected to validation in terms of linearity, selectivity, repeatability, reproducibility, limits of quantification and determination, matrix effect and uncertainty. A total of 29 honey samples were analysed for the determination of PAs and TAs.ResultsAll the evaluated validation parameters fulfilled the requirements of European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. At least one of the monitored alkaloids was determined in 52% of the samples. Among the most abundant alkaloids were echimidine, intermedine and lycopsamine. The total PA concentrations ranged from 2.2 to 147.0 μg kg−1. Contrastingly, none of the monitored TAs was detected in the analysed samples. An assessment of the dietary exposure to PAs from the consumption of the contaminated honeys showed that three of them would pose a risk to consumers, especially if they were children.ConclusionA sensitive method suitable for simultaneous determination of PAs and TAs in honey was developed and validated. The analysis of 29 honey samples for PAs and TAs revealed that honey destined for retail could pose a risk to consumers.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Clinicopathological analysis of expression of enhancer of zeste homologue
           2 in canine mammary carcinoma

    • Abstract: IntroductionEnhancer of zeste homologue 2 (EZH2) is the human homologue of Drosophila zeste gene enhancer. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of EZH2 in canine mammary carcinomas (CMCs) and its relationship with clinicopathological features.Material and MethodsThe expression of EZH2 mRNA and protein in 53 CMC tissue and 8 normal mammary gland tissue samples was measured by quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemical staining assay, respectively. The relationship between EZH2 protein expression and clinicopathological features was analysed by χ2 test to further explore the clinical significance of EZH2 in CMCs.ResultsCompared with normal mammary gland tissues, EZH2 mRNA expressions were significantly increased in CMC tissues (P < 0.01). Moreover, normal mammary glands did not express the EZH2 protein but carcinomic glands did, and expression increased in CMCs with high histological grades, especially in histological grade II (P < 0.05). However, EZH2 expression was not related to age, tumour size, or metastasis (P > 0.05). The expression of EZH2 in one type of CMC was not significantly different from the expression in any other type (P > 0.05).ConclusionEZH2 is highly expressed in CMCs, indicating that it can be used as a molecular marker for early diagnosis, prognosis, or therapy of CMCs.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Effects of bisphenol A and bisphenol F on porcine uterus contractility

    • Abstract: IntroductionBisphenols, as endocrine disruptors, may cause a wide range of health problems in humans, but so far, not all of them have been confirmed in animals, including pigs. Since animals are also exposed to bisphenols, we hypothesised that these substances may have an effect on uterine contractility in pigs. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the effect of the most-used bisphenol, bisphenol A (BPA), and a selected analogue, bisphenol F (BPF), on the contractile activity of the pig uterus.Material and MethodsThe investigation utilised smooth muscles from immature pigs (n = 6), cyclic pigs on days 12–14 of the oestrous cycle (n = 6) or early pregnant pigs on days 12–16 of pregnancy (n = 6). Strips of the myometrium were exposed to BPA and BPF at concentrations of 10−13–10−1 M. Smooth muscle contractility was determined with equipment for measuring isometric contractions.ResultsBPA caused a significant decrease in contraction amplitude, and frequency and in myometrial tension in all groups examined. BPF caused a decrease in the amplitude and frequency of contractions in all groups and in myometrial tension in the early pregnant group.ConclusionThe obtained results indicate that both BPA and BPF relaxed the porcine myometrium, but these changes, especially in the amplitude and frequency of contractions, were more evident after BPF treatment. The extent of relaxation is dependent on the physiological status of the animals.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Protective effects of fermentation extract against ochratoxin A-induced
           nephrotoxicity and immunotoxicity in broiler chickens

    • Abstract: IntroductionOchratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin notably produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium spp. Bacillus subtilis fermentation extract (BSFE) contains specific enzymes which hydrolyse OTA. This study evaluated the efficiency of BSFE in ameliorating the immunotoxic and nephrotoxic effects of OTA in broiler chickens.Material and MethodsDay-old broiler chicks were divided equally into four groups of ten: control, OTA (0.5 mg/kg feed), BSFE product (1 mL/L water) and OTA + BSFE at the same concentrations. The chicks were vaccinated against avian influenza, Newcastle disease, and infectious bronchitis, and lymphoproliferation was induced in all birds by phytohaemagglutinin-P (PHA-P). Serum samples were taken before sacrifice and organ tissue samples were taken after, in which renal function biomarkers were assayed and the presence of OTA residue was evaluated by high-performance thin-layer chromatography. Protein markers of apoptosis were determined by qPCR, and tissue lesions were examined histopathologically.ResultsExposure to OTA significantly decreased the antibody response to the vaccines and the lymphoproliferative response to PHA-P, and significantly elevated the renal function indicators: serum urea, uric acid and creatinine. It also induced oxidative stress (reduced catalase activity and glutathione concentration), lipid peroxidation (increased malondialdehyde content), apoptosis (increased Bax and Caspase-3 and decreased Bcl-2 gene levels) and pathological lesions in kidney, bursa of Fabricius, spleen and thymus tissue. Residues of OTA were detected in the serum and tissue. BSFE mitigated most of these toxic effects.ConclusionBSFE counters OTA-induced immunotoxicity and nephrotoxicity because of its content of carboxypeptidase and protease enzymes.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Serum concentrations of immunoglobulins and cortisol around parturition in
           clinically healthy sows and sows with postpartum dysgalactia syndrome

    • Abstract: IntroductionThis study aimed to determine the profile of immunoglobulins and cortisol concentrations in serum around the periparturient period in sows suffering from postpartum dysgalactia syndrome (PDS) and in healthy sows.Material and MethodsA total of 45 sows with lactation impairment (Group PDS) and 58 clinically healthy sows with a physiological peripartum period (Group H) were subjected to a serological test (ELISA) for measurement of serum immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM, and IgA) and cortisol concentration.ResultsThe serum contents of IgG, IgM and IgA had highly similar profiles in PDS-affected sows and healthy ones. A significantly higher concentration of IgG at 28 and 14 days ante partum compared to days 3 and 7 post partum was only observed in Group H. The mean cortisol content remained at a highly similar level throughout the entire experiment in both groups.ConclusionThe results of the study indicate that lactation impairment such as PDS did not influence the immunoglobulin or cortisol concentration in sow serum.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • First report of the presence of enterotoxin gene in coagulase-negative
           staphylococci recovered from meat of snails ()

    • Abstract: IntroductionIt has been suggested that coagulase-negative staphylococci can serve as reservoirs of virulence genes for other bacteria. This study assessed the presence of such genes in selected isolates recovered from meat of the giant African snail (Achatina achatina).Material and MethodsVirulence genes were detected using a polymerase chain reaction targeting specific primers. Two representative isolates were identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing.ResultsThe results showed that the staphylococcal enterotoxin A gene (sea) was present in five out of the eight isolates studied. The isolates expressed resistance mainly to three antibiotics: chloramphenicol, norfloxacin and cloxacillin in descending order of incidence. Most importantly, the Staphylococcus sciuri isolate NEDU 181, in addition to being resistant to the three aforementioned antibiotics, also harboured the sea gene.ConclusionOur findings demonstrate, for the first time, the presence of toxigenic and antibiotic-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. in commercially-available fresh snail meat. With staphylococcal enterotoxin A known to survive cooking temperature, this presents a food safety concern.
      PubDate: Tue, 07 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762

Your IP address:
Home (Search)
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-