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Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.738
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 5  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2297-1769
Published by Frontiers Media Homepage  [96 journals]
  • Novel recombinant avian infectious bronchitis viruses from chickens in
           Korea, 2019–2021

    • Authors: Hyun-Jin Kim, Hyuk-Chae Lee, Andrew Y. Cho, Yun-Jeong Choi, Heesu Lee, Dong-Hun Lee, Chang-Seon Song
      Abstract: Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) has evolved through various mutation mechanisms, including antigenic drift and recombination. Four genotypic lineages of IBVs including GI-15, GI-16, GI-19, and GVI-1 have been reported in Korea. In this study, we isolated two IBVs from chicken farms, designated IBV/Korea/289/2019 (K289/19) and IBV/Korea/163/2021 (K163/21), which are two distinct natural recombinant viruses most likely produced by genetic reassortment between the S1 gene of K40/09 strain (GI-19 lineage) and IBV/Korea/48/2020 (GI-15 lineage) in co-infected commercial chickens. Comparative sequence analysis of hypervariable regions (HVRs) revealed that the K289/19 virus had similar HVR I and II with the K40/09 virus (100% and 99.2% nucleotide sequence identity, respectively), and HVR III with the IBV/Korea/48/2020 virus (100% nucleotide sequence identity). In contrast, the K163/21 virus had HVR I and II similar to the IBV/Korea/48/2020 virus (99.1% and 99.3% nucleotide sequence identity, respectively), and HVR III to the K40/09 virus (96.6% nucleotide sequence identity). The K289/19 virus exhibited similar histopathologic lesions, tissue tropism in trachea and kidney, and antigenicity with the parental K40/09 virus. The K163/21 exhibited similar pathogenicity and tissue tropism with the K40/09 virus, which were similar results with the isolate K289/19. However, it showed a lower antigenic relatedness with both parental strains, exhibiting R-value of 25 and 42, respectively. The continued emergence of the novel reassortant IBVs suggests that multiple recombination events have occurred between different genotypes within Korea. These results suggest that antigenic profiles could be altered through natural recombination in the field, complicating the antigenic match of vaccine strains to field strains. Enhanced surveillance and research into the characteristics of newly emerging IBVs should be carried out to establish effective countermeasures.
      PubDate: 2023-02-01T00:00:00Z
  • Study of the effectiveness of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, marine
           based fatty acid compounds (PCSO-524 and EAB-277), and carprofen for the
           treatment of dogs with hip osteoarthritis: A prospective,
           block-randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical

    • Authors: Naruepon Kampa, Duangdaun Kaenkangploo, Supranee Jitpean, Thanikul Srithunyarat, Suvaluk Seesupa, Somphong Hoisang, Karn Yongvanit, Phanthit Kamlangchai, Pongsatorn Tuchpramuk, B. Duncan X. Lascelles
      Abstract: IntroductionGlucosamine hydrochloride and chondroitin sulfate are commonly used in dogs with OA, but evidence around efficacy is mixed. This study evaluated the effectiveness of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, marine based fatty acid compounds (PCSO-524 and EAB-277), and carprofen for the alleviation of canine hip OA pain. This was a prospective, block-randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial.MethodsSeventy-five owned pet dogs with hip OA were assigned randomly into five treatment groups: PCSO-524, Glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, EAB-277, carprofen, and Placebo (sunflower oil). Peak vertical force (PVF) and subjective orthopedic assessment scores (OAS) were evaluated before treatment (week 0), and at weeks 2, 4, and 6 during treatment.ResultsAt week 2, the carprofen group showed a significant increase in PVF (3.14 ± 5.33; mean ± SD). After 4 weeks, the increases in PVF of the PCSO-524 (3.90 ± 3.52), EAB-277 (4.17 ± 4.94), and carprofen (3.08 ± 5.87) groups were significant, and significantly greater than placebo (0.08 ± 1.90) and glucosamine (−0.05 ± 6.34) groups. After 6 weeks, the change of PVF in the PCSO-524 (4.14 ± 4.65), EAB-277 (4.45 ± 4.23), and carprofen (4.21 ± 6.52) groups were significant and significantly higher than the placebo group (−0.33 ± 3.65). The change in PVF in the glucosamine group (1.08 ± 5.49) lay between the placebo group and the other treatment groups. The OAS did not show any significant change in any group.DiscussionPCSO-524 and EAB-277, but not glucosamine/chondroitin, resulted in significant improvements in PVF from baseline after 4 weeks, and 6 weeks, and to a similar degree to that seen with carprofen.
      PubDate: 2023-02-01T00:00:00Z
  • Development and laboratory evaluation of a competitive ELISA for
           serodiagnosis of Nipah and Hendra virus infection using recombinant Nipah
           glycoproteins and a monoclonal

    • Authors: Wenjun Zhu, Bradley Pickering, Greg Smith, Mathieu Pinette, Thang Truong, Shawn Babiuk, Darwyn Kobasa, Logan Banadyga, Ming Yang
      Abstract: IntroductionNipah virus (NiV) and Hendra virus (HeV), of the genus Henipavirus, family Paramyxoviridae, are classified as Risk Group 4 (RG4) pathogens that cause respiratory disease in pigs and acute/febrile encephalitis in humans with high mortality.MethodsA competitive enzyme–linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) using a monoclonal antibody (mAb) and recombinant NiV glycoprotein (G) was developed and laboratory evaluated using sera from experimental pigs, mini pigs and nonhuman primates. The test depends on competition between specific antibodies in positive sera and a virus–specific mAb for binding to NiV–G.ResultsBased on 1,199 negative and 71 NiV positive serum test results, the cutoff value was determined as 35% inhibition. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the NiV cELISA was 98.58 and 99.92%, respectively. When testing sera from animals experimentally infected with NiV Malaysia, the cELISA detected antibodies from 14 days post–infection (dpi) and remained positive until the end of the experiment (28 dpi). Comparisons using the Kappa coefficient showed strong agreement (100%) between the cELISA and a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT).DiscussionBecause our cELISA is simpler, faster, and gives comparable or better results than PRNT, it would be an adequate screening test for suspect NiV and HeV cases, and it would also be useful for epidemiological surveillance of Henipavirus infections in different animal species without changing reagents.
      PubDate: 2023-02-01T00:00:00Z
  • Editorial: Canine osteosarcoma as a model in comparative oncology:
           Advances and perspective

    • Authors: Mariarita Romanucci, Raffaella De Maria, Emanuela Maria Morello, Leonardo Della Salda
      PubDate: 2023-01-31T00:00:00Z
  • Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of pantoprazole in

    • Authors: Jeff D. Olivarez, Pierre-Yves Mulon, Lisa S. Ebner, Haley Cremerius, Channing Cantrell, Rebecca Rahn, Windy Soto-Gonzalez, Joan Bergman, Sherry Cox, Jonathan P. Mochel, Amanda J. Kreuder, Joe S. Smith
      Abstract: IntroductionDevelopment of abomasal ulceration is a large concern, especially within calves; however, there is a paucity of research into the use of gastro protectants in ruminant species. Proton pump inhibitors, such as pantoprazole, are widely used in humans and companion animals. Their efficacy in ruminant species is undetermined. The objectives of this study were to 1) estimate the plasma pharmacokinetic parameters for pantoprazole in neonatal calves after three days of intravenous (IV) or subcutaneous (SC) administration, and 2) measure the effect pantoprazole had on abomasal pH over the treatment period.MethodsPantoprazole was administered to 6 Holstein-Angus cross bull calves at a dose of 1 mg/kg (IV) or 2 mg/kg (SC), once a day (every 24 h) for three days. Plasma samples were collected over a 72 h period and analyzed via HPLC-UV for determining pantoprazole concentrations. Pharmacokinetic parameters were derived via non-compartmental analysis. Abomasal (n= 8) samples were collected via abomasal cannulas over a 12 h period, per calf per day. Abomasal pH was determined via a bench top pH analyzer.ResultsFollowing Day 1 of IV administration, plasma clearance, elimination half-life, and volume of distribution of pantoprazole were estimated at 199.9 mL/kg/h, 1.44 h, and 0.51 L/kg, respectively. On Day 3 of IV administration, the reported values were 192.9 mL/kg/h, 2.52 h, and 1.80 L/kg mL, respectively. Elimination half-life and volume of distribution (V/F) of pantoprazole following SC administration were estimated at 1.81 h and 0.55 L/kg, respectively, on Day 1; and 2.99 h and 2.82 L/kg, respectively, on Day 3.DiscussionThe reported values for IV administration were similar to those previously reported in calves. SC administration appears to be well absorbed and tolerated. The sulfone metabolite was detectable for 36 h after the last administration for both routes. Abomasal pH was significantly higher than the pre-pantoprazole pH 4, 6, and 8 h after administration in both the IV and SC groups. Further studies of pantoprazole as a treatment/preventative for abomasal ulcers are warranted.
      PubDate: 2023-01-30T00:00:00Z
  • Characterization and epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance patterns of
           Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus spp. in free-ranging rhesus macaque
           (Macaca mulatta) at high-risk interfaces with people and livestock in

    • Authors: Md. Kaisar Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudul Hassan, Shariful Islam, Melinda K. Rostal, Md. Helal Uddin, Emily Hagan, Mohammed Abdus Samad, Meerjady Sabrina Flora, Jonathan H. Epstein, Ariful Islam
      Abstract: IntroductionAntimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a growing global health threat for humans and animals. Environmental contamination of antimicrobials from human and domestic animal feces has been linked to AMR in wildlife populations, including rhesus macaques. This study aimed to describe the eco-epidemiology of AMR within Salmonella and Staphylococcus species isolated from rhesus macaques.MethodsWe followed macaque groups for 4 h per day (2 days) to observe the direct and indirect contact rate and type between macaques and people and livestock. We collected 399 freshly defecated, non-invasive fecal samples from macaques at seven sites in Bangladesh in January–June 2017. Bacterial isolation and identification were conducted using culture, biochemical characteristics, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). An antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST) for 12 antimicrobials for each organism was conducted using the Kirby–Bauer disc diffusion method.ResultsThe overall prevalence of Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus spp. in rhesus macaques was 5% (n = 18; 95% CI: 3–7%) and 16% (n = 64; 95% CI: 13–20%), respectively. All the isolated Salmonella spp. and most of the Staphylococcus spp. (95%; 61/64; 95% CI: 86.9–99%) were resistant to at least one antimicrobial. The odds of a fecal sample having antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella spp (OR = 6.6; CI: 0.9–45.8, P = 0.05) and Staphylococcus spp. (OR = 5.6; CI: 1.2–26, P = 0.02) were significantly higher in samples collected at peri-urban sites than those collected at rural and urban sites. Salmonella spp. were most frequently resistant to tetracycline (89%), azithromycin (83%), sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (50%), and nalidixic acid (44%). Staphylococcus spp. were found to be highly resistant to ampicillin (93%), methicillin (31%), clindamycin (26%), and rifampicin (18%). Both bacterial species produced colonies with multidrug resistance to up to seven antimicrobials. Direct and indirect contact rates (within 20 m for at least 15 min) and resource sharing between macaques and people were higher in urban sites, while macaque-livestock contact rates were higher in rural sites.DiscussionThe study shows that resistant microorganisms are circulating in rhesus macaque, and direct and indirect contact with humans and livestock might expand the resistant organisms.
      PubDate: 2023-01-30T00:00:00Z
  • Dietary spirulina supplementation modifies rumen development, fermentation
           and bacteria composition in Hu sheep when consuming high-fat

    • Authors: Zhibo Wang, Yaxu Liang, Jiawei Lu, Zongyou Wei, Yongjin Bao, Xiaolei Yao, Yixuan Fan, Feng Wang, Daxiang Wang, Yanli Zhang
      Abstract: IntroductionThis study aims to investigate the long-term effects of spirulina supplementation in a high-fat diet (HFD) on rumen morphology, rumen fermentation, and the composition of rumen microbiota in lambs. Spirulina is a blue-green microalgae that has been shown to have high nutritional value for livestock.MethodsFifty-four lambs were randomly divided into three groups: a normal chow diet (NCD) group, a high-fat diet (HFD) group, and a high-fat diet supplemented with 3% spirulina (HFD+S) group. Rumen morphology, rumen fermentation, and rumen microbiota were analyzed at the end of the study.ResultsSpirulina supplementation improved the concentration of volatile fatty acids and rumen papilla length. Additionally, there was a tendency for an increase in rumen weight and an upregulation of the genes Claudin-1, Claudin-4, and Occludin in the HFD+S group. Pyrosequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene also showed that spirulina supplementation significantly changed the rumen microbiota composition in the HFD group, with a decrease in richness and diversity. Specifically, the relative abundance of Prevotella 9 and Megasphaera was significantly increased in the HFD group compared to the NCD group, while spirulina supplementation reversed these changes.DiscussionThis study suggests that 3% spirulina supplementation can improve rumen development and fermentation, and effectively relieve rumen microbe disorders in lambs caused by a high-fat diet. However, further research is needed to confirm the findings and to examine the long-term effects of spirulina supplementation in different types of livestock and under different dietary conditions.
      PubDate: 2023-01-30T00:00:00Z
  • Structural change in feedlot cattle death loss

    • Authors: Mark Buda, Kellie Curry Raper, John Michael Riley, Derrell S. Peel
      Abstract: IntroductionIndustry reports and anecdotal evidence indicate that the death loss rate in cattle feedlots has increased over time. Such increases in death loss rates impact feedlot cost and thus profitability.ObjectivesThe primary objective of this study is to examine whether feedlot death loss rates in cattle have changed over time, to analyze the nature of any identified structural change, and to identify possible catalysts for that change.MethodsData from the Kansas Feedlot Performance and Feed Cost Summary from 1992 through 2017 is used to model feedlot death loss rate as a function of feeder cattle placement weight, days on feed, time, and seasonality in the form of monthly dummy variables. Commonly used tests of structural change, including the CUSUM, CUSUMSQ, and Bai and Perron methods, are implemented to examine the existence and nature of any structural changes in the proposed model. All tests indicate the presence of structural breaks in the model, including both systematic change and abrupt change. Following a synthesis of structural test results, the final model is modified to include a structural shift parameter for the period from December 2000 to September 2010.ResultsModels indicate that days on feed has a significant positive influence on death loss rate. Trend variables indicate that death loss rates have increased systematically over the period studied. However, the structural shift parameter in the modified model is positive and significant for December 2000 to September 2010, indicating that death loss is higher on average during this period. Variance of death loss percentage is also higher during this period. Parallels between evidence of structural change and possible industry and environmental catalysts are also discussed.ConclusionsStatistical evidence does indicate changes in the structure of death loss rates. Ongoing factors such as changes in feeding rations prompted by market forces and feeding technologies may have contributed to systematic change. Other events, such as weather events and beta agonist use could result in abrupt changes. No clear evidence directly connects these factors to death loss rates and disaggregated data would be required to facilitate such a study.
      PubDate: 2023-01-30T00:00:00Z
  • Evaluation of the role of clathrin and bacterial viability in the
           endocytosis of Lawsonia intracellularis

    • Authors: Carlos Eduardo Real Pereira, Talita Pilar Resende, Amanda Gabrielle de Souza Daniel, Fabio Augusto Vannucci, Connie Gebhart, Roberto Mauricio Carvalho Guedes
      Abstract: Lawsonia intracellularis is an obligate intracellular bacterium and causative agent of proliferative enteropathy. The pathogenesis of L. intracellularis is not completely understood, including the endocytic mechanisms to access the host cell cytoplasm. In this study, we evaluated the mechanisms involved in endocytosis of L. intracellularis in vitro using intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-J2). Confocal microscopy was used to co-localize L. intracellularis and clathrin. Clathrin gene knockdown was then applied to verify whether L. intracellularis endocytosis is clathrin-dependent. Finally, internalization of viable and non-viable (bacteria were inactivated by heat) L. intracellularis organisms were assessed to study the role of the host cell during bacterial endocytosis. L. intracellularis organisms were observed co-localized with clathrin by confocal microscopy but the amount of L. intracellularis internalized in cells, with and without clathrin knockdown, did not differ statistically. The internalization of non-viable L. intracellularis showed a decrease in the internalization in cells with less clathrin synthesis (P
      PubDate: 2023-01-30T00:00:00Z
  • Evaluation of the mutant selection window of danofloxacin against
           Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in an in vitro dynamic
           model|Introduction|Methods|Results and discussion

    • Authors: Longfei Zhang, Hongjuan Wang, Yilin Bai, Lei Wang, Yueyu Bai, Jianhe Hu
      Abstract: IntroductionThe rapid emergence and widespread spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria is a serious threat to the health of humans and animals. The pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) integration model based on mutant selection window (MSW) theory is an important method to optimize the dosage regimen to prevent the emergence and spread of drug-resistant bacteria. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (AP) is a pathogen that can cause pleuropneumonia in pigs.MethodsWe employed an in vitro dynamic infection model (DIM) to study the prevention of drug-resistant mutations of danofloxacin against AP. A peristaltic pump was applied to establish an in vitro DIM to simulate the PK of danofloxacin in plasma, and to study the MSW of danofloxacin against AP. A peristaltic-pump in vitro infection model was established to simulate dynamic changes in the danofloxacin concentration in pig plasma. PK and PD data were obtained. Then, the relationship between PK/PD parameters and antibacterial activity was analyzed by the sigmoid Emax model.Results and discussionThe area under the curve during 24 h/ the minimum concentration that inhibits colony formation by 99% (AUC24h/MIC99) had the best-fitting relationship with antibacterial activity. The AUC24h/MIC99 values for a bacteriostatic effect, bactericidal effect, and eradication effect were 2.68, 33.67, and 71.58 h, respectively. We hope these results can provide valuable guidance when using danofloxacin to treat AP infection.
      PubDate: 2023-01-30T00:00:00Z
  • Non-invasive methods to assess muscle function in dogs: A scoping review

    • Authors: Kathrine Højte Dahl, Mette Kreutzfeldt Zebis, Anne Désiré Vitger, James Edward Miles, Tine Alkjær
      Abstract: Skeletal muscle function can be affected by multiple disorders in dogs of which cranial cruciate ligament rupture or disease (CCLD) is one of the most common. Despite the significance of this condition only sparse research exists regarding assessment of muscle function in dogs. This scoping review aimed to identify the non-invasive methods for canine muscle function assessments that have been reported in the literature in the past 10 years. A systematic literature search was conducted 1st March 2022 across six databases. After screening, 139 studies were considered eligible for inclusion. Among the included studies, 18 different muscle function assessment categories were identified, and the most frequently reported disease state was CCLD. We included an attempt to elucidate the clinical applicability of the 18 reported methods, as experts were asked to subjectively assess the methods for their clinical relevance as well as their practical applicability in dogs with CCLD.
      PubDate: 2023-01-30T00:00:00Z
  • Characterization of small plasmids carrying florfenicol resistance gene
           floR in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida isolates
           from swine in China

    • Authors: Xiaohui Yao, Qiangqiang Song, Wei Zhu, Jianchao Wei, Donghua Shao, Ke Liu, Zongjie Li, Yafeng Qiu, Zhiyong Ma, Lining Xia, Beibei Li
      Abstract: Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida are two important bacterial pathogens in swine industry. In the present study, resistance profiles of nine commonly used antibiotics of A. pleuropneumoniae and P. multocida isolates of swine origin from different regions of China were investigated by determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). In addition, genetic relationship of the florfenicol-resistant A. pleuropneumoniae and P. multocida isolates was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The genetic basis of florfenicol resistance in these isolates were explored by floR detection and whole genome sequencing. High resistance rates (>25%) of florfenicol, tetracycline and trimethoprim- sulfamethoxazole were observed for both bacteria. No ceftiofur- and tiamulin- resistant isolates were detected. Furthermore, all the 17 florfenicol-resistant isolates (nine for A. pleuropneumoniae and eight for P. multocida) were positive for floR gene. The presence of similar PFGE types in these isolates suggested that clonal expansion of some floR-producing strains occurred in the pig farms from same regions. WGS and PCR screening showed that three plasmids, named pFA11, pMAF5, and pMAF6, were the cargos of the floR genes in the 17 isolates. Plasmid pFA11 exhibited novel structure and carried several resistance genes, including floR, sul2, aacC2d, strA, strB, and blaROB − 1. Plasmids pMAF5 and pMAF6 were presented in A. pleuropneumoniae and P. multocida isolates from different regions, suggesting horizontal transfer of the two plasmids are important for the floR dissemination in these Pasteurellaceae pathogens. Further studies of florfenicol resistance and its transfer vectors in Pasteurellaceae bacteria of veterinary origin are warranted.
      PubDate: 2023-01-30T00:00:00Z
  • Isolation and characterization of the mink interferon-epsilon gene and its
           antiviral activity

    • Authors: Hailing Zhang, Dongliang Zhang, Shasha Zhang, Hao Liu, Han Wang, Cong Wang, Deying Zou, Bo Hu, Shizhen Lian, Shiying Lu, Xue Bai
      Abstract: The interferon (IFN) response is the first line of defense against viral invasion and thus plays a central role in the regulation of the immune response. IFN-epsilon (IFN-ε) is a newly discovered type I IFN that does not require viral induction, unlike other type I IFNs. IFN-ε is constitutively expressed in epithelial cells and plays an important role in mucosal immunity. In this study, we evaluated the biological activity of the mink-IFN (MiIFN)-ε gene in prokaryotic cells. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to evaluate IFN-ε expression in different mink tissues. MiIFN-ε was highly expressed in brain, lung, tracheal, kidney, intestinal, bladder, ovarian, and testis tissues. There was no significant difference in MiIFN-ε expression between female and male minks, except in the reproductive system. Expression of the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO3)-MiIFN-ε fusion gene was induced by isopropylβ-d-thiogalactoside, and MiIFN-ε was collected after SUMO-specific protease digestion. We tested the antiviral activity of MiIFN-ε against vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) in epithelial cells of feline kidney 81 (F81). We used qRT-PCR to analyze the expression of several IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), including ISG15, 2′-5′ oligoadenylate synthetase (2′-5′OAS1), and myxovirus resistance protein 1 (Mx1). Recombinant IFN-ε induced high ISG expression in F81 cells. Compared with those in the cell control group, expressions of ISG15, Mx1, and 2′-5′ OAS1 in the VSV-GFP control, IFN-ε, and MiIFN-ε-inhibited VSV-GFP groups were significantly increased. Compared with those in the VSV-GFP control group, expressions of ISG15 and 2′-5′ OAS1 in the IFN-ε and MiIFN-ε-inhibited VSV-GFP groups were significantly increased, and the differences were highly significant (p < 0.0001). IFN-ε played an indirect antiviral role. These findings lay the foundation for detailed investigation of IFN-ε in the future.
      PubDate: 2023-01-27T00:00:00Z
  • Tributyrin and anise mixture supplementation improves growth performance,
           nutrient digestibility, jejunal villus height, and fecal microbiota in
           weaned pigs|Introduction|Methods|Results and discussion

    • Authors: De Xin Dang, Haeun Lee, Seung Jae Lee, Jun Ho Song, Seyoung Mun, Kang Yeon Lee, Kyudong Han, In Ho Kim
      Abstract: IntroductionThe objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of tributyrin and anise mixture (TA) on growth performance, apparent nutrient digestibility, fecal noxious gas emission, fecal score, jejunal villus height, hematology parameters, and fecal microbiota of weaned pigs.MethodsA total of 150 21-day-old crossbred weaned pigs [(Landrace × Yorkshire) × Duroc] were used in a randomized complete block design experiment. All pigs were randomly assigned to 3 groups based on the initial body weight (6.19 ± 0.29 kg). Each group had 10 replicate pens with 5 pigs (three barrows and two gilts) per pen. The experimental period was 42 days and consisted of 3 phases (phase 1, days 1–7; phase 2, days 8–21; phase 3, days 22–42). Dietary treatments were based on a corn-soybean meal-basal diet and supplemented with 0.000, 0.075, or 0.150% TA.Results and discussionWe found that dietary supplementation of graded levels of TA linearly improved body weight, body weight gain, average daily feed intake, and feed efficiency (P < 0.05). TA supplementation also had positive effects on apparent dry matter, crude protein, and energy digestibility (P < 0.05) and jejunal villus height (P < 0.05). The emission of ammonia from feces decreased linearly with the dose of TA increased (P < 0.05). Moreover, TA supplementation was capable to regulate the fecal microbiota diversity, manifesting in a linearly increased Chao1 index and observed species and a linearly decreased Pielou's index (P < 0.05). The abundance of Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus amylovorus, Clostridium butyricum were increased, while the abundance of Prevotella copri was decreased, by treatment (P < 0.05). Therefore, we speculated that TA supplementation would improve growth performance and reduce fecal ammonia emission through improving nutrient digestibility, which was attributed to the increase of jejunal villus height and the regulation of fecal microbiota.
      PubDate: 2023-01-27T00:00:00Z
  • In vitro and in vivo antiviral activity of monolaurin against Seneca
           Valley virus|Introduction|Methods|Results|Discussion

    • Authors: Bo Su, Yingjie Wang, Shanqiu Jian, Huaqiao Tang, Huidan Deng, Ling Zhu, Xiaonan Zhao, Jian Liu, Huangzuo Cheng, Lina Zhang, Youjun Hu, Zhiwen Xu
      Abstract: IntroductionSurveillance of the Seneca Valley virus (SVV) shows a disproportionately higher incidence on Chinese pig farms. Currently, there are no vaccines or drugs to treat SVV infection effectively and effective treatment options are urgently needed.MethodsIn this study, we evaluated the antiviral activity of the following medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) or triglycerides (MCTs) against SVV: caprylic acid, caprylic monoglyceride, capric monoglyceride, and monolaurin.ResultsIn vitro experiments showed that monolaurin inhibited viral replication by up to 80%, while in vivo studies showed that monolaurin reduced clinical manifestations, viral load, and organ damage in SVV-infected piglets. Monolaurin significantly reduced the release of inflammatory cytokines and promoted the release of interferon-γ, which enhanced the viral clearance activity of this type of MCFA.DiscussionTherefore, monolaurin is a potentially effective candidate for the treatment of SVV infection in pigs.
      PubDate: 2023-01-27T00:00:00Z
  • Moringa oleifera leaf ethanolic extract benefits cashmere goat semen
           quality via improving rumen microbiota and

    • Authors: Jianyong Liang, Tiecheng Wu, Tao Wang, Yuejun Ma, Yurong Li, Shengguo Zhao, Yanli Guo, Bin Liu
      Abstract: BackgroundArtificial insemination (AI) is an effective reproductive technique to improve the performance of cashmere goats and prevent the spread of diseases, and the quality of the semen determines the success of AI. The potential of Moringa oleifera leaf powder (MOLP) and Moringa oleifera leaf ethanolic extract (MOLE) to improve semen quality has been reported, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. For the purpose, 18 mature male cashmere goats were randomly assigned into three groups: the control (CON), MOLP, and MOLE groups. The CON group received distilled water orally; the MOLP group was orally treated with 200 mg/kg body weight (BW) MOLP; and the MOLE group was orally treated with 40 mg/kg BW MOLE.ResultsResults showed that MOLE contained long-chain fatty acids and flavonoids. Treatment with MOLP and MOLE increased the activities of the serum catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase (P < 0.05), enhanced the total antioxidant capacity (P < 0.05), and reduced the serum malondialdehyde level (P < 0.05). At the same time, MOLE increased the contents of serum gonadotropin releasing hormone and testosterone (P < 0.05). Moreover, MOLE significantly increased sperm concentration, motility, and viability (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, MOLE raised the Chao1 index (P < 0.05) and altered the composition of the rumen microbiota; it also raised the relative abundance of Treponema (P < 0.05) and Fibrobacter (P < 0.05) and reduced the relative abundance of Prevotella (P < 0.1). Correlation analysis revealed the genus Prevotella was significantly negatively correlated with sperm concentration, as well as sperm motility and viability. Furthermore, MOLE significantly increased the rumen levels of the steroid hormones testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (P < 0.05), as well as the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) alpha-Linolenic acid, gamma-Linolenic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, and 9-S-Hydroperoxylinoleicacid (P < 0.05).ConclusionsOral MOLE supplementation can improve semen quality by increasing the antioxidant capacity and altering the rumen microbiota and metabolites of cashmere goats. Moreover, the MOLP supplementation could enhance the antioxidant capacity of cashmere goats.
      PubDate: 2023-01-27T00:00:00Z
  • Semi-quantitative risk assessment of African swine fever virus
           introduction in pig farms

    • Authors: Annalisa Scollo, Francesco Valentini, Giorgio Franceschini, Alessia Rusinà, Stefania Calò, Veronica Cappa, Alessandro Bellato, Alessandro Mannelli, Giovanni Loris Alborali, Silvia Bellini
      Abstract: A semi-quantitative risk assessment was developed to classify pig farms in terms of the probability of introduction of African swine fever virus (ASFV). Following on-farm data collection via a specific checklist, we applied a modified failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) to calculate the risk priority codes (RPC's), indicating increasing risk levels ranging from 1 to 5. The importance of biosecurity measures was attributed by experts. To consider geographic risk factors, we classified pig farms based on local density of farmed pigs, and on the estimated wild boar population density. The combination of RPC's with geographical risk factors resulted into a final ranking of pig farms in terms of the risk of ASFV introduction. Furthermore, the estimation of frequency and levels of non-compliance with biosecurity measures was used to identify weak points in risk prevention at farm level. The outcome of the risk assessment was affected by choices in assigning non-compliance scores and importance to specific components of biosecurity. The method was applied in 60 commercial farms in major pig production areas in Italy. Furthermore, we applied a reduced version of our checklist in 12 non-commercial/small commercial (≤20 pigs) farms in the northern Apennines. In commercial farms, highest RPC's were obtained for biosecurity measures associated with personnel practices and farm buildings/planimetry. Intervention should be addressed to training of personnel on biosecurity and ASF, to avoid contacts with other pig herds, and to improve practices in the entrance into the farm. Sharing trucks with other farms, and loading/unloading of pigs were other weak points. Fencing was classified as insufficient in 70% of the commercial farms. Among these farms, breeding units were characterised by the lowest risk of ASFV introduction (although differences among median ranks were not statistically significant: P-value = 0.07; Kruskal–Wallis test), and increasing herd size was not significantly correlated with a higher risk (Kendall's τ = −0.13; P-value = 0.14). Density of farmed pig was greatest in the main pig production area in northern Italy. Conversely, exposure to wild boars was greatest for non-commercial/small commercial farms on the Apennines, which were also characterised by non-compliance with critical biosecurity measures.
      PubDate: 2023-01-27T00:00:00Z
  • Comparison of systemic trimethoprim-sulfadimethoxine treatment and
           intrauterine ozone application as possible therapies for bacterial
           endometritis in equine practice

    • Authors: Martin Köhne, Lisa Hofbauer, Denny Böttcher, Anna Tönissen, Anna Hegger, Alexandra Görgens, Reiner Ulrich, Harald Sieme
      Abstract: Bacterial endometritis is one of the major problems in equine reproduction and usually treated with antimicrobial drugs. The study aimed to compare the effects of intrauterine ozone application and systemic antibiotic treatment (trimethoprim-sulfadimethoxine) on intrauterine bacterial growth and possible side effects on the endometrium in a clinical setting. Mares (n = 30) with signs of endometritis (positive uterine bacterial culture and cytological findings) were assigned randomly to different treatments: intrauterine insufflation of an ozone-air-mix (240 ml, 80 μg ozone/ml) twice at a 48 h-interval (Ozone; n = 10), systemic antibiotic therapy with trimethoprim-sulfadimethoxine (30 mg/kg, p.o., twice daily) for 5 days (TMS; n = 10), or intrauterine insufflation of air (240 ml, sterile-filtered) twice at a 48 h-interval (air; n = 10). Endometrial biopsy for histological examination was obtained before the treatment. Histological examination revealed no differences among groups. A control examination, including transrectal ultrasound, bacterial culture, cytological evaluation, and biopsy, was performed 7 days after the last treatment. Overall bacterial growth was reduced in every group after the treatment (p < 0.05), irrespective of the therapy [Ozone: 4/9 (positive culture after treatment/number of mares), TMS: 3/10 and Air: 6/10; p> 0.05]. However, Ozone and TMS (p < 0.05) were more effective in reducing growth of gram-negative bacteria as compared to Air (p> 0.05). No effects on the number of polymorphonuclear granulocytes (cytology) were observed (p> 0.05). In conclusion, trimethoprim-sulfadimethoxine and intrauterine ozone insufflation are safe treatment options for bacterial endometritis in mares but the efficacy of both treatments in reducing bacterial growth did not result in a complete absence of intrauterine bacterial growth.
      PubDate: 2023-01-27T00:00:00Z
  • Data-fed, needs-driven: Designing analytical workflows fit for disease

    • Authors: Fernanda C. Dórea, Flavie Vial, Crawford W. Revie
      Abstract: Syndromic surveillance has been an important driver for the incorporation of “big data analytics” into animal disease surveillance systems over the past decade. As the range of data sources to which automated data digitalization can be applied continues to grow, we discuss how to move beyond questions around the means to handle volume, variety and velocity, so as to ensure that the information generated is fit for disease surveillance purposes. We make the case that the value of data-driven surveillance depends on a “needs-driven” design approach to data digitalization and information delivery and highlight some of the current challenges and research frontiers in syndromic surveillance.
      PubDate: 2023-01-27T00:00:00Z
  • Periodic discharges in veterinary electroencephalography—A visual

    • Authors: Marguerite F. Knipe, William W. Bush, Kristen E. Thomas, D. Colette Williams
      Abstract: First described in human EEG over 60 years ago, there are very few examples of periodic discharges in the veterinary literature. They are associated with a wide variety of etiologies, both intracranial and systemic, making interpretation challenging. Whether these patterns are indicative of ictal, interictal, or postictal activity is a matter of debate and may vary depending on the clinical features in an individual patient. Periodic discharges have a repeated waveform occurring at nearly regular intervals, with varying morphology of individual discharges from simple sharp waves or slow waves to more complex events. Amplitudes, frequencies, and morphologies of the discharges can fluctuate, occasionally evolving, or resolving over time. This study presents a visual review of several veterinary cases with periodic discharges on EEG similar to those described in human EEG, and discusses the current known pathophysiology of these discharges.
      PubDate: 2023-01-26T00:00:00Z
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