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Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.738
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2297-1769
Published by Frontiers Media Homepage  [96 journals]
  • Effect of Two Different Drug-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains on
           the Physiological Properties of MAC-T Cells and Their Transcriptome

    • Authors: Lijiao Yan, Yuze Yang, Xiaojun Ma, Lianhua Wei, Xuerui Wan, Zhao Zhang, Jucai Ding, Jie Peng, Guo Liu, Huitian Gou, Chuan Wang, Xiaoli Zhang
      Abstract: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is one of the main pathogens causing mastitis in dairy cows. The current work mainly focuses on the pathway of apoptosis induction in MAC-T cells caused by S. aureus infection or other factors. However, the physiological characteristics of S. aureus infected MAC-T cells and the resulting mRNA expression profile remain unknown particularly in the case of diverse drug resistant strains. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) strains were used to infect MAC-T cells to investigate this issue. The adhesion, invasion and apoptosis ability of MRSA-infected group and MSSA-infected group was assessed over time (2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 h). After 8 h, the RNA sequencing was conducted on the MRSA-infected and the MSSA-infected with uninfected MAC-T cells as controls. The results showed that the adhesion and invasion ability of MRSA-infected and MSSA-infected to MAC-T cells increased and then decreased with infection time, peaking at 8 h. The adhesion and invasion rates of the MSSA-infected were substantially lower than those of the MRSA-infected, and the invasion rate of the MSSA-infected group was nearly non-existent. Then the apoptosis rate of MAC-T cells increased as the infection time increased. The transcriptome analysis revealed 549 differentially expressed mRNAs and 390 differentially expressed mRNAs in MRSA-infected and MSSA-infected MAC-T cells, respectively, compared to the uninfected MAC-T cells. According to GO analysis, these differentially expressed genes were involved in immune response, inflammation, apoptosis, and other processes. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis indicated the following pathways were linked to adhesion, invasion inflammation and apoptosis, including AMPK, FOXO, HIF-1, IL-17, JAK-STAT, MAPK, mTOR, NF-κB, p53, PI3K-Akt, TNF, Toll-like receptor, Rap1, RAS, prion disease, the bacterial invasion of epithelial cells pathway. We found 86 DEGs from 41 KEGG-enriched pathways associated with adhesion, invasion, apoptosis, and inflammation, all of which were implicated in MAC-T cells resistance to MRSA and MSSA infection. This study offers helpful data toward understanding the effect of different drug-resistant S. aureus on dairy cow mammary epithelial cells and aid in the prevention of mastitis in the dairy industry.
      PubDate: 2022-06-24T00:00:00Z
  • Dimethylglycine Sodium Salt Alleviates Intrauterine Growth
           Restriction-Induced Low Growth Performance, Redox Status Imbalance, and
           Hepatic Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Suckling Piglets

    • Authors: Kaiwen Bai, Luyi Jiang, Tian Wang
      Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of redox status imbalance and hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction induced by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and relieve this condition through dimethylglycine sodium salt (DMG-Na) supplementation during the suckling period. Thirty normal birth weight (NBW) and 30 IUGR newborns were selected from 20 sows. Briefly, 1 NBW and 1 IUGR newborn were obtained from each litter of 10 sows, and 10 NBW and 10 IUGR newborns were obtained. Additionally, 2 NBW and 2 IUGR newborns were obtained from each litter of another 10 sows, and 20 NBW newborns were allocated to the N [basic milk diets (BMDs)] and ND (BMDs+0.1% DMG-Na) groups. Furthermore, 20 IUGR newborns were assigned to the I (BMDs) and ID (BMDs+0.1% DMG-Na) groups. The results revealed that the growth performance, serum and hepatic redox status, and hepatic gene and protein expression levels were lower (P < 0.05) in the I group compared to the N group. Additionally, supplementation with DMG-Na (ND and ID groups) improved (P < 0.05) these parameters compared to the non-supplemented groups (N and I groups). In conclusion, the activity of Nrf2/SIRT1/PGC1α was inhibited in IUGR newborns, and this led to their hepatic dysfunctions. Supplementation with DMG-Na activated Nrf2/SIRT1/PGC1α in IUGR newborns, thereby improving their performance.
      PubDate: 2022-06-24T00:00:00Z
  • The Impact of Rumen-Protected L-Arginine Oral Supplementation on Libido,
           Semen Quality, Reproductive Organ Biometry, and Serum Biochemical
           Parameters of Rams

    • Authors: Hassan A. Hussein, Ahmed S. A. Hassaneen, Montaser E. Ali, Ramya A. Sindi, Abdallah M. Ashour, Salem M. Fahmy, Ayman A. Swelum, Ahmed E. Ahmed
      Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the effect of oral supplementation of rumen-protected L-arginine on semen quality, testes, and accessory genital glands biometry in rams. Ten apparently healthy and fertile rams were randomly divided into two equal groups; control, and rumen-protected L-arginine (20 mg/Kg body weight for 30 days) treated group. In all rams, ultrasonographic measurements of the testes and the accessory genital glands and blood sampling were performed at day (D)10, D20, and D30 (D0 is the start of supplementation). Semen ejaculates were collected twice/week and semen quantity, and quality was examined. Our results showed that, in the L-arginine treated group, there were significant increase in the ultrasound biometric measurement of right seminal vesicle (RSV) and right Cowper's gland (RCG) at D10, both testes, tail of the epididymis (TE), SV, and CG of both sides at D20, and of both testes, RTE, RSV, RCG, and LSV at D30. Semen quality and quantity parameters were significantly improved in L-arginine treated group. Moreover, testosterone level in the L-arginine treated group was significantly higher than that in the Control group. Serum thyroxine and glutathione peroxidase concentrations were significantly higher in the L-arginine treated group. The present study concluded that oral supplementation with rumen-protected L-arginine is beneficial in improvement of rams' fertility.
      PubDate: 2022-06-24T00:00:00Z
  • Grand Challenge in Veterinary Imaging: Nothing Is More Constant Than

    • Authors: Sibylle Kneissl
      PubDate: 2022-06-24T00:00:00Z
  • A Comparative Field Evaluation of the Effect of Growth Performance Between
           Porcine Circovirus Type 2a (PCV2a)- and PCV2b-Based Bivalent Vaccines
           Containing PCV2 and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae

    • Authors: Hyejean Cho, Taehwan Oh, Jeongmin Suh, Chanhee Chae
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to compare two different bivalent vaccines containing porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. One vaccine contained PCV2a and the other contained PCV2b, and both were administered on a farm suffering from subclinical PCV2d infection and enzootic pneumonia. A total of 180 pigs were randomly divided into 3 groups (60 pigs per group; male pigs = 30 and female pigs = 30). Bivalent vaccination significantly improved growth performance in both vaccinated groups as compared to the unvaccinated (UnVac) group. Growth performance measured by body weight and average daily weight gain (ADWG) was not significantly different between the two bivalent-vaccinated groups (VacA and VacB). Both bivalent vaccines elicited high levels of neutralizing antibodies and interferon-γ secreting cells (IFN-γ-SC) against PCV2d, leading to a reduction in the levels of PCV2d blood viral load as compared to unvaccinated animals. Similarly, both bivalent vaccines elicited high levels of IFN-γ-SC against M. hyopneumoniae that reduced the level of M. hyopneumoniae laryngeal viral loads as compared to unvaccinated animals. Significant differences in severity of lung and lymphoid lesions were observed in both vaccinated groups as compared to the UnVac group. These comparative field data demonstrated that both bivalent vaccines are good candidates for controlling subclinical PCV2d infection and enzootic pneumonia in swine farms suffering from an existing infection.
      PubDate: 2022-06-24T00:00:00Z
  • The First Genomic Analysis of Visna/Maedi Virus Isolates in China

    • Authors: Jian-Yong Wu, Xiao-Yun Mi, Xue-Yun Yang, Jie Wei, Xiao-Xiao Meng, Hongduzi Bolati, Yu-Rong Wei
      Abstract: Visna/Maedi virus (VMV) is a neglected pathogen that damages sheep and goats' nervous and respiratory systems. The virus was discovered 80 years ago and has been endemic in China for nearly four decades; nevertheless, there is little information regarding Chinese isolates' genotypes and genomic characteristics. In this study, the proviral DNA of strains isolated in 1985 and 1994 were extracted, and the proviral DNA was subjected to Illumina sequencing combined with Sanger sequencing of poor coverage regions. The results showed that the two isolates were clustered with genotype A2 and shared 78.3%−89.1% similarity to reference VMV genome sequences, with the highest similarity (88.7%−89.1%) to the USA strain USMARC-200212120-r (accession no. MT993908.1) and lowest similarity (78.3%−78.5%) to the Italian strain SRLV009 (accession no. MG554409.1). A maximum-likelihood tree showed that the Chinese VMV strains and the USA strain 1150 (accession no. MH916859.1) comprise a monophyletic group with a short tree branch. Our data filled the gap in genomic analysis and viral evolution in Chinese VMV strains, and would be benefit China's source-tracing and eradication program development in China.
      PubDate: 2022-06-24T00:00:00Z
  • Effects of Galactomannan Oligosaccharides on Growth Performance, Mycotoxin
           Detoxification, Serum Biochemistry, and Hematology of Goats Fed
           Mycotoxins-Contaminated Diets

    • Authors: Yicheng Wu, Ao Ren, Xiaokang Lv, Tao Ran, Guijie Zhang, Chuanshe Zhou, Zhiliang Tan
      Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate the protective effects of mycotoxin adsorbent galactomannan oligosaccharides (GMOS) on growth performance, fermentation parameters, mycotoxins residues, serum biochemistry and oxidative stress parameters of the goats. The in vitro test indicated that 0.05% GMOS outperformed yeast cell wall (YCW) and montmorillonite (MMT) in aflatoxins absorption. Then 20 3-month-old Xiangdong black goats (15.0 ± 1.9 kg) were randomly divided into two dietary treatments for the animal test. The control group (CON group) was fed a multi-mycotoxins contaminated diet, whereas the experimental group (GMOS group) received multi-mycotoxins contaminated diet plus 0.05% GMOS. The trail lasted for 60 days, with 12 days of adaptation period and 48 days of formal experiment period. There were no treatment effects (P> 0.10) on growth performance, serum antioxidant capacity and activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The concentrations of zearalenone in the rumen were lower (P < 0.05) in the GMOS group. GMOS significantly reduced (P < 0.05) propionate concentration in the cecum, resulting in a rise (P < 0.01) in acetate/propionate ratio in GMOS as compared to CON. Goats of GMOS exhibited considerably greater (P < 0.05) levels of creatine kinase but lower (P = 0.02) levels of creatinine than CON. Compared with CON, GMOS supplementation significantly increased (P < 0.05) platelet count (PLT), platelet volume distribution width (PDW), and platelet hematocrit (PCT), while decreased (P < 0.05) albumin content (ALB). The 0.05% GMOS protected goats in ruminal fermentation parameters, mycotoxins residues and serum biochemistry. Moreover, GMOS had no adverse effect on goat health. To our knowledge, this is the first report of GMOS in small ruminants. These findings suggested the feasibility of dietary GMOS as a health-maintaining addictive in goat diets.
      PubDate: 2022-06-24T00:00:00Z
  • The Impact of Incorporating Multiple Best Practices on Live Outcomes for a
           Municipal Animal Shelter in Memphis, TN

    • Authors: Rachael E. Kreisler, Alexis A. Pugh, Katie Pemberton, Sara Pizano
      Abstract: Modern animal shelters are encouraged to adopt “best practices” intended to promote life-saving for the animals that enter their systems. While these best practices have been defined and widely promoted within the profession, few studies have tracked how making the recommended changes affects live release rates (LRR) and other shelter metrics. In 2017, the municipal animal shelter in Memphis, TN (Memphis Animal Services) implemented five new strategies and analyzed their resultant life-saving data. The interventions included managed strategic shelter intake, pet owner safety net, community cat return to field, transition of field services from punitive to assistive, and streamlined adoption and transfer protocols. The median LRR for cats prior to 2017 was 35% (IQR 22, 36). After the intervention, the LRR increased to a median of 92% (IQR 92, 94). The correlation between intake and euthanasia for cats prior to the intervention was significant (P < 0.001) and very strong (r = 0.982), while after there was no relationship (−0.165) and it was not significant (P = 0.791). The median LRR for dogs prior to 2017 was 25% (IQR 19, 48). After the intervention, the LRR increased to a median of 87% (IQR 86, 88). The correlation between intake and euthanasia for dogs prior to the intervention was significant (P < 0.001) and very strong (r = 0.991), while after there was a moderate relationship (−0.643) that was not significant (P = 0.242). The median LRR for kittens prior to 2017 was 34% (IQR 23, 38), which increased (P = 0.001) to 92% (IQR 91, 92) after intervention. The percent of kittens entering the shelter with an outcome of euthanasia decreased (P < 0.001), from a median of 59% (IQR 54, 73) to a median of 3% (IQR 1, 3). The median return to owner (RTO) rate for dogs increased (P = 0.007) from 10% (IQR 9, 11) to 13% (IQR 13, 13). Implementation of these best practices accelerated Memphis Animal Services' progress toward a live release rate of at least 90%, particularly for cats, dramatically decreased kitten euthanasia, increased the RTO rate for dogs and severed the historical correlation between euthanasia and intake.
      PubDate: 2022-06-24T00:00:00Z
  • Biopsy Characteristics, Subtypes, and Prognostic Features in 107 Cases of
           Feline Presumed Immune-Mediated Polyneuropathy

    • Authors: Ninja Kolb, Kaspar Matiasek, Jana van Renen, Andrea Fischer, Yury Zablotski, Franziska Wieländer, Jasmin Nessler, Andrea Tipold, Rodolfo Cappello, Thomas Flegel, Shenja Loderstedt, Josephine Dietzel, Kirsten Gnirs, Kai Rentmeister, Stephan Rupp, Thilo von Klopmann, Frank Steffen, Konrad Jurina, Omar V. Del Vecchio, Martin Deutschland, Florian König, Gualtiero Gandini, Tom Harcourt-Brown, Marion Kornberg, Ezio Bianchi, Teresa Gagliardo, Marika Menchetti, Henning Schenk, Joana Tabanez, Marco Rosati
      Abstract: Inflammatory polyradiculoneuropathy (IMPN) is one of the causes of sudden onset of neuromuscular signs such as para-/tetraparesis in young cats. Even though most cases have a favorable outcome, persistent deficits, relapses, and progressive courses are occasionally seen. As clinical presentation does not always appear to predict outcome and risk of recurrence, this study was initiated to screen for prognostic biopsy findings in a large cohort of histologically confirmed IMPN cases with clinical follow-up. In total, nerve and muscle specimens of 107 cats with biopsy diagnosis of presumed autoreactive inflammatory polyneuropathy and 22 control cases were reviewed by two blinded raters for a set of 36 histological parameters. To identify patterns and subtypes of IMPN, hierarchical k-means clustering of 33 histologic variables was performed. Then, the impact of histological parameters on IMPN outcome was evaluated via an univariate analysis to identify variables for the final multivariate model. The data on immediate outcome and follow-up were collected from submitting neurologists using a purpose-designed questionnaire. Hierarchical k-means clustering sorted the tissues into 4 main categories: cluster 1 (44/129) represents a purely inflammatory IMPN picture, whereas cluster 2 (47/129) was accompanied by demyelinating features and cluster 3 (16/129) by Wallerian degeneration. Cluster 4 (22/129) reflects normal tissues from non-neuropathic control cats. Returned questionnaires provided detailed information on outcome in 63 animals. They were categorized into recovered and non-recovered. Thereby, fiber-invasive infiltrates by mononuclear cells and mild fiber loss in intramuscular nerve branches correlated with higher probabilities of recovery. Remyelination in semithin sections, on the other hand, is correlated with a less favorable outcome. Animals grouping in cluster 1 had a tendency to a higher probability of recovery compared to other clusters. In conclusion, diagnosis of feline IMPN from nerve and muscle biopsies allowed for the identification of histologic features that were positively or negatively correlated with outcome.
      PubDate: 2022-06-24T00:00:00Z
  • A Multiplex Crystal Digital PCR for Detection of African Swine Fever
           Virus, Classical Swine Fever Virus, and Porcine Reproductive and
           Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    • Authors: Kaichuang Shi, Yating Chen, Yanwen Yin, Feng Long, Shuping Feng, Huixin Liu, Sujie Qu, Hongbin Si
      Abstract: African swine fever (ASF), classical swine fever (CSF), and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) are highly infectious diseases of domestic pigs and wild boars. The co-infections of ASF virus (ASFV), CSF virus (CSFV), and PRRS virus (PRRSV) have been reported in different pig farms. Early differential detection and diagnosis of ASFV, CSFV, and PRRSV in the clinical samples is very important for the effective prevention and control of these diseases. A multiplex crystal digital PCR (dPCR) was developed for differential detection of ASFV, CSFV, and PRRSV in this study, targeting p72, 5' untranslated region (UTR), and ORF7 genes, respectively. The different reaction conditions were optimized, and the specificity, sensitivity, and repeatability of the assay were evaluated. The results showed that the multiplex crystal dPCR was able to accurately and differentially detect ASFV, CSFV, and PRRSV with a limit of detection of 4.69 × 10−1 copies/μl, respectively, and could not detect other porcine viruses, i.e., foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), Senecavirus A (SVA), atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV), pseudorabies virus (PRV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), and porcine parvovirus (PPV). The assay showed excellent repeatability and reproducibility, with coefficients of variation (CV) of the intra- and inter-assay from 0.09 to 1.40%, and from 0.64 to 2.26%, respectively. The 289 clinical samples from different pig herds in Guangxi province, China, were tested by the multiplex crystal dPCR and a reference multiplex real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) established previously in our laboratory. The positive rates of ASFV, CSFV, and PRRSV were 30.10, 13.49, and 22.49% by the multiplex crystal dPCR, and 24.57, 8.65, and 18.34% by the multiplex qRT-PCR, with coincidence rates of 94.66, 95.16, and 95.84%, respectively. The results indicated that the established multiplex crystal dPCR was a specific, sensitive, and accurate method for the detection and quantification of ASFV, CSFV, and PRRSV. This is the first report on the multiplex dPCR for detecting ASFV, CSFV, and PRRSV.
      PubDate: 2022-06-24T00:00:00Z
  • Effect of the Tea Tree Oil on Growth Performance, Meat Quality, Serum
           Biochemical Indices, and Antioxidant Capacity in Finishing Pigs

    • Authors: Tianyu Yang, Feifei Feng, Kang Zhan, Xiaoyu Ma, Maocheng Jiang, Osmond Datsomor, Xinyu Zhu, Yongjiu Huo, Guoqi Zhao
      Abstract: The increased use of antibiotics continues to pose a threat to public health because of the increasing concern of antibiotic residue. Tea tree oil (TTO) is an extract of the Australian plant Melaleuca alternifolia with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. However, there is little information on TTO supplementation in the diet of finishing pigs. Hence, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of TTO supplemented diets on the growth performance, meat quality, serum biochemical indices, and antioxidant capacity of the finishing pigs. Our results showed that TTO supplementation increased (P < 0.05) the mRNA expression of insulin-like growth factors -I (IGFs-I), growth acceleration hormone (GH), and heart fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP), while the mRNA expression of myostatin gene (MSTN), and calpain-1 (CAST) decreased by the TTO supplementation, compared with the control group. In addition, TTO supplementation increased (P < 0.05) serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), immunoglobulin G (IgG), and IgM levels but decreased (P < 0.05) serum aspartate transaminase (AST) concentration, relative to the control group. In addition, we found that the live weight and intramuscular fat enhanced (P < 0.05) significantly, and muscle pH 24 min value, cooking loss, and shear force decreased (P < 0.05) dramatically in the TTO group. The TTO supplementation increased (P < 0.05) C18:2n6t concentration and decreased (P < 0.05) C12:0 and C16:0 concentration, relative to the control group. Dietary supplementation with TTO decreased (P < 0.05) malondialdehyde (MDA) and increased (P < 0.05) glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in serum. These results indicated that TTO supplementation could improve immunity and antioxidant, carcass traits, the nutritional value of pork, and the antioxidant capacity of finishing pigs. Therefore, TTO has potential positive effects as a feed additive in the pig industry.
      PubDate: 2022-06-24T00:00:00Z
  • The Prevalence of Klebsiella spp. Associated With Bovine Mastitis in China
           and Its Antimicrobial Resistance Rate: A Meta-Analysis

    • Authors: Kai Liu, Limei Zhang, Xiaolong Gu, Weijie Qu
      Abstract: Understanding distribution of bovine mastitis pathogen Klebsiella spp. can contribute to the treatment decision and the control within programs of bovine mastitis, we conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance rates of Klebsiella spp. associated with bovine mastitis in China. Three databases, namely, PubMed, Google scholar, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure database, were utilized to obtain relevant publications. According to PRISMA reporting standards, a total of 38 publications were included in the research, among them, 7 papers included an AMR test. The pooled prevalence of Klebsiella spp. was 5.41% (95% CI: 3.87–7.50%). Subgroup analysis revealed that the prevalence was higher in South China (8.55%, 95% CI: 3.57–19.09%) than in North China (4.22%, 95% CI: 2.46–7.14%), in 2010–2020 (7.45%, 95% CI: 5.29–110.40%) than in 2000–2010 (3.14%, 95% CI: 1.90–15.14%), and in the clinical bovine mastitis cases (7.49%, 95% CI: 3.71–14.54%) than in the subclinical cases (4.03%, 95% CI: 1.55–10.08%). The pooled AMR rate revealed that Klebsiella spp. were most resistant to sulfonamides (45.07%, 95% CI: 27.72–63.71%), followed by tetracyclines (36.18%, 95% CI: 23.36–51.34%), aminoglycosides (27.47%, 95% CI: 17.16–40.92%), β-lactams (27.35%, 95% CI: 16.90–41.05%), amphenicol (26.82%, 95% CI: 14.17–44.87%), lincosamides (21.24%, 95% CI: 7.65–46.75%), macrolides (20.98%, 95% CI: 7.20–47.58%), polypeptides (15.51%, 95% CI: 6.46–32.78%), and quinolones (7.8%, 95% CI: 3.25–17.56%). The climate difference between South and North China and the natural pathogenicity of Klebsiella spp. may be the primary reasons for its distribution, and the prevalence of Klebsiella spp. indicated that the genus is an increasing hazard to the dairy industry. The prevalence of AMR in China is commonly higher than in the European countries and Canada, this is a very important concern for strategy programs to control bovine mastitis caused by Klebsiella spp. in China.
      PubDate: 2022-06-24T00:00:00Z
  • Evolutionary Analysis of Four Recombinant Viruses of the Porcine
           Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus From a Pig Farm in China

    • Authors: Jiankui Liu, Liling Lai, Ye Xu, Yuan Yang, Jiarui Li, Chen Liu, Cuiqin Hunag, Chunhua Wei
      Abstract: The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the most important pathogens causing substantial economic losses to the Chinese swine industry. In this study, we analyzed the complete genome sequences of four PRRSV isolates (PRRSV2/CN/SS0/2020, PRRSV2/CN/SS1/2021, PRRSV2/CN/L3/2021, and PRRSV2/CN/L4/2020) isolated from a single pig farm from 2020 to 2021. The genomes of the four isolates were 14,962–15,023 nt long, excluding the poly (A) tails. Comparative analysis of the genome sequences showed that the four isolates shared 93.2–98.1% homology and they had no close PRRSV relatives registered in the GenBank (
      PubDate: 2022-06-24T00:00:00Z
  • Secretion of IFN-γ by Transgenic Mammary Epithelial Cells in vitro
           Reduced Mastitis Infection Risk in Goats

    • Authors: Ying Liu, Hongyan Zhang, Shasha Dong, Boyu Li, Weiming Ma, Lijiang Ge, Zhiyong Hu, Feng Su
      Abstract: Mastitis results in great economic loss to the dairy goat industry. Many approaches have attempted to decrease the morbidity associated with this disease, and among these, transgenic strategy have been recognized as a potential approach. A previous mammalian study reports that interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) has potential anti-bacterial bioactivity against infection in vitro; however, its capacity in vivo is ambiguous. In this study, we initially constructed targeting and homologous recombination vectors (containing the IFN-γ gene) and then transferred the vectors into goat mammary gland epithelial cells (GMECs). Enzyme digestion and sequencing analysis indicated that the vectors used in this study were built correctly. Subsequently, monoclonal cells were selected using puromycin and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test indicated that IFN-γ was correctly inserted downstream of the casein promoter. Monoclonal cells were then assessed for reducible expression, and reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) and Western blot tests confirmed that monoclonal cells could express IFN-γ. Finally, anti-bacterial capacity was evaluated using bacterial counts and flow cytometry analysis. Decreased bacterial counts and cell apoptosis rates in transgenic GMECs demonstrated that the secretion of IFN-γ could inhibit bacterial proliferation. Therefore, IFN-γ gene transfection in goat mammary epithelial cells could inhibit bacterial proliferation and reduce the risk of mammary gland infection in goats.
      PubDate: 2022-06-24T00:00:00Z
  • Epidemiological Investigation of Porcine Pseudorabies Virus in Hebei
           Province, China, 2017–2018

    • Authors: Cheng Zhang, Huan Cui, Wuchao Zhang, Lijia Meng, Ligong Chen, Zhongyi Wang, Kui Zhao, Zhaoliang Chen, Sina Qiao, Juxiang Liu, Zhendong Guo, Shishan Dong
      Abstract: Pseudorabies (PR) is a serious disease affecting the pig industry in China, and it is very important to understand the epidemiology of pseudorabies virus (PRV). In the present study, 693 clinical samples were collected from Bartha-K61 vaccinated pigs with symptoms of suspected PRV infection between January 2017 and December 2018. All cases were referred for full clinical autopsy with detailed examination of histopathological examination, virus isolation and genetic evolution analysis of the PRV glycoprotein E (gE) gene. In addition, PRV gE antibodies in 3,449 serum samples were detected by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The clinical data revealed that abortion and stillbirth are the most frequent appearances in pregnant sows of those cases. Histopathological examination exhibited a variety of pathological lesions, such as lobar pneumonia, hepatitis, lymphadenitis, nephritis, and typical nonsuppurative encephalitis. A total of 248 cases tested positive for the PRV gE gene. 11 PRV variants were isolated and confirmed by gE gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. These strains had 97.1%-100.0% nucleotide homology with the PRV reference strains. Notably, the isolated strains were highly homologous and clustered in the same branch as HSD-1/2019, which caused human acute encephalitis. Serological tests showed that the positive rate of PRV gE antibody in the 3449 serum samples collected from the Hebei Province was 46.27%. In conclusion, PRV variant strains Are high prevalence in the Hebei Province, which not only causes huge economic losses to the breeding industry but also potentially poses a threat to public health.
      PubDate: 2022-06-24T00:00:00Z
  • Nationwide Monitoring of Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli and
           Enterococcus spp. Isolated From Diseased and Healthy Dogs and Cats in

    • Authors: Yukari Furuya, Mari Matsuda, Saki Harada, Mio Kumakawa, Takahiro Shirakawa, Mariko Uchiyama, Ryoko Akama, Manao Ozawa, Michiko Kawanishi, Yoko Shimazaki, Hideto Sekiguchi
      Abstract: The Japanese Veterinary Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (JVARM) was established for nationwide monitoring of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria isolated from animals. Here, antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. isolates from diseased and healthy dogs and cats was investigated. Isolates were collected from diseased dogs and cats and from healthy dogs and cats in 2018 to 2020. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined for 1873 E. coli and 1383 Enterococcus spp. isolates. E. coli isolates were most commonly resistant to nalidixic acid [diseased dog (DD), 62.1%; diseased cat (DC), 59.9%; healthy dog (HD), 23.5%; healthy cat (HC, 24.0%] and ampicillin (DD, 54.4%; DC, 64.1%; HD, 28.4%; HC, 25.2%), followed by ciprofloxacin (DD, 45.0%; DC, 44.0%; HD, 12.9%; HC, 10.4%). Enterococcus spp. isolates were most resistant to tetracycline (DD, 66.9%; DC, 67.8%; HD, 47.0%; HC, 52.0%), followed by erythromycin (DD, 43.2%; DC, 46.6%; HD, 27.8%; HC, 34.0%) and ciprofloxacin (DD, 27.9%; DC, 43.7%; HD, 9.7%; HC 12.9%). Only a few E. coli isolates were resistant to colistin and none were resistant to meropenem. Also, none of the Enterococcus spp. isolates we have tested were resistant to vancomycin. The significantly higher resistance rates of E. coli and Enterococcus spp. isolates from diseased, as opposed to healthy, dogs and cats against most of the tested antimicrobials indicates that the use of antimicrobials could select resistant E. coli and Enterococcus spp.
      PubDate: 2022-06-24T00:00:00Z
  • A Mixed Methods Investigation of Stress and Wellbeing Factors Contributing
           to Burnout and Job Satisfaction in a Specialist Small Animal Hospital

    • Authors: Claire E. Ashton-James, Amy G. McNeilage
      Abstract: Occupational burnout is a critical issue affecting the welfare of veterinary care providers, their patients, and the sustainability of veterinary healthcare organizations. The current research aimed to evaluate the prevalence of and factors contributing to stress, wellbeing, burnout symptoms and job satisfaction among clinical and non-clinical staff at a large specialist small animal hospital in Australia. Participants completed an anonymous online survey including self-report measures of job satisfaction and symptoms of burnout, and open-text response questions probing sources of stress and wellbeing. Subsequently, participants rated how frequently they experienced commonly reported sources of veterinary stress, and a series of focus groups were conducted with clinical and non-clinical teams. The survey was completed by 249 participants (overall response rate = 70%; 67.1% “clinical;” 17.3% “non-clinical;” 5.6% “other”). Five focus groups (including 38 of the survey participants) were subsequently conducted with groups of clinical and non-clinical staff. The majority of respondents (80.7%) reported being satisfied, very satisfied, or extremely satisfied with their job. At the same time, 57.7% of respondents exceeded the threshold for burnout on at least one burnout dimension, with 48.1% reporting high levels of emotional exhaustion, 30.2% reported high levels of cynicism, and 16.3% reporting low levels of professional efficacy. Open text responses and focus group transcripts revealed three common sources of stress and wellbeing. Stressors included communication (conflict within teams), clients (dealing with client emotions and expectations), and heavy caseload. Wellbeing was enhanced by people (team cohesion, respect for colleagues), practice (variety, autonomy, challenge), and purpose (meaningful work and impact). Overall, for both clinical and non-clinical survey respondents, “heavy workload” was rated as the most frequent source of stress. Despite high levels of job satisfaction, approximately two thirds of respondents reported at least one symptom of burnout. Convergent results from the survey and focus groups indicated that strong relationships with colleagues and the intrinsic meaningfulness of the work were key sources of wellbeing and job satisfaction. On the other hand, challenging workplace interactions with colleagues and clients, as well as heavy workload, were identified as key stressors contributing to burnout symptoms.
      PubDate: 2022-06-24T00:00:00Z
  • Dietary Eugenol Nanoemulsion Potentiated Performance of Broiler Chickens:
           Orchestration of Digestive Enzymes, Intestinal Barrier Functions and
           Cytokines Related Gene Expression With a Consequence of Attenuating the
           Severity of E. coli O78 Infection

    • Authors: Doaa Ibrahim, Fatma Eldemery, Aya Sh. Metwally, Ehab M. Abd-Allah, Dalia T. Mohamed, Tamer Ahmed Ismail, Thoria A. Hamed, Gehan M. Al Sadik, Ahmed N. F. Neamat-Allah, Marwa I. Abd El-Hamid
      Abstract: Recently, the use of essential oils (EOs) or their bioactive compounds encapsulated by nanoparticles as alternative supplements for in-feed antimicrobials is gaining attention, especially in organic poultry production. Focusing on eugenol, its incorporation into the nanoformulation is a novel strategy to improve its stability and bioavailability and thus augment its growth-boosting and antimicrobial activities. Therefore, we explored eugenol nanoemulsion activities in modulating growth, digestive and gut barrier functions, immunity, cecal microbiota, and broilers response to avian pathogenic E. coli challenge (APEC) O78. A total of 1,000 one-day-old broiler chicks were allocated into five groups; negative control (NC, fed basal diet), positive control (PC), and 100, 250, and 400 mg/kg eugenol nanoemulsion supplemented groups. All groups except NC were challenged with APEC O78 at 14 days of age. The results showed that birds fed eugenol nanoemulsion displayed higher BWG, FI, and survivability and most improved FCR over the whole rearing period. Birds fed 400 mg/kg of eugenol nanoemulsion sustained a higher growth rate (24% vs. PC) after infection. Likely, the expression of digestive enzymes' genes (AMY2A, CCK, CELA1, and PNLIP) was more prominently upregulated and unaffected by APEC O78 challenge in the group fed eugenol nanoemulsion at the level of 400 mg/kg. Enhanced gut barrier integrity was sustained post-challenge in the group supplemented with higher levels of eugenol nanoemulsion as evidenced by the overexpression of cathelicidins-2, β-defensin-1, MUC-2, JAM-2, occludin, CLDN-1, and FABP-2 genes. A distinct modulatory effect of dietary eugenol nanoemulsion was observed on cytokine genes (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10) expression with a prominent reduction in the excessive inflammatory reactions post-challenge. Supplementing eugenol nanoemulsion increased the relative cecal abundance of Lactobacillus species and reduced Enterobacteriaceae and Bacteriods counts. Notably, a prominent reduction in APEC O78 loads with downregulation of papC, iroN, iutA, and iss virulence genes and detrimental modifications in E. coli morphological features were noticed in the 400 mg/kg eugenol nanoemulsion group at the 3rd-week post-challenge. Collectively, we recommend the use of eugenol nanoemulsion as a prospective targeted delivery approach for achieving maximum broilers growth and protection against APEC O78 infection.
      PubDate: 2022-06-23T00:00:00Z
  • Clustering for Automated Exploratory Pattern Discovery in Animal
           Behavioral Data

    • Authors: Tom Menaker, Joke Monteny, Lin Op de Beeck, Anna Zamansky
      Abstract: Traditional methods of data analysis in animal behavior research are usually based on measuring behavior by manually coding a set of chosen behavioral parameters, which is naturally prone to human bias and error, and is also a tedious labor-intensive task. Machine learning techniques are increasingly applied to support researchers in this field, mostly in a supervised manner: for tracking animals, detecting land marks or recognizing actions. Unsupervised methods are increasingly used, but are under-explored in the context of behavior studies and applied contexts such as behavioral testing of dogs. This study explores the potential of unsupervised approaches such as clustering for the automated discovery of patterns in data which have potential behavioral meaning. We aim to demonstrate that such patterns can be useful at exploratory stages of data analysis before forming specific hypotheses. To this end, we propose a concrete method for grouping video trials of behavioral testing of animal individuals into clusters using a set of potentially relevant features. Using an example of protocol for testing in a “Stranger Test”, we compare the discovered clusters against the C-BARQ owner-based questionnaire, which is commonly used for dog behavioral trait assessment, showing that our method separated well between dogs with higher C-BARQ scores for stranger fear, and those with lower scores. This demonstrates potential use of such clustering approach for exploration prior to hypothesis forming and testing in behavioral research.
      PubDate: 2022-06-23T00:00:00Z
  • Rapid, Sensitive, and Species-Specific Detection of Conventional and
           Recombinant Herpesvirus of Turkeys Vaccines Using Loop-Mediated Isothermal
           Amplification Coupled With a Lateral Flow Device Readout

    • Authors: Giulia Mescolini, Susan J. Baigent, Elena Catelli, Venugopal K. Nair
      Abstract: Marek's disease, an economically important disease of chickens caused by virulent serotype 1 strains of the Mardivirus Marek's disease virus (MDV-1), is effectively controlled in the field by live attenuated vaccine viruses including herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT)—both conventional HVT (strain FC126) and, in recent years, recombinant HVT viruses carrying foreign genes from other avian viruses to protect against both Marek's disease and other avian viral diseases. Testing to monitor and confirm successful vaccination is important, but any such test must differentiate HVT from MDV-1 and MDV-2, as vaccination does not prevent infection with these serotypes. End-point and real-time PCR tests are widely used to detect and differentiate HVT, MDV-1 and MDV-2 but require expensive specialist laboratory equipment and trained operators. Here, we developed and validated two tube-based loop-mediated isothermal amplification tests coupled with detection by lateral flow device readout (LAMP-LFD): an HVT-specific test to detect both conventional and recombinant HVT strains, and a second test using novel LAMP primers to specifically detect the Vaxxitek® recombinant HVT. Specificity was confirmed using DNA extracted from virus-infected cultured cells, and limit of detection was determined using plasmid DNA carrying either the HVT or Vaxxitek® genome. The LAMP-LFD tests accurately detected all HVT vaccines, or Vaxxitek® only, in crude DNA as well as purified DNA extracted from field samples of organs, feathers, or poultry house dust that were confirmed positive for HVT by real-time PCR. These LAMP-LFD tests have potential for specific, rapid, simple, and inexpensive detection of HVT vaccines in the field.
      PubDate: 2022-06-23T00:00:00Z
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