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Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.738
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2297-1769
Published by Frontiers Media Homepage  [96 journals]
  • The Dynamic Transcription Profiles of Proliferating Bovine Ovarian
           Granulosa When Exposed to Increased Levels of β-Hydroxybutyric Acid

    • Authors: Jianfei Gong, Shanjiang Zhao, Nuo Heng, Yi Wang, Zhihui Hu, Huan Wang, Huabin Zhu
      Abstract: Ketosis is common in high-yield dairy cows. It is a condition that is characterized by the accumulation of serum β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA). Both subclinical ketosis and clinical ketosis can compromise the reproductive performance and cause long-lasting negative effects on reproductive efficiency by affecting the proliferation of follicular and granulosa cells. However, the regulatory mechanisms involved in the development of follicular cells and granulosa cells in cows experiencing subclinical ketosis and clinical ketosis remain largely unknown. To investigate the effect of a ketosis-triggered increase in BHBA on bovine follicular granulosa cell development, we detected a significant reduction in the proliferation of granulosa cells (P < 0.05) in the BHBA-1.2 mM and BHBA-2.4 mM groups and a significant increase in the number of granulosa cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle (P < 0.05). RNA-seq and trend analysis were used to identify differentially expressed genes by comparing three clusters: low-concentration response to 1.2 mM BHBA, high-concentration response to 2.4 mM BHBA, and the similar trend (up or down) response following BHBA concentration increased. GO and KEGG enrichment analyses were performed separately for each cluster. Analysis showed that two novel down-regulated genes (G0S2 and S100A6), which are associated with cell proliferation and cycle progression, were enriched in the low-concentration response to 1.2 mM BHBA. Another differentially expressed gene (PARP), which plays a role in the apoptotic pathway, was enriched in the high-concentration response to 2.4 mM BHBA. We also found that CYP27B1 and CYP17A1, which are associated with Ca2+ homeostasis and estrogen synthesis, were enriched in a similar trend response. In conclusion, we describe the dynamic transcription profiles of granulosa cells under different levels of β-hydroxybutyric stress and report key regulators that may underlie the detrimental effects on the development of follicles and granulosa cells, thus representing potential therapeutic targets to improve fertility in dairy cows with subclinical ketosis or clinical ketosis.
      PubDate: 2022-08-05T00:00:00Z
  • Temperature limits for storage of extended boar semen from the perspective
           of the sperm's energy status

    • Authors: Heiko Henning, Quynh Thu Nguyen, Ulrike Wallner, Dagmar Waberski
      Abstract: The optimum storage temperature for liquid-preserved boar semen has been empirically determined to be between 15 and 20°C. Lower temperatures provide an advantage to inhibit bacterial growth, but are regarded as critical due to the high sensitivity of boar spermatozoa to chilling injury. Higher storage temperatures are supposed to induce energy deficiency due to an insufficient depression of metabolic cell activity. However, experimental evidence for alterations of the sperm's energy status in relation to storage temperature and duration is missing. Therefore, we aimed to revisit the upper and lower storage temperature limits for liquid-preserved boar semen from the perspective of the sperm's energy metabolism. Ejaculates (n = 7 boars) were cooled down in Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS) to 25, 17, 10, or 5°C and stored for up to 120 h. ATP and adenylate energy charge (EC) levels were assessed at storage temperature (24, 72, and 120 h storage) and after subsequent re-warming (38°C). Sperm quality and energy status remained at a stable level in samples stored at 25 and 17°C. Chilling to and storage at 10 or 5°C in BTS provoked cold shock in a subset of sperm as shown by a loss in viability and motility (P < 0.05), which was accompanied by a significant release of adenine nucleotides into the semen extender. Prolonged storage for 120 h resulted in significantly lower mean ATP concentrations in viable spermatozoa at 5 or 10°C compared to 17°C (P < 0.05). Cluster analysis revealed that the main sperm subpopulation, i.e., sperm with moderate speed and linearity, decreased from 50 to 30% (P < 0.05) in favor of slow-moving spermatozoa (5°C) or spermatozoa with a hyperactivation-like motility pattern (10°C). The results point to a sublethal imbalance in available ATP in a subset of the surviving sperm population, rather than a general decrease in available ATP in all spermatozoa. In conclusion, storing diluted boar semen at a stable temperature between 17 and 25°C is a safe procedure concerning the spermatozoa's energy status. Future concepts for hypothermic boar semen preservation below 17°C require measures which ameliorate the imbalanced energy status in viable spermatozoa.
      PubDate: 2022-08-05T00:00:00Z
  • MicroRNA-199a-3p regulates proliferation and milk fat synthesis of ovine
           mammary epithelial cells by targeting VLDLR

    • Authors: Jiqing Wang, Zhiyun Hao, Liyan Hu, Lirong Qiao, Yuzhu Luo, Jiang Hu, Xiu Liu, Shaobin Li, Fangfang Zhao, Jiyuan Shen, Mingna Li, Zhidong Zhao
      Abstract: In our previous study, microRNA (miR)-199a-3p was found to be the most upregulated miRNA in mammary gland tissue during the non-lactation period compared with the peak-lactation period. However, there have been no reports describing the function of miR-199a-3p in ovine mammary epithelial cells (OMECs) and the biological mechanisms by which the miRNA affects cell proliferation and milk fat synthesis in sheep. In this study, the effect of miR-199a-3p on viability, proliferation, and milk fat synthesis of OMECs was investigated, and the target relationship of the miRNA with very low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) was also verified. Transfection with a miR-199a-3p mimic increased the viability of OMECs and the number of Edu-labeled positive OMECs. In contrast, a miR-199-3p inhibitor had the opposite effect with the miR-199a-3p mimic. The expression levels of three marker genes were also regulated by both the miR-199a-3p mimic and miR-199-3p inhibitor in OMECs. Together, these results suggest that miR-199a-3p promotes the viability and proliferation of OMECs. A dual luciferase assay confirmed that miR-199a-3p can target VLDLR by binding to the 3′-untranslated regions (3'UTR) of the gene. Further studies found a negative correlation in the expression of miR-199a-3p with VLDLR. The miR-199a-3p mimic decreased the content of triglycerides, as well as the expression levels of six milk fat synthesis marker genes in OMECs, namely, lipoprotein lipase gene (LPL), acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha gene (ACACA), fatty acid binding protein 3 gene (FABP3), CD36, stearoyl-CoA desaturase gene (SCD), and fatty acid synthase gene (FASN). The inhibition of miR-199a-3p increased the level of triglycerides and the expression of LPL, ACACA, FABP3, SCD, and FASN in OMECs. These findings suggest that miR-199a-3p inhibited milk fat synthesis of OMECs. This is the first study to reveal the molecular mechanisms by which miR-199a-3p regulates the proliferation and milk fat synthesis of OMECs in sheep.
      PubDate: 2022-08-05T00:00:00Z
  • Buffalo long non-coding RNA gene11007 promotes myoblasts proliferation

    • Authors: Ning Zhang, Gaoxiao Xu, Ping Sun, Shuzhe Wang, Yunchang Zhu, Saixing Duan, Mingsheng Jiang, Hui Li, Xuefeng Wei, Yun Ma
      Abstract: Buffalo meat is of good quality because it is lean and tender, and could bring significant cardiovascular benefits. The underlying difference in muscle development and meat quality is a complex and precisely orchestrated process which has been demonstrated to be regulated by long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). However, the regulatory role of lncRNAs in the growth and development of buffalo skeletal muscle is still unclear. In this study, the Ribo-Zero RNA-Seq method was used to explore the lncRNA expression profiles of buffalo myoblasts during the proliferation and differentiation phases. A specific set of 9,978 lncRNAs was found. By comparing the expression profiles of lncRNAs, it was found that there were 1,576 differentially expressed lncRNAs (DELs) during buffalo myoblast differentiation. Twelve DELs were chosen and subsequently verified in eight different buffalo tissues during fetal and adult stages by using qPCR. Gene11007 was found to be one of the most down-regulated lncRNAs during buffalo myoblasts differentiation and it was subsequently characterized. EdU, CCK-8, qPCR and western blotting assays showed that gene11007 promoted the proliferation of buffalo myoblasts but it had no effect on cell differentiation. Our research may enrich the genome annotations of buffalo and provide a new molecular target for the in-depth understanding of the regulation of lncRNAs in skeletal muscle.
      PubDate: 2022-08-05T00:00:00Z
  • Effects of chronic hypoxia on the gene expression profile in the embryonic
           heart in three Chinese indigenous chicken breeds (Gallus gallus)

    • Authors: Xiaofeng Li, Abdel-Moneim Eid Abdel-Moneim, Zhongze Hu, Noura M. Mesalam, Bing Yang
      Abstract: Hypoxia exposure (HE) has adverse impacts on the embryonic development of chicken, whereas the mechanism underlying the response of the heart to HE during embryo development in birds is still unclear. Therefore, our study was designed to reveal the hub genes and the signaling pathways linked to chronic hypoxia stress. Thus, the gene expression microarray GSE12675, downloaded from the GEO database, included 12 embryonic heart samples in hypoxia and normoxia of three Chinese indigenous chicken breeds [Shouguang (SG), Tibetan (TB), and Dwarf Recessive White (DRW) chickens]. A total of 653 to 714 breed-specific differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected in each pairwise comparison. Gene ontology (GO) showed that the DEGs were mainly involved in biological processes, including vasoconstriction, cell differentiation, and the positive regulation of vasoconstriction. KEGG enrichment revealed that the DEGs were mainly enriched in MAPK, PPAR, insulin, adrenergic signaling in cardiomyocytes, etc. Moreover, 48 genes (e.g., SGCD, DHRS9, HELQ, MCMDC2, and ESCO2) might contribute to the response of the heart to HE. Taken together, the current study provides important clues for understanding the molecular mechanism of the heart's response to HE during the embryonic period of chicken.
      PubDate: 2022-08-05T00:00:00Z
  • Development and evaluation of a survey instrument to assess veterinary
           medical record suitability for multi-center research studies

    • Authors: Dora Praczko, Amanda K. Tinkle, Crystal R. Arkenberg, Robyn L. McClelland, Kate E. Creevy, M. Katherine Tolbert, Brian G. Barnett, Lucy Chou, Jeremy Evans, Kellyn E. McNulty, Dog Aging Project Consortium , Jonathan M. Levine
      Abstract: Here we describe the development and evaluation of a survey instrument to assess the research suitability of veterinary electronic medical records (EMRs) through the conduct of two studies as part of the Dog Aging Project (DAP). In study 1, four reviewers used the instrument to score a total of 218 records in an overlapping matrix of pairs to assess inter-rater agreement with respect to appropriate format (qualification), identification match (verification), and record quality. Based upon the moderate inter-rater agreement with respect to verification and the relatively large number of records that were incorrectly rejected the instrument was modified and more specific instructions were provided. In study 2, a modified instrument was again completed by four reviewers to score 100 different EMRs. The survey scores were compared to a gold standard of board-certified specialist review to determine receiver operating curve statistics. The refined survey had substantial inter-rater agreement across most qualification and verification questions. The cut-off value identified had a sensitivity of 95 and 96% (by reviewer 1 and reviewer 2, respectively) and a specificity of 82% and 91% (by reviewer 1 and reviewer 2, respectively) to predict gold standard acceptance or rejection of the record. Using just qualification and verification questions within the instrument (as opposed to full scoring) minimally impacted sensitivity and specificity and resulted in substantial time savings in the review process.
      PubDate: 2022-08-05T00:00:00Z
  • Dual inhibition of the Echinococcus multilocularis energy metabolism

    • Authors: Sheena Chaudhry, Raphael Zurbriggen, Matías Preza, Tobias Kämpfer, Marc Kaethner, Roman Memedovski, Nathalie Scorrano, Andrew Hemphill, Joseph Stone Doggett, Britta Lundström-Stadelmann
      Abstract: Alveolar echinococcosis is caused by the metacestode stage of the zoonotic parasite Echinococcus multilocularis. Current chemotherapeutic treatment options rely on benzimidazoles, which have limited curative capabilities and can cause severe side effects. Thus, novel treatment options are urgently needed. In search for novel targetable pathways we focused on the mitochondrial energy metabolism of E. multilocularis. The parasite relies hereby on two pathways: The classical oxidative phosphorylation including the electron transfer chain (ETC), and the anaerobic malate dismutation (MD). We screened 13 endochin-like quinolones (ELQs) in vitro for their activities against two isolates of E. multilocularis metacestodes and isolated germinal layer cells by the phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) assay and the CellTiter Glo assay. For the five most active ELQs (ELQ-121, ELQ-136, ELQ-271, ELQ-400, and ELQ-437), EC50 values against metacestodes were assessed by PGI assay, and IC50 values against mammalian cells were measured by Alamar Blue assay. Further, the gene sequence of the proposed target, the mitochondrial cytochrome b, was analyzed. This allowed for a limited structure activity relationship study of ELQs against E. multilocularis, including analyses of the inhibition of the two functional sites of the cytochrome b. By applying the Seahorse XFp Extracellular Flux Analyzer, oxygen consumption assays showed that ELQ-400 inhibits the E. multilocularis cytochrome bc1 complex under normoxic conditions. When tested under anaerobic conditions, ELQ-400 was hardly active against E. multilocularis metacestodes. These results were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. ELQ-400 treatment increased levels of parasite-released succinate, the final electron acceptor of the MD. This suggests that the parasite switched to MD for energy generation. Therefore, MD was inhibited with quinazoline, which did not induce damage to metacestodes under anaerobic conditions. However, it reduced the production of succinate compared to control treated parasites (i.e., inhibited the MD). The combination treatment with quinazoline strongly improved the activity of the bc1 inhibitor ELQ-400 against E. multilocularis metacestodes under anaerobic conditions. We conclude that simultaneous targeting of the ETC and the MD of E. multilocularis is a possible novel treatment approach for alveolar echinococcosis, and possibly also other foodborne diseases inflicted by platyhelminths, which cause substantial economic losses in livestock industry.
      PubDate: 2022-08-05T00:00:00Z
  • Measurement of Canine Ataxic Gait Patterns Using Body-Worn Smartphone
           Sensor Data

    • Authors: Daniel Engelsman, Tamara Sherif, Sebastian Meller, Friederike Twele, Itzik Klein, Anna Zamansky, Holger A. Volk
      Abstract: Ataxia is an impairment of the coordination of movement or the interaction of associated muscles, accompanied by a disturbance of the gait pattern. Diagnosis of this clinical sign, and evaluation of its severity is usually done using subjective scales during neurological examination. In this exploratory study we investigated if inertial sensors in a smart phone (3 axes of accelerometer and 3 axes of gyroscope) can be used to detect ataxia. The setting involved inertial sensor data collected by smartphone placed on the dog's back while walking in a straight line. A total of 770 walking sessions were evaluated comparing the gait of 55 healthy dogs to the one of 23 dogs with ataxia. Different machine learning techniques were used with the K-nearest neighbors technique reaching 95% accuracy in discriminating between a healthy control group and ataxic dogs, indicating potential use for smartphone apps for canine ataxia diagnosis and monitoring of treatment effect.
      PubDate: 2022-08-04T00:00:00Z
  • Differential T-cell responses in dogs with meningoencephalomyelitis of
           unknown origin compared to healthy controls

    • Authors: Renee Barber, James Barber
      Abstract: Meningoencephalomyelitis of unknown origin (MUO) is a common disorder in dogs that results in mononuclear inflammation in the brain and/or spinal cord. MUO is presumed to be autoimmune but specific immunological aberrations have not been identified. This exploratory study aimed to evaluate T cell production of two cytokines commonly implicated in autoimmune disease, interferon-gamma (IFNg) and interleukin-17 (IL17). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained from 12 dogs with MUO and 10 healthy controls, stimulated to activate intracellular signaling pathways, and stained with a cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4), cluster of differentiation eight (CD8), IFNg, and IL17 antibodies prior to analysis by flow cytometry. Mean differences in absolute cell numbers are represented as MUO cases minus healthy controls, and 95% Cis are reported. Overall IFNg-producing lymphocytes (mean difference = 241.8 cells/ul, 95% CI = 65.6 to 418.1) and CD4+ IFNg-producing T-cells (mean difference = 188.4, 95% CI = 77.3 to 299.5) were fewer in MUO cases. Additionally, CD4+ IL17-producing T-cells were greater in MUO cases (mean difference −34.9, 95% CI = −50.54 to −19.17) and CD8+ IL17-producing T-cells were fewer in MUO cases (mean difference = 73.5, 95% CI = 6.8 to 140.1). These results support that immunological changes can be identified in peripheral blood cells of dogs with MUO and suggest that T-helper type 17 (Th17) cells may play a role in pathogenesis.
      PubDate: 2022-08-04T00:00:00Z
  • In silico structural homology modeling and functional characterization of
           Mycoplasma gallisepticum variable lipoprotein hemagglutin proteins

    • Authors: Susithra Priyadarshni Mugunthan, Mani Chandra Harish
      Abstract: Mycoplasma gallisepticum variable lipoprotein hemagglutin (vlhA) proteins are crucial for immune evasion from the host cells, permitting the persistence and survival of the pathogen. However, the exact molecular mechanism behind the immune evasion function is still not clear. In silico physiochemical analysis, domain analysis, subcellular localization, and homology modeling studies have been carried out to predict the structural and functional properties of these proteins. The outcomes of this study provide significant preliminary data for understanding the immune evasion by vlhA proteins. In this study, we have reported the primary, secondary, and tertiary structural characteristics and subcellular localization, presence of the transmembrane helix and signal peptide, and functional characteristics of vlhA proteins from M. gallisepticum strain R low. The results show variation between the structural and functional components of the proteins, signifying the role and diverse molecular mechanisms in functioning of vlhA proteins in host immune evasion. Moreover the 3D structure predicted in this study will pave a way for understanding vlhA protein function and its interaction with other molecules to undergo immune evasion. This study forms the basis for future experimental studies improving our understanding in the molecular mechanisms used by vlhA proteins.
      PubDate: 2022-08-04T00:00:00Z
  • Development of a new TaqMan-based real-time RT-PCR assay for the specific
           detection of bovine kobuvirus

    • Authors: Yuelin Liu, Libing Liu, Jinfeng Wang, Ting Wang, Yaxin Gao, Xiaoxia Sun, Wanzhe Yuan, Ruiwen Li, Jianchang Wang
      Abstract: Bovine kobuvirus (BKV) is a novel kobuvirus considered to be closely related to calf diarrhea and has become a worldwide epidemic. Currently, the BKV lacks an efficient and convenient detection method to assist the research on BKV prevalence. In this study, a new and specific TaqMan-based real-time RT-PCR for the detection of BKV was developed using the conserved region of the 3D gene. The assay was highly specific for BKV, without cross-amplification with other non-targeted pathogens. The limit of detection of this assay was 102 copies. Standard curves showed a strong linear correlation from 102 to 106 copies of BKV standard RNA per reaction, and the parameters revealed as a slope of −3.54, efficiency of 91.64%, and regression coefficients (R2) of 0.998. The assay was also reproducible, with the intra-assay and inter-assay coefficient of variation
      PubDate: 2022-08-04T00:00:00Z
  • The effect of phenobarbital treatment on behavioral comorbidities and on
           the composition and function of the fecal microbiome in dogs with
           idiopathic epilepsy

    • Authors: Antja Watanangura, Sebastian Meller, Jan S. Suchodolski, Rachel Pilla, Mohammad R. Khattab, Shenja Loderstedt, Lisa F. Becker, Andrea Bathen-Nöthen, Gemma Mazzuoli-Weber, Holger A. Volk
      Abstract: Phenobarbital (PB) is one of the most important antiseizure drugs (ASDs) to treat canine idiopathic epilepsy (IE). The effect of PB on the taxonomic changes in gastrointestinal microbiota (GIM) and their functions is less known, which may explain parts of its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties, especially its antiseizure effect and drug responsiveness or drug resistance as well as its effect on behavioral comorbidities. Fecal samples of 12 dogs with IE were collected prior to the initiation of PB treatment and 90 days after oral PB treatment. The fecal samples were analyzed using shallow DNA shotgun sequencing, real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-based dysbiosis index (DI), and quantification of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Behavioral comorbidities were evaluated using standardized online questionnaires, namely, a canine behavioral assessment and research questionnaire (cBARQ), canine cognitive dysfunction rating scale (CCDR), and an attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) questionnaire. The results revealed no significant changes in alpha and beta diversity or in the DI, whereas only the abundance of Clostridiales was significantly decreased after PB treatment. Fecal SCFA measurement showed a significant increase in total fecal SCFA concentration and the concentrations of propionate and butyrate, while acetate concentrations revealed an upward trend after 90 days of treatment. In addition, the PB-Responder (PB-R) group had significantly higher butyrate levels compared to the PB-Non-Responder (PB-NR) group. Metagenomics of functional pathway genes demonstrated a significant increase in genes in trehalose biosynthesis, ribosomal synthesis, and gluconeogenesis, but a decrease in V-ATPase-related oxidative phosphorylation. For behavioral assessment, cBARQ analysis showed improvement in stranger-directed fear, non-social fear, and trainability, while there were no differences in ADHD-like behavior and canine cognitive dysfunction (CCD) scores after 90 days of PB treatment. While only very minor shifts in bacterial taxonomy were detected, the higher SCFA concentrations after PB treatment could be one of the key differences between PB-R and PB-NR. These results suggest functional changes in GIM in canine IE treatment.
      PubDate: 2022-08-04T00:00:00Z
  • Spatio-temporal patterns of lumpy skin disease outbreaks in dairy farms in
           northeastern Thailand

    • Authors: Veerasak Punyapornwithaya, Suvaluk Seesupa, Sitthinon Phuykhamsingha, Orapun Arjkumpa, Chalutwan Sansamur, Chaiwat Jarassaeng
      Abstract: In 2021–2022, there were numerous outbreaks of lumpy skin disease (LSD) affecting cattle farms across Thailand. This circumstance was the country's first encounter with an LSD outbreak. Thus, a better understanding of LSD epidemiology is necessary. The aim of this study was to determine the spatio-temporal patterns of the LSD outbreaks in dairy farming areas. Data from LSD outbreak investigations collected from dairy farms in Khon Kean province, northeastern Thailand, were analyzed using spatio-temporal models including space-time permutation, Poisson, and Bernoulli models. LSD outbreaks were found in 133 out of 152 dairy farms from May to July, 2021. The majority of dairy farms (n = 102) were affected by the LSD outbreaks in June. The overall herd attack, morbidity and mortality rates were 87, 31, and 0.9%, respectively. According to the results of all models, the most likely clusters were found in the northern part of the study area. The space-time permutation and Poisson model identified 15 and 6 spatio-temporal outbreak clusters, respectively, while the Bernoulli model detected only one cluster. The most likely clusters from those models cover radii of 1.59, 4.51, and 4.44 km, respectively. All farms included in the cluster identified by the space-time permutation model were also included in the cluster identified by the Poisson model, implying that both models detected the same outbreak area. Furthermore, the study results suggested that farmers who own farms within a one km radius of the LSD outbreak farm should be advised to implement more stringent insect vector control measures to prevent disease spread. This study provides better insights into the spatio-temporal pattern of clusters of LSD in the outbreak area. The findings of this study can support authorities in formulating strategies to prevent and control future outbreaks as well as prioritizing resource allocation to high-risk areas.
      PubDate: 2022-08-04T00:00:00Z
  • Guanidine acetic acid exhibited greater growth performance in younger
           (13–30 kg) than in older (30–50 kg) lambs under high-concentrate
           feedlotting pattern

    • Authors: Wen-Juan Li, Qi-Chao Wu, Zhao-Yang Cui, Yao-Wen Jiang, Ailiyasi Aisikaer, Fan Zhang, He-Wei Chen, Wei-Kang Wang, Yan-Lu Wang, Liang-Kang Lv, Feng-Liang Xiong, Ying-Yi Liu, Sheng-Li Li, Hong-Jian Yang
      Abstract: Guanidine acetic acid (GAA) is increasingly considered as a nutritional growth promoter in monogastric animals. Whether or not such response would exist in rapid-growing lambs is unclear yet. The objective of this study was to investigate whether dietary supplementation with uncoated GAA (UGAA) and coated GAA (CGAA) could alter growth performance, nutrient digestion, serum metabolites, and antioxidant capacity in lambs. Seventy-two small-tailed Han lambs initially weighed 12 ± 1.6 kg were randomly allocated into six groups in a 2 × 3 factorial experimental design including two forage-type rations [Oaten hay (OH) vs. its combination with wheat silage (OHWS)] and three GAA treatment per ration: no GAA, 1 g UGAA, and 1 g CGAA per kg dry matter. The whole experiment was completed in two consecutive growing stages (stage 1, 13–30 kg; stage 2, 30–50 kg). Under high-concentrate feeding pattern (Stage 1, 25: 75; Stage 2, 20: 80), UGAA or CGAA supplementation in young lambs presented greater dry matter intake (DMI) in stage 1 and average daily gain (ADG) in the whole experimental period; lambs in OH group had higher ADG and DMI than that in OHWS group in stage 1 and whole experimental period, but this phenomenon was not observed in stage 2. Both UCGA and CGAA addition increased dietary DM, organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) digestion in both stages. In blood metabolism, UCGA and CGAA addition resulted in a greater total protein (TP) and insulin-like growth factor 1(IGF-1) levels, as well as antioxidant capacity; at the same time, UCGA and CGAA addition increased GAA metabolism-creatine kinase and decreased guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase (GAMT) and L-Arginine glycine amidine transferase catalyzes (AGAT) activity. In a brief, the results obtained in the present study suggested that GAA (UGAA and CGAA; 1 g/kg DM) could be applied to improve growth performance in younger (13–30 kg) instead of older (30–50 kg) lambs in high-concentrate feedlotting practice.
      PubDate: 2022-08-04T00:00:00Z
  • Neonatal infrared thermography images in the hypothermic ruminant model:
           Anatomical-morphological-physiological aspects and mechanisms for

    • Authors: Daniel Mota-Rojas, Dehua Wang, Cristiane Gonçalves Titto, Julio Martínez-Burnes, Dina Villanueva-García, Karina Lezama, Adriana Domínguez, Ismael Hernández-Avalos, Patricia Mora-Medina, Antonio Verduzco, Adriana Olmos-Hernández, Alejandro Casas, Daniela Rodríguez, Nancy José, Jennifer Rios, Alessandra Pelagalli
      Abstract: Hypothermia is one factor associated with mortality in newborn ruminants due to the drastic temperature change upon exposure to the extrauterine environment in the first hours after birth. Ruminants are precocial whose mechanisms for generating heat or preventing heat loss involve genetic characteristics, the degree of neurodevelopment at birth and environmental aspects. These elements combine to form a more efficient mechanism than those found in altricial species. Although the degree of neurodevelopment is an important advantage for these species, their greater mobility helps them to search for the udder and consume colostrum after birth. However, anatomical differences such as the distribution of adipose tissue or the presence of type II muscle fibers could lead to the understanding that these species use their energy resources more efficiently for heat production. The introduction of unconventional ruminant species, such as the water buffalo, has led to rethinking other characteristics like the skin thickness or the coat type that could intervene in the thermoregulation capacity of the newborn. Implementing tools to analyze species-specific characteristics that help prevent a critical decline in temperature is deemed a fundamental strategy for avoiding the adverse effects of a compromised thermoregulatory function. Although thermography is a non-invasive method to assess superficial temperature in several non-human animal species, in newborn ruminants there is limited information about its application, making it necessary to discuss the usefulness of this tool. This review aims to analyze the effects of hypothermia in newborn ruminants, their thermoregulation mechanisms that compensate for this condition, and the application of infrared thermography (IRT) to identify cases with hypothermia.
      PubDate: 2022-08-04T00:00:00Z
  • Dietary inclusion of anthocyanin-rich black cane silage treated with
           ferrous sulfate heptahydrate reduces oxidative stress and promotes tender
           meat production in goats

    • Authors: Rayudika Aprilia Patindra Purba, Ngo Thi Minh Suong, Siwaporn Paengkoum, Jan Thomas Schonewille, Pramote Paengkoum
      Abstract: Pre-treating anthocyanin-rich black cane with ferrous sulfate heptahydrate (FSH) produces high-quality silage with anthocyanin and nutritional losses. However, it's unclear how to apply this to studies on how FSH-treated silage affects animal performance and meat quality. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of a standard total mixed ration (TMR) containing anthocyanin-rich black cane silages either with or without dilutions of FSH on animal performance, blood biochemical indices, rumen fermentation, microbial community, and carcass characteristics in meat goats. Forty healthy crossbred Thai-native Anglo-Nubian male goats (14.42 ± 1.4 kg) were used to compare the feasibility of using anthocyanin-rich black cane silage (ABS) as a functional feed resource as opposed to anthocyanin-rich black cane treated with 0.030% commercial FSH silage (ABSF). All goats received a 90-day routine feeding of two isocaloric and isonitrogenous experimental diets: the control group received TMR containing 50% anthocyanin-rich black cane silage (ABS; n = 20), and one group received TMR containing 50% FSH-treating anthocyanin-rich black cane (ABSF; n = 20). As performance indicators, average daily weight gain (ADG) and dry matter intake (DMI) were measured. Samples of meat, blood, and rumen were taken at the end of the experiment. There were no differences in final body weight, ADG, DMI, or ADG/DMI between the two groups. The ABSF group did not differ from the ABS group in terms of rumen pH, but the ABSF had a tendency to lower rumen ammonia N levels, and to higher total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations. Individual VFA concentrations differed, with the ABSF group having more Ruminococcus albus and the ABS group having more methanogenic bacteria. Blood biochemical indices differed, with the ABSF group having lower TBARS concentrations and the ABS group having lower TAC, SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, and GSH-Rx concentrations. In comparison to goat meat from the ABS group, goat meat from the ABSF group contained more intramuscular fat and was more tender. The current results indicate that the feeding of a TMR containing 50% anthocyanin-rich black cane, along with FSH pre-treatment prior to ensiling, reduces oxidative stress and promotes the production of tender meat without affecting animal performance.
      PubDate: 2022-08-04T00:00:00Z
  • Perineal herniorrhaphy with pedunculated tunica vaginalis communis in
           dogs: Description of the technique and clinical case

    • Authors: Tatsuya Heishima, Kazushi Asano, Kumiko Ishigaki, Orie Yoshida, Naoki Sakurai, Kazuyuki Terai, Mamiko Seki, Kenji Teshima, Shigeo Tanaka
      Abstract: BackgroundPerineal hernia (PH) in dogs is caused by the separation of the anal septal muscles and the displacement of pelvic/abdominal organs under the perineal skin. Reconstruction of the pelvic septum by surgical repositioning is the only curative treatment.ObjectivesTo describe the procedure and outcomes of surgical repair using the pedunculated tunica vaginalis communis (TVC) for PH in dogs.MethodsIntact male dogs diagnosed with PH were included in this study. For surgery, each dog was positioned in the Trendelenburg position. Castration was performed with the open technique, followed by colopexy and cystopexy via laparotomy. The remaining bilateral TVCs transposed to the opening of PH were used for the perineal herniorrhaphy. Intraoperative findings, complications, and outcomes were evaluated and recorded.ResultsEight dogs [median age 10.5 years (range, 9–13 years); median body weight 4.9 kg (range, 1.6–12.3 kg)] were treated using the TVC surgical technique. Perineal herniorrhaphy with the TVC was feasible in all dogs. The median operation time was 105.5 min (range, 46–149 min) in unilateral PH, and 92 and 122 min in two dogs with bilateral PH. Short-term postoperative complications during hospitalization did not occur in six dogs, whereas the residual two dogs had a temporary local infection as a minor complication. Postoperative recurrence occurred in one dog (13%) on postoperative day 136.ConclusionsOur study suggests that the herniorrhaphy technique using the pedunculated TVC is an alternative option for the repair of PH in dogs.
      PubDate: 2022-08-04T00:00:00Z
  • Role of Rotifers in Betanodavirus Transmission to European Sea Bass Larvae

    • Authors: Lucia Vázquez-Salgado, Francesco Pascoli, Andrea Marsella, Lorena Biasini, Alessandra Buratin, Tobia Pretto, Miriam Abbadi, Erica Melchiotti, Isabel Bandín, Anna Toffan
      Abstract: Marine invertebrates such as rotifers or Artemia, frequently used for fish larvae feeding, can be a potential source of pathogens. It has been demonstrated that Artemia can act as a nervous necrosis virus (NNV)-vector to Senegalese sole larvae. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to clarify the role of rotifers in NNV transmission to sea bass larvae following an oral challenge. Our results showed that sea bass larvae fed on a single dose of rotifers retaining NNV displayed clinical signs, mortality, and viral replication similar to the immersion challenge, although the course of the infection was slightly different between the two infection routes. Furthermore, we also demonstrated that rotifers can internalize NNV particles due to their filtering nature and maintain virus viability since viral particles were detected by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and cell culture within the rotifer body. However, viral quantification data suggested that rotifers are not permissive to NNV replication. In conclusion, this research demonstrated NNV horizontal transmission through rotifers to sea bass larvae, highlighting the importance of establishing strict routine controls on live food to prevent the introduction of potential pathogens to hatcheries.
      PubDate: 2022-08-03T00:00:00Z
  • A Single-Dose Intramuscular Nanoparticle Vaccine With or Without Prior
           Intrauterine Priming Triggers Specific Uterine and Colostral Mucosal
           Antibodies and Systemic Immunity in Gilts but Not Passive Protection for
           Suckling Piglets

    • Authors: Pooja Choudhary, Amir Khajavinia, Ramin Mohammadi, Siew Hon Ng, Nathalie Bérubé, Damayanthi Yalamati, Azita Haddadi, Heather L. Wilson
      Abstract: An effective single-dose vaccine that protects the dam and her suckling offspring against infectious disease would be widely beneficial to livestock animals. We assessed whether a single-dose intramuscular (i.m.) porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) vaccine administered to the gilt 30 days post-breeding could generate mucosal and systemic immunity and sufficient colostral and mature milk antibodies to protect suckling piglets against infectious challenge. The vaccine was comprised of polymeric poly-(lactide-co-glycolide) (PGLA)-nanoparticle (NP) encapsulating recombinant PEDV spike protein 1 (PEDVS1) associated with ARC4 and ARC7 adjuvants, a muramyl dipeptide analog and a monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) analog, respectively (NP-PEDVS1). To establish whether prior mucosal exposure could augment the i.m. immune response and/or contribute to mucosal tolerance, gilts were immunized with the NP-PEDVS1 vaccine via the intrauterine route at breeding, followed by the i.m. vaccine 30 days later. Archived colostrum from gilts that were challenged with low-dose PEDV plus alum was used as positive reference samples for neutralizing antibodies and passive protection. On day 100 of gestation (70 days post i.m. immunization), both vaccinated groups showed significant PEDVS1-specific IgG and IgA in the serum, as well as in uterine tissue collected on the day of euthanasia. Anti-PEDVS1 colostral IgG antibody titers collected at farrowing were significantly higher relative to the negative control gilts indicating that the NP vaccine was effective in contributing to the colostral antibodies. The PEDVS1-specific colostral IgA and anti-PEDVS1 IgG and IgA antibodies in the mature milk collected 6 days after farrowing were low for both vaccinated groups. No statistical differences between the vaccinated groups were observed, suggesting that the i.u. priming vaccine did not induce mucosal tolerance. Piglets born to either group of vaccinated gilts did not receive sufficient neutralizing antibodies to protect them against infectious PEDV at 3 days of age. In summary, a single i.m. NP vaccine administered 30 days after breeding and a joint i.u./i.m. vaccine administered at breeding and 30 days post-breeding induced significant anti-PEDVS1 immunity in systemic and mucosal sites but did not provide passive protection in suckling offspring.
      PubDate: 2022-08-03T00:00:00Z
  • Dietary Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Alleviates the Liver Injury Induced by
           Long-Term High-Fat Diets in Sprague Dawley Rats

    • Authors: Hao Yang Sun, Ai Xin Gu, Bi Ying Huang, Tong Zhang, Jian Ping Li, An Shan Shan
      Abstract: In mammals, the liver is the most important organ that plays a vital function in lipid metabolism. Grape seed proanthocyanidin (GSPE) is a kind of natural polyphenolic compound primarily obtained from grape skin and seeds. Recent research found it had high bioavailability in defending against obesity, hyperlipidemia, inflammatory, oxidative stress, and targeting liver tissue. However, the mechanism of GSPE in regulating obesity induced by dietary high-fat (HF) was not fully understood, particularly the influences on liver functions. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of GSPE supplementation on the liver function and lipid metabolic parameters in rats fed HF diets long-term. A total of 40 healthy female Sprague Dawley rats were selected. After 8 weeks of obesity model feeding, the rats were randomly divided into four treatments: NC, standard diet; NC + GSPE, standard diet + 500 mg/kg body weight GSPE; HF, high-fat diet; HG + GSPE, high fat diet + 500 mg/kg body weight GSPE. Results indicated that long-term HF feeding caused severe liver problems including megalohepatia, steatosis, inflammation, and hepatocyte apoptosis. The supplementation of GSPE alleviated these symptoms. The results of the current experiment confirmed that GSPE addition up-regulated the expression of the Wnt3a/β-catenin signaling pathway, thereby restraining the liver cell endoplasmic reticulum stress and hepatocyte apoptosis. Furthermore, the microRNA-103 may play a role in this signal-regulated pathway. In summary, GSPE had a protective effect on the liver and the current experiment provided a reference for the application of GSPE in animal nutrition as a kind of natural feed additive.
      PubDate: 2022-08-03T00:00:00Z
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