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  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 220 journals)
Showing 1 - 63 of 63 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abanico Veterinario     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Research in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Small Animal Care     Full-text available via subscription  
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Agrivet : Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Pertanian dan Peternakan / Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Veteriner)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences     Open Access  
American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Analecta Veterinaria     Open Access  
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal - Science Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 181)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Animal Health Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Anthrozoos : A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Applied Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archiva Zootehnica     Open Access  
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi / Atatürk University Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Austral Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Equine Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Avian Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access  
Bangladesh Veterinarian     Open Access  
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Veteriner Udayana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CES Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia     Open Access  
Chilean Journal of Agricultural & Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Ciencia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access  
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Compendio de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Equine Veterinary Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Equine Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
EUREKA : Health Sciences     Open Access  
FAVE Sección Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Folia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Frontiers in Veterinary Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human & Veterinary Medicine - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ILAR Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Indonesia Medicus Veterinus     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intas Polivet     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Equine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Tropical Veterinary and Biomedical Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
InVet     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Iranian Journal of Veterinary Surgery     Open Access  
Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Irish Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Buffalo Science     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Parasite Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Small Animal Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of the Hellenic Veterinary Medical Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Selva Andina Research Society     Open Access  
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Veterinary Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Veterinary Forensic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medical Diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medicine     Open Access  
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu dan Kesehatan Hewan (Veterinary Science and Medicine Journal)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Medik Veteriner     Open Access  
Jurnal Medika Veterinaria     Open Access  
Jurnal Sain Veteriner     Open Access  
Jurnal Veteriner     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Kenya Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
kleintier konkret     Hybrid Journal  
Livestock     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Macedonian Veterinary Review     Open Access  
Matrix Science Medica     Open Access  
Medical Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Medical Mycology Case Reports     Open Access  
Medicina Veterinária (UFRPE)     Open Access  
Nepalese Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
New Zealand Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
New Zealand Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nigerian Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pet Behaviour Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
pferde spiegel     Hybrid Journal  
Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Preventive Veterinary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Rassegna di Diritto, Legislazione e Medicina Legale Veterinaria     Open Access  
Reproduction in Domestic Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Research in Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Research Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Veterinária     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Higiene e Sanidade Animal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencia Animal     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias (Colombian journal of animal science and veterinary medicine)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Complutense de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista de Ciência Veterinária e Saúde Pública     Open Access  
Revista de Ciências Agroveterinárias     Open Access  
Revista de Educação Continuada em Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú     Open Access  
Revista de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revista de Salud Animal     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista MVZ Córdoba     Open Access  
Revista Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revue Marocaine des Sciences Agronomiques et Vétérinaires     Open Access  
Revue Vétérinaire Clinique     Full-text available via subscription  
Salud y Tecnología Veterinaria     Open Access  
Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde     Hybrid Journal  
Science and Animal Health     Open Access  
Small Ruminant Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Spei Domus     Open Access  
Sri Lanka Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
SVU-International Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Tanzania Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
team.konkret     Open Access  
Theoretical and Applied Veterinary Medicine     Open Access  
Theriogenology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Tierärztliche Praxis Ausgabe G: Großtiere / Nutztiere     Hybrid Journal  
Tierärztliche Praxis Ausgabe K: Kleintiere / Heimtiere     Hybrid Journal  
Topics in Companion Animal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Trends in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tropical Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Turkish Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access  
UK Vet Equine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Ukrainian Journal of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences     Open Access  
Van Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
VCOT Open     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
veterinär spiegel     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Veterinaria     Open Access  
Veterinaria (Montevideo)     Open Access  
Veterinaria México     Open Access  
Veterinaria México OA     Open Access  
Veterinarski Glasnik     Open Access  
Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Veterinary and Animal Science     Open Access  
Veterinary and Comparative Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Veterinary Clinical Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Veterinary Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Veterinary Journal of Mehmet Akif Ersoy University / Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Veterinary Medicine and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Veterinary Medicine International     Open Access   (Followers: 5)

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Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.738
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 4  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2297-1769
Published by Frontiers Media Homepage  [96 journals]
  • Effect of the COVID-19 pandemic and international travel ban on elephant
           tourist camp management in northern Thailand

    • Authors: Jarawee Supanta, Janine L. Brown, Pakkanut Bansiddhi, Chatchote Thitaram, Veerasak Punyapornwithaya, Jaruwan Khonmee
      Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on the tourism industry, especially in Thailand. Starting in April 2020, the Thai government banned international travel and all elephant tourist camps closed. A wide variety of management changes were implemented because of the lack of income from tourists. This study surveyed 30 camps that cared for>400 elephants in northern Thailand to obtain information on camp, elephant, and mahout management during the COVID-19 pandemic from April 2020 to 2022 compared to the year before. The survey consisted of questionnaires that interviewed elephant camp owners, managers, veterinarians, and mahouts, and captured information on changes in camp operations, including numbers of tourists, elephants and mahouts, elephant and mahout activities, and veterinary care. Results revealed significant changes in camp structure, elephant work activities and general care. Staff layoffs led to a decrease in the ratio of mahouts to elephants from 1:1 to 1:2. Elephant activities, distance walked, and amounts of food were reduced when compared to pre-COVID-19, while chain hours were increased due to reduced activity. Overall, the COVID-19 crisis altered elephant management significantly, potentially affecting animal welfare resulting from changes in nutrition, health, exercise, and numbers of mahouts. We hope to use these data to develop better management plans and guidelines for elephant camps in Thailand so they can cope with the current and potential imminent pandemics that result in decreased tourism income. A follow-up study will measure health and welfare markers in relation to COVID-19 induced changes to determine if any camps adapted management to still meet elephant health and welfare needs, and could serve as models for responding to future pandemics.
      PubDate: 2022-12-02T00:00:00Z
  • Investigating risk factors behind piglet facial and sow teat lesions
           through a literature review and a survey on teeth

    • Authors: Jen-Yun Chou, Jeremy N. Marchant, Elena Nalon, Thuy T. T. Huynh, Heleen A. van de Weerd, Laura A. Boyle, Sarah H. Ison
      Abstract: Introduction:Piglet facial and sow teat lesions are the main reported reasons why pig producers routinely practice teeth resection. This is a painful procedure performed on piglets, where their needle teeth are clipped or ground to resect the pointed tip. The practice raises welfare concerns. In contrast to other procedures, such as tail docking, we know little about the risk factors for these two types of lesions.MethodsWe employed two methods to answer these questions: (1) reviewing the literature to identify potential risk factors, and (2) surveying pig production stakeholders worldwide to identify the occurrence of these lesions and the strategies used in practice that enable pig producers to manage or prevent these lesions while avoiding teeth resection. For the literature review, we used Google Scholar to include peer-reviewed publications and gray literature. We distributed the survey using convenience sampling and documented information on the current situation regarding teeth resection, including the methods, frequencies, and reasons for resecting piglets' teeth, the occurrence of piglet facial and sow teat lesions, and measures used to prevent and control these lesions.ResultsThe literature review identified six major risk factors for both lesions, including the presence or absence of teeth resection, housing system, litter size, piglet management, environmental enrichment, milk production and other piglet management practices. However, most studies focused on the effects of the first two factors with very few studies investigating the other risk factors. There were 75 responses to the survey from 17 countries. The survey showed that half of the respondents practiced teeth resection with many recognizing that facial and teat lesions are the main reasons behind this practice. However, many producers used other interventions rather than teeth resection to prevent these lesions. These interventions focused on improving milk production of the sow, managing large litters, and providing environmental enrichment.DiscussionMore research is needed to validate these interventions and more science-based advice is needed to bridge the gap between research and practice to help more producers further understand the cause of piglet facial and sow teat lesions to transition toward the cessation of routine teeth resection.
      PubDate: 2022-12-02T00:00:00Z
  • Stifle kinematics in 4 dogs with cranial cruciate ligament insufficiency
           treated by CORA-based leveling osteotomy|Objective|Study

    • Authors: Selena Tinga, Natalie Hughes, Stephen C. Jones, Brian Park, Lindsey Palm, Sasank S. Desaraju, Scott A. Banks, Sandra L. MacArthur, Daniel D. Lewis
      Abstract: ObjectiveThe purpose of this study was to quantify three-dimensional (3D) stifle kinematics during walking in dogs with complete cranial cruciate ligament insufficiency (CCL-I) treated with a CORA-based leveling osteotomy (CBLO).Study designFour client-owned dogs with unilateral complete CCL-I were prospectively enrolled. Custom digital 3D models of the femora and tibiae were created from pre-and postoperative computed tomographic scans for each dog. Lateral view fluoroscopic images were collected during treadmill walking preoperatively and 6 months after CBLO. Results were generated using a 3D-to-2D image registration process. Pre-and postoperative stifle kinematics (craniocaudal translation, extension angle) were compared to that of the unaffected contralateral (control) stifle. Force plate gait analysis was performed, and symmetry indices (SI) were calculated for peak vertical force (PVF) and vertical impulse (VI).ResultsAfter CBLO, craniocaudal femorotibial motion was reduced by a median (range) of 43.0 (17.0–52.6) % over the complete gait cycle. Median (range) PVF SI was 0.49 (0.26–0.56) preoperatively and 0.92 (0.86–1.00) postoperatively, and VI SI was 0.44 (0.20–0.48) preoperatively and 0.92 (0.82–0.99) postoperatively.ConclusionCBLO mitigated but did not fully resolve abnormal craniocaudal translation; lameness was substantially improved at 6 months.
      PubDate: 2022-12-02T00:00:00Z
  • Perspectives of digital agriculture in diverse types of livestock supply
           chain systems. Making sense of uses and benefits

    • Authors: Derek Baker, Elizabeth L. Jackson, Simon Cook
      Abstract: Digital technology is being introduced to global agriculture in a wide variety of forms that are collectively known as digital agriculture. In this paper we provide opportunities and value propositions of how this is occurring in livestock production systems, with a consistent emphasis on technology relating to animal health, animal welfare, and product quality for value creation. This is achieved by organizing individual accounts of digital agriculture in livestock systems according to four broad types—commodity-based; value seeking; subsistence and nature-based. Each type presents contrasting modes of value creation in downstream processing; as well as from the perspective of One Health. The ideal result of digital technology adoption is an equitable and substantial diversification of supply chains, increased monetization of animal product quality, and more sensitive management to meet customer demands and environmental threats. Such changes have a significance beyond the immediate value generated because they indicate endogenous growth in livestock systems, and may concern externalities imposed by the pursuit of purely commercial ends.
      PubDate: 2022-12-02T00:00:00Z
  • Enhancing passive surveillance for African swine fever detection on U.S.
           swine farms

    • Authors: Rachel Schambow, Yoder Colin, Wright Dave, Daniella N. Schettino, Andres M. Perez
      Abstract: As the threat of African swine fever (ASF) introduction into new areas continues, animal health officials and epidemiologists need novel tools for early detection and surveillance. Passive surveillance from swine producers and veterinarians is critical to identify cases, especially the first introduction. Enhanced passive surveillance (EPS) protocols are needed that maximize temporal sensitivity for early ASF detection yet are easily implemented. Regularly collected production and disease data on swine farms may pose an opportunity for developing EPS protocols. To better understand the types of data regularly collected on swine farms and on-farm disease surveillance, a questionnaire was distributed in summer 2022 across multiple channels to MN swine producers. Thirty responses were received that indicated the majority of farms collect various types of disease information and conduct routine diagnostic testing for endemic swine diseases. Following this, a focus group discussion was held at the 2022 Leman Swine Conference where private and public stakeholders discussed the potential value of EPS, opportunities for collaboration, and challenges. The reported value of EPS varied by stakeholder group, but generally participants felt that for swine producers and packers, EPS would help identify abnormal disease occurrences. Many opportunities were identified for collaboration with ongoing industry initiatives and swine management software. Challenges included maintaining motivation for participation in ASF-free areas, labor, data sharing issues, and the cost of diagnostic testing. These highlight important issues to address, and future collaborations can help in the development of practical, fit-for-purpose, and valuable EPS protocols for ASF detection in the swine industry.
      PubDate: 2022-12-02T00:00:00Z
  • Editorial: Captive animal behavior: Individual differences in learning and
           cognition, and implications on animal welfare

    • Authors: Jan Langbein, Christian Nawroth
      PubDate: 2022-12-02T00:00:00Z
  • Occurrence and reasons for on-farm emergency slaughter of cattle in Norway

    • Authors: Gíslína Skúladóttir, Ingrid Hunter-Holmøy, Clare Joan Phythian, Guro Myhrene, Adam Dunstan Martin
      Abstract: On-farm emergency slaughter (OFES) accounts for more than 4% of all cattle slaughter in Norway. The practice raises questions about animal welfare, public health, and the sustainability of cattle production. The objective of this study was to describe the reasons for OFES as stated on the OFES veterinary certificate. Veterinary certificates for OFES for each animal slaughtered in four chosen slaughterhouses from 4 months (January–April–July–October) in 2018 were transcribed into a database. Secondary data were extracted from national cattle databases and used to supplement primary data with information on breed, sex, and birth date. Breeds were divided into dairy and beef cattle. The reasons for slaughter were reported in text on the certificates and were categorized in the study into 5 reasons: recumbency, mammary gland, obstetrics, locomotion, and other, with a total of 20 subcategories for detail. In total, 2,229 forms were included in the study. Thirteen breeds were represented, although dominated by Norwegian Red within dairy and crossbreed within beef. Of the cattle in the study, 46% were slaughtered for locomotion reasons, thereof almost half for lameness. Furthermore, 23% of the cattle in the study were slaughtered for recumbency and 17% for prolapse or dystocia. A higher proportion of dairy cows were slaughtered because of reasons related to mammary glands than beef cows, 10 and 2%, respectively. Almost 30% of beef cows were slaughtered for obstetrics reasons compared to 12% of dairy cows. The results of this study shed light on the reasons for OFES, which is highly relevant to greater discussions of sustainability in cattle production and animal welfare related to on-farm mortality.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01T00:00:00Z
  • MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry profiling of bovine skim milk for subclinical
           mastitis detection|Introduction|Materials and methods|Results and

    • Authors: Matteo Cuccato, Sara Divari, Paola Sacchi, Flavia Girolami, Francesca Tiziana Cannizzo
      Abstract: IntroductionMastitis is one of most impacting health issues in bovine dairy farming that reduces milk yield and quality, leading to important economic losses. Subclinical forms of the disease are routinely monitored through the measurement of somatic cell count (SCC) and microbiological tests. However, their identification can be tricky, reducing the possibilities of early treatments. In this study, a MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry approach was applied to milk samples collected from cows classified according to the SCC, to identify differences in polypeptide/protein profiles.Materials and methodsTwenty-nine raw milk samples with SCC>200,000 cell/ml (group H) and 91 samples with SCC lower than 200,000 (group L) were randomly collected from 12 dairy farms. Spectral profiles from skim milk were acquired in the positive linear mode within the 4,000–20,000 m/z mass acquisition range.Results and discussionBased on signal intensity, a total of 24 peaks emerged as significant different between the two groups. The most discriminant signals (4,218.2 and 4,342.98 m/z) presented a ROC curve with AUC values higher than 0.8. Classification algorithms (i.e., quick classifier, genetic algorithm, and supervised neural network) were applied for generating models able to classify new spectra (i.e., samples) into the two classes. Our results support the MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry profiling as a tool to detect mastitic milk samples and to potentially discover biomarkers of the disease. Thanks to its rapidity and low-cost, such method could be associated with the SCC measurement for the early diagnosis of subclinical mastitis.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01T00:00:00Z
  • Beyond antioxidants: Selenium and skeletal muscle mitochondria

    • Authors: Lauren T. Wesolowski, Pier L. Semanchik, Sarah H. White-Springer
      Abstract: The element, Selenium (Se), has an essential nutritive and biological role as a trace mineral known primarily for its vital antioxidant functions as a constituent of the selenoenzyme, glutathione peroxidase. However, Se also has a much more global biological impact beyond antioxidant function. The objective of this review is to present an overview of prior research on the extra-antioxidant effects of Se with a key focus on skeletal muscle mitochondrial energetics. Cognizance of these additional functions of Se is requisite when formulating and recommending dietary supplementation of Se in humans or animals. Chief amongst its myriad of biological contributions, Se influences mitochondrial capacity and function and, subsequently, muscular health. Dietary Se supplementation has been shown to increase skeletal muscle mitochondrial volume density and within some cell lines, Se treatment increases mitochondrial biogenesis and respiratory capacity. In addition, the selenoproteins H, N, W, and O and deiodinases exhibit varying effects on mitochondrial and/or skeletal muscle function. Selenoprotein H enhances mitochondrial biogenesis whereas selenoproteins N and W appear to influence muscle calcium homeostasis which impacts mitochondrial function. Moreover, selenoprotein O's intramitochondrial residence facilitates Se's redox function. Deiodinases regulate thyroid hormone activation which impacts muscle cell regeneration, metabolism, and reactive oxygen species production. Although the precise relationships between dietary Se and skeletal muscle mitochondria remain unclear, previous research constitutes a firm foundation that portends promising new discoveries by future investigations.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01T00:00:00Z
  • Owned dog population size and ownership patterns in Costa Rica

    • Authors: D. T. Tyler Flockhart, Andrew N. Rowan, John D. Boone
      Abstract: Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) are one of the most common pets around the world but ownership patterns and human-dog interactions have been changing, particularly in developing nations. We conducted household surveys in Costa Rica to characterize dog ownership, the owned dog population, where dogs were confined at night and in the morning, and behaviors regarding selected dog care issues. We also compared these results to similar questionnaires used in Costa Rica over the past 20 years. We found 76% of households in Costa Rica owned at least one dog and on average there were about 1.4 dogs owned per household. These dog ownership rates are higher than previous estimates. The probability of owning a dog was highest on farms and lowest in single family dwellings without a yard, higher among respondents that owned their homes and decreasing with increasing human population density The total number of owned dogs in Costa Rica was estimated to be 2,222,032 (95% confidence intervals: 1,981,497–2,503,751). The sterilization rate for homed dogs in 2020 was approximately 62% (females: 67%, males: 61%) which is higher than the 18% of owned dogs that were sterilized in a 2003 survey. Overall, only 1.2% (95% CI: 0.3–2.5%) of owned dogs slept on the street with a slightly higher proportion on the street at 8 am. The number of owned dogs roaming the streets at night nation-wide was estimated to be 27,208 (95% CI: 7,557–56,619) compared to 43,142 (95% CI: 20,118–73,618) on the street at 8 am. The number of unowned free-roaming dogs in Costa Rica has never been estimated but we can generate some idea of the size of the unowned dog population by determining the proportion of free-roaming dogs on the street wearing collars. There was a negative relationship between human population density and owned dogs being on the street meaning fewer dogs roam the streets in highly populated areas compared to less populated areas. Overall, we identify trends against which future progress can be measured and provide information that are critical in designing effective humane dog management programs in Costa Rica in the future.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01T00:00:00Z
  • First detection and molecular characteristics of bopivirus from goats in

    • Authors: Youwen Yang, Kehamo Abi, Yanmin Li, Chen Yang, Falong Yang
      Abstract: A metavirome analysis was performed and detected bopivirus in the diarrhoeal fecal samples of goats in China. A total of 136 fecal samples were collected from yeanlings between the dates of June 2021 and January 2022 in Sichuan province, China. Moreover, “Bopivirus B” strains were detected by a specific RT-PCR targeting the 3D gene of the virus. The results showed that the overall detection rate of “Bopivirus B” was 19.12% (26/136). Additionally, there was a higher detection rate (24.05%, 19/79) in the fecal samples collected from yeanlings with diarrhea compared to those from asymptomatic animals (12.28%, 7/57). In these samples, no other common diarrhea-causing pathogens were detected except for three enteric viruses, namely caprine enterovirus, caprine kobuvirus and caprine hunnivirus (with detection rates of 13.97, 13.97, and 8.82%, respectively). Subsequently, full-length VP4, VP2, VP3, and VP1 genes from “Bopivirus B”-positive samples were amplified, cloned, sequenced, and analyzed. The phylogenetic analysis performed on the VP1 genes revealed that the identified bopivirus belonged to genotype B1 (seven strains) and B2 (three strains) and presented a high genetic diversity. Furthermore, a complete genome sequence of a “Bopivirus B” strain (SWUN/B1/2022) was obtained using PCR from fecal sample of a diarrhoeal yeanling. The complete genome was 7,309 nucleotides in length with a standard picornavirus genome organization, and shares 93.10% and 91.10% nucleotide similarity with bopivirus B1 genotype strain ovine/TB14/2010-HUN and bopivirus B2 genotype strain goat/AGK16/2020-HUN, respectively. According to the species classification criteria put forward by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses and VP1 genotype, the strain SWUN/B1/2022 belongs to the bopivirus B1. This strain has unique amino acid substitutions in the VP4, VP2, VP3, and VP1 genes. Moreover, genomic recombination analysis revealed that this strain may be a minor parental strain of bopivirus B1 ovine/TB14/2010-HUN. Evolutionary analysis based on the 2C and 3CD genes revealed that the new bopivirus B1 strain SWUN/B1/2022 presents a unique evolutionary pattern. This study provided evidence to suggest that “Bopivirus B” is circulating with substantial genetic diversity in goats in China at present, and the mixed infection of “Bopivirus B” with other enteric viruses should be considered to be a composite factor in the occurrence of viral diarrhea in goats.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01T00:00:00Z
  • Molecular detection and analysis of beak and feather disease viruses in

    • Authors: Sara Dolatyabi, Seyed Mostafa Peighambari, Jamshid Razmyar
      Abstract: The beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) is one of the few pathogens capable of causing extinction of psittacines. To determine the prevalence and the nature of BFDV mutation, this study investigated the presence of the BFDV among 1,095 individual birds of the 17 psittacine species in Iran followed by analyzing the DNA sequences of seven replication-associated protein (rep) and 10 capsid (cap) genomes of the virus. The BFDV was found to be the foremost pathogen among more than 12 psittacine species, and phylogenetic analysis showed that the BFDV GenBank-published sequences from Poland, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Taiwan, and Thailand were most similar to those of this study. Evolutionary analysis concluded that arginine, leucine, and glycine were the amino acids frequently involved in the least-conserved substitution patterns of BFDV, and conversely, methionine, glutamine, and tryptophan were the amino acids that exhibited ultra-high conservation through the substitution patterns. The high substitution rate of arginine to lysine and glycine to serine also made greater contribution to the BFDV gene mutation. The relative synonymous codon usage between two genes revealed that the cap genome encoded proteins frequently used fewer codons, while the rep genome encoded proteins used more codons only at moderate frequency, explaining the broader divergence of the cap compared to the rep sequence. The data analysis also introduced a new variant of BFDV that exists in the rep and cap sequences of budgerigars. While the existence of more new variants was suspected, more solid evidence is required to substantiate this suspicion.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01T00:00:00Z
  • Pheromones, binding proteins, and olfactory systems in the pig (Sus
           scrofa): An updated review

    • Authors: Devaraj Sankarganesh, Roy N. Kirkwood, Patricia Nagnan-Le Meillour, Jayaraman Angayarkanni, Shanmugam Achiraman, Govindaraju Archunan
      Abstract: Pigs utilize multimodal communication for reproductive and other behaviors, and chemical communication is one of the key components. The success of reproduction relies on chemical communication favored by the steroid pheromones from boar saliva. These steroids were proven to be involved in advancing puberty in gilts (the boar effect) and in promoting estrus behaviors in gilts/sows, thereby helping to detect estrus and facilitating the timing of artificial insemination. The steroid pheromones bound with carrier proteins are evidenced in the mandibular (submandibular) salivary secretions of the boar. These salivary steroids bind with carrier proteins in the nasal mucus and vomeronasal organ (VNO) of the sows, eventually triggering a cascade of activities at the olfactory and endocrine levels. Besides steroid pheromones, pig appeasing pheromones (from mammary skin secretions of sows) have also been demonstrated to bind with carrier proteins in the nasal mucus and VNO of the piglets. Thus far, four different proteins have been identified and confirmed in the nasal mucus and VNO of pigs, including odorant binding proteins (OBPs), salivary lipocalin (SAL), pheromaxein, and Von Ebner's Gland Protein (VEGP). The critical roles of the chemosensory systems, main olfactory systems and VNO, have been comprehensively reported for pigs. This review summarizes the current knowledge on pheromones, their receptor proteins, and the olfactory systems of porcine species.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01T00:00:00Z
  • Comparable outcomes from long and short read random sequencing of total
           RNA for detection of pathogens in chicken respiratory samples

    • Authors: Salman L. Butt, Henry M. Kariithi, Jeremy D. Volkening, Tonya L. Taylor, Christina Leyson, Mary Pantin-Jackwood, David L. Suarez, James B. Stanton, Claudio L. Afonso
      Abstract: Co-infections of avian species with different RNA viruses and pathogenic bacteria are often misdiagnosed or incompletely characterized using targeted diagnostic methods, which could affect the accurate management of clinical disease. A non-targeted sequencing approach with rapid and precise characterization of pathogens should help respiratory disease management by providing a comprehensive view of the causes of disease. Long-read portable sequencers have significant potential advantages over established short-read sequencers due to portability, speed, and lower cost. The applicability of short reads random sequencing for direct detection of pathogens in clinical poultry samples has been previously demonstrated. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of long read random sequencing approaches to identify disease agents in clinical samples. Experimental oropharyngeal swab samples (n = 12) from chickens infected with infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), avian influenza virus (AIV) and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) and field-collected clinical oropharyngeal swab samples (n = 11) from Kenyan live bird markets previously testing positive for Newcastle disease virus (NDV) were randomly sequenced on the MinION platform and results validated by comparing to real time PCR and short read random sequencing in the Illumina MiSeq platform. In the swabs from experimental infections, each of three agents in every RT-qPCR-positive sample (Ct range 19–34) was detectable within 1 h on the MinION platform, except for AIV one agent in one sample (Ct = 36.21). Nine of 12 IBV-positive samples were assigned genotypes within 1 h, as were five of 11 AIV-positive samples. MinION relative abundances of the test agent (AIV, IBV and MS) were highly correlated with RT-qPCR Ct values (R range−0.82 to−0.98). In field-collected clinical swab samples, NDV (Ct range 12–37) was detected in all eleven samples within 1 h of MinION sequencing, with 10 of 11 samples accurately genotyped within 1 h. All NDV-positive field samples were found to be co-infected with one or more additional respiratory agents. These results demonstrate that MinION sequencing can provide rapid, and sensitive non-targeted detection and genetic characterization of co-existing respiratory pathogens in clinical samples with similar performance to the Illumina MiSeq.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01T00:00:00Z
  • Case report: Absent fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in a dog with unexpected
           brain death

    • Authors: Yoonhoi Koo, Yejin Na, Taesik Yun, Yeon Chae, Dohee Lee, Hakhyun Kim, Mhan-Pyo Yang, Byeong-Teck Kang
      Abstract: A 5-year-old male Maltese dog was presented with generalized tonic seizures and hypermetria. Multiple nodular subcortical cerebellar enhancements and meningeal enhancement were observed on magnetic resonance imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography was performed due to suspicion of neoplastic disease, and no fluorodeoxyglucose uptake was observed in the intracranial structures. In PET images of this dog, absent fluorodeoxyglucose uptake was identified in the brain indicating no cerebral metabolism, strongly suggested brain death. The dog had no spontaneous breathing and no brainstem reflexes for more than 24 h after the termination of anesthesia. Through these results, this dog was diagnosed with unexpected brain death, and it is presumed that the cause was anesthesia. We report herein a case of brain death in a dog diagnosed using fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01T00:00:00Z
  • Pharmacokinetics and efficacy of a novel long-acting bupivacaine
           formulation for cornual nerve block in calves

    • Authors: Dinakaran Venkatachalam, Nikki Kells, Paul Chambers, Antony Jacob, Neil Ward, Preet Singh
      Abstract: Local anesthetics are commonly used in farm animals to provide analgesia for painful procedures but can cause adverse effects at high systemic concentrations. The pharmacokinetics and efficacy of a long-acting sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB) bupivacaine formulation following cornual nerve block in calves were compared to lidocaine. Fourteen calves were randomly assigned to one of the treatment groups (i) 5% Bupivacaine-SAIB (BUP-SAIB), n = 7; or (ii) 2% lidocaine (LID), n = 7. Cornual nerve block was performed, and duration of effective analgesia was evaluated by nociceptive threshold testing using a hand-held pressure algometer. Blood samples were collected at various time points and plasma concentrations were analyzed by HPLC. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using a non-compartmental model. The mechanical nociceptive thresholds showed that the novel formulation could desensitize the skin around the horn bud for 18.77 ± 8.88 h (range 8–36 h), compared to 0.79 ± 0.34 h (range 0.5–1.5 h) with lidocaine. The mean maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of bupivacaine was 152.03 (SD 37.34) ng/mL and its Tmax was 0.39 (SD 0.13) h. The half-life of elimination was 32.79 ± 11.00 h and the rate of clearance was 0.12 ± 0.03 L h−1. No toxicity signs were seen after treatment in either group. The novel formulation produced long-lasting analgesia of several times greater duration than that produced by lidocaine. This study showed that the safety and efficacy of the SAIB formulation justifies further studies in a larger population of animals.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01T00:00:00Z
  • Treatment of digital dermatitis using salicylic acid in European bison
           (Bison bonasus) reveals promising results

    • Authors: Simone Jucker, Maher Alsaaod, Adrian Steiner, Tatiana Zingre, Sabine Kaessmeyer, Corinne Gurtner, Brian Friker, Sabine Brandt, Tim K. Jensen, Stefan Hoby
      Abstract: Digital dermatitis (DD) associated with the presence of multiple Treponema spp. was recently described for the first time in European bison (Bison bonasus). DD is characterized by skin inflammation in the distal foot area in various ungulates. The objective of this proof of concept study was to test a treatment protocol adopted from cattle for its applicability in this wildlife species using five animals. Keratolytic salicylic acid paste was administered topically under bandages for seven days to enable removal of the affected skin. All interventions were performed under general anesthesia. To evaluate the treatment efficacy, photographs and biopsies were taken pre- and post-treatment. The biopsies were examined histologically, by PCR for the presence of different bacterial species, by Treponema-specific fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and by transmission electron microscopy. Based on photographs, complete clinical healing of the 15 feet with macroscopical DD lesions was achieved. Histological examination showed mild to moderate dermatitis in 17/20 feet before, and in 12/20 feet after treatment. 17/20 feet were Treponema spp. PCR positive before, and none was positive after treatment. Dichelobacter nodosus, Fusobacterium necrophorum, and Porphyromonas levii could not be detected in any of the samples. By FISH and electron microscopy, Treponema spp. could be visualized in the stratum corneum before, but not after treatment. These results suggest that this treatment method can be applied as standard practice prior to transporting DD affected European bison to prevent the spread of this contagious disease.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01T00:00:00Z
  • A comprehensive review of small regulatory RNAs in Brucella spp.

    • Authors: Kellie A. King, Mitchell T. Caudill, Clayton C. Caswell
      Abstract: Brucella spp. are Gram-negative bacteria that naturally infect a variety of domesticated and wild animals, often resulting in abortions and sterility. Humans exposed to these animals or animal products can also develop debilitating, flu-like disease. The brucellae are intracellular pathogens that reside predominantly within immune cells, typically macrophages, where they replicate in a specialized compartment. This capacity of Brucella to survive and replicate within macrophages is essential to their ability to cause disease. In recent years, several groups have identified and characterized small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) as critical factors in the control of Brucella physiology within macrophages and overall disease virulence. sRNAs are generally < 300 nucleotides in length, and these independent sRNA transcripts are encoded either next to (i.e., cis-encoded) or at a distant location to (i.e., trans-encoded) the genes that they regulate. Trans-encoded sRNAs interact with the mRNA transcripts through short stretches of imperfect base pairing that often require the RNA chaperone Hfq to facilitate sRNA-mRNA interaction. In many instances, these sRNA-mRNA interactions inhibit gene expression, usually by occluding the ribosome-binding site (RBS) and/or by decreasing the stability of the mRNA, leading to degradation of the transcript. A number of sRNAs have been predicted and authenticated in Brucella strains, and a variety of approaches, techniques, and means of validation have been employed in these efforts. Nonetheless, some important issues and considerations regarding the study of sRNA regulation in Brucella need to be addressed. For example, the lack of uniform sRNA nomenclature in Brucella has led to difficulty in comparisons of sRNAs across the different Brucella species, and there exist multiple names in the literature for what are functionally the same sRNA. Moreover, even though bona fide sRNAs have been discovered in Brucella, scant functional information is known about the regulatory activities of these sRNAs, or the extent to which these sRNAs are required for the intracellular life and/or host colonization by the brucellae. Therefore, this review summarizes the historical context of Hfq and sRNAs in Brucella; our current understanding of Brucella sRNAs; and some future perspectives and considerations for the field of sRNA biology in the brucellae.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01T00:00:00Z
  • The interaction of feeding an eubiotic blend of essential oils plus
           25-hydroxy-vit-D3 on performance, carcass characteristics, and dietary
           energetics of calf-fed Holstein steers

    • Authors: Brooke C. Latack, Pedro H. V. Carvalho, Richard A. Zinn
      Abstract: Bans on the use of ionophores in several regions of the world has led to a need to identify alternative feed additivies to be added in cattle diets. Essential oil blends have been identified as a potential alternative to ionophores in feedlot diets. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a supplemental a blend of essential oils and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 on growth performance, energetic efficiency, and carcass characteristics in calf-fed Holstein steers. Ninety Holstein steer calves (123 ± 7 kg; 4 months old) were randomly assigned to 18 pens (5 steers/pen; 6 pens/treatment). Dietary treatments consisted of a steam-flaked corn-based diet supplemented with (DM basis): (1) no additives (CON); (2) 30 mg/kg DM of monensin (MON); (3) 200 mg/kg DM of a mixture of essential oils plus 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (EO+HYD). There were no treatment effects (P> 0.05) on initial, intermediate and final cattle live weight; moreover, cattle had similar (P> 0.05) average daily gain (ADG) and dry matter intake (DMI) among dietary treatments. However, during the first 112 days of feed, calf-fed Holstein steers supplemented with EO+HYD had a greater (P ≤ 0.05) gain to feed ratio (G/F) than cattle fed the control diet but similar (P> 0.05) G/F to cattle supplemented with MON. However, there was no effect (P> 0.05) of dietary treatments on 112 to 286 d and the overall G/F ratio of calf-fed Holstein steers. Calf-fed Holstein steers supplemented with EO+HYD had greater (P ≤ 0.05) estimated net energy for maintenance (NEm) and net energy for gain (NEg) based on cattle growth performance than cattle fed the CON diet. Cattle supplemented with MON had an intermediate and similar (P> 0.05) NEm and NEg compared to the other two dietary treatments. However, when observed vs. expected NEm and NEg were calculated, cattle supplemented with MON and EO+HYD had greater efficiency of dietary energy utilization than cattle fed the CON diet. Calf-fed Holstein steers supplemented with MON had greater (P < 0.05) fat thickness than EO+HYD supplemented steers, and both were intermediate (P ≥ 0.05) to that of cattle fed the CON diet. There were no other effects (P> 0.05) on kidney, pelvic and heart fat, longissimus area, marbling score, and retail yield. The health status of cattle and liver abscesses or liver scars at slaughter were similar (P> 0.05). We conclude that supplementing calf-fed Holstein steers with MON or EO+HYD for over 285 days increased dietary net energy utilization for maintenance and gain of the diet by 3 and 4%, respectively, compared to non-supplemented steers.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01T00:00:00Z
  • Social behaviour and transmission of lameness in a flock of ewes and

    • Authors: Katharine E. Lewis, Emily Price, Darren P. Croft, Joss Langford, Laura Ozella, Ciro Cattuto, Laura E. Green
      Abstract: IntroductionSheep have heterogenous social connections that influence transmission of some infectious diseases. Footrot is one of the top five globally important diseases of sheep, it is caused by Dichelobacter nodosus and transmits between sheep when infectious feet contaminate surfaces, e.g., pasture. Surfaces remain infectious for a few minutes to a few days, depending on surface moisture levels. Susceptible sheep in close social contact with infectious sheep might be at risk of becoming infected because they are likely to step onto infectious footprints, particularly dams and lambs, as they cluster together.MethodsHigh resolution proximity sensors were deployed on 40 ewes and their 54 lambs aged 5–27 days, in a flock with endemic footrot in Devon, UK for 13 days. Sheep locomotion was scored daily by using a 0–6 integer scale. Sheep were defined lame when their locomotion score (LS) was ≥2, and a case of lameness was defined as LS ≥2 for ≥2 days.ResultsThirty-two sheep (19 ewes, 9 single, and 4 twin lambs) became lame during the study, while 14 (5 ewes, 5 single, and 4 twin lambs) were lame initially. These 46 sheep were from 29 family groups, 14 families had>1 lame sheep, and transmission from ewes to lambs was bidirectional. At least 15% of new cases of footrot were from within family transmission; the occurrence of lameness was higher in single than twin lambs. At least 4% of transmission was due to close contact across the flock. Most close contact occurred within families. Single and twin lambs spent 1.5 and 0.9 hours/day with their dams, respectively, and twin lambs spent 3.7 hours/day together. Non-family sheep spent only 0.03 hours/day in contact. Lame single lambs and ewes spent less time with non-family sheep, and lame twin lambs spent less time with family sheep.DiscussionWe conclude that most transmission of lameness is not attributable to close contact. However, in ewes with young lambs, some transmission occurs within families and is likely due to time spent in close contact, since single lambs spent more time with their dam than twin lambs and were more likely to become lame.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01T00:00:00Z
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