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  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 225 journals)
Showing 1 - 63 of 63 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abanico Veterinario     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria     Open Access  
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Research in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Small Animal Care     Full-text available via subscription  
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Agrivet : Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Pertanian dan Peternakan / Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Veteriner)     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences     Open Access  
American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Analecta Veterinaria     Open Access  
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal - Science Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 144)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Animal Health Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Anthrozoos : A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Applied Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archiva Zootehnica     Open Access  
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi / Atatürk University Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Austral Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Equine Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Avian Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access  
Bangladesh Veterinarian     Open Access  
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Veteriner Udayana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
CES Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia     Open Access  
Chilean Journal of Agricultural & Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Ciencia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access  
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Compendio de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Equine Veterinary Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Equine Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
EUREKA : Health Sciences     Open Access  
FAVE Sección Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Folia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Frontiers in Veterinary Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human & Veterinary Medicine - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ILAR Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Indonesia Medicus Veterinus     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intas Polivet     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Tropical Veterinary and Biomedical Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
InVet     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Iranian Journal of Veterinary Surgery     Open Access  
Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Irish Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Buffalo Science     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Parasite Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Small Animal Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of the Hellenic Veterinary Medical Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Selva Andina Research Society     Open Access  
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Veterinary Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Veterinary Forensic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medical Diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medicine     Open Access  
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu dan Kesehatan Hewan (Veterinary Science and Medicine Journal)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Medik Veteriner     Open Access  
Jurnal Medika Veterinaria     Open Access  
Jurnal Sain Veteriner     Open Access  
Jurnal Veteriner     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Kenya Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
kleintier konkret     Hybrid Journal  
Livestock     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Macedonian Veterinary Review     Open Access  
Matrix Science Medica     Open Access  
Medical Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Medical Mycology Case Reports     Open Access  
Medicina Veterinária (UFRPE)     Open Access  
Nepalese Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
New Zealand Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
New Zealand Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nigerian Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pet Behaviour Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
pferde spiegel     Hybrid Journal  
Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Preventive Veterinary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Rassegna di Diritto, Legislazione e Medicina Legale Veterinaria     Open Access  
Reproduction in Domestic Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Research in Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Research Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Veterinária     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Higiene e Sanidade Animal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencia Animal     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias (Colombian journal of animal science and veterinary medicine)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Complutense de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista de Ciência Veterinária e Saúde Pública     Open Access  
Revista de Ciências Agroveterinárias     Open Access  
Revista de Educação Continuada em Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú     Open Access  
Revista de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revista de Salud Animal     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista MVZ Córdoba     Open Access  
Revista Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revue Marocaine des Sciences Agronomiques et Vétérinaires     Open Access  
Revue Vétérinaire Clinique     Full-text available via subscription  
Salud y Tecnología Veterinaria     Open Access  
Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde     Hybrid Journal  
Science and Animal Health     Open Access  
Small Ruminant Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Spei Domus     Open Access  
Sri Lanka Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
SVU-International Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Tanzania Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
team.konkret     Open Access  
Theoretical and Applied Veterinary Medicine     Open Access  
Theriogenology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Tierärztliche Praxis Ausgabe G: Großtiere / Nutztiere     Hybrid Journal  
Tierärztliche Praxis Ausgabe K: Kleintiere / Heimtiere     Hybrid Journal  
Topics in Companion Animal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Trends in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tropical Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Turkish Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access  
UK Vet Equine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ukrainian Journal of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences     Open Access  
Van Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
VCOT Open     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
veterinär spiegel     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Veterinaria     Open Access  
Veterinaria (Montevideo)     Open Access  
Veterinaria México     Open Access  
Veterinaria México OA     Open Access  
Veterinarski Glasnik     Open Access  
Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Veterinary and Animal Science     Open Access  
Veterinary and Comparative Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Clinical Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Veterinary Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Veterinary Journal of Mehmet Akif Ersoy University / Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Veterinary Medicine and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Veterinary Medicine International     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Medicine: Research and Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)

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Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.136
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2251-628X - ISSN (Online) 2251-631X
Published by Islamic Azad University Homepage  [18 journals]
  • Comparisons of Egg Quality Traits, Egg Weight Loss and Hatching Results
           between Chinese and Mamut Geese Eggs Reared under the Countryside

    • Abstract: This study was carried out in order to comparisons of egg quality traits, egg weight loss and hatching results between Chinese and Mamut geese eggs reared under the countryside conditions in Kütahya province. For use in the experiments, eggs have taken from both Mamut and Chinese geese 38-44 weeks old. Animals reared extensive conditions (free-range production system) and were been not any special care or feeding has been applied in addition to the care and feeding in the rearing conditions. Male-female ratio was usually respectively 1/2-4, 1/3-5 in mamut and chinese geese. Laying period of both genotypies is early January, the eggs used in the research were obtained after 4 weeks from the first spawning time. The average egg yield of the flock were 35-40 eggs for each genotypes. Eggs were stored 12-16 ˚C temperature, 70-75% humidity under environment conditions 5-7 days until are put into the incubator. At the end of the research, Mamut geese egg quality criteria of egg weight (g), yolk color value, albumen index (%), eggshell thickness (mm), eggshell weight (g), haugh unit (%), eggshell ratio (%) (P<0,01), shape index (%), yolk index (%) (P<0.01) compare to Chinese geese eggs were found significant as statistical. Same way, Mamut geese egg weight loss (P<0.01) and hatching results of fertility (%), hatching chick weight. (g) (P<0.01), hatching performance (%) (P<0.05) compare to Chinese geese eggs were determined statistical values important. Taken together these results; Mamut geese eggs' can be said egg quality traits, egg weight loss, and hatching results statistically significant compare to Chinese geese eggs.
  • Optimal Forage Choices for Lactating Murciano-Granadina Dairy Goats: Feed
           Intake, Behavior Time Budget, Milk Production, and Blood Metabolites

    • Abstract: It is important to optimize forage choices for improved milk production and goat health under intensive raising systems. Our hypothesis was that alfalfa hay (AH), corn silage (CS), and wheat straw (WS) can be utilized by lactating Murciano-Granadina goats towards efficient milk production and that feed intake and efficiency and milk quantity and quality responses as well as metabolic parameters would differ among the forage sources. The objective was to determine effects of feeding different major forages on feed intake, behavior time budget, milk production and composition, and circulating blood metabolites in lactating Murciano-Granadina goats. Thirty lactating goats were used in a completely randomized design study with three treatments including diets containing 1) WS, 2) AH, or 3) CS at 40.3% of diet dry matter. Treatment diets were formulated to be isoenergetic (ME) and isonitrogenous (CP). Ten goats were assigned to each treatment. Forage source affected (P<0.01) dry matter intake (DMI), such that the highest intake was for CS (1904 g/d) and the lowest intake was for WS (1406 g/d) with AH being intermediate (1674 g/d). The yields of raw and fat-corrected milk, milk protein, lactose, and solids-nonfat were greater (P<0.01) for CS than for other two forages. Milk contents of fat, total solids, urea nitrogen, unsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and blood concentrations of total proteins were greater (P<0.05) for AH than for other forages. Milk somatic cell counts tended to be lower (P<0.10) for CS than for AH and WS. Treatments did not affect (P>0.10) times spent standing, lying and ruminating, and blood concentrations of glucose, albumin, and non-esterified fatty acids. Total protein concentrations in serum were, however, greater (P<0.05) for AH than for CS and WS. In conclusion, different forage choices can be fed to lactating Murciano-Granadina goats with different aims; CS for increased milk yield, AH for improved milk fat content, and WS for lower feed cost. Changes in forage cost and availability, production systems and strategies, and consumers' demand will determine how to optimize forage choices for lactating goats.
  • Polymorphism of Β-Lactoglobulin (Β-Lg) Gene and Its Association with
           Milk Yield and Milk Composition on Senduro Goats

    • Abstract: The objective of this research was to examine the β-lactoglobulin gene polymorphism and its association with milk yield and composition in Senduro goats. A total of 60 lactation Senduro goats aged 2 to 4 years were used in this study. Milk yield and blood samples were collected from dairy goat farms in Burno and Kandangtepus Senduro villages. The 480 bp β-lactoglobulin gene DNA fragments were amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method at 60 ˚C annealing for 35 cycles. The genotypes of the β-lactoglobulin gene were determined using the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique with the Sac II restriction enzyme. Association of β-lactoglobulin genotypes with milk yield and composition were analyzed using the ANOVA test. The result showed that the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) c.497G > A was detected. The β-lactoglobulin was polymorphic in Senduro goats. There were three genotypes (AA, AG, GG) and two alleles (A and G). The frequency of AA, AG, GG genotypes were 0.4, 0.52, 0.08, respectively, while the frequencies of A and G alleles were 0.66 and 0.34, respectively. There was no association between β-lactoglobulin gene polymorphism and milk yield and composition on Senduro goats. In conclusion, the genotype of the β-lactoglobulin gene did not effect on milk yield, protein, fat, density, lactose, salt, SnF, and total solid.
  • Genetic Variation within and between Three Iranian Goat Populations Using
           Nine Microsatellite Markers

    • Abstract: Genetic diversity is essential and mirrors for diversity pattern and population evolution. With this motivation, the aim here is to investigate genetic similarities of three indigenous goats of Iran: Azerbaijan (n=50), Sarbisheh (n=50), Busher (n=29) using 9 microsatellites markers. We extracted genomic DNA and then employed routine polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol for amplification of nine specific microsatellite markers. The experimental raw genotype was applied to generate summary of statistics for molecular diversity criteria. From the results, 8 microsatellites visualized satisfactory electrophoresis pattern and reasonable degree of polymorphism. The ILSTS004 (0.42) and BM415 (1.8) microsatellite markers indicated highest and lowest value for Shannon index. We obtain 57-67% range for observed heterozygosity value regarding to Azerbaijan and Sarbisheh goat, respectively. From these results it is clear the high genetic similarity was found between the Sarbisheh and Busher populations. Overall, bottleneck based evidence using IAM and SMM models demonstrated normal ‘L’-shaped distribution in investigated Azerbaijan and Sarbisheh goat. In conclusion, this analysis leads evidence for sufficient genetic variation within investigated goat.
  • The Performance, Antioxidant Status, Blood Chemistry Analysis and Tissue
           Histology of Broiler Birds Fed a Diet Containing Chromium Picolinate and
           Vitamin C

    • Abstract: This study looks into the effects of supplementing broiler chickens with chromium picolinate (CrPic) and vitamin C on their efficiency and antioxidant status without interfering with their essential metabolic functions and histology. Six hundred and forty Cobb 500 broiler chickens were randomly assigned to eight different dietary treatments, each with ten birds. Diets 1 to 8 were produced from a base diet that was divided into eight equal parts. Diets 1 to 4 were supplemented with 0 mg/kg CrPic, 0.4 mg/kg CrPic, 0.8 mg/kg CrPic, and 1.2 mg/kg CrPic, respectively. Supplements of 200 mg/kg vitamin C, 0.4 mg CrPic and 200 mg vitamin C, 0.8 mg CrPic and 200 mg vitamin C, and 1.2 mg CrPic and 200 mg vitamin C were given to the diets 5 to 8. Performance, carcass analysis, antioxidant parameters, serum-biochemistry, and histology were all investigated. Dietary supplements of 0.8 mg/kg CrPic and 200 mg vitamin C improved body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, slaughtered weight, and antioxidant enzyme status. Dietary vitamin C supplementation (200 mg/kg) reduced aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, while dietary CrPic supplementation (1.2 mg/kg) reduced blood glucose. However, dietary supplementation with 0.4 mg/kg CrPic decreased abdominal fat, while 1.2 mg/kg CrPic supplementation resulted in substantial hepatic inflammation and interstitial nephritis. In broiler development under tropical conditions, a mixture of 0.8 mg/kg CrPic and 200 mg vitamin C dietary supplementation is advanced.
  • Determining Relative Bioavailability of Different Manganese Sources in
           Broiler Diets

    • Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the relative bioavailability value (RBV) of different manganese mono oxide (MnO) sources and manganese sulfate (MnSO4) in broiler diets as well as their effect on tibial characteristics, and serum inorganic phosphorous (P), calcium (Ca) and Mn concentrations. The experiment was carried out based on a completely randomized design (CRD) with 660 broiler chicks (Ross 308) assigned to 12 dietary treatments with 6 replicates of 10 birds each. The experimental diets consisted of one basal diet (as control), and 10 treatment groups which were supplemented with 400 or 800 mg/kg of feed of 1-5 MnO sources with 35%, 25%, 45-55%, 30%, and 40% purities, respectively; MnSO4 was also used (800 mg/kg of feed) in a treatment group as a reference standard with 100% bioavailability. The mean RBV of MnO sources (27.27 to 181.82%) showed a significant difference (P<0.05). The results also showed sera Ca and Mn concentrations, and retention of Mn in diet and tibia bone were significantly affected by different Mn sources used (P<0.05). Although no differences were observed for sera P, Ca, and Mn concentrations, regardless of the level of supplementation (P<0.05). The results of this study demonstrated that the purity of Mn supplement sources has a relationship with RBV of Mn, Mn absorption, and its retention in broiler bone and ileum.
  • Analysis of Chicken Gut Microbiome Fed by Phyllanthus urinaria as
           Phytobiotic Using 16S rRNA Metagenome

    • Abstract: Applying of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) in chicken has been forbidden due to leaving residues and resistance in people who consume them, especially in livestock products. The provision of phytobiotics as AGPs substitute for chickens increases their immunity and productivity. Phytobiotics may threaten pathogenic bacteria or promote colonization of beneficial bacteria for chickens. This study analyzed the effect of meniran leaves (Phyllanthus urinaria) as a phytobiotic and an alternative for AGPs on the abundance, diversity, and composition of the chicken gut microbial community. The microbial ecology of chicken gut used the molecular markers of the 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing V3-V4 region. Samples were 20 chickens maintained for 21 days and fed according to basal requirements that were divided into two treatments, namely 0% phytobiotic provision (T0) and 2% meniran leaves phytobiotic provision. The sequencing libraries were constructed by utilizing the Ion Plus Fragment Library Kit 48 rxns. The sequencing result was evaluated by performing single-ends reads quality control, operational taxonomic units (OTUs) clustering, species annotation, and diversity within groups (alpha diversity). The outcome data revealed that Firmicutes was the predominant phylum in both samples. Based on the class level, T0 was identified to have 100% Bacteroidia, while T1 was detected to have 78% Bacteroidia and 22% Flavobacteriia. Based on the order level, T0 was dominated by the Negativicutes and T1 was dominated by the Selenomonadales. Based on the genus level, T0 was dominated by the Megamonas and T1 was dominated by the Lactobacillus. The OTUs of T0 and T1 were 126 and 144. This study concludes that the Phyllanthus urinaria provision as a phytobiotic influences the diversity, relative abundance, and composition of the chicken gut microbiota.
  • Some Parts of the Feather Can be a Non-Invasive Genetic Sample for Sexing
           in Avian'

    • Abstract: The current animal research investigation emphasizes animal wellbeing. Therefore, the present study recommends using non-invasive sampling procedures in scientific studies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate DNA extracted from 7 different parts of the feather (calamus tip, rachis (I-III) and barbs (I-III)) for sex identification using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. The study results showed that the calamus tip had the highest DNA concentration. DNA extracted from rachis and barbs can also be amplified and use for sex determination. Extracted DNA from the calamus tip, rachis (I), and barbs (I) showed accurate results for amplified PCR products when compared to the sex of known samples. The findings revealed that, in addition to the calamus tip, the rachis and barbs on the lower part of the feather surrounding on the calamus can be used to determine sex. Calamus tip collection by plucking is an invasive technique that could result in contusion and infection. The non-invasive sample collection method of cutting a portion of the feather is one option for supporting animal welfare guidelines. Furthermore, the non-invasive method presented in the study can be used to collect samples in other branches of molecular biology. 
  • The Effects of Dietary Omega-3 and / or Coenzyme Q10 on Semen Quality and
           Reproductive Function of Aged Broiler Breeder Roosters

    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of WHAT with omega-3, coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), and the combination of both on semen quality, reproductive performance, and plasma variables in broiler breeder roosters. A total of 48 broiler breeder roosters (Hubbard F15, 49 weeks of age) were randomly assigned to one of four experimental diets: a control (Con; basal diet consisting of corn-soybean base), a Salomega (S; basal diet supplemented with 30 g of Salomega per kg of feed), a CoQ10 (Q; basal diet supplemented with 400 mg of CoQ10 per kg of feed), and a combination diet (CSQ; basal diet supplemented with 30 g of Salomega and 400 mg of CoQ10 per kg of feed). Salomega (Agritech Co. Ireland) contains 50% fat and about 10% total omega-3 fatty acids. Each treatment was replicated four times with three roosters in each. The results showed that dietary supplementation of CoQ10 increased sperm concentration, sperm motility, sperm plasma membrane integrity, seminal plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and blood testosterone (P<0.05) in comparison to the Con groups, and the synergistic effects were observed in the basal diet supplemented with 30 g of Salomega and 400 mg of CoQ10 per kg of feed (CSQ groups) compared to Con groups (P<0.05). In addition, the CSQ supplementation reduced plasma levels of glucose and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity (P<0.05) in comparison to the Con groups. Roosters fed the CSQ supplementation had significantly higher fertility, hatchability of total eggs, and sperm penetration rates in comparison to the Con group (P<0.05). It can be concluded that the dietary combination of omega-3 and CoQ10 had a synergistic effect to improve the reproductive performance of aged broiler breeder roosters in comparison to separately dietary supplementation with omega-3 or CoQ10.
  • The Relationship between Body Condition Score and Milk Production, Udder
           Health and Reduced Negative Energy Balance during Initial Lactation
           Period: A Review

    • Abstract: Achieving improved milk yield from a healthy udder, with a minimum weight loss especially during initial lactation, is the aim of every dairy farmer. Body condition score (BCS) of dairy cows has been found to be significantly associated with body weight, milk performance and udder health status of dairy cow during the pre and post- partum period. Under and over body condition of dairy cows should be avoided. Both conditions lead to weight loss, loss of milk, poor udder health and metabolic disease in dairy animals. Cows should have balanced body condition before and after calving. Better management practices during the dry period and at calving may optimize production, and udder health in subsequent lactation. This review aims to highlight livestock management strategies during the dry period which may help in optimizing BCS at calving and during the subsequent lactation period, thus improving milk performance and udder health, and reducing weight loss in early lactation.
  • Morning vs. Afternoon Harvest Time of Alfalfa, Clover, and Barley Affect
           the Chemical Composition and Nutritional Value of Silage

    • Abstract: The chemical composition of forages varies during the day. The natural fermentation characteristics of silage may be influenced by these variations. A study was conducted to investigate the effect of cutting time (morning vs. afternoon) on chemical composition, gas production parameters, and digestibility and fermentation characteristics of alfalfa, clover, and barley silage using the gas production method. Alfalfa, clover, and barley forages were harvested twice in the morning (06:00) and the afternoon (18:00). Forages were ensiled in laboratory silos in triplicate at each cutting time and analyzed after 45 days to determine fermentation characteristics. After 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, and 96 hours of incubation, the cumulative gas production was measured. After a 24-hour incubation period, the dry matter digestibility (DMD), organic matter digestibility (OMD), metabolizable energy (ME), pH, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) were determined. Gas production at different times, water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC), starch, acid detergent fiber (ADF), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content, net energy for lactation (NEl), and net energy for growth (NEg) were also measured. The results indicated that afternoon-cut forages had lower levels of NDF and ADF than morning-cut forages (P<0.05), as well as greater amounts of starch and WSC. Afternoon-cut ensiled forages had higher dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), NEl, and NEg and lower pH, significantly. Afternoon-cut forages had a higher gas production potential than morning-cut forages. In general, it may be concluded that delaying harvest time from morning to afternoon can improve the nutritional value of forage.
  • Principal Component Analysis of Biometric Traits in Guilan Native Cattle
           of Iran

    • Abstract: In this study, 230 heads of Guilan native cows were phenotypically evaluated for 29 traits. Descriptive statistics were obtained per each level of sex (male and female), two levels of the genetic group (straight bred native and crossbred of the native by Holstein), and four levels of genetic groups × sex interaction. The results showed that the crossbred cows had dairy conformation while the type of Guilan native cows was meat-oriented. A distinctive feature of native cattle compared to cross and other breeds are the presence of withers, which is often seen in males and rarely in females. The phenotypic correlation coefficients of 25 attributes were calculated. There were 270 positive and 30 negative coefficients. Correlation coefficients ranged from -0.5 (thigh girth and fore teat length) to 0.95 (thigh girth and front leg length). The principal component analysis was performed to find the variables explaining the maximum variance in the main set of variables. The first and second components accounted for 57.17 and 11.53 percent of the total variance, respectively. Seven components accounted near to 90 percent of the total variance. Traits consist of width and environment of the chest, height in the hip area (rump), head length and hip to pin distance, height in stature area, depth and girth of abdominal, hip-width (hip to hip distance), front leg length, body length, and neck girth were more important for the first component, which is important in terms of bulk, size, length, width, height, and body growth as a result of meat production.
  • Estimation of Nitrogen Requirements of Holstein Suckling Calves at
           Different Ages

    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to estimate the nitrogen requirements of Holstein suckling calves at 2, 6 and 8 weeks of age. Newborn healthy calves, randomly divided into 2 groups (n=16 per group), were fed with either a starter based on corn or barley. The calves received pasteurized cow’s milk in accordance to the herd schedule. The calves were housed in individual metabolic cages and urinary and fecal nitrogen contents were measured in samples collected for four days at 2, 6 and 8 weeks of age. Nitrogen requirement was estimated using the regression analysis. Nitrogen requirement for maintenance at week 2 significantly (P=0.037) differed between the starters, but not at 6 and 8 weeks. However, the nitrogen requirement for maintenance at 8 weeks of age tended to be differ between male and female calves (P=0.075), but not at weeks 2 and 6. Daily nitrogen requirements for maintenance based on the metabolic weight decreased as the calves aged. Nitrogen requirement for growth was affected by the type of grain in the diet at weeks 2 (P=0.068), 6 (P<0.05) and 8 (P<0.05). No effect of sex was found on nitrogen requirements for growth (P>0.05).
  • Comparative Evaluation of Ascorbic Acid Supplementation in Tris-Egg Yolk
           Based Extender and Triladyl® Extender on Post-Thaw Kinematics Parameters
           of Sahiwal Bull Semen

    • Abstract: The current study was conducted to see the effects of ascorbic acid supplementation into tris-citric acid-glycerol-yolk (TCGY) extender and comparing it with Triladyl extender for bovine semen cryopreservation. Semen was collected from Sahiwal bulls for three weeks and each ejaculate (N=30) was divided into three aliquots. The first aliquot was extended using TCGY extender (control group), the 2nd aliquot was extended using TCGY supplemented with 2.1 mg/mL of ascorbic acid (AA group) and the 3rd aliquot of the same ejaculate was extended using Triladyl extender (TA group). Following the processing and freezing, thawed semen straws from each treatment were evaluated for sperm motility, viability, acrosome integrity and live/dead ratio. The average path velocity was the highest in TA group (77.99±2.99 µm/s) compared with other two groups (P<0.05). Similarly, values of total motility showed that TA group was superior to the other two groups (93.6±0.94% in TA versus 83.33±1.71% in control and 88.53±1.38% in AA group) (P<0.05). The amplitude of lateral head displacement (8.47±0.27 µm versus 5.00±0.22 µm and 4.74±0.13 µm), length of the average path (50.23±1.79 µm vs. 25.33±2.12 µm and 23.51±0.39 µm), length of the curvilinear path (85.01±3.03 µm vs. 38.89±1.48 µm and 38.65±0.77 µm), length of the straight-line path (37.28±1.33 µm vs. 19.39±0.84 µm and 20.42±0.29 µm) and track speed (130.93±5.33 µm/s vs. 89.13±3.47 µm/s and 92.11±1.88 µm/s) were significantly higher (P<0.05) in AA group as compared to TA and control group. Values for plasma membrane integrity (PMI), acrosome membrane integrity (AMI) and eosin were higher in AA and TA groups than in the control group (P<0.05). The addition of ascorbic acid in TCGY extender can serve as a better alternative to commercial extender for cryopreservation of semen.
  • Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Have Beneficial Effect on Frozen-Thawed
           Spermatozoa of Holstein Bulls

    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of zinc (Zn) oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) on bovine sperm quality after cryopreservation. Semen samples were collected from four healthy, mature Holstein bulls twice a week. The samples with critical quality were then pooled and assigned into four different groups including different concentrations of ZnONPs (0, 0.1, 1.0 and-10 µg/mL of extender). The samples were frozen by using a semi-automatic device and kept until the evaluation. After thawing, total (TM) and progressive -motility (PM), membrane integrity and functionality, acrosome integrity, DNA fragmentation and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration were assessed. The different concentrations of ZnONPs did not significantly affect TM and PM of bull spermatozoa, when compared to the control (P≥0.05). The percentage of fast- moving spermatozoa was higher in the treatment supplemented either with 0.1 or 1.0 µg ZnONPs in comparison with the control (P<0.05). Moreover, the results indicated that membrane integrity and functionality and also acrosome integrity of the group treated with 1 µg/mL ZnONP1- was significantly higher than control (P<0.05), while, the percentage of sperm with damaged DNA and MDA concentration was significantly lower in ZnONP1 in comparison with the control (P<0.05). In conclusion, adding 1 µg/mL ZnONP to semen extender, could improve post-thaw bull spermatozoa quality. 
  • Lactation Performance of Nili-Ravi Buffaloes Fed Alkali Treated Rice Husks

    • Abstract: A feeding trial was carried out using 20 lactating Nili-Ravi buffaloes, divided into 4 groups (n=5) having similar parity and milk production to examine the influence of 2% NaOH treated rice husk on their milk yield and composition, blood metabolites and nutrient digestibility. Four iso-nitrogenous (14.0% crude protein (CP)) and iso-caloric (metabolizable energy (ME) 2.5 Mcal/kg) rations, containing zero (control), 10%, 20% and 30% rice husk, were formulated. Buffaloes were individually fed the diets ad libitum. Ten kg of available green fodder (Trifolium alexandrinum, berseem) was also offered to each animal. Feed consumed was noted daily by subtracting refusals. Milking was twice a day with the yield being recorded. Milk samples were analyzed for fat, solids-not-fat, total solids and protein. A digestibility trial was conducted at the end of the study for seven days using three animals from each group. Milk yield and composition was similar across the treatments. Nutrient digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, crude fiber and ash increased linearly with increasing levels of treated rice husk, but differences were non-significant (P>0.05). Similarly, changes in blood metabolites also not significantly affected by the treatments. It can be concluded that treatment of rice husks with a low level of NaOH has no harmful effect, so can be used in the formulation of diets for lactating buffaloes.
  • Serum Protein Profile of Lori-Bakhtiari Ewes in Relation to Age, Body
           Weight, Birth Type and Birth Season

    • Abstract: Serum protein profile could be considered as a useful indicator of physiological and pathological conditions, but several factors may interfere with the interpretation. This study was conducted to evaluate serum protein fractions in association with age, body weight, birth type and birth season in a meat-type sheep. Blood samples were randomly taken from 96 healthy Lori-Bakhtiari ewes in the Shooli breeding station in Iran. The sampled animals randomly belonged to different age, birth type, birth season and body weight groups. Total protein and other fractions were determined by Biuret and electrophoresis methods, respectively. IgG levels were measured by ELISA method. Total protein, albumin, total globulins, albumin/globulins ratio, α1, α2, β and γ globulins and IgG levels averages were 5.82, 2.35, 3.47, 0.69, 0.06, 0.42, 0.15, 2.82 and 1.56 g/dL, respectively. Total protein had high correlations with total and γ globulins, while albumin and IgG were almost independent from other fractions. Levels of serum protein fractions in adults were also independent from body weights at different ages. Serum protein profile was significantly affected by age and birth season (P<0.05), where by older ewes had lower levels of α2, γ and total globulins and higher albumin/globulin ratios. The winter-born ewes significantly had higher γ globulins levels and probably more immune system activities, compared to the spring-born ewes. Body weight and birth type did not have any significant effect on the studied serum protein fractions. This study suggested that the age and birth season should be considered for interpretation of the serum protein profiles.
  • Meat Qualities and Sensory Characteristics of Hararghe and Afar Rams Fed
           on Varying Energy and Protein Levels in the Diets

    • Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate instrumental and eating qualities of meat from Afar and Hararghe Highland Rams subjected to different energy and protein levels in the diet. Fifty yearling rams with a mean IBW of 19.31 ± 1.7 kg (Mean±SD) was randomly distributed into five dietary treatments i.e., minimum energy and protein (mEmP), medium energy and protein (MEMP), medium energy and high protein (MEHP), high energy and medium protein (HEMP), and high Energy and high protein (HEHP) diets in randomized complete block design with 2 × 5 factorial arrangements. The minimum, medium, and high energy diets were: 2.388, 2.866, and 3.344 Mcal/kgDM with the corresponding 10, 16, and 20% crude protein (CP) diets. The diets were formulated in a total mixed ration from wheat bran, maize grain, peanut cake, and pasture hay feed ingredients. There was significant (P<0.01) effects of breed and diets on meat physicochemical parameters (dissected lean, fat, bone, water holding capacity, and chemical compositions), eating qualities (flavor, juiciness and tenderness) and instrumental qualities (Warner–Brazilier shear force and meat color index values [(red (a*); light (L*); yellow (b*)]. Hararghe rams had higher (P<0.01) fat composition, water-holding capacity (WHC), light (L*; 32.4 vs. 29.8) and yellow (b*; 9.4 vs. 8.4) color index values, and tender meat (19.60 vs. 23.38 N/cm2) as compared to Afar rams. MEHP and HEMP diets were appropriate in promoting better meat quality while MEMP was optimum resulting in desirable meat qualities in both sheep breeds. Meat from both breeds and rams fed on all diets was in the acceptable ranges set for meat quality parameters. Major meat quality defects (dark cutting) observed on slaughtering of free grazing animals directly bought from highland areas has been improved by this feeding and management systems.
  • Intake, Digestibility, and Rumen Metabolism of Feedlot Lambs Supplemented
           either Monensin or Increasing Doses of Copaiba (Copaifera spp.) Essential

    • Abstract: This trial aimed to evaluate increasing levels of copaiba oil on dry matter intake and digestibility, rumen fermentation, microbial protein synthesis, and thermal regulation in lambs. Ten lambs (32.4±2.86 kg body weight and 6.1±0.4 months of age) were assigned to two concurrent 5 × 5 latin square design trials, in which the following treatments were randomly distributed to lambs: control (CON), a basal diet with no feed additives; basal diet plus monensin (MON, 25 mg/ kg dry matter (DM)); and the basal diet pluscopaiba oil (CO), added at 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 g/kg DM. The supplementation of copaiba oil (CO) did not influence the intake and digestibility of dry matter and nutrients. A quadratic effect was observed for the concentrations of propionate for lambs supplemented with CO. Lambs fed 1.0 g/kg DM of CO had a higher concentration of purine derivatives and microbial nitrogen and protein compared to lambs fed the ionophore. Copaiba oil (CO) positively influenced rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis, without altering dry matter consumption and digestibility. From these results, we suggest the use of 1.0 g/kg DM in growing lambs’ diets.
  • Environmental Temperature Influences Diet Selection and Growth in
           Early-Weaned Lambs

    • Abstract: The objective of the present study was to trace the influence of environmental temperature on growth and feed consumption in early-weaned lambs from dairy sheep breeds. The experiment was conducted in 2015 at the experimental farm of the Institute of Forage Crops, Pleven, Bulgaria using 36 lambs of the Blackhead Pleven sheep breed. The animals were divided into three groups (12 animals per group). Each group was divided into 6 sub groups (2 lambs per pen and divided into three experimental premises, each with a different environmental temperature. The lambs reared at an average temperature of 12.6 ˚C grew significantly faster (P<0.01), than the lambs reared at 5.1 ˚C and -3.0 ˚C. The animals grown at an average temperature of -3.0 ˚C, consumed a larger quantity of maize (P<0.01) and a lower amount of pelleted protein concentrate (PPC, P<0.01). In the animals grown at an average temperature of 12.6 ˚C, the tendency for consumption is reversed (higher PPC consumption and less maize). In this case, when the lambs were grown at a temperature of 12.6 ˚C the percentage of crude protein in the dry matter chosen is the highest at 22.0%.
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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