A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 225 journals)
The end of the list has been reached or no journals were found for your choice.
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.738
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2297-1769
Published by Frontiers Media Homepage  [96 journals]
  • Stocking density, restricted trough space, and implications for sheep
           behaviour and biological functioning

    • Authors: Bonnie T. Mayes, L. Amy Tait, Frances C. Cowley, John M. Morton, Brendan P. Doyle, Muhammad A. Arslan, Peta S. Taylor
      Abstract: Stocking density and trough space allowance can potentially impact sheep welfare during live export voyages. The aim of this study was to assess the welfare implications for sheep housed at five allometric stocking densities, with either unrestricted or restricted trough space allowance. Merino wethers (n = 720) were housed in 40 pens of 18 heads for 18 days. Two 5-min continuous focal animal observations (n = 3/pen) were conducted on days 3, 5, 11, and 17. Scan sampling of standing and lying behaviours were conducted on the same days at hourly intervals. Live weights and immune cell counts were quantified at the start and end of the experiment, as well as faecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGCMs), which were also assessed on days 6 and 12. Focal animals housed at higher stocking densities spent less time lying during one of the continuous observation periods, but no important effects on the overall number of animals lying or on the synchronicity of lying were evident. The scan sampling results indicated that the expression of some preferred lying positions was impaired at high stocking densities, and that high stocking densities also resulted in increased agonistic social interactions and displacement events at the start of the trial. There was a slight reduction in day 18 live weights for animals housed at higher stocking densities, but FGCM concentrations and immune cell counts were essentially unaffected. Trough space had no important effects on day 18 live weight, FGCM concentrations, or immune cell counts, and had limited effects on sheep behaviour. The lack of important impacts on biological fitness traits suggests that the behavioural responses observed were sufficient in allowing sheep to cope with their environment. However, we provide evidence that the provision of additional space is beneficial in reducing the time it takes for animals to adapt to their environment and to facilitate the expression of some preferred lying positions. While designed to emulate certain conditions relevant during live export voyages, some factors that may induce stress during this mode of transport were not present such as heat and ocean swell, so the conclusions must be interpreted in the context of the experimental conditions.
      PubDate: 2022-09-28T00:00:00Z
  • An exploratory study on differences in maternal care between two ecotypes
           of Nigerian indigenous chicken hens

    • Authors: Victor J. Oyeniran, Oluwaseun S. Iyasere, Samuel O. Durosaro, Fasasi B. Fasasi, Peace O. Odetayo, Sulaiman A. Ogunfuyi, Paul O. Odetunde, Taiwo C. Akintayo, James O. Daramola
      Abstract: The Yoruba (YRE) and Fulani (FLE) are the two notable indigenous chicken ecotypes in Nigeria. They exhibit broodiness and post-hatch care of their chicks. Studies on welfare, productivity, and maternal behaviors of these two ecotypes are scarce, hence the need for this study. Separate flocks of these ecotypes were housed intensively and hens that showed broodiness (ten YRE and five FLE) were monitored. Brooding behaviors were monitored for 3 days in the 1st and 2nd weeks of brooding and daily in the 3rd week of brooding for 6 h/day (07:00–09:00 h, 11:00–13:00 h, and 15:00–17:00 h). During brooding, surface body temperatures (eye, brood patch and under the wings), egg temperature and body weight of the hens were measured. Chicks hatched (44 chicks from the YRE and 24 chicks from the FLE) by these hens were subjected to tonic immobility tests on the 7th, 14th, and 21st days post-hatch and to a simulated predator test on the 8th, 15th, and 22nd days post-hatch to determine their level of fear. In each ecotype, brooding behaviors did not change over the three weeks, but the YRE hens spent longer time sitting on their eggs at the 2nd (U = 5.000, z = −2.454, P = 0.014) and 3rd (U = 9.000, z = −1.961, P = 0.050) week of brooding. The surface body temperatures of both ecotypes, egg temperature, and relative weekly weight loss were similar over the brooding period, but relative weekly weight loss was greater (P < 0.05) at the 3rd than 1st and 2nd week of brooding. The surface body temperatures were positively correlated (P < 0.01) with egg temperature. In both ecotypes, attempts to induce and duration of tonic immobility were similar over the test periods but on the 7th day post-hatch, the duration of tonic immobility was longer (U = 323.000, z = −2.632, P = 0.008) and on the 14th day post-hatch, the number of attempts to induce tonic immobility was less (U = 332.000, z = −2.630, P = 0.009) in the YRE chicks. In conclusion, YRE hens sat more on the eggs and their chicks were more fearful.
      PubDate: 2022-09-28T00:00:00Z
  • Safety of the Salmonella enterica serotype Dublin strain Sdu189-derived
           live attenuated vaccine—A pilot study

    • Authors: Fuzhong Wang, Lei Wang, Haojie Ge, Xiaobo Wang, Yaxin Guo, Zhengzhong Xu, Shizhong Geng, Xin'an Jiao, Xiang Chen
      Abstract: Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin (S. Dublin) is an important zoonotic pathogen with high invasiveness. In the prevention and control of the Salmonella epidemic, the live attenuated vaccine plays a very important role. To prevent and control the epidemic of S. Dublin in cattle farms, the development of more effective vaccines is necessary. In this study, we constructed two gene deletion mutants, Sdu189ΔspiC and Sdu189ΔspiCΔaroA, with the parental strain S. Dublin Sdu189. The immunogenicity and protective efficacy were evaluated in the mice model. First, both mutant strains were much less virulent than the parental strain, as determined by the 50% lethal dose (LD50) for specific pathogen-free (SPF) 6-week-old female BALB/c mice. Second, the specific IgG antibody level and the expression level of cytokine TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-18 were increased significantly in the vaccinated mice compared to the control group. In addition, the deletion strains were cleared rapidly from organs of immunized mice within 14 d after immunization, while the parental strain could still be detected in the spleen and liver after 21 d of infection. Compared with the parental strain infected group, no obvious lesions were detected in the liver, spleen, and cecum of the deletion strain vaccinated groups of mice. Immunization with Sdu189ΔspiC and Sdu189ΔspiCΔaroA both provided 100% protection against subsequent challenges with the wild-type Sdu189 strain. These results demonstrated that these two deletion strains showed the potential as live attenuated vaccines against S. Dublin infection. The present study established a foundation for screening a suitable live attenuated Salmonella vaccine.
      PubDate: 2022-09-28T00:00:00Z
  • Inguinal lymph node sample collected by minimally invasive sampler helps
           to accurately diagnose ASF in dead pigs without necropsy

    • Authors: Xiaowen Li, Yang Li, Mingyu Fan, Shiran Fan, Wenchao Gao, Jing Ren, Qingyuan Liu, Jingtao Li, Weisheng Wu, Junxian Li, Qiannan Yu, Xinglong Wang, Zhichun Yan
      Abstract: African swine fever (ASF) is a highly contagious hemorrhagic and transboundary animal disease, and it threatens global food security. A full necropsy to harvest the sample matrices for diagnosis in the farm may lead to contamination of the premises and directly threaten to the herds. In the present study, we compared the ASFV loads of the common samples that can be collected without necropsy. The unmatched nasal, throat, rectal samples were randomly taken using cotton swabs, and inguinal lymph node samples were collected by the minimally invasive samplers from the dead pigs of an ASF field outbreak farm. The ASFV loads of the samples were detected by qPCR and the results suggested that the overall ASFV nucleic acids levels of inguinal lymph node samples were higher than the swabs. What's more, sets of matched nasal swabs, rectal swabs, throat swabs, inguinal lymph nodes, serums, spleens and lungs samples were collected from 15 dead ASFV naturally infected pigs. Similarly, the results showed that inguinal lymph node samples, together with serum, spleen and lungs samples, contained more ASFV nucleic acids than the swabs. Our findings demonstrated that the inguinal lymph node collected by minimally invasive sampler is an ideal tissue for diagnosing ASFV infection in dead pigs without necropsy.
      PubDate: 2022-09-28T00:00:00Z
  • Serum steroid profiling of hepatocellular carcinoma associated with
           hyperadrenocorticism in dogs: A preliminary study|Background|Materials and

    • Authors: Thandar Oo, Noboru Sasaki, Yoshinori Ikenaka, Takahiro Ichise, Noriyuki Nagata, Nozomu Yokoyama, Kazuyoshi Sasaoka, Keitaro Morishita, Kensuke Nakamura, Mitsuyoshi Takiguchi
      Abstract: BackgroundHepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common primary liver tumors in humans and dogs. Excessive adrenocortical hormone exposure may cause steroid hepatopathy, which may develop into HCC. In our previous study, hyperadrenocorticism (HAC) was a highly concurrent disease in dogs with HCC. Therefore, this study hypothesized that adrenal steroid alterations might be involved in hepatocarcinogenesis and aimed to specify the relationship between HAC and HCC in dogs.Materials and methodsThis study included 46 dogs brought to the Hokkaido University Veterinary Teaching Hospital between March 2019 and December 2020. Owners gave their signed consent for blood collection on their first visit. A total of 19 steroids (14 steroids and 5 metabolites) in the baseline serum of 15 dogs with HCC, 15 dogs with HAC, and 10 dogs with both diseases were quantitatively measured using the developed liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method.ResultsIn each group, 11 steroids were detected higher than 50%. The detection rate of steroid hormones did not significantly differ between the groups (p> 0.05). Principle component analysis (PCA) showed that the steroid profiles of the three groups were comparable. Median steroid hormone concentrations were not significantly different between the study diseases (p> 0.05).ConclusionThe developed LC/MS/MS was useful for measuring steroid hormones. Although it was clear that HAC was concurrent in dogs with HCC, none of the serum steroids was suggested to be involved in HCC.
      PubDate: 2022-09-28T00:00:00Z
  • Contrast-enhanced ultrasound features of focal pancreatic lesions in cats

    • Authors: Silvia Burti, Alessandro Zotti, Giuseppe Rubini, Riccardo Orlandi, Paolo Bargellini, Federico Bonsembiante, Barbara Contiero, Mabel Marcuzzi, Tommaso Banzato
      Abstract: A large overlap in the ultrasound (US) features of focal pancreatic lesions (FPLs) in cats is reported. Furthermore, only a small number of studies describing the contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) features of FPLs in cats have been conducted today. The aim of this study is to describe the B-mode US and CEUS features of FPLs in cats. Ninety-eight cats cytologically diagnosed with FPL were included. The lesions were classified as adenocarcinoma (n = 40), lymphoma (n = 11), nodular hyperplasia (n = 17), other benign lesion (OBL) (n = 20), cyst (n = 4) or other malignant lesion (OML) (n = 6). Several qualitative and quantitative B-mode and CEUS features were described in each case. OMLs and cysts were not included in the statistical analysis. A decision tree to classify the lesions based on their B-mode and CEUS features was developed. The overall accuracy of the cross-validation of the decision tree was 0.74 (95% CI: 0.63–0.83). The developed decision tree had a very high sensitivity and specificity for nodular hyperplasia (1 and 0.94, respectively) as well as good sensitivity and specificity for both adenocarcinomas (0.85 and 0.77, respectively) and OBLs also (0.70 and 0.93, respectively). The algorithm was unable to detect any specific feature for classifying lymphomas, and almost all the lymphomas were classified as adenocarcinomas. The combination between CEUS and B-mode US is very accurate in the classification of some FPLs, especially nodular hyperplasia and adenocarcinomas. Cytopathology and or histopathology is still a fundamental step FPL diagnostic workflow.
      PubDate: 2022-09-28T00:00:00Z
  • Borrelia spirochetes in European exotic farm animals

    • Authors: Johana Hrnková, Marina Golovchenko, Abubakar Sadiq Musa, Tersia Needham, Jignesh Italiya, Francisco Ceacero, Radim Kotrba, Libor Grubhoffer, Natalie Rudenko, Jirí Cerný
      Abstract: Ticks transmit a broad spectrum of pathogens, threatening both animal and human health. Tick survival and proliferation are strongly dependent on host selection and suitability. The hard tick Ixodes ricinus, which is widespread throughout most of Europe, is a host generalist capable of feeding on many different vertebrate species. Pasture-kept exotic farm animals may be at a high risk for tick and tick-borne pathogens infestations but research characterizing this is currently lacking. This study focused on the detection of Borrelia spirochetes (including Borrelia miyamotoi) in exotic farm animals. Using nested-PCR with Borrelia-specific primers, 121 serum samples from 54 exotic farm animals of several species bred in four different farms in Bohemia and Moravia (Czechia) were tested. Positive samples were sequenced for the identification of Borrelia species. The prevalence of Borrelia DNA in the samples ranged from 13 to 67%, depending on the sampling site. The sequencing results confirmed the DNA presence of multiple spirochete species from the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. Only one sample from an ostrich (Struthio camelus) was found to be positive for Borrelia myiamotoi. The results show that exotic farm animals can serve as hosts for hard ticks and can be infected by Borrelia spirochetes, transmitted by hard ticks. Therefore, these animals could play a relevant role in maintaining Borrelia spirochetes in nature.
      PubDate: 2022-09-28T00:00:00Z
  • Editorial: The interaction between digestive tract microbes and hosts in

    • Authors: Yan Hu, Shourong Shi
      PubDate: 2022-09-27T00:00:00Z
  • Evaluation of the in vitro acaricidal activity of Chinese herbal compounds
           on the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae)

    • Authors: Yichen Jian, Huizhen Yuan, Dongliang Li, Qing Guo, Xiaoying Li, Sumei Zhang, Changshen Ning, Longxian Zhang, Fuchun Jian
      Abstract: The poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae is an economically important pest in poultry farms worldwide, but an effective treatment option is lacking. The current study determined the effectiveness of six Chinese herbal medicines [Syzygium aromaticum (clove), Hibiscus syriacus (Hibiscus), Illicium verum (star anise), Leonurus artemisia (motherwort), Cinnamomum cassia (cinnamon), and Taraxacum sp. (dandelion)] against D. gallinae. Alcohol extracts were prepared via the solvent extraction method and the phenol, flavonoid, and tannin contents were determined. These active components were highest in S. aromaticum and lowest in H. syriacus, I. verum. No tannin content was detected in L. artemisia. All extracts showed contact toxicity against D. gallinae at a test concentration of 1 g/mL, with S. aromaticum and L. artemisia resulting in 100% mortality. S. aromaticum, L. artemisia, and I. verum showed the best efficacy (LC50 0.159, 0.200, and 0.292 g/mL, respectively). Different combinations of extracts showed an additive effect of I. verum LC90 + L. artemisia LC90. The acaricidal efficacy of this combination was tested against different developmental stages of D. gallinae, being most efficacious against nymphal and larval D. gallinae, with a corrected mortality rate of 100%. However, inhibition of egg hatching was only 53.69%. Taken together, these results highlight I. verum LC90 + L. artemisia LC90 as a promising compound with severe contact toxicity against D. gallinae. Given the wide cultivation of these species and their extensive use in foodstuffs and cosmetics as flavors and fragrances, they could be a cheap, readily available ecofriendly alternative to pesticides currently used in poultry farms.
      PubDate: 2022-09-27T00:00:00Z
  • Editorial: Emerging infections and diseases of herpetofauna

    • Authors: Steven J. R. Allain, Amanda L. J. Duffus, Rachel E. Marschang
      PubDate: 2022-09-27T00:00:00Z
  • Evaluation of the pulmonary vein ostia during the cardiac cycle using
           electrocardiography-gated cardiac computed tomography in cats

    • Authors: Junyoung Kim, Dae-Hyun Kim, Kitae Kim, Dayoung Oh, Jihye Choi, Junghee Yoon
      Abstract: Several studies in humans have provided detailed descriptions of the anatomy of the pulmonary veins (PVs) and their ostia for the implementation of thoracic interventions, such as radiofrequency ablation, for patients with atrial fibrillation. These studies have shown that electrocardiography (ECG)-gated multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) can evaluate the dimensional variations in the PVs or ostium according to the cardiac cycle. However, few studies have examined the PVs or ostia using MDCT in veterinary medicine. Therefore, this study investigated the variation in the diameter of the PV ostium in cats during the cardiac cycle using ECG-gated MDCT and determined the correlation between the size of the heart or left atrium (LA) and diameter of the PV ostium. This study included six cats, including five normal animals and one cat with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The PVs were found to drain into the LA via three ostia, i.e., the right cranial ostium, left cranial ostium, and caudodorsal ostium. Moreover, a diametric variation was observed in all PV ostia according to the cardiac cycle phase on ECG-gated MDCT: the maximal diameter was observed at the end of ventricular systole, and the minimal diameter was observed at the end of ventricular diastole for each PV ostium. There were no significant correlations between the heart or LA size and maximal or minimal diameter of each of the three PV ostia (p> 0.05); however, the enlargement of each PV ostium at the end of ventricular systole differed significantly from that at the end of ventricular diastole. This study suggested the clinical feasibility of ECG-gated MDCT in providing more detailed anatomical information about the PVs, including the dimensional changes during the cardiac cycle in cats. Based on this study, knowledge of the variations in the PV ostium offers interesting avenues for research into the effect of PV function. Furthermore, ECG-gated MDCT could allow for greater clinical application of interventional procedures in animals with various cardiac diseases.
      PubDate: 2022-09-27T00:00:00Z
  • Case report: Fluoroscopic-assisted closed reduction and minimally invasive
           femoral capital physeal fracture repair in four calves|Objective|Study
           design|Animal|Methods|Results/outcome|Conclusion|Clinical impact

    • Authors: Avery F. Loyd, Dane M. Tatarniuk, Jaron H. Naiman, Paul T. Merkatoris, Jarrod R. Troy
      Abstract: ObjectiveTo describe a minimally invasive osteosynthesis (MIO) femoral capital physeal fracture (FCPF) repair technique using multiple smooth Steinmann pins in four calves.Study designCase series.AnimalFour calves (< 60 days of age).MethodsMedical records at a single referral hospital were searched for calves that had minimally invasive osteosynthesis (MIO) femoral capital physeal fracture (FCPF) repair performed using multiple Steinmann pins between 2020 and 2021. Calves receiving alternative repair, euthanasia without repair, or> 60 days of age were excluded. Medical records were reviewed together the following information: inciting FCPF cause, patient signalment, clinical sign duration pre-admission, history of dystocia, and any pre-admission treatment. Preoperative parameters collected included packed cell volume (PCV), serum total solids (TS), additional bloodwork when available, peripheral blood glucose, antimicrobial therapy, and analgesic medications. Preoperative coxofemoral radiographic images of all calves were obtained.Results/outcomeFour calves were presented with severe hind limb lameness from varying etiologies. FCPF was diagnosed in all calves via radiograph. All FCPFs were repaired with an MIO repair technique using multiple Steinmann pins. Intraoperative fracture reduction and fixation were deemed appropriate by the attending surgeon with the use of fluoroscopy. Postoperatively, all calves retained normal weight bearing and were ambulating. One calf died postoperatively due to an unrelated comorbidity (severe bronchopneumonia and hyperkalemia). The three remaining calves survived to hospital discharge and were ambulating normally with an adequate range of motion at the time of discharge. Long-term follow-up reports were available for two cases, which revealed long-term survival at 210- and 146-days. Owners reported good ambulation, and one of the calves was placed in the show ring and was performing. However, one calf was lost to long-term follow-up.ConclusionMIO FCPF repair with multiple Steinmann pins, previously described in small animal species, can be implemented for FCPF repair in young calves.Clinical impactThis case series provides a foundation for minimally invasive osteosynthesis technique translation to large animal juveniles and reports an alternative MIO technique for capital physeal closed fracture repair in calves.
      PubDate: 2022-09-26T00:00:00Z
  • Analysis of supplemental wildlife feeding in Mississippi and environmental
           gastrointestinal parasite load

    • Authors: Miranda H. J. Huang, Steve Demarais, W. Cooper Brookshire, Bronson K. Strickland
      Abstract: Wildlife species are host to a variety of gastrointestinal parasites (GIPs). Artificially concentrating animals may increase the risk of disease spread due to increased GIP load and associated environmental load. Supplemental feeding of deer is common among hunters and known to concentrate animals, but there is limited knowledge of how it affects GIP environmental load. GIP load was compared between ecologically-equivalent pairs of sites in Mississippi with and without year-round supplemental feeding (average distance between pairs = 147 m). During May-August in 2019 and 2020, feces from white-tailed deer and raccoons were collected and examined for the presence of nematodes, coccidia, Giardia spp., Cryptosporidium spp., and Baylisascaris procyonis. On average, fed sites had 8 more deer (241% increase) and 2 more raccoon fecal piles (540% increase) than unfed sites. Average parasite loads for individual fecal samples did not differ between fed and unfed sites, but the greater number of deer and raccoon fecal piles at fed sites (p < 0.0001) produced 231% and 308% greater environmental loads of nematodes and coccidia, respectively. Spin feeders, the only feeder type that distributed feed on the ground, had 326% more coccidia in feces on average compared to other feeder types (p < 0.03). These results show that supplemental feeding of white-tailed deer, especially with spin feeders, increases environmental loads of GIP and the potential for transmission of parasitic diseases.
      PubDate: 2022-09-26T00:00:00Z
  • Laparoscopic attenuation of a congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunt
           in a dog—a thin-film banding for splenophrenic shunt: A case report

    • Authors: Jiyoung Park, Kwangsik Jang, Hyun Min Jo, Se Eun Kim
      Abstract: A 6-year-old castrated male Shih-Tzu dog weighing 6. 5 kg presented with chief complaints of pollakiuria and urine dribbling. He had a history of urolithiasis for 3 years, which was confirmed by the presence of ammonium urate in the urinary stone analysis, performed 2 years prior to the presentation. Blood examination showed high values of fasting ammonia, post-prandial bile acid, and low blood urea nitrogen. Microhepatica and urolithiasis were identified on plain radiography and ultrasonography. A computed tomography angiography demonstrated a shunting vessel, diameter up to 9.6 mm, originated from the splenic vein, and linked with the phrenic vein. A surgical attenuation with a thin-film banding was performed under laparoscopic visualization. Left triangular ligament was incised, and one stay suture was placed to the stomach to expose the vessel. The shunting vessel was dissected before it entered the diaphragm, and a thin-film band was applied around the vessel. The patient recovered uneventfully without post-attenuation neurologic signs. Portal vein diameter increased with time, and complete closure of the shunting vessel was identified on computed tomography angiography performed at 14 months after attenuation. The patient was doing well for 31 months after surgery without protein restriction. This is a report of laparoscopic attenuation for splenophrenic type of canine congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunt with a favorable outcome using thin-film banding.
      PubDate: 2022-09-26T00:00:00Z
  • Using Community Conversations to explore animal welfare perceptions and
           practices of rural households in Ethiopia

    • Authors: Mamusha Lemma, Rebecca Doyle, Gezahegn Alemayehu, Mesfin Mekonnen, Adem Kumbe, Barbara Wieland
      Abstract: There is a scarcity of data on animal welfare and its impact on livelihoods to inform animal welfare initiatives in Ethiopia. Perceptions and practices of rural households toward animal welfare are influenced by socio-cultural, demographic, and agroecological factors. We conducted Community Conversations in two geographically and culturally diverse regions of Ethiopia to explore the attitudes and practices of rural households regarding animal welfare and its impact on livelihoods. Community Conversations are facilitated dialogues among rural households to explore their perceptions, practices, constraints, and needs and identify and co-create solutions to improve the welfare of their animals. We used single- and mixed-sex discussion groups to understand community members' gendered perceptions of animal welfare and influence their attitudes and practices toward gender-equitable roles in animal welfare management. In the Community Conversations, community members readily described the biological needs of their animals but there was also a good acknowledgment of the behavioral and affective state needs of animals. Identified constraints for animal welfare included feed and water shortage, limited veterinary support, and poor animal handling practices. Community members described the welfare of their animals as being intertwined with their own livelihoods and identified productive, public health, and non-economic benefits of good animal welfare. Raising awareness of animal welfare within rural communities through Community Conversations is a useful way to both identify livestock production needs as well as engage community members in making practical improvements in animal welfare. The understanding of perceptions, practices, and needs of rural households in animal welfare helps engage communities in starting behavioral change and provides insights into developing context-specific welfare improvement interventions. Community Conversations are also an effective way to feedback community voices into planning to build a bottom-up implementation of animal welfare programs.
      PubDate: 2022-09-26T00:00:00Z
  • Impact of preweaning vaccination on host gene expression and antibody
           titers in healthy beef calves

    • Authors: Matthew A. Scott, Amelia R. Woolums, Brandi B. Karisch, Kelsey M. Harvey, Sarah F. Capik
      Abstract: The impact of preweaning vaccination for bovine respiratory viruses on cattle health and subsequent bovine respiratory disease morbidity has been widely studied yet questions remain regarding the impact of these vaccines on host response and gene expression. Six randomly selected calves were vaccinated twice preweaning (T1 and T3) with a modified live vaccine for respiratory pathogens and 6 randomly selected calves were left unvaccinated. Whole blood samples were taken at first vaccination (T1), seven days later (T2), at revaccination and castration (T3), and at weaning (T4), and utilized for RNA isolation and sequencing. Serum from T3 and T4 was analyzed for antibodies to BRSV, BVDV1a, and BHV1. Sequenced RNA for all 48 samples was bioinformatically processed with a HISAT2/StringTie pipeline, utilizing reference guided assembly with the ARS-UCD1.2 bovine genome. Differentially expressed genes were identified through analyzing the impact of time across all calves, influence of vaccination across treatment groups at each timepoint, and the interaction of time and vaccination. Calves, regardless of vaccine administration, demonstrated an increase in gene expression over time related to specialized proresolving mediator production, lipid metabolism, and stimulation of immunoregulatory T-cells. Vaccination was associated with gene expression related to natural killer cell activity and helper T-cell differentiation, enriching for an upregulation in Th17-related gene expression, and downregulated genes involved in complement system activity and coagulation mechanisms. Type-1 interferon production was unaffected by the influence of vaccination nor time. To our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate mechanisms of vaccination and development in healthy calves through RNA sequencing analysis.
      PubDate: 2022-09-26T00:00:00Z
  • Shear wave elastography measurements in dogs treated surgically for
           congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunts

    • Authors: Merle Toom, Jimmy H. Saunders, Luc Duchateau, Goncalo Serrano, Hilde De Rooster, Nausikaa Devriendt, Emmelie Stock
      Abstract: Assessing the postoperative surgical success of congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunt (EHPSS) attenuation can be challenging and involve invasive imaging methods. Elastography is an ultrasound technique that allows qualitative and quantitative estimation of tissue stiffness and has extensively been used in people with liver disease. In recent years, increased interest in this technique has developed in veterinary medicine due to its non-invasive nature, availability, and low cost. The objective of this study was to compare liver stiffness values between dogs with closed EHPSS and those with multiple acquired portosystemic shunts (MAPSS) after gradual surgical attenuation and to assess whether shear wave elastography could be used to determine EHPSS closure. As a secondary objective, measurements obtained from both intercostal and subxiphoidal views were compared. Mean values for the average, median, and maximum two-dimensional shear wave velocities (2D SWV) for the closed EHPSS were 2.88 +/−0.11 m/s; 2.83 +/−0.11 m/s; and 3.75 +/−0.16 m/s, respectively. In the MAPSS dogs, mean values for the average, median, and maximum 2D SWV were 2.77 +/– 0.17 m/s; 2.71 +/– 0.17 m/s; and 3.66 +/−0.24 m/s, respectively. No significant differences in 2D SWV were present between dogs with closed EHPSS and those with MAPSS (P = 0.33; P = 0.33; P = 0.42, respectively). When assessing potential differences between intercostal and subxiphoidal 2D SWV measurements, no effect was observed for the average and median 2D SWV (P = 0.06; P = 0.07, respectively). Yet, a significant difference was identified for the maximum 2D SWV between intercostal 4.00 +/−0.20 m/s and subxiphoidal 3.41 +/−0.17 m/s measurements (P = 0.02). The relevance of this finding is uncertain as many other studies about liver elastography only report mean and not maximum values.
      PubDate: 2022-09-26T00:00:00Z
  • Unhandled horses classified with broken/unbroken test (BUT) exhibit longer
           avoidance, flight reactions, and displacement behaviors when approached by

    • Authors: Maria Giorgia Riva, Lucia Sobrero, Laura Menchetti, Michela Minero, Barbara Padalino, Emanuela Dalla Costa
      Abstract: Horses with a low level of tameness are at higher risk for transport-related disease and injury; hence, European regulations for the protection of animals during transport (EC 1/2005) are stricter for unhandled (unbroken) horses. However, the regulation does not provide adequate tools for unhandled horse identification. The Broken/Unbroken Test (BUT) was developed and validated to easily identify whether a horse is broken (handled) or not. As a further validation step, the aim of this study was to assess whether there is any correspondence between the BUT classification and the behavioral response of the horse. A total of 100 healthy Italian Heavy Draft horses were video recorded when assessed with the BUT. In total, 90 videos (48 handled and 42 unhandled horses) matched the inclusion criteria and were assessed. The behavior of each horse was evaluated by three observers blinded as to the horses' experience with a focal animal continuous recording method. Behaviors were classified in four categories: stress, avoidance, displacement, and aggression. A Mann–Whitney test was used to identify differences in behavioral patterns between horses classified as handled or unhandled with the BUT. Unhandled horses showed not only a significantly longer time to be approached by the handler but also more avoidance and flight reactions (p < 0.001). Unhandled horses showed significantly longer displacement behaviors, such as sniffing (p < 0.001). These findings further validate the BUT classification and confirm that horses classified as unhandled are more prone to show avoidance and flight reactions when approached by humans. For this reason, the adoption of the BUT could be helpful to minimize humans' horse-related injuries and, if applied regularly before loading, to contribute to safeguard the welfare of horses during transport.
      PubDate: 2022-09-26T00:00:00Z
  • Polypharmacology-based approach for screening TCM against coinfection of
           Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Escherichia coli

    • Authors: Jiaxin Bao, Yuan Wang, Shun Wang, Dong Niu, Ze Wang, Rui Li, Yadan Zheng, Muhammad Ishfaq, Zhiyong Wu, Jichang Li
      Abstract: Natural products and their unique polypharmacology offer significant advantages for finding novel therapeutics particularly for the treatment of complex diseases. Meanwhile, Traditional Chinese Medicine exerts overall clinical benefits through a multi-component and multi-target approach. In this study, we used the previously established co-infection model of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Escherichia coli as a representative of complex diseases. A new combination consisting of 6 herbs were obtained by using network pharmacology combined with transcriptomic analysis to reverse screen TCMs from the Chinese medicine database, containing Isatdis Radix, Forsythia Fructus, Ginkgo Folium, Mori Cortex, Licorice, and Radix Salviae. The results of therapeutic trials showed that the Chinese herbal compounds screened by the target network played a good therapeutic effect in the case of co-infection. In summary, these data suggested a new method to validate target combinations of natural products that can be used to optimize their multiple structure-activity relationships to obtain drug-like natural product derivatives.
      PubDate: 2022-09-26T00:00:00Z
  • Ability of donkey sperm to tolerate cooling: Effect of extender base and
           removal of seminal plasma on sperm parameters and fertility rates in mares

    • Authors: Mariana L. M. Gobato, Lorenzo G. T. M. Segabinazzi, Verônica F. C. Scheeren, Rafael S. Bandeira, Camila P. Freitas-Dell'Aqua, José A. Dell'Aqua, Frederico O. Papa
      Abstract: Artificial insemination using cooled-transported semen has marked importance in equine breeding programs around the world, and the high value of mules has generated avid interest in donkey semen biotechnology. However, donkey semen cools poorly in commercially available equine extenders. Therefore, this study aimed to develop approaches to improve the ability of donkey semen to tolerate cooling. Ejaculates of seven donkeys (n = 21) were cooled at 5°C for 48 h in three different extenders (milk-based, SM; sodium caseinate-based, SC; or egg yolk-based, EY) in the presence or absence of seminal plasma (centrifugation, C). Sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity (PMI), plasma membrane stability (PMS), mitochondrial membrane potential (HMMP), intracellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and intracellular superoxide (O2−) were assessed before, 24 h, and 48 h post-cooling. In addition, 15 mares (163 estrous cycles) were randomly inseminated with semen from two jacks (Jack 1, n = 90; Jack 2, n = 73) previously cooled for 24 h under one of the treatments (SM, SC, EY, SM-C, SC-C, or EY-C). Groups EY, SC-C, and EY-C (P < 0.05) demonstrated superior sperm analytical parameters to SM at 24 and 48 h. Centrifugation positively affected sperm analytical parameters in cooled donkey semen extended in SM and SC (P < 0.05). Mares bred with semen extended in SC (67%, 18/27), SC-C (89%, 24/27), EY (89%, 25/28), or EY-C (74%, 20/27) had significantly greater conception rates than mares bred with SM (33%, 9/27; P < 0.05). Mares bred with SM-C had intermediate conception rates (59%, 16/27). In conclusion, SC and EY improved the cooling ability and fertility of donkey semen in horse mares, and centrifugation positively affected donkey semen extended in SM.
      PubDate: 2022-09-26T00:00:00Z
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762

Your IP address:
Home (Search)
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-