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Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.738
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 5  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2297-1769
Published by Frontiers Media Homepage  [96 journals]
  • Multidrug resistance in pathogenic E. coli isolates from urinary tract
           infections in dogs, Spain

    • Authors: Ana Abad-Fau, Eloisa Sevilla, Ainara Oro, INMACULADA MARTÍN-BURRIEL, Bernardino Moreno Burgos, MARIANO MORALES AMELLA, Rosa Bolea
      Abstract: Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a pathogen frequently isolated in cases of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in both humans and dogs and evidence exists that dogs are reservoirs for human infections. In addition, E. coli is associated to increasing antimicrobial resistance rates. This study focuses on the analysis of antimicrobial resistance and the presence of selected virulence genes in E. coli isolates from a Spanish dog population suffering from UTI. This collection of isolates showed an extremely high level of phenotypic resistance to 1 st -3 rd generation cephalosporins, followed by penicillins, fluoroquinolones and amphenicols. Apart from that, 13.46% of them were considered extendedspectrum beta-lactamase producers. An alarmingly high percentage (71.15%) of multidrug resistant isolates were also detected. There was a good correlation between the antimicrobial resistance genes found and the phenotypic resistance expressed. Most of the isolates were classified as extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli, and two others harbored virulence factors related to diarrheagenic pathotypes. A significant relationship between low antibiotic resistance and high virulence factor carriage was found, but the mechanisms behind it are still poorly understood. The detection of high antimicrobial resistance rates to first-choice treatments highlights the need of constant antimicrobial resistance surveillance, as well as continuous revision of therapeutic guidelines for canine UTI to adapt them to changes in antimicrobial resistance patterns.
      PubDate: 2024-02-23T04:03:06Z
       
  • A blinded, randomized and controlled multicenter field study investigating
           the safety and efficacy of long-term use of enflicoxib in the treatment of
           naturally occurring osteoarthritis in client-owned dogs

    • Authors: Josep Homedes, Marion Ocak, Sebastian Riedle, Marta Salichs
      Abstract: Background: Enflicoxib is a Cox-2 selective NSAID shown to be efficacious and safe in the treatment of pain and inflammation associated with canine osteoarthritis (OA) in clinical studies of six weeks duration.Objective: This prospective, multisite, blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group field study aimed to confirm the safety and efficacy of enflicoxib in long-term canine OA treatments.Animals: A total of 109 client owned dogs with clinical and radiographic signs of OA for at least 3 weeks were enrolled with 78 dogs completing all study visits. Methods: Dogs were randomized at a 3:1 ratio to receive enflicoxib (n=83) or placebo (n=26) once weekly during six months. Dogs underwent veterinary assessments from Day 0 to Day 189 using a clinical sum score (CSS). Efficacy was also assessed by the owners using the Canine Brief Pain Inventory (CBPI). Safety was assessed clinically and by repeated blood and urine sample analysis. The efficacy outcome measure was the treatment response according to the CSS and secondarily the treatment response according to the CBPI. The primary safety outcome was the incidence of adverse events and secondarily the evolution of the clinical pathology parameters.Results: Percentages of CSS responders for enflicoxib were 71.6%; 74.6% and 71.6% on Days 44, 135 and 189 respectively, always showing statistically significant differences (p
      PubDate: 2024-02-23T04:01:48Z
       
  • Pharmacokinetic of two oral doses of a 1:20 THC:CBD Cannabis herbal
           extract in cats

    • Authors: Chloe Lyons, Katelyn McEwan, Meara Munn-Patterson, Stephanie Vuong, Jane Alcorn, Alan Chicoine
      Abstract: Objective: To determine the pharmacokinetics (PK) of two oral doses of a Cannabis herbal extract (CHE) containing 1:20 THC:CBD in 12 healthy Domestic Shorthair cats.Methods: Single-dose PK were assessed after oral administration of CHE at low or high dose (2 mg CBD + 0.1 mg THC, or 5 mg CBD + 0.25 mg THC per kg bw, respectively; n=6 per group) in fasting cats. Blood samples were drawn up to 48 hours following CHE administration. Plasma samples were analyzed for CBD, THC, and metabolites 6-OH-CBD, 7-OH-CBD, 11-OH-THC, and THC-COOH using a previously validated LC-MS/MS method.Results: CBD and THC were quickly absorbed (mean Tmax of 2.4 -2.9 h). Maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) ranged from 36 -511 ng/mL and 6.8 -61 ng/mL for CBD and THC, respectively. Elimination was initially rapid for both CBD and THC, though a prolonged elimination phase was noted for CBD in some cats (T1/2 λ up to 26 h ). Dose-adjusted Cmax and AUC0-last values were not statistically significantly different (p>0.05) between dose groups indicating CBD and THC concentrations increased in a manner proportional (linear) to the dose. Dose-adjusted THC Cmax and AUC0-last were significantly higher than the corresponding doseadjusted CBD parameters (p < 0.01). Low concentrations of the metabolite 6-OH-CBD were quantified but metabolites 7-OH-CBD, 11-OH-THC, and THC-COOH were not detected in any plasma samples. Inter-individual variance was notable. Salivation shortly after dosing was observed in two cats in the high dose group; these animals had substantially lower cannabinoid concentrations than other cats in this group. No adverse clinical signs (including vomiting, change in mentation or other neurological signs) were noted.Clinical significance: Although cats did not display adverse effects after administration of a single oral dose of 1:20 THC:CBD CHE formulation at 2 or 5 mg CBD/kg bw, observed plasma concentrations were highly variable but generally lower than in dogs receiving the same dose and formulation. Administration of CHE in the fasting state may not optimize CBD absorption, and oral dosing may be challenging when administering an oil-based CHE in some cats.
      PubDate: 2024-02-23T04:01:35Z
       
  • Investigation into the safety, and serological responses elicited by
           delivery of live intranasal vaccines for bovine herpes virus type 1,
           bovine respiratory syncytial virus, and parainfluenza type 3 in pre-weaned
           calves

    • Authors: Anna Flynn, Catherine McAloon, Katie Sugrue, Ricki Fitzgerald, Cara Sheridan, Bosco Cowley, Conor McAloon, Emer Kennedy
      Abstract: Despite the fact that pneumonia remains a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in pre-weaned calves, relatively little is known regarding the effects of the concurrent administration of intranasal pneumonia virus vaccines, particularly in calves with high levels of maternally derived antibodies. The objective of this study was to use a cohort of 40 dairy and dairy-beef female and male calves (27 females and 13 males) to determine serological responses to concurrent administration at 3 weeks of age (22 ± 4.85 days) of two commercially available intranasal (IN) vaccines for the viruses: bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine herpes virus 1 (BoHV-1), and parainfluenza-3-virus (PI3-V). The study groups were as follows: (i) Bovilis IBR Marker Live only® (IO), (ii) Bovilis INtranasal RSP Live® only (RPO), (iii) Concurrent vaccination with Bovilis IBR Marker Live® & Bovilis Intranasal RSP Live® (CV), and (iv) a control group of non-vaccinated calves (CONT). The calves’ serological response post-IN vaccination, clinical health scores, rectal temperatures, and weights were measured. Data were analyzed in SAS using mixed models and logistic regression. The CV calves had an average daily weight gain (ADG) of 0.74 (±0.02) kg, which was similar to CONT (0.77 ± 0.02 kg). Despite no significant differences in the antibody levels between study groups 3 weeks post-IN vaccination, following the administration of subsequent parenteral injections in the form of Bovilis Bovipast RSP®(antigens; inactivated BRSV, inactivated PI3-V, inactivated Mannheimia haemolytica) and Bovilis IBR Marker Live®, the antibody levels of the BRSV and PI3-V increased in both the CV and RPO study groups. Concurrent vaccination resulted in no increase in fever and no difference in health scores when compared to CONT.
      PubDate: 2024-02-23T00:00:00Z
       
  • Yupingfeng polysaccharide promote the growth of chickens via regulating
           gut microbiota|Introduction|Methods|Results|Conclusion

    • Authors: Yuling Guan, Wendan Zheng, Yu Bai, Bo Wu
      Abstract: IntroductionYupingfeng polysaccharide (YPF-P) is the main substance of alcohol deposition in Yupingfeng powder, which has many biological functions such as enhancing immunity, repairing intestinal barrier and enhancing antioxidant ability. This study employed in vitro growth-promoting drug feed additives and animal experiments to comprehensively evaluate the use of YPF-P in broiler production.MethodsA total of 1,296 151 days-old Qingyuan Partridge chickens were randomly divided into four groups with six replicates and 54 hens per replicate: the control group was fed basal diet, and the experimental groups were fed diets supplemented with 4 g/kg, 8 g/kg, and 12 g/kg YPF-P for 14 days. Broilers were weighed before and at the end of the experiment to calculate total weight gain (GW), average daily gain (ADG), and feed compensation. At the end of the experiment, six chickens from each group were randomly selected for subwing vein blood sampling, which was used to measure serum biochemical indicators GHRH, GH, and IGF-1 by ELISA method. Randomly select chickens from control group and 8 g/kg group for slaughter, and cecal contents were collected for 16S high-throughput sequencing.ResultsDietary supplementation of 8 g/kg YPF-P can significantly increase the final body weight, total weight gain, average daily gain and decrease the feed to gain ratio of chickens. During 151–165 days, serum IGF-1 concentrations increased significantly (p < 0.05). There were no significant changes in serum GH concentration (p> 0.05). In terms of gut microbiota, there was no significant difference between control group and test group in Shannon index and Simpson index. Compared with the control group,the addition of 8 g/kgYPF-P significantly increased the abundance of Firmicutes and significantly decreased the abundance of Bacteroides at the phylum level.At the genus level, the relative abundance of unclassified_Oscillospiraceae was significantly increased and the unclassified_Muribaculaceae, uncultured_Bacteroidales_bacterium, Lactobacillus, Alloprevotella, Ligilactobacillus, Prevotellaceae_UCG_001, and unclassified_Atopobiaceae was significantly decreased.ConclusionThe above results showed that adding 8 mg/kg of YPF-P could increase the average daily gain of Qingyuan Partridge chickens, reduce the ratio of feed to meat, and affect the distribution proportion of intestinal microflora in chickens to some extent.
      PubDate: 2024-02-23T00:00:00Z
       
  • Analysis of factors associated with the first lumpy skin disease outbreaks
           in naïve cattle herds in different regions of
           Thailand|Introduction|Methods|Results and discussion

    • Authors: Orapun Arjkumpa, Wanwisa Wachoom, Bopit Puyati, Sirima Jindajang, Minta Suwannaboon, Sith Premashthira, Tippawon Prarakamawongsa, Tosapol Dejyong, Chalutwan Sansamur, Roderick Salvador, Chalita Jainonthee, Veerasak Punyapornwithaya
      Abstract: IntroductionThailand experienced a nationwide outbreak of lumpy skin disease (LSD) in 2021, highlighting the need for effective prevention and control strategies. This study aimed to identify herd-level risk factors associated with LSD outbreaks in beef cattle herds across different regions of Thailand.MethodsA case–control study was conducted in upper northeastern, northeastern, and central regions, where face-to-face interviews were conducted with farmers using a semi-structured questionnaire. Univariable and multivariable mixed effect logistic regression analyses were employed to determine the factors associated with LSD outbreaks. A total of 489 beef herds, including 161 LSD outbreak herds and 328 non-LSD herds, were investigated.Results and discussionResults showed that 66% of farmers have operated beef herds for more than five years. There were very few animal movements during the outbreak period. None of the cattle had been vaccinated with LSD vaccines. Insects that have the potential to act as vectors for LSD were observed in all herds. Thirty-four percent of farmers have implemented insect control measures. The final mixed effect logistic regression model identified herds operating for more than five years (odds ratio [OR]: 1.62, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04–2.53) and the absence of insect control management on the herd (OR: 2.05, 95% CI: 1.29–3.25) to be associated with LSD outbreaks. The implementation of insect-vector control measures in areas at risk of LSD, especially for herds without vaccination against the disease, should be emphasized. This study provides the first report on risk factors for LSD outbreaks in naïve cattle herds in Thailand and offers useful information for the development of LSD prevention and control programs within the country’s context.
      PubDate: 2024-02-22T00:00:00Z
       
  • Non-invasive evaluation of cytokine expression using the cerumen of dogs
           with otitis externa

    • Authors: Ji-Seon Yoon, Jinho Park
      Abstract: The development of a non-invasive method to analyze cytokine expression in the skin will provide further understanding of inflammatory skin disorders. This study aimed to evaluate cytokine expression in the skin through cerumen swabbing in dogs with otitis externa (OE) and to investigate whether increased cytokine expression in infected OE reflects the inflammatory status of the ear canal. Three groups consisting of control dogs (n = 24), dogs with ceruminous Malassezia OE (n = 25), and dogs with suppurative bacterial OE (n = 15) were included in the study. The concentrations of keratinocyte-derived cytokines including Interleukin (IL)-8/chemokine ligand (CXCL)8, IL-10, IL-6, Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-1ß in the cerumen of the ear canal of the included patients were analyzed using commercial ELISA kits. Additionally, correlations between cytokine levels and cytology scores (of Malassezia yeasts, cocci/rod-shaped bacteria, and inflammatory cells) were assessed. IL-8/CXCL8 concentrations were significantly higher in dogs with ceruminous Malassezia OE and dogs with suppurative bacterial OE than in control dogs. Furthermore, IL-8/CXCL8 concentrations positively correlated with Malassezia scores in dogs with ceruminous OE (r = 0.630) and with bacterial scores in dogs with suppurative OE (r = 0.601). In addition, increased expression of IL-6 and IL-1ß were detected in dogs with suppurative bacterial OE compared to those with Malassezia OE and control dogs, and showed positive correlation with inflammatory cell scores IL-6 r = 0.520, IL-1ß; r = 0.680). Therefore, keratinocyte-derived cytokines could be evaluated using non-invasive methods such as cerumen swabbing in dogs with OE.
      PubDate: 2024-02-22T00:00:00Z
       
  • Domestic dog attacks on livestock referred to a Veterinary Teaching
           Hospital

    • Authors: Mariana da Costa Gonzaga, José Renato Junqueira Borges, Teresa Souza Alves, Davi Emanuel Ribeiro de Sousa, Márcio Botelho de Castro, Antonio Carlos Lopes Câmara
      Abstract: Losses and the economic impact of dog attacks (DAs) on livestock are often overlooked and include factors such as decreased production, expenses for treatment and handling, and death of injured animals. This study evaluated the epidemiological, therapeutic, and pathological findings of DAs on livestock over an 11-year survey using the records of farm animals referred to a Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Livestock attacked by dogs included 31 sheep, 11 horses, 3 cattle, 3 goats, and 2 pigs, totaling 50 animals. Anatomical locations injured by dog bites were identified as head/neck, thoracic/pelvic limbs, abdomen/flank, rump/tail, and multiple affected regions (two or more bite sites). Additionally, the severity of the injuries was classified into four degrees adapted from the classification of dog bite injuries in children. Most livestock presented Grade 1 (26%) and Grade 2 (28%) injuries, while Grade 3 and Grade 4 injuries were observed in 46% of DAs. Furthermore, 35 animals (70%) were discharged, 9 (18%) died, and 6 (12%) were humanely euthanized. DAs may represent a significant cause for referring livestock species to clinical care, severe injuries, and a considerable number of deaths. In this study, we provide information regarding DAs on livestock for the first time in Midwestern Brazil.
      PubDate: 2024-02-21T00:00:00Z
       
  • Effects of adding Allium mongolicum Regel powder and yeast cultures to
           diet on rumen microbial flora of Tibetan sheep (Ovis aries)

    • Authors: Chunhui Wang, Juan Fan, Keyan Ma, Huihui Wang, Dengpan Li, Taotao Li, Youji Ma
      Abstract: The purpose of this experiment was to study the effect of Allium mongolicum Regel powder (AMR) and yeast cultures (YC) on rumen microbial diversity in Tibetan sheep in different Ecological niches. A total of 40 male Tibetan lambs with an initial weight of 18.56 ± 1.49 kg (6 months old) were selected and divided into four groups (10 sheep/pen; n = 10). In the Control Group, each animal was grazed for 8 h per day, in Group I, each animal was supplemented with 200 g of concentrate per day, in Group II, each animal was supplemented with 200 g of concentrate and 10 g of AMR per day, in Group III, each animal was supplemented with 200 g of concentrate and 20 g of YC per day. The experiment lasted 82 days and consisted of a 7-day per-feeding period and a 75-day formal period. The results indicated that at the phylum level, the abundance of Bacteroidota and Verrucomimicrobiota in L-Group II and L-Group III was increased, while the abundance of Proteobacteria was decreased in the LA (Liquid-Associated) groups. The proportion of F/B in S-Group II and S-Group III was increased compared to S-Group I and S-CON in the SA (Soild-Associated) group. At the genus level, the abundance of uncultured_rumen_bacterium and Eubacterium_ruminantium_group in L-Group II and L-Group III was increased. Furthermore, while the abundance of Rikenellaceae_RC9_gut_group was decreased in the LA, the abundance of Prevotella and Eubacterium_ruminantium_group was increased in the S-Group II and S-Group III compared to S-Group I and S-CON. The abundance of probable_genus_10 was the highest in S-Group II in the SA group. After the addition of YC and AMR, there was an increase in rumen microbial abundance, which was found to be beneficial for the stability of rumen flora and had a positive impact on rumen health.
      PubDate: 2024-02-21T00:00:00Z
       
  • Exploration of the protective mechanisms of Icariin against
           cisplatin-induced renal cell damage in canines

    • Authors: Jiayi Liu, Liuwei Xie, He Zhai, Dongwei Wang, Xiao Li, Yao Wang, Mingqiang Song, Chao Xu
      Abstract: This study delves into the protective mechanisms of Icariin (ICA) against cisplatin-induced damage in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Comprising two distinct phases, the investigation initially employed a single-factor randomized design to ascertain the minimal cisplatin concentration eliciting MDCK cell damage, spanning concentrations from 0 to 16 mmol/L. Concurrently, various concentrations of ICA (ranging from 5 to 50 mmol/L) were combined with 1 mmol/L cisplatin to determine the most efficacious treatment concentration. Subsequent investigations utilized four treatment groups: control, 1 mmol/L cisplatin, 1 mmol/L cisplatin + 20 mmol/L ICA, and 1 mmol/L cisplatin + 25 mmol/L ICA, aimed at elucidating ICA's protective mechanisms. Findings from the initial phase underscored a significant reduction in MDCK cell viability with 1 mmol/L cisplatin in comparison to the control (P < 0.01). Notably, the inclusion of 20 and 25 mmol/L ICA substantively ameliorated MDCK cell viability under 1 mmol/L cisplatin (P < 0.01). Moreover, cisplatin administration induced an elevation in inflammatory factors, malondialdehyde (MDA), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and Bax protein levels, while concurrently suppressing superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and Bcl-2 expression (P < 0.01). Conversely, supplementation of 20 and 25 mmol/L ICA demonstrated a marked increase in mitochondrial membrane potential and levels of SOD, CAT, and Bcl-2 (P < 0.01). These interventions effectively attenuated inflammatory responses and suppressed Bax protein expression (P < 0.05), consequently mitigating cisplatin-induced apoptosis in MDCK cells (P < 0.01). In summary, these findings elucidate the role of ICA in impeding apoptosis in cisplatin-induced MDCK cells by regulating inflammatory responses, oxidative stress, and autophagic protein expression.
      PubDate: 2024-02-21T00:00:00Z
       
  • Trends of regenerative tissue engineering for oral and maxillofacial
           reconstruction in veterinary medicine

    • Authors: Steven Dwi Purbantoro, Teeanutree Taephatthanasagon, Medania Purwaningrum, Thanyathorn Hirankanokchot, Santiago Peralta, Nadine Fiani, Chenphop Sawangmake, Sirirat Rattanapuchpong
      Abstract: Oral and maxillofacial (OMF) defects are not limited to humans and are often encountered in other species. Reconstructing significant tissue defects requires an excellent strategy for efficient and cost-effective treatment. In this regard, tissue engineering comprising stem cells, scaffolds, and signaling molecules is emerging as an innovative approach to treating OMF defects in veterinary patients. This review presents a comprehensive overview of OMF defects and tissue engineering principles to establish proper treatment and achieve both hard and soft tissue regeneration in veterinary practice. Moreover, bench-to-bedside future opportunities and challenges of tissue engineering usage are also addressed in this literature review.
      PubDate: 2024-02-21T00:00:00Z
       
  • Investigating the impact of feed-induced, subacute ruminal acidosis on
           rumen epimural transcriptome and metatranscriptome in young calves at 8-
           and 17-week of age|Introduction|Methods|Results

    • Authors: Wenli Li, Anna Larsen, Priscila Fregulia
      Abstract: IntroductionWith the goal to maximize intake of high-fermentable diet needed to meet energy needs during weaning period, calves are at risk for ruminal acidosis. Using the calves from previously established model of feed-induced, ruminal acidosis in young calves, we aimed to investigate the changes in rumen epimural transcriptome and its microbial metatranscriptome at weaning (8-week) and post-weaning (17-week) in canulated (first occurred at 3 weeks of age) Holstein bull calves with feed-induced subacute ruminal acidosis.MethodsEight bull calves were randomly assigned to acidosis-inducing diet (Treated, n = 4; pelleted, 42.7% starch, 15.1% neutral detergent fiber [NDF], and 57.8% nonfiber carbohydrates), while texturized starter was fed as a control (Control, n = 4; 35.3% starch, 25.3% NDF, and 48.1% nonfiber carbohydrates) starting at 1 week through 17 weeks. Calves fed acidosis-inducing diet showed significantly less (p 
      PubDate: 2024-02-21T00:00:00Z
       
  • Squid meal and shrimp hydrolysate as novel protein sources for dog food

    • Authors: Joana Guilherme-Fernandes, Tiago Aires, António J. M. Fonseca, Timur Yergaliyev, Amélia Camarinha-Silva, Sofia A. C. Lima, Margarida R. G. Maia, Ana R. J. Cabrita
      Abstract: The world’s growing pet population is raising sustainability and environmental concerns for the petfood industry. Protein-rich marine by-products might contribute to mitigating negative environmental effects, decreasing waste, and improving economic efficiency. The present study evaluated two marine by-products, squid meal and shrimp hydrolysate, as novel protein sources for dog feeding. Along with the analysis of chemical composition and antioxidant activity, palatability was evaluated by comparing a commercial diet (basal diet) and diets with the inclusion of 150 g kg−1 of squid meal or shrimp hydrolysate using 12 Beagle dogs (2.2 ± 0.03 years). Two in vivo digestibility trials were conducted with six dogs, three experimental periods (10 days each) and three dietary inclusion levels (50, 100 and 150 g kg−1) of squid meal or shrimp hydrolysate in place of the basal diet to evaluate effects of inclusion level on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD), metabolizable energy content, fecal characteristics, metabolites, and microbiota. Both protein sources presented higher protein and methionine contents than ingredients traditionally used in dog food formulation. Shrimp hydrolysate showed higher antioxidant activity than squid meal. First approach and taste were not affected by the inclusion of protein sources, but animals showed a preference for the basal diet. Effects on nutrient intake reflected the chemical composition of diets, and fecal output and characteristics were not affected by the increasing inclusion levels of both protein sources. The higher ATTD of dry matter, most nutrients and energy of diets with the inclusion of both by-products when compared to the basal diet, suggests their potential to be included in highly digestible diets for dogs. Although not affected by the inclusion level of protein sources, when compared to the basal diet, the inclusion of squid meal decreased butyrate concentration and shrimp hydrolysate increased all volatile fatty acids, except butyrate. Fecal microbiota was not affected by squid meal inclusion, whereas inclusion levels of shrimp hydrolysate significantly affected abundances of Oscillosperaceae (UCG-005), Firmicutes and Lactobacillus. Overall, results suggest that squid meal and shrimp hydrolysate constitute novel and promising protein sources for dog food, but further research is needed to fully evaluate their functional value.
      PubDate: 2024-02-21T00:00:00Z
       
  • The effect of combining green iron nanoparticles and algae on the
           sustainability of broiler production under heat stress
           conditions|Background|Methods|Results|Conclusion

    • Authors: Yousri A. R. Almeldin, Amira E. Eldlebshany, Enass Abd Elkhalek, Ahmed A. A. Abdel-Wareth, Jayant Lohakare
      Abstract: BackgroundNatural feed additives in broiler feed contribute to the overall health, productivity, and economic viability of broiler chickens while meeting consumer demands and preferences for natural products. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of green iron nanoparticles (Nano-Fe) and Halimeda opuntia supplementation in broiler diets on performance, ammonia excretion in excreta, Fe retention in tissues and serum, carcass criteria, and meat quality under hot environmental conditions.MethodsA total of 256 one-day-old male Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to one of four feeding treatments for 42 days. Each treatment had eight replications, with eight chicks per replicate. The treatments were Negative control (CON), positive control (POS) supplemented with 1 g/kg Halimeda opuntia as a carrier, POS + 20 mg/kg Nano-Fe (NFH1), POS + 40 mg/kg Nano-Fe (NFH2).ResultsWhen compared to CON and POS, dietary Nano-Fe up to 40 mg/kg enhanced (p 
      PubDate: 2024-02-21T00:00:00Z
       
  • Risk factors for avian influenza in Danish poultry and wild birds during
           the epidemic from June 2020 to May 2021

    • Authors: Yangfan Liu, Lene Jung Kjær, Anette Ella Boklund, Charlotte Kristiane Hjulsager, Lars Erik Larsen, Carsten Thure Kirkeby
      Abstract: Exploring the risk factors of avian influenza (AI) occurrence helps us to monitor and control the disease. Since late 2020, the number of avian influenza outbreaks in domestic and wild birds has increased in most European countries, including Denmark. This study was conducted to identify potential risk factors for wild birds and poultry during the epidemic in 2020/2021 in Denmark. Using Danish AI surveillance data of actively surveyed poultry and passively surveyed wild birds from June 2020 to May 2021, we calculated geographical attributes for bird locations and assessed the potential risk factors of AI detections using logistic regression analyses. 4% of actively surveyed poultry and 39% of passively surveyed wild birds were detected with AI circulating or ongoing at the time. Of these, 10 and 99% tested positive for the H5/H7 AI subtypes, respectively. Our analyses did not find any statistically significant risk factors for actively surveyed poultry within the dataset. For passively surveyed wild birds, bird species belonging to the Anseriformes order had a higher risk of being AI virus positive than five other taxonomic bird orders, and Galliformes were of higher risk than two other taxonomic bird orders. Besides, every 1 km increase in the distance to wetlands was associated with a 5.18% decrease in the risk of being AI positive (OR (odds ratio) 0.95, 95% CI 0.91, 0.99), when all other variables were kept constant. Overall, bird orders and distance to wetlands were associated with the occurrence of AI. The findings may provide targets for surveillance strategies using limited resources and assist in risk-based surveillance during epidemics.
      PubDate: 2024-02-21T00:00:00Z
       
  • Manifestations of systemic disease in the retina and fundus of cats and
           dogs

    • Authors: Billie Beckwith-Cohen, Simon M. Petersen-Jones
      Abstract: The fundus is unique in that it is the only part of the body that allows for a noninvasive and uninterrupted view of vasculature and nervous tissue. Utilization of this can be a powerful tool in uncovering salient incidental findings which point to underlying systemic diseases, and for monitoring response to therapy. Retinal venules and arterioles allow the clinician to assess changes in vascular color, diameter, outline, and tortuosity. The retina and optic nerve may exhibit changes associated with increased or decreased thickness, inflammatory infiltrates, hemorrhages, and detachments. While some retinal manifestations of systemic disease may be nonspecific, others are pathognomonic, and may be the presenting sign for a systemic illness. The examination of the fundus is an essential part of the comprehensive physical examination. Systemic diseases which may present with retinal abnormalities include a variety of disease classifications, as represented by the DAMNIT-V acronym, for Degenerative/Developmental, Anomalous, Metabolic, Neoplastic, Nutritional, Inflammatory (Infectious/Immune-mediated/ischemic), Toxic, Traumatic and Vascular. This review details systemic illnesses or syndromes that have been reported to manifest in the fundus of companion animals and discusses key aspects in differentiating their underlying cause. Normal variations in retinal anatomy and morphology are also considered.
      PubDate: 2024-02-20T00:00:00Z
       
  • Translation and linguistic validation into Spanish of the Owner-Reported
           Outcome Measure “Liverpool Osteoarthritis in
           Dogs”|Introduction|Methods|Results

    • Authors: María Olcoz, Miguel Ángel Cabezas, Ignacio A. Gómez de Segura
      Abstract: IntroductionAssessing chronic pain in dogs has been greatly favoured by the development of Owner-Reported Outcome Measures. Among them, the Liverpool Osteoarthritis in Dogs (LOAD) has been widely used for this purpose. Most of these tools have been written in English and its use by non English natives requires not only translation but also linguistic validation for use by veterinarians and owners. For its use, the LOAD has not undergone translation into Spanish and the objective was to generate a linguistically validated Spanish translation of the LOAD.MethodsFollowing the World Health Organisation and the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research published guidelines, the original LOAD English version underwent analysis and translation by two native linguists proficient in the target language. Both translations were then reviewed by a third native linguist to identify potential disparities and establish a cohesive translation (reconciliation). Subsequently, an independent linguist, fluent in both English and the target language, conducted the back translation. Finally, the research team compared the original and back translated versions to pinpoint and resolve any significant differences. Following the creation of the translated version, a cognitive debriefing was conducted to assess the questionnaire within the target population.ResultsA total of 89 surveys were distributed to dog owners of varying ages, genders, and socioeconomic backgrounds. Although there were some suggestions and comments, and some adjustments were made, all respondents found the survey to be clear, achieving a linguistic validation of the Spanish LOAD.
      PubDate: 2024-02-20T00:00:00Z
       
  • Prevalence of pre-iridal monocellular and fibrovascular membranes in
           canine globes affected with congenital glaucoma associated with anterior
           segment dysgenesis, primary glaucoma associated with goniodysgenesis, and
           secondary glaucoma|Objectives|Methods|Results|Conclusion

    • Authors: Leila Bedos, Lynne Sandmeyer, John Campbell, Bruce H. Grahn
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe objectives of this study were to (i) evaluate the prevalence of pre-iridal monocellular and fibrovascular membranes in canine globes affected with congenital glaucoma associated with anterior segment dysgenesis (ASD), primary glaucoma associated with goniodysgenesis (GD), and secondary glaucoma, and (ii) examine the associations between monocellular and fibrovascular membranes by breed, gender, age and histopathologic ocular changes on light microscopic examination.MethodsRecords of dogs who had eyes enucleated due to blindness and uncontrolled glaucoma were reviewed. Glaucoma was categorized clinically and histologically into three groups: congenital/ASD, primary/GD, and secondary glaucoma. The presence or absence and type of pre-iridal membrane (monocellular or fibrovascular) and other intraocular histologic findings were reviewed and compared statistically for each group.ResultsIn total, 108 canine globes (101 dogs) were included. Pre-iridal monocellular membranes were identified with light microscopy in 10 out of 19 congenital/ASD, 29 out of 40 primary, and 23 out of 49 secondary glaucoma globes. Fibrovascular membranes were observed in 3 out of 19 congenital/ASD, 9 out of 40 in primary, and 24 out of 49 secondary glaucoma globes. There were no associations between the type of membrane and breed, gender, or age. Peripheral anterior synechiae were more common in globes with fibrovascular membranes, and uveal atrophy was more common in globes with monocellular membranes.ConclusionPre-iridal monocellular membranes are common in all types of canine glaucoma. They are identified with light microscopy most easily in cases of primary glaucoma, and they are masked by pre-iridal fibrovascular membranes in other forms of glaucoma.
      PubDate: 2024-02-20T00:00:00Z
       
  • Effect of miR-17 on Polygonum Cillinerve polysaccharide against
           transmissible gastroenteritis virus

    • Authors: Xueqin Duan, Mengxin Xu, Yunying Wang, Nishang Liu, Xingchen Wang, Yingqiu Liu, Weimin Zhang, Wuren Ma, Lin Ma, Yunpeng Fan
      Abstract: Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) could cause diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration and even death in piglets, miRNA played an important role in the interaction between virus and cell. The study aimed to investigate the impact of miR-17 on the polysaccharide of Polygonum Cillinerve (PCP) in combating TGEV. miR-17 was screened and transfection validation was performed by Real-time PCR. The function of miR-17 on PK15 cells infected with TGEV and treated with PCP was investigated by DCFH-DA loading probe, JC-1 staining and Hoechst fluorescence staining. Furthermore, the effect of miR-17 on PCP inhibiting TGEV replication and apoptosis signaling pathways during PCP against TGEV infection was measured through Real-time PCR and Western blot. The results showed that miR-17 mimic and inhibitor could be transferred into PK15 cells and the expression of miR-17 significantly increased and decreased respectively compared with miR-17 mimic and inhibitor (P < 0.05). A total 250 μg/mL of PCP could inhibit cells apoptosis after transfection with miR-17. PCP (250 μg/mL and 125 μg/mL) significantly inhibited the decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential induced by TGEV after transfection with miR-17 (P < 0.05). After transfection of miR-17 mimic, PCP at concentrations of 250 μg/mL and 125 μg/mL significantly promoted the mRNA expression of P53, cyt C and caspase 9 (P < 0.05). Compared with the control group, the replication of TGEV gRNA and gene N was significantly inhibited by PCP at concentrations of 250 μg/mL and 125 μg/mL after transfection of both miR-17 mimic and inhibitor (P < 0.05). PCP at 62.5 μg/mL significantly inhibited the replication of gene S following transfection with miR-17 inhibitor (P < 0.05). These results suggested that PCP could inhibit the replication of TGEV and apoptosis induced by TGEV by regulating miR-17.
      PubDate: 2024-02-20T00:00:00Z
       
  • Pet owner perspectives, motivators and concerns about veterinary
           biobanking|Introduction|Methods|Results|Discussion

    • Authors: Richard McEnhill, Holly Borghese, Sarah A. Moore
      Abstract: IntroductionVeterinary biobanks store samples for future use and distribute samples to academic researchers and industry entities; however, informed consent provided by owners for pets contributing to biobanks can be complicated by limited understanding of goals, purpose, and logistics of biobanking.MethodsThis survey-based study aimed to gather feedback from pet owners on how they viewed allowing their pet to contribute to a veterinary biobank, with the goal of identifying opportunities to improve education, awareness of veterinary biobanking initiatives, and the consent processes. An electronic survey was distributed to a listserv of 2,119 pet owners and responses were received from 118 respondents (5.6%).ResultsMost respondents (67%) were not familiar with the concept of veterinary biobanking prior to having responded to the survey. Most (89%) were willing to allow their healthy pet to contribute samples to a veterinary biobanking program. Ninety-five percent would allow their sick pet to contribute. Most were neutral about financial incentives as a motivator to participate, although 40% indicated that if their pet’s condition resulted in a decision to humanely euthanize, they would be more likely to contribute to the biobank if the veterinary biobanking program covered the cost of euthanasia. Common concerns included security/confidentiality (36%), that results would not be shared with them (33%) or that samples would be used for other purposes beyond those advertised (22%).DiscussionThese results suggest veterinary biobanking initiatives are well received by owners and most are willing to allow their pets to participate. Respondent concerns represent opportunities for veterinary biobanks to improve messaging and dissemination of results from work they support.
      PubDate: 2024-02-20T00:00:00Z
       
 
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