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  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 225 journals)
Showing 1 - 63 of 63 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abanico Veterinario     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria     Open Access  
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Research in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Small Animal Care     Full-text available via subscription  
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Agrivet : Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Pertanian dan Peternakan / Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Veteriner)     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences     Open Access  
American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Analecta Veterinaria     Open Access  
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal - Science Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 145)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Animal Health Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Anthrozoos : A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Applied Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archiva Zootehnica     Open Access  
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi / Atatürk University Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Austral Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Equine Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Avian Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access  
Bangladesh Veterinarian     Open Access  
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Veteriner Udayana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
CES Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia     Open Access  
Chilean Journal of Agricultural & Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Ciencia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access  
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Compendio de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Equine Veterinary Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Equine Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
EUREKA : Health Sciences     Open Access  
FAVE Sección Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Folia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Frontiers in Veterinary Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human & Veterinary Medicine - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ILAR Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Indonesia Medicus Veterinus     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intas Polivet     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Tropical Veterinary and Biomedical Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
InVet     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Iranian Journal of Veterinary Surgery     Open Access  
Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Irish Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Buffalo Science     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Parasite Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Small Animal Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of the Hellenic Veterinary Medical Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Selva Andina Research Society     Open Access  
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Veterinary Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Veterinary Forensic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medical Diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medicine     Open Access  
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu dan Kesehatan Hewan (Veterinary Science and Medicine Journal)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Medik Veteriner     Open Access  
Jurnal Medika Veterinaria     Open Access  
Jurnal Sain Veteriner     Open Access  
Jurnal Veteriner     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Kenya Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
kleintier konkret     Hybrid Journal  
Livestock     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Macedonian Veterinary Review     Open Access  
Matrix Science Medica     Open Access  
Medical Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Medical Mycology Case Reports     Open Access  
Medicina Veterinária (UFRPE)     Open Access  
Nepalese Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
New Zealand Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
New Zealand Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nigerian Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pet Behaviour Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
pferde spiegel     Hybrid Journal  
Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Preventive Veterinary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Rassegna di Diritto, Legislazione e Medicina Legale Veterinaria     Open Access  
Reproduction in Domestic Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Research in Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Research Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Veterinária     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Higiene e Sanidade Animal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencia Animal     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias (Colombian journal of animal science and veterinary medicine)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Complutense de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista de Ciência Veterinária e Saúde Pública     Open Access  
Revista de Ciências Agroveterinárias     Open Access  
Revista de Educação Continuada em Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú     Open Access  
Revista de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revista de Salud Animal     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista MVZ Córdoba     Open Access  
Revista Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revue Marocaine des Sciences Agronomiques et Vétérinaires     Open Access  
Revue Vétérinaire Clinique     Full-text available via subscription  
Salud y Tecnología Veterinaria     Open Access  
Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde     Hybrid Journal  
Science and Animal Health     Open Access  
Small Ruminant Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Spei Domus     Open Access  
Sri Lanka Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
SVU-International Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Tanzania Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
team.konkret     Open Access  
Theoretical and Applied Veterinary Medicine     Open Access  
Theriogenology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Tierärztliche Praxis Ausgabe G: Großtiere / Nutztiere     Hybrid Journal  
Tierärztliche Praxis Ausgabe K: Kleintiere / Heimtiere     Hybrid Journal  
Topics in Companion Animal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Trends in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tropical Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Turkish Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access  
UK Vet Equine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ukrainian Journal of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences     Open Access  
Van Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
VCOT Open     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
veterinär spiegel     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Veterinaria     Open Access  
Veterinaria (Montevideo)     Open Access  
Veterinaria México     Open Access  
Veterinaria México OA     Open Access  
Veterinarski Glasnik     Open Access  
Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Veterinary and Animal Science     Open Access  
Veterinary and Comparative Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Clinical Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Veterinary Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Veterinary Journal of Mehmet Akif Ersoy University / Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Veterinary Medicine and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Veterinary Medicine International     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Medicine: Research and Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)

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Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.738
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2297-1769
Published by Frontiers Media Homepage  [96 journals]
  • Diagnostic Investigation of 100 Cases of Abortion in Sheep in Uruguay:

    • Authors: Matías A. Dorsch, María E. Francia, Leandro R. Tana, Fabiana C. González, Andrés Cabrera, Lucía Calleros, Margarita Sanguinetti, Maila Barcellos, Leticia Zarantonelli, Camila Ciuffo, Leticia Maya, Matías Castells, Santiago Mirazo, Caroline da Silva Silveira, Ana Rabaza, Rubén D. Caffarena, Benjamín Doncel Díaz, Virginia Aráoz, Carolina Matto, Joaquín I. Armendano, Sofía Salada, Martín Fraga, Sergio Fierro, Federico Giannitti
      Abstract: The aim of this work was to identify causes of abortion through laboratory investigations in sheep flocks in Uruguay. One hundred cases of abortion, comprising 58 fetuses, 36 fetuses with their placentas, and 6 placentas were investigated in 2015–2021. Cases were subjected to gross and microscopic pathologic examinations, and microbiological and serological testing for the identification of causes of abortion, including protozoal, bacterial, and viral pathogens. An etiologic diagnosis was determined in 46 (46%) cases, including 33 (33%) cases caused by infectious pathogens, as determined by the detection of a pathogen along with the identification of fetoplacental lesions attributable to the detected pathogen. Twenty-seven cases (27%) were caused by Toxoplasma gondii, 5 (5%) by Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus, and 1 (1%) by an unidentified species of Campylobacter. Fourteen cases (14%) had inflammatory and/or necrotizing fetoplacental lesions compatible with an infectious etiology. Although the cause for these lesions was not clearly identified, T. gondii was detected in 4 of these cases, opportunistic bacteria (Bacillus licheniformis, Streptococcus sp.) were isolated in 2 cases, and bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 subtype i (BVDV-1i) was detected in another. Campylobacter jejuni was identified in 1 (1%) severely autolyzed, mummified fetus. BVDV-2b was identified incidentally in one fetus with an etiologic diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. Microscopic agglutination test revealed antibodies against ≥1 Leptospira serovars in 15/63 (23.8%) fetuses; however, Leptospira was not identified by a combination of qPCR, culture, fluorescent antibody testing nor immunohistochemistry. Neospora caninum, Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia pecorum, Coxiella burnetii and border disease virus were not detected in any of the analyzed cases. Death was attributed to dystocia in 13 (13%) fetuses delivered by 8 sheep, mostly from one highly prolific flock. Congenital malformations including inferior prognathism, a focal hepatic cyst, and enterohepatic agenesis were identified in one fetus each, the latter being the only one considered incompatible with postnatal life. Toxoplasmosis, campylobacteriosis and dystocia were the main identified causes of fetal losses. Despite the relatively low overall success rate in establishing an etiologic diagnosis, a systematic laboratory workup in cases of abortion is of value to identify their causes and enables zoonotic pathogens surveillance.
      PubDate: 2022-05-19T00:00:00Z
  • Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes Drive Differing Microbial Diversity and
           Community Composition Among Micro-Environments in the Bovine Rumen

    • Authors: Lee J. Pinnell, Arquimides A. Reyes, Cory A. Wolfe, Maggie D. Weinroth, Jessica L. Metcalf, Robert J. Delmore, Keith E. Belk, Paul S. Morley, Terry E. Engle
      Abstract: Ruminants are a critical human food source and have been implicated as a potentially important source of global methane emissions. Because of their unique digestive physiology, ruminants rely upon a symbiotic relationship with the complex and rich community of microorganism in the foregut to allow digestion of complex carbohydrates. This study used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to investigate the composition of microbial communities from three rumen micro-environments of cattle fed identical diets: (1) free fluid, (2) the fibrous pack, and (3) the mucosa. Community composition analysis revealed that while a phylogenetic core including the most abundant and most common ruminal taxa (members of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes) existed across micro-environments, the abundances of these taxa differed significantly between fluid- and mucosa-associated communities, and specific lineages were discriminant of individual micro-environments. Members of Firmicutes, specifically Clostridiales, Lachnospiraceae, Mogibacteriaceae, Christenellaceae, and Erysipelotrichaceae were significantly more abundant in fluid communities, while members of Bacteroidetes, namely Muribaculaceae and Prevotellaceae were more abundant in mucosa-associated communities. Additionally, Methanobacteriaceae, a family of methanogenic Archaea, was more abundant in fluid-associated communities. A set of four more diverse lineages were discriminant of pack-associated communities that included Succinivibrionaceae, RFP12 (Verruco-5), Fibrobacteraceae, and Spirochaetaceae. Our findings indicate that different ecological niches within each micro-environment have resulted in significant differences in the diversity and community structure of microbial communities from rumen fluid, pack, and mucosa without the influence of diet that will help contextualize the influence of other environmental factors.
      PubDate: 2022-05-19T00:00:00Z
  • Effects of Intranasal and Oral Bordetella bronchiseptica Vaccination on
           the Behavioral and Olfactory Capabilities of Detection Dogs

    • Authors: Amanda Collins, Rachel A. Bear, Amritha Mallikarjun, Sarah A. Kane, Jennifer L. Essler, Patricia Kaynaroglu, Rebecca Feuer, Jordan G. Smith, Cynthia M. Otto
      Abstract: The bacterium Bordetella bronchiseptica is responsible for serious respiratory disease in dogs, most often associated with ‘kennel cough’ (canine infectious tracheobronchitis). It is recommended that dogs are vaccinated against the bacterium every 6–12 months, either by oral or intranasal administration. Any impairment of dogs' olfactory capabilities due to medical treatments may impact their efficiency and accuracy in their jobs. This study examined (1) the effect of intranasal and oral vaccines on the olfactory capabilities of detection dogs; as well as (1) effects of the vaccines on canine behavior. Dogs that were vaccinated initially with the oral and 28 days later with intranasal B. bronchiseptica were generally slower to find the target odor than the dogs that were assigned intranasal then oral vaccine. This result prompted a second between-subjects study to further investigate any impact of intranasal administration of the B. bronchiseptica vaccine on the olfactory capabilities of dogs. The intranasal vaccine was of particular interest due to its prevalent use and potential for nasal inflammation leading to decreased olfactory capabilities. Neither odor threshold nor time spent searching for odor were affected by the intranasal vaccine. Behavioral analyses showed that behaviors associated with the dogs' positive and negative motivation affected their time spent finding the target odor; this suggests that behavior should be considered in future studies of olfactory performance.
      PubDate: 2022-05-18T00:00:00Z
  • Complete Genome Analysis of Highly Pathogenic Non-O1/O139 Vibrio cholerae
           Isolated From Macrobrachium rosenbergii Reveals Pathogenicity and
           Antibiotic Resistance-Related Genes

    • Authors: Yifan Zhou, Shuwen Gu, Jie Li, Peng Ji, Yingjie Zhang, Congcong Wu, Qun Jiang, Xiaojian Gao, Xiaojun Zhang
      Abstract: Non-O1/O139 Vibrio cholerae is a highly virulent pathogen that causes mass mortalities of various aquatic animals. In the present study, we sequenced the whole genome of non-O1/O139 V. cholerae GXFL1-4, isolated from Macrobrachium rosenbergii, to reveal the pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance. The result showed its genome contained two circular chromosomes and one plasmid with a total size of 4,282,243 bp, which harbored 3,869 coding genes. Among them, 3,047, 2,659, and 3,661 genes were annotated in the Clusters of Orthologous Genes (COG), Gene Ontology (GO), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), respectively. In addition, 372 potential virulence genes were predicted based on the Virulence Factor Database (VFDB) database, such as type II, III, IV, and VI secretion systems related genes, flagella genes, and pilus formation or motility-related genes. Blast results in the Comprehensive Antibiotic Resistance Database (CARD) database showed that the strain contained 148 antibiotic resistance-related genes belonging to 27 categories, such as efflux pump complex antibiotic resistance genes and antibiotic resistance gene cluster genes. The Pathogen-Host Interaction (PHI) database annotated 320 genes related to pathogen-host interaction, such as T3SS, virulence regulatory factors, transcriptional regulators, and two-component response regulator related genes. The whole-genome analysis suggested that the pathogenic non-O1/O139 V. cholerae strain GXFL1-4 might have a complex molecular mechanism of pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance. This study provides a wealth of information about non-O1/O139 V. cholerae genes related to its pathogenicity and drug resistance and will facilitate the understanding of its pathogenesis as well as the development of prevention and treatment strategies for the pathogen.
      PubDate: 2022-05-18T00:00:00Z
  • Development of Total Lymphoid Irradiation (TLI)-Dedicated Shielding and
           Image-Guided System and Dose Evaluation Using 3D-Printed Rat
           Phantom|Purpose|Materials and Methods|Results|Conclusion

    • Authors: Dong Hyeok Choi, So Hyun Ahn, Kwangwoo Park, Sang Hyun Choi, Jin Sung Kim
      Abstract: PurposeThe purpose of this study is to propose a technique for delivering accurate doses in an image-guided system by developing an experimental setup optimized for total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) in rat lung transplantation.Materials and MethodsIn this study, a position-controlled shielding system was developed, and the dose was quantitatively evaluated using a 3D rat phantom and Gafchromic EBT3 film. In addition, we made our own image-guided system that allows the position of the rat and the shielding system to be confirmed during TLI.ResultsAs a result of using the position-controlled shielding system, it was found that the doses to the head and lungs were reduced by 93.1 and 87.4%, respectively, of the prescribed doses. In addition, it was shown that the position of the shielding system can be easily confirmed by using the image guidance system.ConclusionA shielding apparatus that can control dose delivery according to the size of the rat can optimize the dose for TLI in rat lung transplantation.
      PubDate: 2022-05-18T00:00:00Z
  • Genomic Sequence and Pathogenicity of the Chicken Anemia Virus Isolated
           From Chicken in Yunnan Province, China

    • Authors: Manman Dai, Yuwen Huang, Lin Wang, Jing Luo, Nan Yan, Lin Zhang, Haoqi Huang, Jie Zhou, Ziwei Li, Chenggang Xu
      Abstract: Chicken anemia virus (CAV), which has been reported in many countries, causes severe anemia and immunosuppression in chickens. In this study, a CAV strain YN04 belonging to genotype A was first identified from infected chickens in Yunnan province, China. Moreover, the animal infection experiments further confirmed that the strain YN04 is a highly pathogenic strain, which can cause 86.67% mortality in chickens in the infection group. The mean death time of infected chickens was 13.1 days post infection (dpi). CAV infection induced severe anemia with significant decrease in packed cell volume (PCV), and serious atrophy and lesion of thymus and bursa with high viral load at 14 dpi. Besides, CAV infection caused a sharp decrease in chicken body weight and immune organ indices including the ratio of thymus or bursa to body weight at 21 dpi, which displayed the potential immunosuppression state at this stage. These findings enrich the epidemiological data on CAV and may provide information for preventing its further spread in Yunnan province, China.
      PubDate: 2022-05-18T00:00:00Z
  • Irradiated Non-replicative Lactic Acid Bacteria Preserve Metabolic
           Activity While Exhibiting Diverse Immune Modulation

    • Authors: Luca Porfiri, Johanna Burtscher, Richard T. Kangethe, Doris Verhovsek, Giovanni Cattoli, Konrad J. Domig, Viskam Wijewardana
      Abstract: In the recent years, safety concerns regarding the administration of probiotics led to an increased interest in developing inactivated probiotics, also called “paraprobiotics”. Gamma irradiation represents a promising tool that can be used to produce safe paraprobiotics by inhibiting replication while preserving the structure, the metabolic activity, and the immunogenicity of bacteria. In this study, we evaluated the ability of four strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB: Lacticaseibacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactiplantibacillus plantarum, and Lacticaseibacillus paracasei) in preserving the metabolic activity and the immune modulation of swine porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells, after gamma irradiation or heat inactivation. Our results show that all four strains retained the metabolic activity following gamma irradiation but not after heat inactivation. In terms of immune-modulatory capacity, irradiated L. acidophilus and Lc. paracasei were able to maintain an overall gene expression pattern similar to their live state, as heat inactivation did with Lc. casei. Moreover, we show that the two inactivation methods applied to the same strain can induce an opposed expression of key genes involved in pro-inflammatory response (e.g., IFNα and interleukin-6 for Lc. casei), whereas gamma irradiation of L. acidophilus and Lc. paracasei was able to induce a downregulation of the anti-inflammatory TGFβ. Taken together, our data show that immune modulation can be impacted not only by different inactivation methods but also by the strain of LAB selected. This study highlights that gamma irradiation harbors the potential to produce safe non-replicative metabolically active LAB and identifies immunomodulatory capacities that may be applied as vaccine adjuvants.
      PubDate: 2022-05-18T00:00:00Z
  • Partial Substitution of Alfalfa Hay by Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana) Hay Can
           Improve Lactation Performance, Rumen Fermentation, and Nitrogen
           Utilization of Dairy Cows

    • Authors: Maocheng Jiang, Osmond Datsomor, Zhiqiang Cheng, Zitong Meng, Kang Zhan, Tianyu Yang, Yinghao Huang, Qi Yan, Guoqi Zhao
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of replacing isonitrogenous and isoenergetic basis alfalfa hay (AH) with stevia (Stevia rebaudiana) hay in dairy cow diets on nutrient digestion, milk performance, rumen fermentation, and nitrogen (N) utilization. In this study, 24 healthy Holstein lactating dairy cattle with a similar milk yield of 33.70 ± 2.75 (mean ± SD) kg, days in milk 95.98 ± 23.59 (mean ± SD) days, and body weight 587.75 ± 66.97 (mean ± SD) kg were selected and randomly allocated into three groups. The constituents of the three treatments were (1) 30.0% AH, and 0% stevia hay (SH) for the AH group; (2) 24.0% AH, and 6% SH for the 6% SH group; (3) 18.0% AH, and 12% SH for the 12% SH group. The substitution of AH with SH did not affect dry matter intake (DMI), gross energy (GE), and other nutrients intake but increased the digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF). Compared with the AH diet, the cows fed the 6% SH diet had a higher milk yield and concentration of milk fat. Fecal and urinary nitrogen (N) were lower in cows fed a 6% SH diet than in cows fed the AH diet. Milk N secretion and milk N as a percentage of N intake were higher in cows fed a 6% SH diet than in cows fed AH diets. The concentration of ruminal volatile fatty acids, acetic acid, and ammonia-N were higher in cows fed a 6% SH diet than in cows fed an AH diet. By comparison, the 12% SH group did not affect milk yield, milk composition, N utilization, and rumen fermentation compared with the AH and 6% SH groups. In conclusion, it appears that feeding 6% SH, replacing a portion of AH, may improve lactation performance and N utilization for lactating dairy cows.
      PubDate: 2022-05-18T00:00:00Z
  • Evaluating Cognitive Enrichment for Zoo-Housed Gorillas Using Facial

    • Authors: Otto Brookes, Stuart Gray, Peter Bennett, Katy V. Burgess, Fay E. Clark, Elizabeth Roberts, Tilo Burghardt
      Abstract: The use of computer technology within zoos is becoming increasingly popular to help achieve high animal welfare standards. However, despite its various positive applications to wildlife in recent years, there has been little uptake of machine learning in zoo animal care. In this paper, we describe how a facial recognition system, developed using machine learning, was embedded within a cognitive enrichment device (a vertical, modular finger maze) for a troop of seven Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) at Bristol Zoo Gardens, UK. We explored whether machine learning could automatically identify individual gorillas through facial recognition, and automate the collection of device-use data including the order, frequency and duration of use by the troop. Concurrent traditional video recording and behavioral coding by eye was undertaken for comparison. The facial recognition system was very effective at identifying individual gorillas (97% mean average precision) and could automate specific downstream tasks (for example, duration of engagement). However, its development was a heavy investment, requiring specialized hardware and interdisciplinary expertise. Therefore, we suggest a system like this is only appropriate for long-term projects. Additionally, researcher input was still required to visually identify which maze modules were being used by gorillas and how. This highlights the need for additional technology, such as infrared sensors, to fully automate cognitive enrichment evaluation. To end, we describe a future system that combines machine learning and sensor technology which could automate the collection of data in real-time for use by researchers and animal care staff.
      PubDate: 2022-05-18T00:00:00Z
  • Gastric Ulcers in Alpacas— Clinical, Laboratory, and Pathological

    • Authors: Saskia Neubert, Christina Puff, Sven Kleinschmidt, Patricia Kammeyer, Alexandra von Altrock, Michael Wendt, Matthias Gerhard Wagener
      Abstract: Gastric ulcers are a common finding in post-mortem examinations of South American camelids (SAC), but diagnosis in living animals is often difficult. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the incidence of gastric ulcers in alpacas, common concomitant diseases, and clinical as well as laboratory findings to facilitate diagnosis for veterinarians. For this purpose, a total of 187 necropsy reports of alpacas were evaluated, including clinical and laboratory findings on the living animal. A total of 23.5% of the animals (n = 44) were found to have gastric ulcers, nine were perforated. Compartment 3 was most frequently affected by gastric ulcers. No sex predilection could be detected, but animals 1 year of age and older were more frequently affected by gastric ulcers than animals under 1 year of age. Alpacas with gastric ulcers were presented to the clinic due to different non-specific symptoms. In alpacas with gastric ulcers, significantly more organs or organ systems besides the stomach revealed clinical findings than in animals without gastric ulcers. Of the 44 animals with gastric ulcers, a total of 21 alpacas (47.7%) had a poor nutritional status, but cachexia was not significantly more frequent in animals with gastric ulcers than in other dissected animals without ulcers. Hematologic investigations revealed a significantly lower white blood count and significantly lower segmented neutrophils than in deceased animals without ulcers. Compared to animals discharged after treatment, alpacas that died with gastric ulcers had significantly higher levels of band neutrophils and fewer eosinophils and basophils. Occult blood in feces was found in three of 12 animals with gastric ulcers examined for occult blood. In summary, gastric ulcers are a common problem in SAC, which is difficult to diagnose clinically or by laboratory investigations. As these are often chronic processes involving other organ systems, regular monitoring of the animals' nutritional status and early detection of disease symptoms may help to prevent gastric ulcers.
      PubDate: 2022-05-18T00:00:00Z
  • Development of Nested PCR and Duplex Real-Time Fluorescence Quantitative
           PCR Assay for the Simultaneous Detection of Theileria equi and Babesia

    • Authors: Kunying Lv, Yiwei Zhang, Yixin Yang, Zheng Liu, Liang Deng
      Abstract: Equine piroplasmosis (EP) is a type of blood protozoan disease caused by tick-borne parasites, Theileria equi (T. equi), Babesia caballi (B. caballi) and Theileria haneyi. While many studies have been conducted on EP diagnosis, diagnostic methods exhibiting high sensitivity and specificity remain lacking. Therefore, nested PCR (nPCR) and duplex real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (qPCR) that can simultaneously detect both T. equi and B. caballi causing agents were established and compared. The two techniques were used to analyze 36 horse blood samples for EP. This set of samples was also detected by a multinested PCR (mnPCR) targeting the EMA-1 gene of T. equi and the RAP-1 gene of B. caballi. By nPCR, duplex real-time fluorescence qPCR and mnPCR, infections with B. caballi were detected in 16.67% (6/36), 2.78% (1/36), 19.44% (7/36) of the horses, respectively. The T. equi prevalence was 58.33% (21/36) by the nPCR, 33.33% (12/36) by the duplex real-time fluorescence qPCR and 2.78% (1/36) by the mnPCR. The overall prevalence of infection with mixed parasites by nPCR was 5.56% (2/36), by duplex real-time fluorescence qPCR was 2.78% (1/36) and by mnPCR 0% (0/36). Results suggest that nPCR can detect T. equi and B. caballi positive samples with good specificity and sensitivity, although distinguishing between the two parasites requires an electrophoresis with 4% agarose gels. The duplex real-time fluorescence qPCR can readily distinguish between T. equi and B. caballi infection, but with low sensitivity.
      PubDate: 2022-05-18T00:00:00Z
  • Case Report: Septic Pericarditis With Achromobacter xyloxidans in an
           Immunosuppressed Dog

    • Authors: Kristina M. Pascutti, Jacqueline K. Dolan, Lauren T. Porter, Shir Gilor, Autumn N. Harris
      Abstract: A 5-year-old female spayed French Bulldog presented for anorexia and increased respiratory rate. On presentation, she was dyspneic with stridor and increased bronchovesicular sounds. Point-of-care ultrasound identified pericardial effusion. Thoracic radiographs identified pleural effusion, a wide cranial mediastinum, and multifocal unstructured interstitial pulmonary opacities. Bloodwork revealed a moderate leukocytosis characterized by a mature neutrophilia with a left shift, hypoalbuminemia, mildly increased alkaline phosphatase activity, and moderate hypokalemia. Thoracic CT findings revealed moderate pericardial and bilateral pleural effusion, mediastinal effusion, and moderate cranial mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Diagnostic thoracocentesis and pericardiocentesis revealed septic exudates with bacilli. Two days later, a median sternotomy and pericardiectomy were performed. Aerobic cultures of the effusions grew Achromobacter xylosoxidans ss deitrificans. The patient was treated with Amoxicillin-clavulanate and enrofloxacin for 12 weeks and clinically fully recovered. Achromobacter xylosoxidans has not been reported as a cause of purulent pericarditis and pyothorax in a dog. Uniquely, this patient is suspected of developing this infection secondary to immunosuppression.
      PubDate: 2022-05-18T00:00:00Z
  • Islam and Veterinary Science: Rethinking Animal Suffering Through Islamic
           Animal Ethics and the Evolving Definition of Halal Slaughter

    • Authors: En-Chieh Chao
      Abstract: In the midst of recent European activism against religious slaughter, the idea that religious slaughter is cruel to animals is often seen as commonsense, and the mandatory pre-slaughter stunning is often portrayed as the moral technology that assures animal welfare. Nevertheless, this portrayal seems to blur the fact that the current notion of animal welfare itself is built upon a changing selection of value assumptions, which are not without problems or academic debates. It also ignores the fact that contemporary veterinary scientists and Muslim scholars have been working together for four decades to learn more about farm animals and their suffering. Despite stereotypes, the idea of animal ethics is not foreign to Islam. In Islam, animals represent God's wisdom and wonder, and humans are obliged to attend to their health and living conditions. When killing animals for food is conducted, the slaughter must be done in the name of God as a sacred ritual in order to assure that the life of the animal is not taken lightly and that the slaughter is not a sign of hostility toward the universe. Before the act of sacrifice, the animal must be healthy, and no harm should be forced upon it. Accordingly, the requirement of pre-slaughter stunning has posed a question to Muslim scholars: Does stunning kill the animal or cause harm' What defines harm, and whose definition counts' This paper reconstructs a socio-technological history of halal slaughter through scientific research on animal suffering since the 1980s. On the basis of archival research of New Zealand veterinary scientists' works and in-depth interviews with Malaysian veterinary scientists, this article outlines three phases of the evolution of halal slaughter that aims to fulfill multiple sets of moral obligations toward farm animals, and demonstrates how veterinary scientists establish common ground between secular and Islamic animal ethics. In this vein, I am envisioning a possibility of veterinary anthropology that recognizes the field's trans-cultural characteristics, and continues to challenge the rigid binaries between the West and the Rest, and between science and culture.
      PubDate: 2022-05-17T00:00:00Z
  • Footpad Monitoring: Reliability of an Automated System to Assess Footpad
           Dermatitis in Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) During Slaughter

    • Authors: Jenny Stracke, Robby Andersson, Nina Volkmann, Birgit Spindler, Jan Schulte-Landwehr, Ronald Günther, Nicole Kemper
      Abstract: Footpad dermatitis (FPD) is an indicator of animal welfare in turkeys, giving evidence of the animals' physical integrity and providing information on husbandry management. Automated systems for assessing FPD at slaughter can present a useful tool for objective data collection. However, using automated systems requires that they reliably assess the incidence. In this study, the feet of turkeys were scored for FPD by both an automated camera system and a human observer, using a five-scale score. The observer reliability between both was calculated (Krippendorff's alpha). The results were not acceptable, with an agreement coefficient of 0.44 in the initial situation. Therefore, pictures of 3,000 feet scored by the automated system were evaluated systematically to detect deficiencies. The reference area (metatarsal footpad) was not detected correctly in 55.0% of the feet, and false detections of the alteration on the footpad (FPD) were found in 32.9% of the feet. In 41.3% of the feet, the foot was not presented straight to the camera. According to these results, the algorithm of the automated system was modified, aiming to improve color detection and the distinction of the metatarsal footpad from the background. Pictures of the feet, now scored by the modified algorithm, were evaluated again. Observer reliability could be improved (Krippendorff's alpha = 0.61). However, detection of the metatarsal footpad (50.9% incorrect detections) and alterations (27.0% incorrect detections) remained a problem. We found that the performance of the camera system was affected by the angle at which the foot was presented to the camera (skew/straight; p < 0.05). Furthermore, the laterality of the foot (left/right) was found to have a significant effect (p < 0.001). We propose that the latter depends on the slaughter process. This study also highlights a high variability in observer reliability of human observers. Depending on the respective target parameter, the reliability coefficient (Krippendorff's alpha) ranged from 0.21 to 0.82. This stresses the importance of finding an objective alternative. Therefore, it was concluded that the automated detection system could be appropriate to reliably assess FPD at the slaughterhouse. However, there is still room to improve the existing method, especially when using FPD as a welfare indicator.
      PubDate: 2022-05-17T00:00:00Z
  • Silage Fermentation Quality, Anthocyanin Stability, and in vitro Rumen
           Fermentation Characteristic of Ferrous Sulfate Heptahydrate-Treated Black
           Cane (Saccharum sinensis R.)

    • Authors: Ngo Thi Minh Suong, Siwaporn Paengkoum, Abdelfattah Zeidan Mohamed Salem, Pramote Paengkoum, Rayudika Aprilia Patindra Purba
      Abstract: Pretreatment of lignocellulose agricultural biomass with iron prior to ensiling is required to accelerate biomass breakdown during fermentation, which could result in functional microorganisms and chemicals that reduce nutrition loss, harmful substances, and improve animal performance. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of increasing dilutions of ferrous sulfate heptahydrate (FS) pretreatment at fresh matter concentrations of 0, 0.015, and 0.030% on the fermentation quality of black cane (BC) silage, anthocyanin stability, ruminal biogas, rumen fermentation profile, and microbial community. Pre-ensiled and silage materials were evaluated. High moisture, fiber, anthocyanin, and lignification of biomass, as well as undesirable ensiling microorganisms, were found in BC' pre-ensiled form. Increasing dilutions of FS incorporated into silages were observed to linearly decrease dry matter, anthocyanin, and nutritive value losses. The lignin values decreased linearly as the percentage of FS increased up to 0.030%. Given that the ruminants were fed pre-ensiled materials, BC silage treated with 0.030% FS dilution had comparable results to pre-ensiled BC in terms of increasing in vitro volatile fatty acid concentrations, maintaining total gas production, and reducing methane production, when compared to other FS-treated silages. In addition, BC silage treated with a 0.030% FS dilution inhibited methanogenic bacteria and regulated cellulolytic bacteria in rumen fluid. Overall, the anthocyanin content of BC remained constant throughout the rumen fermentation process after increasing dilutions of FS, indicating that BC is a viable ruminant feedstock and that pretreatment of BC with dilute FS-assisted ensiling at 0.030% could be used to generate ruminant diets.
      PubDate: 2022-05-17T00:00:00Z
  • An Overview of Waste Milk Feeding Effect on Growth Performance,
           Metabolism, Antioxidant Status and Immunity of Dairy Calves

    • Authors: Yulin Ma, Muhammad Zahoor Khan, Jianxin Xiao, Gibson Maswayi Alugongo, Xu Chen, Shengli Li, Yajing Wang, Zhijun Cao
      Abstract: Waste milk (WM) is a part of the milk produced on dairy farms, which is usually unsuitable for human consumption. The WM contains transition milk, mastitis milk, colostrum, milk with somatic cells, blood (Hemolactia), harmful pathogens, pathogenic and antibiotic residues. Due to the high cost of milk replacer (MR), dairy farmers prefer raw WM to feed their calves. It has been well established that WM has a greater nutritive value than MR. Hence WM can contribute to improved growth, rumen development, and immune-associated parameters when fed to dairy calves. However, feeding raw WM before weaning has continuously raised some critical concerns. The pathogenic load and antibiotic residues in raw WM may increase the risk of diseases and antibacterial resistance in calves. Thus, pasteurization has been recommended as an effective method to decrease the risk of diseases in calves by killing/inhibiting the pathogenic microorganisms in the raw WM. Altogether, the current review provides a brief overview of the interplay between the positive role of raw WM in the overall performance of dairy calves, limitations of raw WM as a feed source and how to overcome these issues arising from feeding raw WM.
      PubDate: 2022-05-17T00:00:00Z
  • Low Protein Diet Improves Meat Quality and Modulates the Composition of
           Gut Microbiota in Finishing Pigs

    • Authors: Cui Zhu, Jingsen Yang, Qiwen Wu, Jingping Chen, Xuefen Yang, Li Wang, Zongyong Jiang
      Abstract: This study investigated the effect of a low protein (LP) diet on growth performance, nitrogen emission, carcass traits, meat quality, and gut microbiota in finishing pigs. Fifty-four barrows (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) were randomly assigned to three treatments with six replicates (pens) of three pigs each. The pigs were fed with either high protein (HP, 16% CP), medium protein (MP, 12% CP), and LP diets (10% CP), respectively. The LP diets did not influence the growth performance, but significantly decreased the plasma urea nitrogen contents and fecal nitrogen emission (P < 0.05). The LP diet significantly decreased the plasma contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and increased the plasma glutathione (GSH) contents (P < 0.05). The LP diets significantly increased the backfat thickness at the first and last ribs, L* (lightness) value of meat color, and muscle fiber density in the longissimus dorsi (P < 0.05). The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of fatty acid synthetase (FAS), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ), leptin, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) was significantly downregulated, while that of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) and myosin heavy chain (MYHC) IIx in the longissimus Dorsi muscle was significantly upregulated by LP diets (P < 0.05). The 16S sequencing analysis showed that the abundance of unidentified Bacteria at the phylum level, and Halanaerobium and Butyricicoccusat at the genus level in the colonic digesta were significantly decreased by LP diet (P < 0.05). The LP diet significantly decreased the observed species of α-diversity in both ileal and colonic microbiota (P < 0.05). Spearman correlation analysis identified a significant positive correlation between the abundance of the ileal genera Streptococcus and L* value at 24 and 48 h, and a significant negative correlation between unidentified_Ruminococcasceae in both ileum and colon with L* value at 24 h (P < 0.05). Collectively, the LP diet supplemented with lysine, methionine, threonine, and tryptophan could reduce the fecal nitrogen emission without affecting growth performance and improve meat quality by regulating the antioxidant capacity and gene expression involved in fat metabolism as well as modulating the gut microbiota composition in finishing pigs.
      PubDate: 2022-05-17T00:00:00Z
  • Clinical Course and Diagnostic Findings of Biopsy Controlled Presumed
           Immune-Mediated Polyneuropathy in 70 European Cats

    • Authors: Jana van Renen, Andrea Fischer, Ninja Kolb, Franziska Wielaender, Yury Zablotski, Jasmin Nessler, Andrea Tipold, Rodolfo Cappello, Thomas Flegel, Shenja Loderstedt, Kirsten Gnirs, Kai Rentmeister, Stephan Rupp, Thilo von Klopmann, Frank Steffen, Konrad Jurina, Omar V. Del Vecchio, Martin Deutschland, Florian König, Gualtiero Gandini, Tom Harcourt-Brown, Marion Kornberg, Ezio Bianchi, Teresa Gagliardo, Marika Menchetti, Henning Schenk, Joana Tabanez, Kaspar Matiasek, Marco Rosati
      Abstract: There is a paucity of information on the clinical course and outcome of young cats with polyneuropathy. The aim of the study was to describe the clinical features, diagnostic investigations, and outcome of a large cohort of cats with inflammatory polyneuropathy from several European countries. Seventy cats with inflammatory infiltrates in intramuscular nerves and/or peripheral nerve biopsies were retrospectively included. Information from medical records and follow up were acquired via questionnaires filled by veterinary neurologists who had submitted muscle and nerve biopsies (2011–2019). Median age at onset was 10 months (range: 4–120 months). The most common breed was British short hair (25.7%), followed by Domestic short hair (24.3%), Bengal cat (11.4%), Maine Coon (8.6%) and Persian cat (5.7%), and 14 other breeds. Male cats were predominantly affected (64.3%). Clinical signs were weakness (98.6%) and tetraparesis (75.7%) in association with decreased withdrawal reflexes (83.6%) and, less commonly, cranial nerve signs (17.1%), spinal pain/hyperesthesia (12.9%), and micturition/defecation problems (14.3%). Onset was sudden (30.1%) or insidious (69.1%), and an initial progressive phase was reported in 74.3%. Characteristic findings on electrodiagnostic examination were presence of generalized spontaneous electric muscle activity (89.6%), decreased motor nerve conduction velocity (52.3%), abnormal F-wave studies (72.4%), pattern of temporal dispersion (26.1%) and unremarkable sensory tests. The clinical course was mainly described as remittent (49.2%) or remittent-relapsing (34.9%), while stagnation, progressive course or waxing and waning were less frequently reported. Relapses were common and occurred in 35.7% of the cats' population. An overall favorable outcome was reported in 79.4% of patients. In conclusion, young age at the time of diagnosis and sudden onset of clinical signs were significantly associated with recovery (p < 0.05). Clinical and electrodiagnostic features and the remittent-relapsing clinical course resembles juvenile chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), as seen in human (children/adolescents), in many aspects.
      PubDate: 2022-05-17T00:00:00Z
  • Case Report: Novel Disseminated Paecilomyces formosus Infection in a Dog

    • Authors: Stephanie Anderson, Daniel Felipe Barrantes Murillo, Mandy Womble, Nicole Gibbs, Karyn Harrell, Tatiane Terumi Negrão Watanabe
      Abstract: A 2.5-year-old, 25.5 kg, spayed female Australian Shepherd dog had a 2-month history of shifting leg lameness in all limbs, tetraparesis, progressive lethargy, and severe pain. On the physical examination, fever (40.61°C), tachycardia, tachypnea, mild diffuse pelvic limb muscular atrophy, left prescapular and right popliteal lymphadenomegaly were observed. Due to the poor prognosis and difficult pain management, humane euthanasia was elected. Macroscopic and histological findings revealed multifocal to coalescing granulomas with central areas of lytic necrosis within the right femur, left humerus, left scapula, left biceps brachii, right semimembranosus muscle, liver, spleen, and lymph nodes. The necrotic areas contained myriad intralesional, intracellular, and extracellular negatively stained, non-pigmented, septate acute angle branching hyphae with parallel walls measuring 3–6 μm in width with polar bulbous projections measuring 7–13 μm in width. Fresh samples of the liver were submitted for fungal culture. Panfungal PCR targeting the major conserved genes-ITS, TUB, CAL-confirmed Paecilomyces formosus. Paecilomyces spp. are members of anamorphic fungi classified under the phylum Ascomycota. Paecilomycosis is an uncommon fungal infection caused by Paecilomyces spp with a disease reported in humans and animals ranging from superficial to systemic clinical forms affecting both immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals. In dogs, disseminated paecilomycosis has been reported, but the species of fungi are not always determined. To our knowledge, this is the first case of disseminated paecilomycosis caused by P. formosus infection in a dog.
      PubDate: 2022-05-17T00:00:00Z
  • Diets Partially Replaced With Cassava Residue Modulate Antioxidant
           Capacity, Lipid Metabolism, and Gut Barrier Function of Huanjiang

    • Authors: Md. Abul Kalam Azad, Huijiao Jiang, Hengjia Ni, Yating Liu, Pan Huang, Jun Fang, Xiangfeng Kong
      Abstract: Agricultural by-products have been identified as potential feed resources in animal production. The present study investigated the effects of cassava residue (CR) or fermented CR (FCR) on antioxidant capacity, immunity, gut barrier functions, and lipid metabolism in pigs. A total of 120 healthy Huanjiang mini-piglets were assigned into three groups, including control group (basal diet), CR group (basal diet + 5% CR), and FCR group (basal diet + 5% FCR). The experiment lasted for 30 days. The results showed that, dietary CR or FCR supplementation increased the jejunal catalase (CAT, P = 0.063) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, P < 0.05) levels and hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD, P < 0.05) level while decreased (P = 0.077) ileal malondialdehyde (MDA) level, when compared with the control group. Dietary CR supplementation increased intestinal SOD and hepatic GSH-Px levels, whereas decreased jejunal and hepatic MDA levels (P < 0.05). Dietary CR supplementation increased the levels of secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) in the intestine and liver, as well as jejunal interleukin (IL)-10, ileal tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and hepatic interferon (IFN)-γ, whereas dietary CR or FCR supplementation decreased the jejunal IL-1β level and increased hepatic IL-10 level (P < 0.05). In the intestinal microbiota analysis, dietary CR or FCR supplementation enhanced the colonic α-diversity and ileal Actinobacteria abundance, whereas decreased ileal Verrucomicrobia and colonic Tenericutes abundances (P < 0.05). In addition, dietary FCR supplementation increased Firmicutes and decreased Bacteroidetes abundances in the ileum and colon, whereas CR supplementation increased Escherichia-Shigella and decreased Terisporobacter abundances in the ileum (P < 0.05). Moreover, dietary CR or FCR supplementation up-regulated (P < 0.05) the gene expressions related to gut barrier functions of piglets. However, dietary CR supplementation showed negative impacts on hepatic lipid metabolism by up-regulating the expression of genes associated with fatty acid synthesis and triglyceride and lipid metabolism. In conclusion, dietary CR or FCR supplementation can maintain the health of piglets by increasing antioxidant capacity, gut barrier function, and altering the intestinal microbiota composition, but CR supplementation may increase the potential risk of abnormal lipid metabolism.
      PubDate: 2022-05-17T00:00:00Z
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