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Veterinary Sciences
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2306-7381
Published by MDPI Homepage  [84 journals]
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 450: Genomic Analysis of Porcine
           Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus 1 Revealed Extensive
           Recombination and Potential Introduction Events in China

    • Authors: Fang Yu, Liqiang Liu, Xiaoxiao Tian, Ligong Chen, Xinyi Huang, Yue Sun, Yi Yan, Zhijun Tian, Xuehui Cai, Di Liu, Tongqing An
      First page: 450
      Abstract: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), caused by the PRRS virus (PRRSV), is considered one of the most devastating swine diseases worldwide. PRRSV-1 was first isolated in China in 2006. However, there were few reports concerning the genetic characteristics of PRRSV-1 in China. In this study, three PRRSV-1 strains (HL85, HeB3, and HeB47) were detected by a general RT-qPCR method from clinical samples in 2018. HeB47 was identified as a recombinant between the BJEU06-1 and CReSA228-like strains. To further analyze the recombination and deletion features of PRRSV-1, all the available 88 complete genome sequences (isolated in 19 countries) from 1991 to 2018 in GenBank were analyzed. The high-frequency recombination regions were concentrated in NSP2 and GP2 to GP4. More importantly, phylogenetic analysis of PRRSV-1 revealed four independent introductions in China. Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen the important monitoring of breeding pigs and pork products and epidemiological surveys on pig farms to prevent the further spread of PRRSV-1.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-23
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9090450
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 451: Study on NGF and VEGF during the
           Equine Perinatal Period—Part 1: Healthy Foals Born from Normal
           Pregnancy and Parturition

    • Authors: Nicola Ellero, Aliai Lanci, Vito Antonio Baldassarro, Giuseppe Alastra, Jole Mariella, Maura Cescatti, Luciana Giardino, Carolina Castagnetti
      First page: 451
      Abstract: The importance of trophic factors, such as nerve growth factor (NGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) during the perinatal period, is now emerging. Through their functional activities of neurogenesis and angiogenesis, they play a key role in the final maturation of the nervous and vascular systems. The present study aims to: (i) evaluate the NGF and VEGF levels obtained at parturition from the mare, foal and umbilical cord vein plasma, as well as in amniotic fluid; (ii) evaluate NGF and VEGF content in the plasma of healthy foals during the first 72 h of life (T0, T24 and T72); (iii) evaluate NGF and VEGF levels at parturition in relation to the selected mares’ and foals’ clinical parameters; (iv) evaluate the relationship between the two trophic factors and the thyroid hormone levels (TT3 and TT4) in the first 72 h of life; (v) assess mRNA expression of NGF, VEGF and BDNF and their cell surface receptors in the placenta. Fourteen Standardbred healthy foals born from mares with normal pregnancies and parturitions were included in the study. The dosage of NGF and VEGF levels was performed using commercial ELISA kits, whereas NGF, VEGF and BDNF placental gene expression was performed using semi-quantitative real-time PCR. In foal plasma, both NGF and VEGF levels decreased significantly over time, from T0 to T24 (p = 0.0066 for NGF; p < 0.0001 for VEGF) and from T0 to T72 (p = 0.0179 for NGF; p = 0.0016 for VEGF). In foal serum, TT3 levels increased significantly over time from T0 to T24 (p = 0.0058) and from T0 to T72 (p = 0.0013), whereas TT4 levels decreased significantly over time from T0 to T24 (p = 0.0201) and from T0 to T72 (p < 0.0001). A positive correlation was found in the levels of NGF and VEGF in foal plasma at each time point (p = 0.0115; r = 0.2862). A positive correlation was found between NGF levels in the foal plasma at T0 and lactate (p = 0.0359; r = 0.5634) as well as between VEGF levels in the foal plasma at T0 and creatine kinase (p = 0.0459; r = 0.5407). VEGF was expressed in all fetal membranes, whereas NGF and its receptors were not expressed in the amnion. The close relationship between the two trophic factors in foal plasma over time and their fine expression in placental tissues appear to be key regulators of fetal development and adaptation to extra-uterine life.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-23
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9090451
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 452: Metagenomic Characterization and
           Volatile Compounds Determination in Rumen from Saanen Goat Kids Fed Olive

    • Authors: Francesca Bennato, Camillo Martino, Marco Di Domenico, Andrea Ianni, Benli Chai, Lisa Di Marcantonio, Cesare Cammà, Giuseppe Martino
      First page: 452
      Abstract: The accumulation and disposal of by-products deriving from the agro-food industry represents a problem both from an economic and environmental point of view. The use of these matrices in zootechnical nutrition could represent a feasible solution. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of a diet containing olive leaves (OL), a by-product of the olive industry, on the ruminal microbial community of Saanen goat kids and on volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced during the digestion. Twenty goat kids were randomly divided into two groups of ten goat kids each. The control group (CTR) was fed with a standard diet, while the experimental group (OL+) received a custom-formulated diet containing 10 % OL on a dry matter (DM) basis. After 30 days of trial, genomic DNA was extracted from the rumen liquor and prepared for 16S rRNA-gene sequencing to characterize the rumen microbiota; furthermore, rumen VOCs were also characterized by solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The Shannon’s alpha index was not significantly different between the two groups, on the contrary, Bray-Curtis (p < 0.01) and Jaccard (p < 0.01) distances evidenced that feed affected microbial community. Eleven genera were influenced by OL supplementation, with a significant increase (p < 0.05) in Paludibacter, Fibrobacter, Sphaerochaeta Christensenella, Rikenella, Oligosphaera, Candidatus Endomicrobium, Anaerovorax, and Atopobium was observed, while the percentages of Bacteroides and Selenomonas were reduced (p < 0.05). Differences were also observed between the two groups at the family level (p < 0.004). Fibrobacteriaceae, Christensenellaceae, Coriobacteriaceae, Oligosphaeraceae, Candidatus Endomicrobium, and Planctomycetaceae were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in goat kids fed OL diet compared to CTR, while the levels of other identified families, Succinivibrionaceae and Bifidobacteriaceae, were opposite (p < 0.05). Finally, results showed that the main phyla in both groups were Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes; however, no significant differences in the relative abundance of any phyla were observed between the two groups. In addition to what has been reported, the analysis of VOCs at the rumen level showed the ability of the OL integration to induce an increase in hexanoic acid and a parallel decrease in decanal. Furthermore, only in OL+ samples there was the accumulation of α-terpineol to which a wide range of interesting biological properties is attributed. The presence of VOCs associated with health status suggests a favorable role of OL in preserving and improving animal welfare.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-24
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9090452
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 453: Relationship between Serum Protein
           Electrophoresis, Endoscopic and Histopathological Scores in 99 Cats with
           Chronic Enteropathy

    • Authors: Alessio Pierini, Eleonora Gori, Fiorenza Tulone, Elena Benvenuti, Enrico Bottero, Pietro Ruggiero, Veronica Marchetti
      First page: 453
      Abstract: Few studies have investigated total protein (TP) and serum protein electrophoresis (SPE) in cats with chronic enteropathy (CE). Cats diagnosed with CE were evaluated to investigate the relationships between TP, SPE and endoscopy, histopathology, and extraintestinal involvement. Medical records were searched for cats with a history of chronic gastrointestinal signs and a final diagnosis of CE. Information on signalment, TP, SPE, endoscopic score, histopathological diagnosis and score, and concurrent hepatic or pancreatic ultrasonographic alterations was collected. Relationships between protein profiles and other variables were investigated. Ninety-nine cats were included in the study, 63 diagnosed with various degrees of bowel inflammation and 36 with small-cell alimentary lymphoma. The most common TP alteration was hypoproteinemia (24%). No significant differences were observed between protein profiles and endoscopic and histopathological severity scores. Forty-five cats showing concurrent pancreatic and/or hepatic ultrasonographic alterations, had significantly lower albumin, lower α-globulin, and higher γ-globulin levels than cats not showing concurrent alterations. Disease severity scores did not seem to influence the protein profile in cats with CE. Extraintestinal involvement may be suspected in cats with lower albumin and α-globulins and higher γ-globulins.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-24
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9090453
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 454: Identification of Changes in
           Rumination Behavior Registered with an Online Sensor System in Cows with
           Subclinical Mastitis

    • Authors: Ramūnas Antanaitis, Vida Juozaitienė, Dovilė Malašauskienė, Mindaugas Televičius, Mingaudas Urbutis, Arūnas Rutkaukas, Greta Šertvytytė, Walter Baumgartner
      First page: 454
      Abstract: The aim of the present study is to determine the relationship between subclinical mastitis and rumination behavior registered with an online sensor system. Based on the findings of the general clinical examination of 650 milking cows, 10 cows with subclinical mastitis (SCM) and 10 clinically healthy cows (HG) were selected (without clinical signs of any diseases). Rumination behavior biomarkers were registered with RumiWatch noseband sensors (RWS; ITIN + HOCH GmbH, Fütterungstechnik, Liestal, Switzerland). Sensors were implanted on the first day after calving. Data from the RWS 13 days before diagnosis of SCM and 13 days after diagnosis of SCM were compared with HG data from the same period. Healthy cows were checked alongside SCM cows on the same days. In our study, we found that healthy cows spent more time engaging in rumination and drinking (p < 0.05) and also had more boluses per rumination. Moreover, among cows with subclinical mastitis, rumination time from day 4 to day 0 decreased by 60.91%, drinking time decreased by 48.47%, and the number of boluses per rumination decreased by 8.67% (p < 0.05). The results indicate that subclinical affects time and rumination chews registered with sensor systems. However, additional studies with larger numbers of animals are required to confirm these results. Furthermore, the impact of heat stress, estrus, and other effects on rumination behavior biomarkers should be evaluated.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-24
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9090454
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 455: Serum Amino Acids Imbalance in
           Canine Chronic Hepatitis: Results in 16 Dogs

    • Authors: Verena Habermaass, Eleonora Gori, Francesca Abramo, Francesco Bartoli, Alessio Pierini, Chiara Mariti, Ilaria Lippi, Veronica Marchetti
      First page: 455
      Abstract: In humans, chronic liver disease may cause alterations in amino acids (AAs) metabolism, with serum branched-chain AAs (BCAAs) decreasing and aromatic AAs (AAAs) increasing. A reduced Fischer ratio (BCAAs/AAAs) has been found to be associated with hepatic fibrosis and is useful for assessing prognosis in human patients. In veterinary medicine, few studies have been performed, and in contrast to human patients, dogs with different kinds of hepatopathy tend to show both increased AAAs and BCAAs. In dogs, the association between histological scores and serum AAs has not been previously investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum AAs in dogs with chronic hepatitis (CH) compared with a healthy control group (C) and, among CH dogs, in relation to their histological fibrosis and necroinflammatory activity scores. Leftover serum samples of 16 dogs with histological CH and 25 healthy dogs were employed. Serum AAs were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Proline and the AAAs phenylalaine and tyrosine progressively increased with the histological severity. In contrast, cysteine, tryptophan and BCAA isoleucine progressively reduced. Lysine and the BCAAs leucine and valine showed a non-linear trend with the histological findings. The BCAAs/AAAs ratio was significatively reduced if higher grades of liver fibrosis were present.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-25
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9090455
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 456: Fetlock Joint Angle Pattern and
           Range of Motion Quantification Using Two Synchronized Wearable Inertial
           Sensors per Limb in Sound Horses and Horses with Single Limb Naturally
           Occurring Lameness

    • Authors: Eleonora Pagliara, Maddalena Marenchino, Laura Antenucci, Mario Costantini, Giacomo Zoppi, Mario Dante Lucio Giacobini, Michela Bullone, Barbara Riccio, Andrea Bertuglia
      First page: 456
      Abstract: Fetlock joint angle (FJA) pattern is a sensitive indicator of lameness. The first aim of this study is to describe a network of inertial measurement units system (IMUs) for quantifying FJA simultaneously in all limbs. The second aim is to evaluate the accuracy of IMUs for quantifying the sagittal plane FJA overground in comparison to bi-dimensional (2-D) optical motion capture (OMC). 14 horses (7 free from lameness and 7 lame) were enrolled and analyzed with both systems at walk and trot on a firm surface. All enrolled horses were instrumented with 8 IMUs (a pair for each limb) positioned at the dorsal aspect of the metacarpal/metatarsal bone and pastern and acquiring data at 200 Hz. Passive markers were glued on the center of rotation of carpus/tarsus, fetlock, and distal interphalangeal joint, and video footages were captured at 60 Hz and digitalized for OMC acquisition. The IMU system accuracy was reported as Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and Pearson Correlation Coefficient (PCC). The Granger Causality Test (GCT) and the Bland–Altman analysis were computed between the IMUs and OMC patterns to determine the agreement between the two systems. The proposed IMU system was able to provide FJAs in all limbs using a patented method for sensor calibration and related algorithms. Fetlock joint range of motion (FJROM) variability of three consecutive strides was analyzed in the population through 3-way ANOVA. FJA patterns quantified by IMUs demonstrated high accuracy at the walk (RMSE 8.23° ± 3.74°; PCC 0.95 ± 0.03) and trot (RMSE 9.44° ± 3.96°; PCC 0.96 ± 0.02) on both sound (RMSE 7.91° ± 3.19°; PCC 0.97 ± 0.03) and lame horses (RMSE 9.78° ± 4.33°; PCC 0.95 ± 0.03). The two systems’ measurements agreed (mean bias around 0) and produced patterns that were in temporal agreement in 97.33% of the cases (p < 0.01). The main source of variability between left and right FJROM in the population was the presence of lameness (p < 0.0001) and accounted for 28.46% of this total variation. IMUs system accurately quantified sagittal plane FJA at walk and trot in both sound and lame horses.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-25
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9090456
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 457: Sinonasal Meningioma in a Siberian
           Tiger (Panthera tigris altaica)

    • Authors: Louise van der Weyden, Peter Caldwell, Christine Steyrer, Nicolize O’Dell, Alischa Henning
      First page: 457
      Abstract: Meningiomas are the most common primary brain tumour in dogs and cats. However, whilst there are numerous reports of extracranial (spinal, orbital and sinonasal) meningiomas in the dog, there have only been a few case reports of spinal meningiomas, and no post-mortem confirmed orbital or sinonasal meningiomas in cats. In this report, a 20-year-old captive tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) with a history of chronic ocular inflammation resulting in enucleation, spontaneously developed tetanic convulsions (epileptic seizures) that over a 2-year period resulted in a gradually worsening condition and the animal was eventually euthanized. At autopsy, a focal, expansile, neoplastic mass was found in the caudal nasal cavity midline, abutting the cribriform plate and slightly compressing the calvarium. Histological analysis revealed nasal turbinates attached to a well-circumscribed expansile multi-lobular mass consisting of interlacing whorls and streams of neoplastic cells supported by a variably fibrous to microcystic collagenous matrix displaying rare psammoma bodies. The diagnosis was sinonasal transitional meningioma. This is the first report of a captive wild felid with an extracranial meningioma, specifically a tiger with a sinonasal transitional meningioma.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-25
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9090457
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 458: The Protective Efficacy of an
           Inactivated Vaccine against Avibacterium paragallinarum Field Isolates

    • Authors: Mengjiao Guo, Donghui Liu, Hengli Xu, Hao Zhang, Yikun Jin, Huihui Tan, Yantao Wu, Xiaorong Zhang
      First page: 458
      Abstract: Infectious coryza (IC) is an acute respiratory disease caused by Avibacterium paragallinarum (Av. paragallinarum). In recent years, there have been frequent outbreaks of IC in chickens vaccinated with an inactivated vaccine, causing huge losses to the poultry industry. In this study, the protective efficacy of the trivalent inactivated IC vaccine (PT Medion Farma Jaya) against the field isolates of three serovars of Av. paragallinarum was verified. After vaccination, the hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers in double-vaccinated groups (A2, B2, and C2) were higher than those in single-vaccinated groups (A1, B1, and C1). The highest antibody titer was 213.1 at 3 weeks after the booster vaccination in group A2. Consistent with the trend in hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers, the protective efficacy of double vaccination was better than that of single vaccination. The clinical symptoms and pathological changes were alleviated, or the bacterial shedding was significantly reduced with double vaccination after challenge with field isolates of three serovars (p < 0.05). In particular, the chickens with double vaccination showed no clinical symptoms, pathological changes, or bacterial shedding after challenge by the serovar C strain. There was no significant difference in body weight and egg production between the double-vaccinated groups and the negative control group (p > 0.05). Therefore, we recommend that the commercial IC vaccine should be double-vaccinated in clinical applications.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-26
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9090458
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 459: Study on NGF and VEGF during the
           Equine Perinatal Period—Part 2: Foals Affected by Neonatal

    • Authors: Nicola Ellero, Aliai Lanci, Vito Antonio Baldassarro, Giuseppe Alastra, Jole Mariella, Maura Cescatti, Carolina Castagnetti, Luciana Giardino
      First page: 459
      Abstract: Neonatal Encephalopathy (NE) may be caused by hypoxic ischemic insults or inflammatory insults and modified by innate protective or excitatory mechanisms. Understanding the underlying pathophysiology is important in formulating a rational approach to diagnosis. The preliminary aim was to clinically characterize a population of foals spontaneously affected by NE. The study aimed to: (i) evaluate nerve growth factor (NGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in plasma samples obtained in the affected population at parturition from the mare’s jugular vein, umbilical cord vein and foal’s jugular vein, as well as in amniotic fluid; (ii) evaluate the NGF and VEGF content in the plasma of foals affected by NE during the first 72 h of life/hospitalization; (iii) evaluate NGF and VEGF levels at birth/admission in relation to selected mare’s and foal’s clinical parameters; (iv) evaluate the relationship between the two trophic factors and thyroid hormone levels (TT3 and TT4) in the first 72 h of life/hospitalization; and (v) assess the mRNA expression of NGF, VEGF and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and their cell surface receptors, in the placenta of mares that delivered foals affected by NE. Thirteen affected foals born from mares hospitalized for peripartum monitoring (group NE) and twenty affected foals hospitalized after birth (group exNE) were included in the study. Dosage of NGF and VEGF levels was performed using commercial ELISA kits, whereas NGF, VEGF, and BDNF placental gene expression was performed using a semi-quantitative real-time PCR. In group NE, NGF levels decreased significantly from T0 to T24 (p = 0.0447) and VEGF levels decreased significantly from T0 to T72 (p = 0.0234), whereas in group exNE, only NGF levels decreased significantly from T0 to T24 (p = 0.0304). Compared to healthy foals, a significant reduction of TT3 levels was observed in both NE (T24, p = 0.0066; T72 p = 0.0003) and exNE (T0, p = 0.0082; T24, p < 0.0001; T72, p < 0.0001) groups, whereas a significant reduction of TT4 levels was observed only in exNE group (T0, p = 0.0003; T24, p = 0.0010; T72, p = 0.0110). In group NE, NGF levels were positively correlated with both TT3 (p = 0.0475; r = 0.3424) and TT4 levels (p = 0.0063; r = 0.4589). In the placenta, a reduced expression of NGF in the allantois (p = 0.0033) and a reduced expression of BDNF in the amnion (p = 0.0498) were observed. The less pronounced decrease of the two trophic factors compared to healthy foals, their relationship with thyroid hormones over time, and the reduced expression of NGF and BDNF in placental tissues of mares that delivered affected foals, could be key regulators in the mechanisms of equine NE.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-26
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9090459
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 460: Development and Evaluation of
           NanoPCR for the Detection of Goose Parvovirus

    • Authors: Haoyuan Ma, Xu Gao, Jingfeng Fu, Haowen Xue, Yanhao Song, Kunru Zhu
      First page: 460
      Abstract: Gosling plague (GP) is an acute and hemorrhagic infectious disease caused by goose parvovirus (GPV). The goose industry suffers significant economic losses as a result of GP, which is found to be widespread worldwide, with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Our group developed a novel technique for detecting GPV nanoparticle-assisted polymerase chain reaction (nanoPCR) and the characterization of its specificity and sensitivity. It was developed by using the traditional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and nanoparticles. The findings of this study revealed that GPV nanoPCR products were 389 bp in length, and the lower limit of the nanoPCR assay was 4.68 × 102 copies/μL, whereas that of the conventional PCR assay was 4.68 × 104 copies/μL. A total of 230 geese suspected of GPV were detected using nanoPCR, with a positive rate of 83.0% and a specificity of 73%, respectively. Overall, we present a hitherto undocumented method for identifying GPV by using nanoPCR to aid in the evaluation of subclinical illness.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-27
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9090460
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 461: Study on the Discrimination of
           Possible Error Sources That Might Affect the Quality of Volatile Organic
           Compounds Signature in Dairy Cattle Using an Electronic Nose

    • Authors: Asmaa S. Ali, Joana G. P. Jacinto, Wolf Mϋnchemyer, Andreas Walte, Björn Kuhla, Arcangelo Gentile, Mohamed S. Abdu, Mervat M. Kamel, Abdelrauf Morsy Ghallab
      First page: 461
      Abstract: Electronic nose devices (EN) have been developed for detecting volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This study aimed to assess the ability of the MENT-EGAS prototype-based EN to respond to direct sampling and to evaluate the influence of possible error sources that might affect the quality of VOC signatures. This study was performed on a dairy farm using 11 (n = 11) multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows. The cows were divided into two groups housed in two different barns: group I included six lactating cows fed with a lactating diet (LD), and group II included 5 non-lactating late pregnant cows fed with a far-off diet (FD). Each group was offered 250 g of their respective diet; 10 min later, exhalated breath was collected for VOC determination. After this sampling, 4 cows from each group were offered 250 g of pellet concentrates. Ten minutes later, the exhalated breath was collected once more. VOCs were also measured directly from the feed’s headspace, as well as from the environmental backgrounds of each. Principal component analyses (PCA) were performed and revealed clear discrimination between the two different environmental backgrounds, the two different feed headspaces, the exhalated breath of groups I and II cows, and the exhalated breath within the same group of cows before and after the feed intake. Based on these findings, we concluded that the MENT-EGAS prototype can recognize several error sources with accuracy, providing a novel EN technology that could be used in the future in precision livestock farming.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-29
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9090461
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 462: The Seroprevalence of
           Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Wild and Domestic Animals: An
           Epidemiological Update for Domestic Animals and First Seroevidence in Wild
           Animals from Turkiye

    • Authors: Canakoglu Nurettin, Berber Engin, Tonbak Sukru, Aktas Munir, Vatansever Zati, Ozdarendeli Aykut
      First page: 462
      Abstract: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a zoonotic, tick-borne pathogen that is endemic to some parts of Europe, Africa, and Asia. The disease causes fever and hemorrhagic manifestations in humans but not in animals. Domestic and wild animals are asymptomatic hosts of CCHFV and are critical in the transmission cycle. Hyalomma marginatum spp. has been identified as the natural reservoir and vector of the virus in Turkiye. A few studies have been conducted on domesticated animals showing the seroprevalence of CCHFV in them, but seroevidence in wild animals is absent. For contributing this antrum to the understanding of virus transmission in Turkiye, we performed a seroprevalence investigation of CCHFV in both wild and domesticated animals in various geographical areas of Turkiye. In-house IgG iELISA was performed for the screening of sera IgG in a total of 582 animal samples collected from boar (n = 40), cattle (n = 259), goat (n = 132), hare (n = 21), and sheep (n = 130). Results from ELISA performed on domestic animals revealed 10.81%, 15.15%, and 19.23% anti-CCHF virus seropositivity in cattle, goats, and sheep, respectively, in collected serum samples. ELISA tests performed in wild animals showed 23.81% and 2.5% positivity in hare and wild boars, respectively, suggesting the importance of wild animals in CCHF virus epidemiology in Turkiye. This study performed the first serological investigation of CCHFV in wild animals and provided the first seroevidence of CCHFV in wild boars and hare in Turkiye.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-29
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9090462
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 463: Longitudinal Study of Fecal
           Microbiota in Calves with or without Diarrhea Episodes before Weaning

    • Authors: Pau Obregon-Gutierrez, Jaume Bague-Companys, Alex Bach, Virginia Aragon, Florencia Correa-Fiz
      First page: 463
      Abstract: The microbiota plays an important role in the development of diarrhea in pre-weaned calves. The characterization of the fecal microbiota in health and disease can be critical to unravel the bacterial dynamics associated with diarrhea and help with its prevention and control. In this study, we aimed to detect changes in the fecal microbiota of calves that experienced early-life diarrhea episodes. Fecal samples were taken from calves remaining healthy and calves with an episode of diarrhea during the study. We sampled at arrival (12 days of age) and after one and two months of life; also, at the time of the diarrhea episode for the diarrheic calves (day 17). Samples were processed to extract total DNA, submitted to 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and bioinformatically analyzed to infer the bacterial populations. Microbiota changes through time were reported for both groups. However, we detected an earlier stabilization in the healthy group. Moreover, we detected changes within low abundant taxa that may play a role in the subsequent health status of the animals. The fecal microbiota of healthy and diarrheic calves showed different dynamics in the diversity through time that may be the reflections of the variations within low-abundant taxa.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-29
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9090463
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 464: Comparison of Two Leptospira Type
           Strains of Serovar Grippotyphosa in Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT)
           Diagnostics for the Detection of Infections with Leptospires in Horses,
           Dogs and Pigs

    • Authors: Katrin Strutzberg-Minder, Astrid Ullerich, Karen Dohmann, Jan Boehmer, Marga Goris
      First page: 464
      Abstract: The MAT test is of great importance in the diagnosis of leptospiral infections. Based on various differences, the serovar Grippotyphosa has been divided into two types, Moskva V and Duyster. Differences or similarities of the two type strains in the context of leptospiral diagnostics have not yet been elucidated in more detail; therefore both strains were analysed in MAT diagnostics for the detection of leptospiral infections in pigs, dogs and horses. Serum samples from 2996 pigs, 55 dogs and 35 horses, as well as vitreous and/or aqueous fluid samples from these and 13 additional horses were analysed by MAT; available supplementary samples were tested for leptospires by PCR. In pigs, 92.6% of the samples with both strains received an identical titre result in the MAT test, whereas in dogs and horses only 53.0% and 43.6% had concordant results. Since infections with the serovar Grippotyphosa occur more frequently in dogs and horses overall, more differences were observed here. In the case of discrepant serological results, supplementary samples and PCR examinations were not able to add information on the true status. Further analyses of follow-up studies or at least serum pairs from dogs and horses infected with the serovar Grippotyphosa are necessary.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-29
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9090464
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 465: Identification and
           Characterization of Eimeria tenella Rhoptry Protein 35 (EtROP35)

    • Authors: Bingxiang Wang, Ningning Zhao, Jinkun Sun, Lingyu Sun, Huihui Li, Zhiyuan Wu, Hongmei Li, Xiao Zhang, Xiaomin Zhao
      First page: 465
      Abstract: Rhoptry proteins (ROPs) of Apicomplexa are crucial secreted virulence factors and sources of vaccine candidates. To date, Eimeria tenella ROPs are not well studied. This study identified and characterized a novel E. tenella ROP (EtROP35), which showed the highest levels among 28 putative ROPs in previous sporozoite and merozoite transcriptomes. Sequence analysis showed that EtROP35 contains an N-terminal secretory signal and a protein kinase domain including eight conserved ROP35-subfamily motifs. Subsequent experiments confirmed that it is a secretory protein. Subcellular localization revealed it localized at the apical end of the sporozoites and merozoites, which was consistent with the ROPs of other Apicomplexan parasites. To further understand the biological meaning of EtROP35, expression levels in different developmental stages and sporozoite invasion-blocking assay were investigated. EtROP35 showed significantly higher levels in sporozoites (6.23-fold) and merozoites (7.00-fold) than sporulated oocysts. Sporozoite invasion-blocking assay revealed that anti-EtROP35 polyclonal antibody significantly reduced the sporozoite invasion rate, suggesting it might participate in host cell invasion and be a viable choice as a vaccine candidate. The immunological protective assays showed that EtROP35 could induce a high level of serum IgY and higher mean body weight gain, and lower cecum lesion score and oocysts excretion than the challenged control group. These data indicated that EtROP35 had good immunogenicity and may be a promising vaccine candidate against E. tenella.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-29
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9090465
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 466: Hypertrophic Osteopathy Associated
           with a Prostatic Adenocarcinoma in a Castrated Dog

    • Authors: Françoise A. Roux, Emilie Deseille, Marion Fusellier, Marine Rohel, Julien Branchereau, Jack-Yves Deschamps
      First page: 466
      Abstract: A 6-year-old mixed-breed male Papillon dog, castrated at the age of 7 months, presented for work-up of a difficulty walking associated with constipation and urinary incontinence. Ultrasonography and radiography were consistent with a tumor of the prostate and lymph node metastases. An irregular osteoproliferation of the ventral edges of L5–L6–L7 suggested tumor invasion. Periosteal proliferative lesions of the pelvis, the femur, the humerus, the tibia and the calcaneus were consistent with hypertrophic osteopathy. Necropsy and histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of prostatic adenocarcinoma with lymph node, pulmonary, liver and bone metastases, associated with hypertrophic osteopathy.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-30
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9090466
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 467: Infectious Causes of Neoplasia in
           the Domestic Cat

    • Authors: Kerry E. Rolph, Ryan P. Cavanaugh
      First page: 467
      Abstract: In recent years, growing attention has been paid to the influence/role of infectious diseases in tumour development and progression. Investigations have demonstrated that some infectious organisms can have a direct role in the development of neoplasia, whereas others can predispose to neoplasia by alterations in the immune response, or by creating a pro-inflammatory environment. Feline leukaemia virus was one of the first infectious agents recognised as an oncogenic organism, and along with feline immunodeficiency virus has received the most attention. Since the discovery of this retrovirus, several other organisms have been associated with neoplastic processes in cats, these include gammaherpes virus, mouse mammary tumour virus, papillomaviruses, hepadnavirus, Helicobacter species, and the parasitic infections Platynosomum fastosum and Opisthorchis viverrini. This review summarises the findings to date.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-30
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9090467
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 468: Experimental Release of Orphaned
           Wild Felids into a Tropical Rainforest in Southwestern Costa Rica

    • Authors: Víctor H. Montalvo, Isabel Hagnauer, Juan C. Cruz-Díaz, Brayan Morera, Kevin Lloyd, Carolina Sáenz-Bolaños, Todd K. Fuller, Eduardo Carrillo
      First page: 468
      Abstract: A 3- to 4-mo-old male ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) and a 6- to 8-mo-old female margay (Leopardus weidii) were brought in from the wild, held in captivity, and rehabilitated for 906 and 709 days, respectively, at the Rescate Wildlife Rescue Center in Costa Rica. During captivity, both cats were kept as isolated as possible from humans and fed appropriate live wild prey. After maturing and demonstrating the ability to capture and feed on live prey, the cats were radio-collared, released at a national wildlife refuge previously assessed for predator and prey occurrence, and monitored. After 54 days, the ocelot was trapped while preying on chickens in a nearby community, and after 20 days, the margay was found dead, likely due to ocelot predation. Avoiding habituation to humans, assuring hunting abilities, and assessing release sites likely is not sufficient to assure successful release of these species, and more experimental releases with innovative and detailed protocols and monitoring are needed.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9090468
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 469: Serial Measurement of Serum
           Pancreatic Lipase Immunoreactivity, Feline Trypsin-like Immunoreactivity,
           and Cobalamin Concentrations in Kittens

    • Authors: Evangelia M. Stavroulaki, Kassiopi Christina G. Kokkinaki, Manolis N. Saridomichelakis, Jörg M. Steiner, Jonathan A. Lidbury, Panagiotis G. Xenoulis
      First page: 469
      Abstract: Serum concentrations of feline pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (fPLI), feline trypsin-like immunoreactivity (fTLI), and cobalamin are commonly used for the diagnostic investigation of cats with gastrointestinal signs. No information on these parameters in healthy cats less than 1 year of age exists. We aimed to evaluate serum concentrations of fPLI, fTLI, and cobalamin in healthy cats at different time-points during their first 12 months of life. Fourteen healthy 2-month-old kittens were included. Blood was collected at 2, 3, 4, 6, and 12 months of age, and serum concentrations of fPLI, fTLI, and cobalamin were measured. While there was a statistically significant difference in serum fPLI concentrations over time, there was no statistically significant difference between individual time-points. There was no significant difference in serum fTLI concentrations over time. Serum cobalamin concentrations were below the reference interval in 3/13 cats at 2 months of age and were significantly lower by 3 months, when 13/14 had hypocobalaminemia. By 12 months, serum cobalamin had significantly increased, yet 4/12 cats still had hypocobalaminemia. Serum fPLI and fTLI concentrations did not show any statistically or clinically significant differences in young kittens. In contrast, serum cobalamin concentrations were commonly below the reference interval in kittens. Serum fPLI and fTLI concentrations are not practically affected by age in kittens as young as 2 months of age and could be used for the investigation of pancreatic diseases.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9090469
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 470: Activating Fc Gamma Receptors and
           Viral Receptors Are Required for Antibody-Dependent Enhancement of Porcine
           Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Infection

    • Authors: Liujun Zhang, Huandi Wang, Wen Li, Xing Feng, Fangfang Han, Yina Zhang, Jing Chen, Deyi Liu, Pingan Xia
      First page: 470
      Abstract: Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) is an event in preexisting sub-, or non-neutralizing antibodies increasing the viral replication in its target cells. ADE is one crucial factor that intensifies porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection and results in PRRSV-persistent infection. Nevertheless, the exact mechanisms of PRRSV-ADE infection are poorly understood. In the current research, the results of the ADE assay showed that porcine immunoglobulin G (IgG) specific for the PRRSV significantly enhanced PRRSV proliferation in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs), suggesting that the ADE activity of PRRSV infection existed in pig anti-PRRSV IgG. The results of the RNA interference assay showed that knockdown of the Fc gamma receptor I (FcγRI) or FcγRIII gene significantly suppressed the ADE activity of PRRSV infection in PAMs, suggesting that FcγRI and FcγRIII were responsible for mediating PRRSV-ADE infection. In addition, the results of the antibody blocking assay showed that specific blocking of the Sn1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 extracellular domain of the sialoadhesin (Sn) protein or selective blockade of the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) 5 domain of the CD163 molecule significantly repressed the ADE activity of PRRSV infection in PAMs, suggesting that Sn and CD163 were involved in FcγR-mediated PRRSV-ADE infection. The Sn1–6 domains of porcine Sn protein and the SRCR 5 domain of porcine CD163 molecule might play central roles in the ADE of PRRSV infection. In summary, our studies indicated that activating FcγRs (FcγRI and FcγRIII) and viral receptors (Sn and CD163) were required for ADE of PRRSV infection. Our findings provided a new insight into PRRSV infection that could be enhanced by FcγRs and PRRSV receptors-mediated PRRSV-antibody immune complexes (ICs), which would deepen our understanding of the mechanisms of PRRSV-persistent infection via the ADE pathway.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9090470
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 471: Microbiological Characteristics

    • Authors: Meirong He, Haoyang Li, Zhenxing Zhang, Junming Jiang, Hong Li, Weijie Yang, Yiwen Cheng, Hongyan Gao, Qiaoling Chen, Li Du, Si Chen, Churiga Man, Fengyang Wang
      First page: 471
      Abstract: K. pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen that leads to widespread infection in humans and animals, seriously threatening human health and animal husbandry development. In our research, we investigated the biological characteristics of the isolate by using a 16S rRNA gene sequencing, biochemical assay, and drug sensitivity test. Moreover, the pathogenicity study, including the bacteria load determination, the histopathology examination, and the RNA sequencing was carried out to explore whether the isolate could cause lung injury in mice through intraperitoneal injection. The results indicated that the isolate was identified as K. pneumoniae and named as KPHN001. The drug susceptibility test showed that KPHN001 was only sensitive to polymyxin B and furazolidone, and was resistant to other 28 antibiotics. In the bacteria load determination, the highest bacterial load of the organs was found in the spleen, and abundant bacterial colonization was also found in the lung. The histopathology showed the mainly acute inflammations in the lung were due to congestion, edema, and exudation. RNA-seq analysis revealed that the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines were expressed massively in mice. In the present research, the biological characteristics and pathogenesis of clinically isolated K. pneumoniae were systematically studied, revealing the pathogenic mechanism of K. pneumoniae to animals, and providing a theoretical basis for the following prevention, control, and diagnosis research.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9090471
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 472: Nasal Lymphoma with Low Mitotic
           Index in Three Cats Treated with Chlorambucil and Prednisolone

    • Authors: Karen W. L. Ng, Julia A. Beatty, May P. Y. Tse, Antonio Giuliano
      First page: 472
      Abstract: Lymphoma is the most common tumor of the nasal cavity in cats. Commonly used treatment modalities are radiotherapy and chemotherapy, or both. Typical chemotherapy protocols used in cats with nasal lymphoma are COP (cyclophosphamide, vincristine prednisolone) and CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone). Thus far, the use of single-agent chlorambucil in nasal lymphoma has been evaluated in a single case report. We report a case series of three cats with B cell nasal lymphoma, two cats with intermediate cell, and one large cell, all with a low mitotic index (MI) of less than 5 mitotic figures per ×400 field, treated with chlorambucil and prednisolone. Two of the cases achieved a long disease-free interval, while the one with the highest MI did not. Protocols using chlorambucil and prednisolone may have potential as a first-line therapy for feline nasal lymphoma cases with a very low mitotic index.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9090472
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 473: The Role of Fine Needle Aspiration
           of Liver and Spleen in the Staging of Low-Grade Canine Cutaneous Mast Cell

    • Authors: Valentina Rinaldi, Paolo Emidio Crisi, Massimo Vignoli, Alessio Pierini, Rossella Terragni, Emanuele Cabibbo, Andrea Boari, Riccardo Finotello
      First page: 473
      Abstract: Clinical staging is a fundamental step in the clinical assessment of canine cutaneous mast cell tumor (cMCT), and it is recommended to evaluate the tumor draining lymph node (eTDLN), perform diagnostic imaging, and fine needle aspiration (FNA) of the spleen and liver to determine the presence of metastatic disease, thereby refining the prognosis. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the prevalence of splenic and hepatic involvement in newly diagnosed canine low-grade cMCT (Patnaik grade I–II, Kiupel low-grade). Medical records of dogs that underwent a clinical staging work-up and surgical excision for a low-grade cMCT between December 2019 and December 2021 were reviewed at five veterinary centers. Only dogs with a histological diagnosis of low-grade cMCT, FNA or histology of the eTDLN, FNA of the spleen and liver, and one year of follow up were included. One hundred and thirty-six dogs met the inclusion criteria. Only 1 out of 136 dogs (0.7%) had the presence of visceral metastases at diagnosis, suggesting that the prevalence of visceral metastases in low-grade cMCT is extremely low. The results of this study are consistent with previous literature and suggest that after a diagnosis of low-grade cMCT, cytology of visceral organs may not represent an essential step in the clinical staging work-up.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9090473
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 474: Expression of Cell-Cycle
           Regulatory Proteins pRb, Cyclin D1, and p53 Is Not Associated with
           Recurrence Rates of Equine Sarcoids

    • Authors: Giorgia Tura, Barbara Brunetti, Elena Brigandì, Riccardo Rinnovati, Giuseppe Sarli, Giancarlo Avallone, Luisa Vera Muscatello, Roberto Marcello La Ragione, Andy E. Durham, Barbara Bacci
      First page: 474
      Abstract: Sarcoids are among the most common tumors diagnosed in equids; their association with bovine papillomaviruses (BPV) infection has been widely reported, but the mechanism of carcinogenesis has not been fully elucidated. To verify whether BPV infection causes dysregulation of the pRb-Cyclin D1-p16CDKN2A-p53 pathway as reported for human papillomavirus (HPV), the study employed immunohistochemistry to test 55 equine sarcoid biopsies for the expression of pRb, Cyclin D1, and p53 cell cycle regulatory proteins and to evaluate the proliferative rate through Ki67. High Cyclin D1 and pRb expression were observed in 51% and 80% of cases, respectively, while low expression was observed in 49% and 20% of cases, respectively. Significantly higher Ki67 proliferation indexes were observed in fibroblastic, nodular, and mixed sarcoids compared to the occult and verrucous. High proliferation was significantly associated with high Cyclin D1 expression. In contrast with previous studies, p53 positivity was not observed in the cases examined in this study. Moreover, follow-up analysis revealed that fibroblastic, mixed sarcoids were associated with significantly higher local recurrence rates while the verrucous subtype was associated with higher rates of new sarcoid development at distant sites.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9090474
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 475: Essential Oils as a Dietary
           Additive for Small Ruminants: A Meta-Analysis on Performance, Rumen
           Parameters, Serum Metabolites, and Product Quality

    • Authors: Griselda Dorantes-Iturbide, José Felipe Orzuna-Orzuna, Alejandro Lara-Bueno, Germán David Mendoza-Martínez, Luis Alberto Miranda-Romero, Héctor Aarón Lee-Rangel
      First page: 475
      Abstract: There is an increasing pressure to identify natural feed additives that improve the productivity and health of livestock, without affecting the quality of derived products. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with essential oils (EOs) on productive performance, rumen parameters, serum metabolites, and quality of products (meat and milk) derived from small ruminants by means of a meta-analysis. Seventy-four peer-reviewed publications were included in the data set. Weighted mean differences (WMD) between the EOs treatments and the control treatment were used to assess the magnitude of effect. Dietary inclusion of EOs increased (p < 0.05) dry matter intake (WMD = 0.021 kg/d), dry matter digestibility (WMD = 14.11 g/kg of DM), daily weight gain (WMD = 0.008 kg/d), and feed conversion ratio (WMD = −0.111). The inclusion of EOs in small ruminants’ diets decreased (p < 0.05) ruminal ammonia nitrogen concentration (WMD = −0.310 mg/dL), total protozoa (WMD = −1.426 × 105/mL), methanogens (WMD = −0.60 × 107/mL), and enteric methane emissions (WMD = −3.93 L/d) and increased ruminal propionate concentration (WMD = 0.726 mol/100 mol, p < 0.001). The serum urea concentration was lower (WMD = −0.688 mg/dL; p = 0.009), but serum catalase (WMD = 0.204 ng/mL), superoxide dismutase (WMD = 0.037 ng/mL), and total antioxidant capacity (WMD = 0.749 U/mL) were higher (p < 0.05) in response to EOs supplementation. In meat, EOs supplementation decreased (p < 0.05) the cooking loss (WMD = −0.617 g/100 g), malondialdehyde content (WMD = −0.029 mg/kg of meat), yellowness (WMD = −0.316), and total viable bacterial count (WMD = −0.780 CFU/g of meat). There was higher (p < 0.05) milk production (WMD = 0.113 kg/d), feed efficiency (WMD = 0.039 kg/kg), protein (WMD = 0.059 g/100 g), and lactose content in the milk (WMD = 0.100 g/100 g), as well as lower somatic cell counts in milk (WMD = −0.910 × 103 cells/mL) in response to EOs supplementation. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with EOs improves productive performance as well as meat and milk quality of small ruminants. In addition, EOs improve antioxidant status in blood serum and rumen fermentation and decrease environmental impact.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-02
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9090475
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 476: Modified Tibial Tuberosity
           Advancement Rapid in a Dog with One Contralateral Amputated Limb

    • Authors: Ciprian Ober, Mădălina Dragomir, Andreea Aștilean, William McCartney, Christos Yiapanis, Joshua Milgram
      First page: 476
      Abstract: Cranial cruciate ligament disease (CCLD) is one of the most frequent causes of hindlimb lameness in dogs. Tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA) is a common surgery performed for CCLD. A modified, simplified technique (TTA Rapid) is also reported to have very good clinical outcomes. In this paper, we report a modified TTA Rapid technique to treat a CCLD in a dog with an amputated contralateral hindlimb. A 5-year-old mixed breed dog presented with amputated right hindlimb and difficulty walking. Pain and positive drawer sign were present at manipulation of left stifle joint. Radiographic findings of the stifle joint confirmed the presence of moderate osteoarthritis associated with CCLD, and modified TTA Rapid procedure was performed. Recovery from surgery was uneventful, and the dog was able to stand by his own by the second day postoperative. At three months follow-up evaluation, the dog was free of lameness and the osteotomy site was completely healed. This paper describes the first modified TTA rapid osteotomy technique performed in a dog with a contralateral amputated hindlimb.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-02
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9090476
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 477: Pathological Findings in
           Gastrointestinal Neoplasms and Polyps in 860 Cats and a Pilot Study on
           miRNA Analyses

    • Authors: Alexandra Kehl, Katrin Törner, Annemarie Jordan, Mareike Lorenz, Ulrike Schwittlick, David Conrad, Katja Steiger, Benjamin Schusser, Heike Aupperle-Lellbach
      First page: 477
      Abstract: Background: Gastrointestinal masses in cats are of clinical relevance, but pathological studies with larger case numbers are lacking. Biomarkers such as miRNA have not yet been investigated in feline intestinal neoplasms. Methods: A retrospective analysis of pathology reports included 860 feline gastrointestinal masses. Immunohistochemistry was performed on 91 lymphomas, 10 sarcomas and 7 mast cell tumours (MCT). Analyses of miRNA-20b and miRNA-192 were performed on 11 lymphomas, 5 carcinomas and 5 control tissues by ddPCR. Results: The pathological diagnosis identified 679 lymphomas, 122 carcinomas, 28 sarcomas, 23 polyps, 7 MCT and 1 leiomyoma. Carcinomas and polyps were most commonly found in the large intestine, lymphomas were most commonly found in the stomach and small intestine and MCT only occurred in the small intestine. Besides the well-described small-cell, mitotic count <2 T-cell lymphomas and the large-cell B-cell lymphomas with a high mitotic count, several variants of lymphomas were identified. The values of miRNA-20b were found to be up-regulated in samples of all types of cancer, whereas miRNA-192 was only up-regulated in carcinomas and B-cell lymphomas. Conclusions: The histopathological and immunohistochemical (sub-)classification of feline intestinal masses confirmed the occurrence of different tumour types, with lymphoma being the most frequent neoplasm. Novel biomarkers such as miRNA-20b and miRNA-192 might have diagnostic potential in feline intestinal neoplasms and should be further investigated.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-03
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9090477
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 478: 2D-SWE of the Metacarpophalangeal
           Joint Capsule in Horses

    • Authors: Giulia Guerri, Adriana Palozzo, Paola Straticò, Vincenzo Varasano, Gianluca Celani, Paola Di Francesco, Massimo Vignoli, Lucio Petrizzi
      First page: 478
      Abstract: (1) Two-dimensional shear wave elastography (2D-SWE) employs an ultrasound impulse to produce transversely oriented shear waves, which travel through the surrounding tissue according to the stiffness of the tissue itself. The study aimed to assess the reliability of 2D-SWE for evaluating the elastosonographic appearance of the distal attachment of the fetlock joint capsule (DJC) in sound horses and in horses with osteoarthritis (OA) (2). According to a thorough evaluation of metacarpophalangeal joint (MCPJ), adult horses were divided in a sound Group (H) and in OA Group (P). Thereafter, a 2D-SWE of MCPJs was performed. Shear wave velocity (m/sec) and Young’s modulus (kPa) were calculated independently by two operators at each selected ROI. Statistical analysis was performed with R software. (3) Results: 2D-SWE had good–excellent inter-CC and intra-CC in both groups. Differences in m/s and kPa between Groups H and P were found in transverse scans with lower values in Group P. No correlation with age or DJC thickness was found. (4) Conclusions: 2D-SWE was repeatable and reproducible. In Group H, DJC was statistically stiffer than in Group P only in transverse scan. The technique showed poor sensitivity and specificity in differentiating fetlocks affected by OA.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-04
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9090478
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 479: Adverse Reaction Following the
           Subarachnoid Injection of Xylazine in a Sheep

    • Authors: Shaun Pratt, Sharon Jeong, Ben Ahern, Wendy Goodwin
      First page: 479
      Abstract: Alpha2 receptor agonists are frequently used to provide sedation and analgesia in sheep. There are numerous reports of adverse pulmonary effects following intravenous (IV) injection; however, adverse effects following subarachnoid injection (SAI) are underreported. An adult Merino wether was one of eighteen animals anaesthetised during an experimental trial modelling intervertebral disc injury. The animal was premedicated with methadone 0.1 mg/kg and midazolam 0.3 mg/kg IV. Anaesthesia was induced using alfaxalone IV and it was maintained using isoflurane, delivered in 100% oxygen by controlled mechanical ventilation. An SAI of xylazine 0.05 mg/kg diluted to 1 mL with 0.9% saline was performed at the lumbosacral site prior to recovery. This resulted in rapid narcosis, oxygen dependency and ventilatory compromise. Treatment with frusemide 1 mg/kg IV and salbutamol 0.2 mg inhaled did not attenuate the adverse cardiopulmonary effects. A rapid improvement in all physiological variables was seen following high dose atipamezole 0.05 mg/kg IV. This case report adds to the current knowledge regarding the risk for potential side effects when using alpha2 receptor agonists, such as xylazine, for the sedation or regional analgesia in sheep.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-05
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9090479
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 480: Current Insights Regarding the
           Role of Farm Animals in the Spread of Antimicrobial Resistance from a One
           Health Perspective

    • Authors: Mohamed Rhouma, Leila Soufi, Schlasiva Cenatus, Marie Archambault, Patrick Butaye
      First page: 480
      Abstract: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) represents a global threat to both human and animal health and has received increasing attention over the years from different stakeholders. Certain AMR bacteria circulate between humans, animals, and the environment, while AMR genes can be found in all ecosystems. The aim of the present review was to provide an overview of antimicrobial use in food-producing animals and to document the current status of the role of farm animals in the spread of AMR to humans. The available body of scientific evidence supported the notion that restricted use of antimicrobials in farm animals was effective in reducing AMR in livestock and, in some cases, in humans. However, most recent studies have reported that livestock have little contribution to the acquisition of AMR bacteria and/or AMR genes by humans. Overall, strategies applied on farms that target the reduction of all antimicrobials are recommended, as these are apparently associated with notable reduction in AMR (avoiding co-resistance between antimicrobials). The interconnection between human and animal health as well as the environment requires the acceleration of the implementation of the ‘One Health’ approach to effectively fight AMR while preserving the effectiveness of antimicrobials.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-05
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9090480
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 481: Intra- and Interexaminer
           Measurement Variability Analysis of an Orthodontic Gauge Device to
           Determine Incisor Occlusal Surface Angles in the Horse

    • Authors: Silvio Kau, Katharina S. Motter, Viktoria J. Moser, João R. Kunz, Matteo Pellachin, Bettina Hartl
      First page: 481
      Abstract: Incisor malocclusions are common in horses. As yet, an evidence-based understanding of incisor occlusal surface angle dynamics and normocclusal range is missing. Orthodontic measuring devices could help unravel this information objectively but imply measurement validation. We evaluated intra- and interexaminer variability of repeated sagittal and transversal incisor occlusal surface angle measures using a commercial orthodontic gauge device (MaPHorse1). Five examiners (two experienced, three inexperienced) measured six cadaver heads on 2 consecutive days in a blinded block-randomization design, resulting in 16 measures per examiner*head. Sagittal and transversal angle measures revealed low intraexaminer variability at scale-level independent mean SDs of α 0.58° and α 0.69°, respectively. Sagittal angle measures associate with low interexaminer variability, showing small mean angle differences (max. α 0.51° ± 0.35°), small scatter, and more consistent data reproducibility. Despite comparable mean interexaminer differences, the spread of transversal angle measures was relevantly higher using the proposed landmarks (average 2.2-fold higher interquartile range). The measurement performance of experienced and inexperienced examiners did not systematically differ. The time required for individual measurements was already comparable after 24/96 repetitions. This instrument may help deciphering sagittal angle normocclusal range and orthognathic dynamics and, with a proposed procedural amendment, transversal angle as well.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-07
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9090481
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 482: Leishmania infantum Specific
           Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses in Cats and Dogs: A Comparative
           Cross-Sectional Study

    • Authors: Vito Priolo, Pamela Martínez-Orellana, Maria Grazia Pennisi, Ana Isabel Raya-Bermúdez, Estefania Jurado-Tarifa, Marisa Masucci, Giulia Donato, Federica Bruno, Germano Castelli, Laia Solano-Gallego
      First page: 482
      Abstract: Dogs are the main reservoir of Leishmania infantum and display different immunological patterns correlating with the progression of infection to disease. Data about feline L. infantum adaptive immune response are scant. This study aimed to compare the prevalence and immune response in cats and dogs from the same endemic area of canine leishmaniosis. Stray cats (109) and rescued dogs (59) from Córdoba (Spain) were enrolled. Data about their exposure to L. infantum were analyzed by detection of parasite DNA, measurements of Leishmania-specific interferon-γ (whole blood assay in 57 cats and 29 dogs), and antibodies (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunofluorescence antibody test). An overall L. infantum prevalence of 30.5% in dogs and 30% in cats were found according to serology and PCR tests. Prevalence was 44.8% in dogs and 35.1% in cats tested also for interferon-γ production. Dogs showed higher anti-L. infantum antibody levels compared to cats. More than one-third of cats had contact with or were infected by L. infantum and they may contribute to the endemicity of leishmaniosis in the investigated region. The immunopathogenesis of feline L. infantum infection has similarities with dogs but cats show a lower level of adaptive immune response compared to dogs.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-07
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9090482
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 483: Morphological and Morphometrical
           Aspects of the Auditory Ossicles in the European Badger (Meles Meles)

    • Authors: Cristian Martonos, Alexandru Gudea, Călin Lațiu, Milos Blagojevic, Florin Stan
      First page: 483
      Abstract: Given the scarce morphological data regarding the middle ear anatomy of this species, the paper attempts to describe the morphological and morphometrical data of the auditory ossicles in the badger. The study was performed using the standard morphological investigations and provides a complete morphological description of the ossicular assembly (malleus, incus and stapes) with some comparative features and attempts to provide a complete set of standardized metrical data for each ossicle. A more-detailed attempt to compare some functional aspects in the light of combined metrical ratios is also implied.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-08
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9090483
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 484: Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping with
           Indirect Lymphangiography for Canine Mast Cell Tumour

    • Authors: Andrea De Bonis, Francesco Collivignarelli, Andrea Paolini, Ilaria Falerno, Valentina Rinaldi, Roberto Tamburro, Amanda Bianchi, Rossella Terragni, Jacopo Gianfelici, Paolo Frescura, Giulia Dolce, Eleonora Pagni, Roberta Bucci, Massimo Vignoli
      First page: 484
      Abstract: Mast cell tumour (MCT) is a common cutaneous and subcutaneous neoplasia in dogs. It can metastasise to lymph nodes (LNs), and this adversely affects the prognosis and treatment. The study aims to evaluate the SLN mapping of MCTs with radiographic indirect lymphography. Dogs that underwent clinical staging were prospectively enrolled. Lipiodol was injected around the MCT or the surgical scar. After 24 h, LNs that picked up contrast were radiographically assessed. Twenty-six dogs with 29 MCTs were included. MCTs were confirmed histologically, while SLNs were evaluated either by cytology and/or histology. SLNs were detectable in 23 dogs with 26 MCTs. Lymphatic vessels were visible in 19 MCTs. In nine MCTs, at least two SLNs picked up contrast. In particular, seven MCTs involved two SLNs, and two MCTs involved three different SLNs. In nine MCTs, at least a SLN was metastatic. This study indicates that the lymph drainage pattern of the MCTs may be different for each MCT, and more than one SLN can be involved. Indirect lymphangiography with Lipiodol allowed the detection of the SLN in 90% of MCTs. This provided clinically relevant information to remove the LN and stage the patient.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-08
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9090484
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 485: Morpho-Histology and Morphometry
           of Chicken Testes and Seminiferous Tubules among Yellow-Feathered Broilers
           of Different Ages

    • Authors: Jos Dorian Lawson Mfoundou, Yajun Guo, Zunqiang Yan, Xinrong Wang
      First page: 485
      Abstract: Unlike in many mammals, poultry testes are found in the abdominal cavity where they develop and perform spermatogenesis at high body temperature. Scarce reports among current publications detail the growth of testes and ST morphometry among juvenile chicks. Therefore, this study aims to investigate changes in components occurring in Gallus domesticus testes, by assessing the GSI and morphologically and histologically evaluating the testes and ST morphometry from 1-wk- to 4-mo-old. Right and left testes were collected from 70 healthy chickens divided into seven age-related groups (n = 10) and then immersed into the alcoholic acetate formalin (AAF) fixative solution. Hematoxylin- and eosin-stained tissues were used for microscopic observations. The findings revealed that both testes exhibited smooth features from 1-wk-old to 1-mo-old, and thereafter showed a consistent increase in vascularization until 4-mo-old. Histologically, both testes exhibited unclear ST, with ST apoptotic resorption observed in the 1-wk-old chicks. Until 1-mo-old, ST formed and few spermatogonia differentiated into primary spermatocytes, with all spermatogenic cells observed at 3-mo-old, i.e., sexual maturity. These findings suggest that both testes develop in analogy, and their sizes including increases in length and diameter are related to the spermatogenic activity in the ST. Subsequently, ST resorption by apoptosis is assumed to participate in the physiological mechanism regulating germ cells (GC). Finally, the GSI tended to increase with growth.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-08
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9090485
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 486: Evaluation of the Acaricidal
           Effectiveness of Fipronil and Phoxim in Field Populations of Dermanyssus
           gallinae (De Geer, 1778) from Ornamental Poultry Farms in Italy

    • Authors: Alessandro Guerrini, Benedetto Morandi, Paola Roncada, Gianfranco Brambilla, Filippo Maria Dini, Roberta Galuppi
      First page: 486
      Abstract: The poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae is the most important blood-sucking ectoparasite in egg-laying hen facilities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro acaricidal activity of different concentration of authorized (phoxim, ByeMite®, 500 mg/mL) and unauthorized (fipronil, Frontline® 250 mg/100 mL spray) molecules on 14 field isolates of D. gallinae collected from different ornamental poultry farms from different Italian regions. The sensitivity test was performed by contact exposure to four concentrations of each insecticide diluted at 1:5 (10,000-2000-400-80 ppm for phoxim, 500-100-20-4 ppm for fipronil) on a filter paper. The effectiveness of the treatment was significantly (p < 0.0001) associated with the dose of the pesticide used. Considering the mean lethality, phoxim has greater efficacy compared to fipronil (p < 0.001). A great variability of lethality rate was observed with the increase in fipronil dilution; conversely, for phoxim, some outliers were observed, particularly in one farm, suggesting the hypothesis that a certain degree of resistance in the mite population could occur possibly as a consequence of the continual contact with the molecule. This underlines the importance of the use of licensed products administered at correct dosages and the need for alternative molecules to avoid the onset of drug resistance phenomena.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-08
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9090486
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 487: A PMAxxTM qPCR Assay Reveals That
           Dietary Administration of the Microalgae Tetraselmis chuii Does Not Affect
           Salmonella Infantis Caecal Content in Early-Treated Broiler Chickens

    • Authors: Joselyn Corrales-Martinez, David Ortega-Paredes, Miroslava Anna Šefcová, César Marcelo Larrea-Álvarez, Sofía de Janon, José Medina-Santana, Gabriel Molina-Cuasapaz, Christian Vinueza-Burgos, Viera Revajová, Marco Larrea-Álvarez, William Calero-Cáceres
      First page: 487
      Abstract: Salmonella enterica serovars cause infections in humans. S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Infantis is considered relevant and is commonly reported in poultry products. Evaluating innovative approaches for resisting colonization in animals could contribute to the goal of reducing potential human infections. Microalgae represent a source of molecules associated with performance and health improvement in chickens. Tetraselmis chuii synthesizes fermentable polysaccharides as part of their cell wall content; these sugars are known for influencing caecal bacterial diversity. We hypothesized if its dietary administration could exert a positive effect on caecal microbiota in favor of a reduced S. Infantis load. A total of 72 one-day-old broiler chickens (COBB 500) were randomly allocated into three groups: a control, a group infected with bacteria (day 4), and a group challenged with S. Infantis but fed a microalgae-based diet. Caecal samples (n = 8) were collected two days post-infection. A PMAxxTM-based qPCR approach was developed to assess differences regarding bacterial viable load between groups. The inclusion of the microalga did not modify S. Infantis content, although the assay proved to be efficient, sensitive, and repeatable. The utilized scheme could serve as a foundation for developing novel PCR-based methodologies for estimating Salmonella colonization.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-08
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9090487
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 488: Hura crepitans Seeds for Control
           of Eimeria spp. in Lambs as an Alternative to Conventional Therapies

    • Authors: Martha-Yanira Velazquez-González, Jose-Lenin Loya-Olguin, Yissel-Sacnicte Valdes-Garcia, Sergio Martinez-Gonzalez, Fidel Avila-Ramos, Francisco Escalera-Valente, Jose-Ramiro Gonzalez-Montaña
      First page: 488
      Abstract: To evaluate the anticoccidial effect of the Hura crepitans seed, 21 cross-breed lambs, 23 ± 3 kg live weight (PV) and 70 ± 6 days old, were used. Animals were housed individually in raised wire-mesh pens, with individual water troughs and feeders. Lambs were randomly divided into three groups (n = 7) that received different doses of Hura crepitans seeds: 4 g/kg B.W. (group 1), 6 g/kg B.W. (group 2) and 0 g/kg B.W. (control group or group 0). The treatment was administered at the beginning of the experiment once orally and the study lasted 21 days. Stool samples were taken for quantitative analysis of oocysts using the McMaster technique and blood for haematological and biochemical analysis. Lambs that received the seeds showed a higher excretion of coccidia oocysts between days 5 and 7 after treatment (p < 0.05) due to the antiparasitic effect of these seeds, without affecting their productive performance (daily feed intake (DFI)- total weight gain (TWG), daily weight gain (DWG)). In addition, the daily feed consumption (DFC) and dry matter intake (DMI) were similar between the groups. The analysed enzymes (ALT, AST, GGT and FA) and creatinine showed reference values. Only the urea and BUN levels were slightly increased, but without statistical difference between the groups. Therefore, the Hura crepitans seed, at doses of 4 and 6 g/kg, favours the expulsion of coccidial oocysts, without affecting either the health or the productive behaviour of lambs.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-08
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9090488
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 489: Comparative Oncology: Management
           of Hepatic Neoplasia in Humans and Dogs

    • Authors: Erin A. Gibson, Roger E. Goldman, William T. N. Culp
      First page: 489
      Abstract: Primary hepatic neoplasia is uncommonly reported in dogs. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most frequent neoplasia identified in dogs and considerable effort has been committed towards identifying definitive and palliative treatment options. HCC is well recognized in humans as a sequelae of liver disease such as hepatitis or cirrhosis, while in dogs a similar link has failed to be fully elucidated. Management of HCC in people may be curative or palliative dependent on staging and transplant eligibility. Despite differences in etiology, there is substantial similarity between treatment options for liver neoplasia in human and veterinary medicine. The below summary provides a comparative discussion regarding hepatic neoplasia in dogs and people with a specific focus on HCC. Diagnosis as well as descriptions of the myriad treatment options will be reviewed.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-08
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9090489
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 490: A Pilot Randomized Trial to
           Compare Polyuria and Polydipsia during a Short Course of Prednisolone or
           Methylprednisolone in Dogs with Atopic Dermatitis

    • Authors: Viktorija Lokianskiene, Kerstin Bergvall, Thierry Olivry
      First page: 490
      Abstract: Glucocorticoids are widely used to treat canine allergic disorders, but they frequently cause polyuria and polydipsia (PUPD). At equipotent dosages, oral methylprednisolone is believed to cause less PUPD than prednisolone. We performed a pilot randomized, open, parallel trial with 22 dogs with nonseasonal AD receiving either prednisolone or methylprednisolone at equipotent dosages, once daily for 14 days during the first phase of a restriction–provocation dietary trial. Before and on days 3, 7, and 14 after starting the glucocorticoids, owners estimated water consumption for 24 h. On the same days and before the glucocorticoid was given, owners collected the first-morning urine to determine the urine specific gravity (USG). There were no significant differences between the prednisolone and methylprednisolone groups on days 3, 7, and 14 when comparing the changes in water intake from baseline. Most dogs from both groups exhibited a slight reduction in USG during the study. Still, there was no significant difference in USG changes between the groups on any of these three reevaluation days. In conclusion, the administration of two weeks of oral prednisolone and methylprednisolone at equipotent anti-inflammatory dosages at the beginning of an elimination diet did not lead to significant differences in water intake and USG.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-09
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9090490
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 491: Multiple Effects of Egg Weight, In
           Ovo Carbohydrates, and Sex of Birds on Posthatch Performance in Broilers

    • Authors: Virág Ács, Szilvia Áprily, József Nagy, László Kacsala, János Tossenberger, Nóra Katalin Szeli, Veronika Halas
      First page: 491
      Abstract: Chickens raised for their meat (Gallus gallus domesticus) tend to have a critical phase of life right after hatching due to the management of modern production systems. Early nutrition strategies such as in ovo intervention can be an alternative means to support growth and gut health by compensating for the energy deficit after pipping out of the egg. In the current study, 1200 Ross 308 eggs were used to examine the effects of a complex carbohydrate solution of disaccharides and glucose applied in ovo on hatchability, the hatching time of different-sized eggs, and the development, performance, and carcass characteristics of broilers of both sexes. The eggs were divided into three treatment groups: intact (NT), in ovo saline (ioS), and in ovo carbohydrate mixture (ioCH). The incubation protocol was performed according to the recommendations of Aviagen (2019), and the in ovo process was carried out on day 17 by manually injecting 0.5 mL of the solutions into the amniotic fluid. After hatching, the birds were kept in floor pens until day 35 and fed ad libitum in a three-phase feeding program. Body weight, average daily weight gain, feed intake and conversion, and carcass characteristics were measured during the trial. In ovo carbohydrates reduced hatchability by 15%, while growth performance and the weight of thigh and breast muscle were enhanced significantly (p < 0.05) compared with ioS as a possible outcome of carbohydrate-to-muscle satellite cell proliferation and protein accumulation. However, further study is needed to refine the in ovo carbohydrate supplementation method to minimize the mortality of embryos during hatching.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-10
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9090491
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 492: Identification of Five Serotypes
           of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli from Diarrheic Calves and Healthy
           Cattle in Belgium and Comparative Genomics with Shigatoxigenic E. coli

    • Authors: Audrey Habets, Fabrice Touzain, Pierrick Lucas, Nguyen Thi Thu Huong, Atsushi Iguchi, Florence Crombé, Nicolas Korsak, Denis Piérard, Marc Saulmont, Eric Cox, Frederik Engelen, Jacques Mainil, Damien Thiry
      First page: 492
      Abstract: Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) produce attaching/effacing (AE) lesions and cause non-bloody diarrhea in mammals. A minority of bovine EPEC belong to one of the ten classical serotypes of human and bovine AE-STEC. The purpose of this study was to identify five non-classical O serotypes (O123/186, O156, O177, O182, and O183) among bovine EPEC and to characterize their virulence repertoires by whole genome sequencing. Around 40% of the 307 EPEC from 307 diarrheic calves, 368 EPEC from 47 healthy cattle, and 131 EPEC from 36 healthy calves in dairy farms were analyzed. Serotype O177 was the most frequent among EPEC from diarrheic and healthy calves, while the O156 was the most frequent in healthy cattle. The genomic analysis identified different H serotypes, MLSTypes, and/or eae gene subtypes among the O156 and O177 EPEC, while the O182 was homogeneous. The virulence gene profiles of bovine EPEC were closely related to each other and to the profiles of ten bovine and human AE-STEC. These results emphasize the need for additional studies to identify more O:H serotypes of bovine EPEC and to elucidate their origin and evolution of EPEC with regard to AE-STEC belonging to the same O:H serotypes.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-10
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9090492
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 493: Mutations in Exons 8 and 11 of
           c-kit Gene in Canine Subcutaneous Mast Cell Tumors and Their Association
           with Cell Proliferation

    • Authors: Polly Chen, Laura Marconato, Silvia Sabattini, Matti Kiupel
      First page: 493
      Abstract: The prognostic significance of internal tandem duplication (ITD) mutations in exons 8 and 11 of c-kit has been well-described for canine cutaneous mast cell tumors (MCTs), but c-kit mutations have rarely been reported in subcutaneous MCTs. The objective of this study was to identify the prevalence of ITD mutations in exons 8 and 11 of c-kit in canine subcutaneous MCTs and to investigate its association with histologic grade, KIT pattern, and proliferation markers. ITD mutations in exons 8 and 11 of c-kit, mitotic count, Ki67 index, AgNOR number, Ki67xAgNOR score, KIT pattern, and histologic grade (two-tier system) were retrospectively recorded for 216 dogs with subcutaneous MCTs. ITD mutations in exons 8 and 11 of c-kit were detected in 23 (10.6%) and 12 (5.56%) subcutaneous MCTs, respectively. Exon 11 mutations were significantly associated with Kiupel high grade (p < 0.001) and increased mitotic count (p < 0.001) compared to subcutaneous MCTs with no mutations in exons 8 or 11 (p = 0.002) or subcutaneous MCTs with a mutation in exon 8 (p = 0.001). There was no significant association of either c-kit mutation with KIT patterns or proliferation activity. This study identified a higher prevalence of ITD mutations in exons 8 and 11 of c-kit in subcutaneous MCTs than previously reported. Like their cutaneous counterpart, subcutaneous MCTs with exon 11 mutations were more likely to be histologically high grade and have a higher mitotic count, whereas such associations were not observed in subcutaneous MCTs with exon 8 mutations.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-10
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9090493
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 494: Implication of Netrin-1 Gain of
           Expression in Canine Nodal Lymphoma

    • Authors: Antonin Tortereau, Nadège Milhau, Elodie Rhumy, Marie Castets, Frédérique Ponce, Patrick Mehlen, Thierry Marchal
      First page: 494
      Abstract: Netrin-1 is a member of the laminin superfamily, and is known to interact with specific receptors, called dependence receptors. While upon netrin-1 binding these receptors initiate positive signaling, in absence of netrin-1, these receptors trigger apoptosis. Tumor cells can avoid apoptosis by inactivating these receptors or by gaining ligand expression. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of netrin-1, the ligand of dependence receptors, in canine healthy lymph nodes (LN), and in lymphomas and to evaluate efficiency of a netrin-1 interfering compound in cell cultures from canine lymphoma. Thirty-two control LN and 169 lymphomas were analyzed through immunohistochemistry. Netrin-1 was expressed in the nucleoli of lymphoid and non-lymphoid cells in controls. Acquisition of a cytoplasmic expression was present in B-cell lymphomas (23.1 % in low-grade and 50.6% in high-grade) and T-cell lymphomas (50.0 % in low-grade and 78.8 % in high-grade), with a significant difference between the high- and low-grade in B-cell lymphomas. Through flow cytometry, we showed a significant increase in netrin-1 expression in either high-grade B-cell and T-cell lymphomas (19 and 5, respectively) compared with healthy LN (5), likewise an RT-qPCR analysis demonstrated a significant increase in netrin-1 expression level in 14 samples of lymphomas compared with eight samples of healthy LN. A T-cell aggressive canine lymphoma cell line and four primary canine nodal lymphomas cell cultures were treated with a netrin-1 interfering antibody. Apoptosis by measuring caspase 3 activity was significantly increased in the cell line and viability was decreased in three of the four primary cell cultures. Together, these data suggest that netrin-1 expression is increased in lymphoma, and more specifically in high-grade lymphomas, and that netrin-1 can act as a survival factor for the neoplastic cells, and so be a therapeutic target.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-10
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9090494
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 495: A Review on Pathological and
           Diagnostic Aspects of Emerging Viruses—Senecavirus A, Torque teno
           sus virus and Linda Virus—In Swine

    • Authors: Salwa Hawko, Giovanni P. Burrai, Marta Polinas, Pier Paolo Angioi, Silvia Dei Giudici, Annalisa Oggiano, Alberto Alberti, Chadi Hosri, Elisabetta Antuofermo
      First page: 495
      Abstract: Swine production represents a significant component in agricultural economies as it occupies over 30% of global meat demand. Infectious diseases could constrain the swine health and productivity of the global swine industry. In particular, emerging swine viral diseases are omnipresent in swine populations, but the limited knowledge of the pathogenesis and the scarce information related to associated lesions restrict the development of data-based control strategies aimed to reduce the potentially great impact on the swine industry. In this paper, we reviewed and summarized the main pathological findings related to emerging viruses, such as Senecavirus A, Torque teno sus virus, and Linda virus, suggesting a call for further multidisciplinary studies aimed to fill this lack of knowledge and better clarify the potential role of those viral diseases in swine pathology.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-10
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9090495
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 496: Angiotensin II Blood Serum Levels
           in Piglets, after Intra-Dermal or Intra-Muscular Vaccination against PRRSV

    • Authors: Georgios Maragkakis, Labrini V. Athanasiou, Laskarina-Maria Korou, Serafeim C. Chaintoutis, Chrysostomos Dovas, Despina N. Perrea, Georgios Papakonstantinou, Georgios Christodoulopoulos, Dominiek Maes, Vasileios G. Papatsiros
      First page: 496
      Abstract: The Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) induces apoptosis in different organs. Angiotensin II (Ang II) is the main effector of the renin-angiotensin system and participates in apoptosis. Thus, this study aimed to investigate changes in piglet serum Ang II levels following intradermal (ID) and intramuscular (IM) vaccination with a commercial PRRS modified live virus (MLV) vaccine. The trial was conducted in a commercial pig farm, including 104 piglets which were randomly allocated to four groups: Group A—Porcilis PRRS ID, Group B—Porcilis PRRS IM, Group C—Diluvac ID and Group D—Diluvac IM. The study piglets were either vaccinated or injected at 2 weeks of age and they were tested by qRT-PCR for PRRSV and by ELISA for Ang II. The results indicated differences in viremia of tested piglets at 7 weeks of age, while piglets at 10 weeks of age were all found qRT-PCR positive for PRRSV. In addition, significant differences were noticed in Ang II in 7-week-old piglets. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence that ID vaccination induces less tissue damage, based on the lower measurements of Ang II in the serum of ID vaccinated piglets.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-11
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9090496
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 497: Gastrointestinal Mast Cell Tumor
           in an African Dormouse (Graphiurus sp.)

    • Authors: Yen-Chi Chang, Jung-Chin Chang, Jo-Wen Chen, Ying-Chen Wu, Ter-Hsin Chen
      First page: 497
      Abstract: Mast cell tumors (MCTs) are well-known neoplasms derived from either mucosal or connective tissue mast cells. While well studied in several domestic species, MCTs are rarely documented in rodents. A three-year-old, male African dormouse (Graphiurus sp.) presented with a history of vomiting and anorexia for 3 months. Sonography revealed thickened gastric mucosa and hyperperistalsis. The patient died after receiving symptomatic treatment for 2 months. At necropsy, locally extensive, pale, thickened mucosal foci obscuring the first half of the stomach lumen was noted. Histological examination revealed moderately polymorphic, round, oval to spindle cells with amphophilic cytoplasmic granules infiltrating the mucosa to tunica muscularis, with moderate numbers of eosinophils. The mucosa was severely ulcerated with the proliferation of granulation tissue. The granules in most tumor cells exhibited metachromasia with the toluidine blue stain. Neoplastic cells revealed positive membranous immunoreactivity to KIT. Herein, we report the first case report of MCT in dormouse but also the first gastrointestinal MCT in a rodent species.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-11
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9090497
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 498: Comparison of the Clinical
           Characteristics of Histiocytic Sarcoma in Bernese Mountain Dogs and
           Flat-Coated Retrievers

    • Authors: Suzanne A. Erich, Jane M. Dobson, Erik Teske
      First page: 498
      Abstract: Histiocytic sarcoma (HS) is an aggressive malignant tumor of histiocytes, which can affect almost any organ in the body and is characterized by a broad array of tumor locations and clinical presentations. So far, no complete overview exists of the array of clinical aspects of HS in specific dog breeds in large groups. Therefore, we investigated the clinical characteristics of HS in a population of Bernese Mountain Dogs (BMD; (n = 365) and Flat-Coated Retrievers (FCR; n = 289), which are two of the most affected dog breeds. Cases were selected from databases from different pathology services, and clinical information was retrospectively collected for each case. Localized HS was reported significantly more frequently in the FCR (60.6%) than in the BMD (39.2%), and disseminated HS was recorded significantly more frequently in the BMD (60.8%) than in the FCR (39.4%). Lameness was seen more often in FCR than in BMD, and the vast majority (78.1%) of LHS leading to lameness was located in the front legs in the FCR, while in the BMD, there was a more even distribution. BMD had significantly more often leukocytosis and thrombocytopenia, even corrected for the type of HS, than FCR. No significant difference in the frequency of anemia was recorded between BMD and FCR. In those dogs in which blood examination was performed, hypercalcemia was diagnosed in 15 BMD, while none of the FCR had hypercalcemia. The new information provided in this study can aid the diagnostic process and allow for prompt treatment recommendations.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-11
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9090498
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 499: Redox Status and Hematological
           Variables in Melatonin-Treated Ewes during Early Pregnancy under Heat

    • Authors: Efterpi V. Bouroutzika, Ekaterini K. Theodosiadou, Mariana S. Barbagianni, Serafeim Papadopoulos, Dimitrios Kalogiannis, Stella Chadio, Zoi Skaperda, Demetrios Kouretas, Eleni G. Katsogiannou, Irene Valasi
      First page: 499
      Abstract: The preovulatory follicles and preimplantation stage embryos are found to be rather sensitive to heat stress due to their low potential for scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of melatonin administration on redox status and hematological variables during the preovulatory period and early stages of embryogenesis in heat-stressed ewes in vivo. Forty Karagouniko-breed ewes were divided in two groups, the melatonin (M, n = 20) group and control (C, n = 20) one. All animals were subjected to heat stress throughout the study, which lasted forty days (D0 to D40). In M group, melatonin implants were administered on D0. Then, oestrous synchronization was applied (D19-D33). On D34, six rams were introduced into the ewe flock for mating. Ultrasonographic examination was conducted on D73 for pregnancy diagnosis. The temperature humidity index (THI), the rectal temperature (RT), and the number of breaths per minute (BR) were evaluated twice daily. Redox biomarkers, namely total antioxidant capacity (TAC), reduced glutathione (GSH), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), were assayed in blood samples collected on D0, D33, and D40. In addition, packed cell volume (PCV), white blood cells (WBCs), leukocyte differential count, and cortisol assessment were conducted in blood samples on D33 and D40. The results indicated improved fertility rate and mean number of lambs born per ewe due to improved redox status (p < 0.05) in ewes that received melatonin implants 34 days approximately before the onset of oestrus. The PCV decreased in both groups between the two time-points (p < 0.05). However, the NEU/LYMPH ratio decreased (p < 0.05) only in group M. The low cortisol levels and the decreased NEU/LYMPH ratio in both groups support the hypothesis that ewes of the indigenous Karagouniko breed may exhibit adaptation to environmental thermal stress. The administration of melatonin as an antioxidant regime may improve the reproductive competence of heat stressed ewes and may also enhance their ability to adapt at high ambient temperatures.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-13
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9090499
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 500: Distribution of Coronavirus
           Receptors in the Swine Respiratory and Intestinal Tract

    • Authors: Rahul Kumar Nelli, James Allen Roth, Luis Gabriel Gimenez-Lirola
      First page: 500
      Abstract: Coronaviruses use a broad range of host receptors for binding and cell entry, essential steps in establishing viral infections. This pilot study evaluated the overall distribution of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), aminopeptidase N (APN), carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1), and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) receptors in the pig respiratory and intestinal tract. All the receptors evaluated in this study were expressed and differentially distributed through the respiratory and intestinal tract. The presence and expression levels of these receptors could determine susceptibility to coronavirus infections. This study may have important implications for the development of research models and the assessment of the potential risk and introduction of novel coronaviruses into the swine population.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-13
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9090500
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 501: Maternal and Fetal
           PI3K-p110α Deficiency Induces Sex-Specific Changes in Conceptus
           Growth and Placental Mitochondrial Bioenergetic Reserve in Mice

    • Authors: Daniela Pereira-Carvalho, Esteban Salazar-Petres, Jorge Lopez-Tello, Amanda N. Sferruzzi-Perri
      First page: 501
      Abstract: Fetal growth is reliant on placental formation and function, which, in turn, requires the energy produced by the mitochondria. Prior work has shown that both mother and fetus operate via the phosphoinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-p110α signalling pathway to modify placental development, function, and fetal growth outcomes. This study in mice used genetic inactivation of PI3K-p110α (α/+) in mothers and fetuses and high resolution respirometry to investigate the influence of maternal and fetal PI3K-p110α deficiency on fetal and placental growth, in relation to placental mitochondrial bioenergetics, for each fetal sex. The effect of PI3K-p110α deficiency on maternal body composition was also determined to understand more about the maternal-driven changes in feto-placental development. These data show that male fetuses were more sensitive than females to fetal PI3K-p110α deficiency, as they had greater reductions in fetal and placental weight, when compared to their WT littermates. Placental weight was also altered in males only of α/+ dams. In addition, α/+ male, but not female, fetuses showed an increase in mitochondrial reserve capacity, when compared to their WT littermates in α/+ dams. Finally, α/+ dams exhibited reduced adipose depot masses, compared to wild-type dams. These findings, thus, demonstrate that maternal nutrient reserves and ability to apportion nutrients to the fetus are reduced in α/+ dams. Moreover, maternal and fetal PI3K-p110α deficiency impacts conceptus growth and placental mitochondrial bioenergetic function, in a manner dependent on fetal sex.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-13
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9090501
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 502: Machine Learning and Canine
           Chronic Enteropathies: A New Approach to Investigate FMT Effects

    • Authors: Giada Innocente, Ilaria Patuzzi, Tommaso Furlanello, Barbara Di Camillo, Luca Bargelloni, Maria Cecilia Giron, Sonia Facchin, Edoardo Savarino, Mirko Azzolin, Barbara Simionati
      First page: 502
      Abstract: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) represents a very promising approach to decreasing disease activity in canine chronic enteropathies (CE). However, the relationship between remission mechanisms and microbiome changes has not been elucidated yet. The main objective of this study was to report the clinical effects of oral freeze-dried FMT in CE dogs, comparing the fecal microbiomes of three groups: pre-FMT CE-affected dogs, post-FMT dogs, and healthy dogs. Diversity analysis, differential abundance analysis, and machine learning algorithms were applied to investigate the differences in microbiome composition between healthy and pre-FMT samples, while Canine Chronic Enteropathy Clinical Activity Index (CCECAI) changes and microbial diversity metrics were used to evaluate FMT effects. In the healthy/pre-FMT comparison, significant differences were noted in alpha and beta diversity and a list of differentially abundant taxa was identified, while machine learning algorithms predicted sample categories with 0.97 (random forest) and 0.87 (sPLS-DA) accuracy. Clinical signs of improvement were observed in 74% (20/27) of CE-affected dogs, together with a statistically significant decrease in CCECAI (median value from 5 to 2 median). Alpha and beta diversity variations between pre- and post-FMT were observed for each receiver, with a high heterogeneity in the response. This highlighted the necessity for further research on a larger dataset that could identify different healing patterns of microbiome changes.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-13
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9090502
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 503: Detection of Chicken Respiratory
           Pathogens in Live Markets of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, and Epidemiological

    • Authors: Tadiose Habte Tekelemariam, Stephen Walkden-Brown, Fekadu Alemu Atire, Dessalegne Abeje Tefera, Dawit Hailu Alemayehu, Priscilla F. Gerber
      First page: 503
      Abstract: A moderate to high seroprevalence of exposure to Newcastle disease (NDV), avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) has recently been reported in Ethiopia, but it is unclear to what extent these contribute to clinical cases of respiratory disease. This study investigated the presence of these pathogens in chickens exhibiting respiratory disease in two live markets in Addis Ababa. Markets were visited weekly for three months, and 18 chickens displaying respiratory clinical signs were acquired. Swab samples were taken from the choana, trachea, air sac and larynx for bacteriology and PCR tests targeting these five pathogens. PCR-positive samples were sequenced. All 18 chickens were PCR-positive for aMPV, 50% for each of Mg and NDV, 39% for IBV and 11% for ILTV. Infections with >3 pathogens were detected in 17 of 18 chickens. Potentially pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Streptococcus spp. and Staphylococcus were found in 16 to 44% of chickens. IBV-positive samples were of the 793B genotype. The results associate the presence of these organisms with clinical respiratory disease and are consistent with recent serological investigations, indicating a high level of exposure to multiple respiratory pathogens.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-14
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9090503
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 504: A One Health Evaluation of the
           Surveillance Systems on Tick-Borne Diseases in the Netherlands, Spain and

    • Authors: Aitor Garcia-Vozmediano, Daniele De Meneghi, Hein Sprong, Aránzazu Portillo, José A. Oteo, Laura Tomassone
      First page: 504
      Abstract: To identify ideal elements for the monitoring and prevention of tick-borne diseases (TBD), we analysed the surveillance systems in place in the Netherlands, Spain and Italy. We applied a semi-quantitative evaluation to identify outcomes and assess the degree of One Health implementation. Differences emerged in the surveillance initiatives, as well as the One Health scores. The Dutch surveillance is dominated by a high level of transdisciplinary and trans-sectoral collaboration, enabling communication and data sharing among actors. Different project-based monitoring, research and educational activities are centrally coordinated and the non-scientific community is actively involved. All this yielded measurable health outcomes. In Italy and Spain, TBD surveillance and reporting systems are based on compulsory notification. Law enforcement, alongside dedicated time and availability of economic resources, is fragmented and limited to the most severe health issues. Veterinary and human medicine are the most involved disciplines, with the first prevailing in some contexts. Stakeholders are marginally considered and collaborations limited to local initiatives. Research activities have mostly contributed to gaining knowledge on the distribution of tick vectors and discovery of new pathogens. Although all TBD surveillance plans comply with EU regulations, initiatives characterised by transdisciplinary collaboration may be more effective for the surveillance and prevention of TBD.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-14
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9090504
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 505: Critically Appraised Topic on
           Low-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) in Dogs: An Advisable Treatment for Skin

    • Authors: Roberta Perego, Martina Mazzeo, Eva Spada, Daniela Proverbio
      First page: 505
      Abstract: Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is a therapeutic option that stimulates cellular function through intracellular photobiological and photochemical reactions, promoting better tissue repair and an anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and analgesic effect. Previous studies in human and veterinary medicine have shown the clinical efficacy of LLLT in many fields. In this study, the literature was reviewed using the critically appraised topic (CAT) method to determine the canine skin diseases for which LLLT is an advisable treatment. A meticulous literature search revealed 19 significant clinical trials, which were critically analyzed. The evaluation of the best accessible evidence in July 2022 suggests that fluorescence biomodulation (FBM), a type of LLLT, can, in combination with systemic antibiotic therapy, be a promising and effective adjunctive treatment for canine interdigital pyoderma and canine deep pyoderma. Furthermore, the evidence suggests that the use of LLLT is not recommended as a therapy for pedal pruritus secondary to canine atopic dermatitis. For other canine skin diseases included in the CAT, although LLLT appears to be a promising treatment, there is not yet good scientific evidence to recommend its use.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-14
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9090505
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 506: Strain and Shear-Wave Elastography
           and Their Relationship to Histopathological Features of Canine Mammary
           Nodular Lesions

    • Authors: Marcella Massimini, Alessia Gloria, Mariarita Romanucci, Leonardo Della Salda, Lucia Di Francesco, Alberto Contri
      First page: 506
      Abstract: Mammary gland tumours have a significant impact on the health of dogs, requiring diagnostic tools to support clinicians to develop appropriate therapeutic strategies. Sonoelastography is an emerging technology that is able to define the stiffness of the tissue and has promising applications in the evaluation of mammary gland lesions. In the present study, strain elastography (STE) and shear-wave (SWE) elastography were compared in 38 mammary nodular lesions for their ability to define the histopathological features of canine mammary lesions. Among the techniques, SWE showed better repeatability (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.876), whereas STE was found to be only acceptable (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.456). Mammary nodular lesions showed a wide range of tissue stiffening with a similar mean value for STE and SWE in benign (4 ± 0.3 and 115.4 ± 12.6 kPa, respectively) and malignant lesions (3.8 ± 0.1 and 115.5 ± 4.5 kPa, respectively). A significant correlation was found between lesion fibrosis and STE (STE-I: r = 0.513, p < 0.001; STE-R: r = 0.591, p < 0.001) or SWE-S (r = 0.769; p < 0.001). In conclusion, SWE was reliable and correlated with fibrosis and was similar for both benign and malignant lesions, suggesting that other collateral diagnostic techniques should be considered in conjunction with SWE to characterize mammary nodular lesions in dogs.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-15
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9090506
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 507: Marginal Zinc Deficiency
           Aggravated Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction and Inflammation through ETEC
           Virulence Factors in a Mouse Model of Diarrhea

    • Authors: Peng Wang, Qianqian Chen, Liping Gan, Xinyu Du, Qiyue Li, Hanzhen Qiao, Yinli Zhao, Jin Huang, Jinrong Wang
      First page: 507
      Abstract: Zinc is both essential and inhibitory for the pathogenesis of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). However, the accurate effects and underlying mechanism of marginal zinc deficiency on ETEC infection are not fully understood. Here, a marginal zinc-deficient mouse model was established by feeding mice with a marginal zinc-deficient diet, and ETEC k88 was further administrated to mice after antibiotic disruption of the normal microbiota. Marginal zinc deficiency aggravated growth impairment, diarrhea, intestinal morphology, intestinal permeability, and inflammation induced by ETEC k88 infection. In line with the above observations, marginal zinc deficiency also increased the intestinal ETEC shedding, though the concentration of ETEC in the intestinal content was not different or even decreased in the stool. Moreover, marginal zinc deficiency failed to change the host’s zinc levels, as evidenced by the fact that the serum zinc levels and zinc-receptor GPR39 expression in jejunum were not significantly different in mice with ETEC challenge. Finally, marginal zinc deficiency upregulated the relative expression of virulence genes involved in heat-labile and heat-stable enterotoxins, motility, cellular adhesion, and biofilm formation in the cecum content of mice with ETEC infection. These findings demonstrated that marginal zinc deficiency likely regulates ETEC infection through the virulence factors, whereas it is not correlated with host zinc levels.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-16
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9090507
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 508: Hemogram Findings in Cats from an
           Area Endemic for Leishmania infantum and Feline Immunodeficiency Virus

    • Authors: Marisa Masucci, Giulia Donato, Maria Flaminia Persichetti, Vito Priolo, Germano Castelli, Federica Bruno, Maria Grazia Pennisi
      First page: 508
      Abstract: In feline Leishmania infantum (Li) infection and in clinical cases of feline leishmaniosis, co-infection with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) has been reported. However, the role of the retroviral co-infection in the impairment of feline clinical health is still controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate hemogram changes in cats from regions endemic for both Li and FIV infection. Four hundred and ninety-six cats tested for Li (EDTA blood polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence antibody test) and for FIV infection (enzyme-linked immune assay) were retrospectively evaluated. Hemogram results including blood smear morphological evaluation were statistically compared considering four infection patterns: Li+FIV+, Li+FIV−, Li−FIV+, and Li−FIV−. Significantly lower values of erythrocytes (Li+FIV−: p = 0.0248; Li−FIV+: p = 0.0392) and hemoglobin (Li+FIV: p = 0.0086; Li−FIV+: p = 0.0249) were found in both infections when compared to Li−FIV− cats, and severity of anemia was more frequently moderate in Li-positive cats (p = 0.0206) and severe in FIV infection (p = 0.024). Li infection was associated with monocytosis (p = 0.0013) and morphologically activated monocytes (p = 0.0209). Moreover, FIV infection was associated with the presence of inflammatory leukogram (p = 0.023), and an association between thrombocytosis and the co-infection was found (p = 0.0347). Li infection in cats induces hematological changes compatible with chronic inflammation, some of which are due to co-infection with FIV.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-16
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9090508
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 509: Trichinella Spiralis and T.
           Britovi in North-Eastern Romania: A Six-Year Retrospective Multicentric

    • Authors: Olimpia Iacob, Ciprian Chiruță, Mihai Mareș
      First page: 509
      Abstract: The genus Trichinella includes species with a wide geographical spread that cause pathology in humans and animals. In this context, an epidemiological study of Trichinella infection was carried out in the northeastern part of Romania to investigate for the first time the prevalence of this infection in pigs, horses, wild boars and bears, the geographical distribution of Trichinella species and the natural reservoir of Trichinella infection. Between 2010 and 2015, a total of 166,270 animals were examined by the method of artificial digestion, in order to calculate the annual and general prevalence of Trichinella infection, according to the host and the Trichinella species involved, the Pearson correlation coefficient (r), trendline and geographical distribution of species of the genus Trichinella. Taxonomic framing was performed by the multiplex PCR method. The overall prevalence of Trichinella infection in animals was 0.188%. Within the host species, the prevalence varied as follows: in pigs 0.096%, horses 0.021%, wild boar 1.46% and bears 36.76%. The geographical distribution showed that T. spiralis was dominant, occupying the entire northeastern part of Romania, being identified in pigs, horses, wild boars and bears. T britovi occupied five mountain counties, being identified only in wild boars and bears. These results validate the presence of T. spiralis and T. britovi in domestic and game animals in the northeastern part of Romania.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-17
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9090509
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 423: Histological Study of Glandular
           Variability in the Skin of the Natterjack Toad—Epidalea calamita
           (Laurenti, 1768)—Used in Spanish Historical Ethnoveterinary Medicine
           and Ethnomedicine

    • Authors: José Ramón Vallejo, José A. González, María Eugenia Gómez-Navarro, José María López-Cepero
      First page: 423
      Abstract: Common toads have been used since ancient times for remedies and thus constitute excellent biological material for pharmacological and natural product research. According to the results of a previous analysis of the therapeutic use of amphibians in Spain, we decided to carry out a histological study that provides a complementary view of their ethnopharmacology, through the natterjack toad (Epidalea calamita). This species possesses a characteristic integument, where the parotoid glands stand out, and it has been used in different ethnoveterinary and ethnomedical practices. This histological study of their glandular variability allow us to understand the stages through which the animal synthesises and stores a heterogeneous glandular content according to the areas of the body and the functional moment of the glands. To study tegumentary cytology, a high-resolution, plastic embedding, semi-thin (1 micron) section method was applied. Up to 20 skin patches sampled from the dorsal and ventral sides were processed from the two adult specimens collected, which were roadkill. Serous/venom glands display a genetic and biochemical complexity, leading to a cocktail that remains stored (and perhaps changes over time) until extrusion, but mucous glands, working continuously to produce a surface protection layer, also produce a set of active protein (and other) substances that dissolve into mucous material, making a biologically active covering. This study provides a better understanding of the use of traditional remedies in ethnoveterinary medicine.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-11
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080423
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 424: Morphological Structure of the
           Aortic Wall in Deep Diving Cetacean Species: Evidence for Diving

    • Authors: Blanca Mompeó, Simona Sacchini, María del Pino Quintana, Miguel Rivero, Francesco Consoli, Antonio Fernández, Yara Bernaldo de Quirós
      First page: 424
      Abstract: This study analyses the aortic wall structure in nine cetacean species with deep diving habits belonging to four Odontoceti families: Ziphiidae, Kogiidae, Physteridae, and Delphinidae. Samples of ascending, thoracic and abdominal aorta were processed for histological and morphometric studies. The elastic component was higher in the proximal aortic segments, and the muscular elements increased distally in all cases. Morphometric analyses showed that all families presented a decrease in the thickness of the arterial wall and the tunica media along the aorta. The reduction was dramatic between ascending and thoracic aorta in the Physeteridae specimens; meanwhile, the other three families showed a more uniform decrease between the ascending, thoracic and abdominal aorta. The decline was not correlated with a reduced elastic or lamellar unit thickness but with a loss of lamellar units. The organization of the elements in the aortic wall did not show essential modifications between the four families, resembling the structure described previously in the shallow and intermediate diving dolphins. Our findings support that the difference in the morphometric characteristics of the different segments in the aortic wall is likely related to the diving habit more than the absolutes values of any other parameter.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-11
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080424
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 425: Epidemiological Survey of Four
           Reproductive Disorder Associated Viruses of Sows in Hunan Province during

    • Authors: Qiwu Tang, Lingrui Ge, Shengguo Tan, Hai Zhang, Yu Yang, Lei Zhang, Zaofu Deng
      First page: 425
      Abstract: Porcine reproductive disorders have been considered as the major factors that threaten pig industries worldwide. In this study, 407 aborted-fetus samples were obtained from 89 pig farms in Hunan province, to investigate the prevalence of four viruses associated with porcine reproductive disease, including porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), pseudorabies virus (PRV), and classical swine fever virus (CSFV). Meanwhile, the target gene sequences of representative PRRSV (ORF5), PCV2 (ORF2), CSFV (E2), and PRV (gE) strains were amplified, sequenced, and analyzed. The results showed that the positive rates of PRRSV, PCV2, PRV, and CSFV among the collected samples were 26.29% (107/407), 52.83% (215/407), 6.39% (26/407), and 12.29% (50/407), respectively. Moreover, co-infection with two and three pathogens were frequently identified, with PCV2/PRRSV, PRRSV/CSFV, PRRSV/PRV, PCV2/CSFV, PCV2/PRV, and PRRSV/PCV2/CSFV mix infection rates of 9.09%, 3.19%, 2.95%, 3.69%, 2.21%, and 0.49%, respectively. Moreover, ORF5-based phylogenetic analysis showed that 9, 4, and 24 of 37 PRRSV strains belonged to the PRRSV2 lineages 1, 5, and 8, respectively. ORF2-based phylogenetic analysis revealed that PCV2d and PCV2b were prevalent in Hunan province, with the proportions of 87.5% (21/24) and 12.5% (3/24), respectively. An E2-based phylogenetic tree showed that all 13 CSFV strains were clustered with 2.1 subgenotypes, these isolates were composed of 2.1b (10/13) and 2.1c (3/13) sub-subgenotypes. A gE-based phylogenetic tree showed that all six PRV strains belonged to the genotype II, which were genetically closer to variant PRV strains. Collectively, the present study provides the latest information on the epidemiology and genotype diversity of four viruses in sows with reproductive diseases in Hunan province, China, which would contribute to developing effective strategies for disease control.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-11
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080425
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 426: Longitudinal Testing of Leptospira
           Antibodies in Horses Located near a Leptospirosis Outbreak in Alpacas

    • Authors: Charlotte Bolwell, Erica Gee, Brooke Adams, Julie Collins-Emerson, Katherine Scarfe, Shahista Nisa, Emma Gordon, Chris Rogers, Jackie Benschop
      First page: 426
      Abstract: The objectives of this study were to determine if horses located near an outbreak of leptospirosis in alpacas had Leptospira titres indicative of a previous or current infection and, if so, to determine the magnitude in change of titres over time. Further, the objective was to determine if horses with high titre results were shedding Leptospira in their urine. Blood samples were collected from twelve horses located on or next to the farm with the outbreak in alpacas, on day zero and at four subsequent time points (two, four, six and nine weeks). The microscopic agglutination test was used to test sera for five serovars endemic in New Zealand: Ballum, Copenhageni, Hardjo, Pomona and Tarassovi. A reciprocal MAT titre cut-off of ≥1:100 was used to determine positive horses. Seven out of twelve horses (58%) were positive to at least one serovar during one of the time points. Two horses recorded titres of ≥1600, one for both Pomona and Copenhageni and the other for Hardjo, and these two horses were both PCR positive for Leptospira in their urine samples. For five out of seven horses, the titres either remained the same or changed by one dilution across the sampling time points. The study confirmed endemic exposure to five endemic Leptospira serovars in New Zealand in a group of horses located near a confirmed leptospirosis outbreak in alpacas.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-12
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080426
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 427: Survival Time after Surgical
           Debulking and Temozolomide Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Canine Intracranial

    • Authors: Emma Hidalgo Crespo, Alba Farré Mariné, Martí Pumarola i Battle, Juan Francisco Borrego Massó, Alejandro Luján Feliu-Pascual
      First page: 427
      Abstract: Intracranial gliomas are associated with a poor prognosis, and the most appropriate treatment is yet to be defined. The objectives of this retrospective study are to report the time to progression and survival times of a group of dogs with histologically confirmed intracranial gliomas treated with surgical debulking and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy. All cases treated in a single referral veterinary hospital from 2014 to 2021 were reviewed. Inclusion criteria comprised a histopathological diagnosis of intracranial glioma, adjunctive chemotherapy, and follow-up until death. Cases were excluded if the owner declined chemotherapy or there was insufficient follow-up information in the clinical records. Fourteen client-owned dogs were included with a median time to progression (MTP) of 156 days (95% CI 133–320 days) and median survival time (MST) of 240 days (95% CI 149–465 days). Temozolomide was the first-line adjuvant chemotherapy but changed to another chemotherapy agent (lomustine, toceranib phosphate, or melphalan) when tumour relapse was either suspected by clinical signs or confirmed by advanced imaging. Of the fourteen dogs, three underwent two surgical resections and one, three surgeries. Survival times (ST) were 241, 428, and 468 days for three dogs treated twice surgically and 780 days for the dog treated surgically three times. Survival times for dogs operated once was 181 days. One case was euthanized after developing aspiration pneumonia, and all other cases after progression of clinical signs due to suspected or confirmed tumour relapse. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that debulking surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy are well-tolerated options in dogs with intracranial gliomas in which surgery is a possibility and should be considered a potential treatment option. Repeated surgery may be considered for selected cases.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-12
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080427
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 428: Effects of Dietary Inclusion of
           Spirulina platensis on the Reproductive Performance of Female Mink

    • Authors: Anna Maria Iatrou, Georgios A. Papadopoulos, Ilias Giannenas, Aristotelis Lymberopoulos, Paschalis Fortomaris
      First page: 428
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of providing Spirulina platensis (Spirulina) on reproductive performance of female mink. A total of 100 adult brown female mink (Mustela vison) were randomly and equally allocated to control group (C group), in which mink were fed basal diet and Spirulina group (Sp group), where mink received basal diet supplemented with 100 mg of Spirulina/kg of body weight. The experiment lasted 5 months, starting from 1 month prior to mating till kit weaning. Weight gain during pre-mating period was higher in Sp group compared to C group (p < 0.001). Sp group remained heavier until the onset of lactation. Subsequently, mink of Sp group lost more weight than C group (p < 0.001) but without an adverse effect on kit survival. A tendency for a higher whelping rate was detected in Sp group (93.61%) compared to C group (81.25%) (p = 0.07). Litter size, as well as weight of kits at weaning, did not differ between groups (p > 0.10). Finally, Sp group weaned numerically more kits compared to C group. Results obtained here showed that Spirulina treated animals tended to an increased whelping rate.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-12
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080428
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 429: Overview of the Current Literature
           on the Most Common Neurological Diseases in Dogs with a Particular Focus
           on Rehabilitation

    • Authors: Giuseppe Spinella, Piera Bettella, Barbara Riccio, Samuel Okonji
      First page: 429
      Abstract: Intervertebral disc herniation, degenerative myelopathy, fibrocartilaginous embolism and polyradiculoneuritis often affect dogs; and physiotherapy may improve the patient’s quality of life and/or reduce recovery times. The aim of this review was to evaluate the current scientific outcomes on these four neurological diseases and on their physiotherapy approaches. From the analysis of the published articles, it emerged that intervertebral disc herniation can be treated, with different rates of success, through a conservative or a surgical approach followed by physiotherapy. The literature is generally oriented toward the efficacy of the rehabilitation approach in this specific canine disease, often proposing intensive post-surgery physiotherapy for the most severe conditions with the absence of deep pain perception. When degenerative myelopathy, fibrocartilaginous embolism or polyradiculoneuritis occur, the existing literature supports the use of a physiotherapeutic approach: allowing a delay in the onset and worsening of the clinical signs in degenerative myelopathy, physical improvement, and, sometimes, complete remission during fibrocartilaginous embolism or acute idiopathic polyradiculoneuritis. However, papers on rehabilitation in dogs affected by polyradiculoneuritis are currently limited to single clinical cases and further blinded, controlled, prospective studies are still advisable for all four neurological diseases.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-13
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080429
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 430: Characterization of Biofilm
           Producing Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci Isolated from Bulk Tank Milk

    • Authors: Yu Jin Lee, Young Ju Lee
      First page: 430
      Abstract: Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are considered less virulent as they do not produce a large number of toxic enzymes and toxins; however, they have been increasingly recognized as an important cause of bovine mastitis. In particular, the ability to form biofilms appears to be an important factor in CoNS pathogenicity, and it contributes more resistance to antimicrobials. The aim of this study was to investigate the pathogenic potential by assessing the biofilm-forming ability of CoNS isolated from normal bulk tank milk using the biofilm formation assay and to analyze the biofilm-associated resistance to antimicrobial agents using the disc diffusion method. One hundred and twenty-seven (78.4%) among 162 CoNS showed the ability of biofilm formation, and all species showed a significantly high ability of biofilm formation (p < 0.05). Although the prevalence of weak biofilm formers (39.1% to 80.0%) was significantly higher than that of other biofilm formers in all species (p < 0.05), the prevalence of strong biofilm formers was significantly higher in Staphylococcus haemolyticus (36.4%), Staphylococcus chromogenes (24.6%), and Staphylococcus saprophyticus (21.7%) (p < 0.05). Also, 4 (11.4%) among 35 non-biofilm formers did not harbor any biofilm-associated genes, whereas all 54 strong or moderate biofilm formers harbored 1 or more of these genes. The prevalence of MDR was significantly higher in biofilm formers (73.2%) than in non-formers (20.0%) (p < 0.05). Moreover, the distribution of MDR in strong or moderate biofilm formers was 81.5%, which was significantly higher than in weak (67.1%) and non-formers (20.0%) (p < 0.05). Our results indicated that various CoNS isolated from bulk tank milk, not from bovine with mastitis, have already showed a high ability to form biofilms, while also displaying a high prevalence of MDR.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-13
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080430
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 431: Transjugular Patent Ductus
           Arteriosus Occlusion in Seven Dogs Using the Amplatzer Vascular Plug II

    • Authors: Mara Bagardi, Oriol Domenech, Tommaso Vezzosi, Federica Marchesotti, Martina Bini, Valentina Patata, Marta Croce, Valentina Valenti, Luigi Venco
      First page: 431
      Abstract: Although vascular plugs for the closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) have been validated in dogs, studies are lacking on its use as a first-choice device with a transjugular approach. The present case series describes the transvenous right jugular embolization of PDA using an Amplatzer Vascular Plug II in seven dogs of different ages, breeds, and body weights. Complete closure of the PDA was demonstrated in all cases. All dogs showed significant hemodynamic reduction of pulmonary overcirculation and left heart size after the procedure and at following echocardiographic check-ups. Transjugular PDA occlusion using an Amplatzer Vascular Plug II can thus be considered as a safe alternative to the arterial or venous femoral approach using an Amplatzer canine ductal occluder (ACDO), particularly in puppies with small femoral vessels.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-14
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080431
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 432: Development of a Protocol for
           Biomechanical Gait Analysis in Asian Elephants Using the Triaxial Inertial
           Measurement Unit (IMU)

    • Authors: Kittichai Wantanajittikul, Chatchote Thitaram, Siripat Khammesri, Siriphan Kongsawasdi
      First page: 432
      Abstract: Gait analysis is a method of gathering quantitative information to assist in determining the cause of abnormal gait for the purpose of making treatment decisions in veterinary medicine. Recent technology has offered the wearable wireless sensor of an inertial measurement unit (IMU) for determining gait parameters. This study proposed the use of a triaxial IMU, comprising an accelerometer, a gyroscope, and a magnetometer, for detecting three-dimensional limb segment motion (XYZ axis) during the gait cycle in Asian elephants. A new algorithm was developed to estimate the kinematic parameter that represents each limb segment of the forelimbs and hindlimbs while walking at a comfortable speed. For future use, this study aimed to create a new prototype of the IMU with a configuration that is tailored to the elephant and apply machine learning in an effort to achieve greater precision.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-15
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080432
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 433: Inheritance of Monogenic
           Hereditary Skin Disease and Related Canine Breeds

    • Authors: Pablo Jesús Marín-García, Lola Llobat
      First page: 433
      Abstract: The plasticity of the genome is an evolutionary factor in all animal species, including canines, but it can also be the origin of diseases caused by hereditary genetic mutation. Genetic changes, or mutations, that give rise to a pathology in most cases result from recessive alleles that are normally found with minority allelic frequency. The use of genetic improvement increases the consanguinity within canine breeds and, on many occasions, also increases the frequency of these recessive alleles, increasing the prevalence of these pathologies. This prevalence has been known for a long time, but mutations differ according to the canine breed. These genetic diseases, including skin diseases, or genodermatosis, which is narrowly defined as monogenic hereditary dermatosis. In this review, we focus on genodermatosis sensu estricto, i.e., monogenic, and hereditary dermatosis, in addition to the clinical features, diagnosis, pathogeny, and treatment. Specifically, this review analyzes epidermolytic and non-epidermolytic ichthyosis, junctional epidermolysis bullosa, nasal parakeratosis, mucinosis, dermoid sinus, among others, in canine breeds, such as Golden Retriever, German Pointer, Australian Shepherd, American Bulldog, Great Dane, Jack Russell Terrier, Labrador Retriever, Shar-Pei, and Rhodesian Ridgeback.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-15
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080433
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 434: Breeding Dairy Cattle for Female
           Fertility and Production in the Age of Genomics

    • Authors: Joel Ira Weller, Moran Gershoni, Ephraim Ezra
      First page: 434
      Abstract: Phenotypic and genetic changes for female fertility and production traits in the Israeli Holstein population over the last three decades were studied in order to determine if long term selection has resulted in reduced heritability and negative genetic correlations. Annual means for conception status, defined as the inverse of the number of inseminations to conception in percent, decreased from 55.6 for cows born in 1983 to 46.5 for cows born in 2018. Mean estimated breeding values increased by 1.8% for cow born in 1981 to cows born in 2018. Phenotypic records from 1988 to 2016 for the nine Israeli breeding index traits were divided into three time periods for multi-trait REML analysis by the individual animal model. For all traits, heritabilities increased or stayed the same for the later time periods. Heritability for conception status was 0.05. The first parity genetic correlation between conception status and protein yield was −0.38. Heritabilities decreased with the increase in parity for protein but remained the same for conception status. Realized genetic trends were greater than expected for cows born from 2008 through 2016 for somatic cell score, conception status and herd-life, and lower than expected for the production traits.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-15
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080434
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 435: Nutraceuticals to Mitigate the
           Secret Killers in Animals

    • Authors: Guillermo Tellez-Isaias, Wolfgang Eisenreich, Awad A. Shehata
      First page: 435
      Abstract: In the past few years, the concept of “gut health” has established itself as a norm in the scientific literature and animal production [...]
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-16
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080435
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 436: Records of Human Deaths from
           Echinococcosis in Brazil, 1995–2016

    • Authors: Michael Laurence Zini Lise, Jo Widdicombe, Claudia Ribeiro Zini Lise, Stefan Vilges de Oliveira, Eduardo Pacheco de Caldas, Mahbod Entezami, Joaquín M. Prada, Nilton Ghiotti, Rosângela Rodrigues e Silva, Katherina A. Vizcaychipi, Victor Del Rio Vilas
      First page: 436
      Abstract: Echinococcosis is a zoonotic disease relevant to public health in many countries, on all continents except Antarctica. The objective of the study is to describe the registered cases and mortality from echinococcosis in Brazil, from 1995 to 2016. The records of two national databases, the Hospital Information System (HIS) and the Mortality Information System (MIS), were accessed during the period of 1995–2016. Demographic, epidemiological, and health care data related to the occurrence of disease and deaths attributed to echinococcosis in Brazil are described. The results showed that 7955 records of hospitalizations were documented in the HIS, during the study period, with 185 deaths from echinococcosis, and 113 records of deaths were documented in the MIS Deaths in every state of Brazil in the period. When comparing between states, the HIS showed great variability in mortality rates, possibly indicating heterogeneity in diagnosis and in the quality of health care received by patients. Less severe cases that do not require specialized care are not recorded by the information systems, thus the true burden of the disease could be underrepresented in the country. A change in the coding of disease records in the HIS in the late 1990s, (the integration of echinococcosis cases with other pathologies), led to the loss of specificity of the records. The records showed a wide geographic distribution of deaths from echinococcosis, reinforcing the need to expand the notification of the disease in Brazil. Currently, notification of cases is compulsory in the state of Rio Grande do Sul.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-16
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080436
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 437: The Epidemiological Situation of
           the Managed Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) Colonies in the Italian Region

    • Authors: Giovanni Cilia, Elena Tafi, Laura Zavatta, Valeria Caringi, Antonio Nanetti
      First page: 437
      Abstract: The recent decades witnessed the collapse of honey bee colonies at a global level. The major drivers of this collapse include both individual and synergic pathogen actions, threatening the colonies’ survival. The need to define the epidemiological pattern of the pathogens that are involved has led to the establishment of monitoring programs in many countries, Italy included. In this framework, the health status of managed honey bees in the Emilia–Romagna region (northern Italy) was assessed, throughout the year 2021, on workers from 31 apiaries to investigate the presence of major known and emerging honey bee pathogens. The prevalence and abundance of DWV, KBV, ABPV, CBPV, Nosema ceranae, and trypanosomatids (Lotmaria passim, Crithidia mellificae, Crithidia bombi) were assessed by molecular methods. The most prevalent pathogen was DWV, followed by CBPV and N. ceranae. Trypanosomatids were not found in any of the samples. Pathogens had different peaks in abundance over the months, showing seasonal trends that were related to the dynamics of both bee colonies and Varroa destructor infestation. For some of the pathogens, a weak but significant correlation was observed between abundance and geographical longitude. The information obtained in this study increases our understanding of the epidemiological situation of bee colonies in Emilia–Romagna and helps us to implement better disease prevention and improved territorial management of honey bee health.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-17
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080437
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 438: Use of Phages to Treat
           Antimicrobial-Resistant Salmonella Infections in Poultry

    • Authors: Md Abu Sayem Khan, Sabita Rezwana Rahman
      First page: 438
      Abstract: Salmonellosis is one of the most common bacterial infections that impacts both human health and poultry production. Although antibiotics are usually recommended for treating Salmonella infections, their misuse results in the evolution and spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. To minimize the health and economic burdens associated with antimicrobial resistance, a novel antibacterial strategy that can obliterate pathogens without any adverse effects on humans and animals is urgently required. Therefore, therapeutic supplementation of phages has gained renewed attention because of their unique ability to lyse specific hosts, cost-effective production, environmentally-friendly properties, and other potential advantages over antibiotics. In addition, the safety and efficacy of phage therapy for controlling poultry-associated Salmonella have already been proven through experimental studies. Phages can be applied at every stage of poultry production, processing, and distribution through different modes of application. Despite having a few limitations, the optimized and regulated use of phage cocktails may prove to be an effective option to combat infections caused by MDR pathogens in the post-antibiotic era. This article mainly focuses on the occurrence of salmonellosis in poultry and its reduction with the aid of bacteriophages. We particularly discuss the prevalence of Salmonella infections in poultry and poultry products; review the trends in antibiotic resistance; and summarize the application, challenges, and prospects of phage therapy in the poultry industry.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-18
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080438
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 439: Importance of Antioxidant
           Supplementation during In Vitro Maturation of Mammalian Oocytes

    • Authors: Shimaa I. Rakha, Mohammed A. Elmetwally, Hossam El-Sheikh Ali, Ahmed Balboula, Abdelmonem Montaser Mahmoud, Samy M. Zaabel
      First page: 439
      Abstract: The in vitro embryo production (IVEP) technique is widely used in the field of reproductive biology. In vitro maturation (IVM) is the first and most critical step of IVEP, during which, the oocyte is matured in an artificial maturation medium under strict laboratory conditions. Despite all of the progress in the field of IVEP, the quality of in vitro matured oocytes remains inferior to that of those matured in vivo. The accumulation of substantial amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within oocytes during IVM has been regarded as one of the main factors altering oocyte quality. One of the most promising approaches to overcome ROS accumulation within oocytes is the supplementation of oocyte IVM medium with antioxidants. In this article, we discuss recent advancements depicting the adverse effects of ROS on mammalian oocytes. We also discuss the potential use of antioxidants and their effect on both oocyte quality and IVM rate.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-18
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080439
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 440: Molecular Characterization of ASFV
           and Differential Diagnosis of Erysipelothrix in ASFV-Infected Pigs in Pig
           Production Regions in Cameroon

    • Authors: Ebanja Joseph Ebwanga, Stephen Mbigha Ghogomu, Jan Paeshuyse
      First page: 440
      Abstract: African swine fever and swine erysipelas are two devastating diseases with similar manifestations ravaging the domestic pig industry. Only a single phylogenetic study has been carried out in Cameroon, and neither an extensive genotyping aimed at identifying the different serotypes nor has an appropriate differential diagnosis of different species of Erysipelothrix has been effected in ASF-infected animals. Of the 377 blood or tissue samples randomly collected from pig farms and slaughter slabs from January to August 2020, 120 were positive for ASFV (by PCR), giving a prevalence of 31.83%. Intragenomic resolution through sequencing divulged the presence of genotypes I, and Ia, two variants with 19 (ABNAAAACBNABTDBNAFA) and six (ABNAFA) tandem repeat sequences (TRS), serotype IV, and a single GGAATATATA repeat. The sole presence of E. tonsillarum (avirulent species) and not E. rhusiopathiae (virulent species) indicates that the severity observed during the 2020 ASF outbreak in the sampled regions was exclusively due to ASFV genotype I infection. Such characterisations are necessary for designing effective control measures and future potential vaccine candidates.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-18
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080440
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 441: The Myers–Briggs Personality
           Types of Veterinary Students and Their Animal Ethical Profiles in
           Comparison to Criminal Justice Students in Slovenia

    • Authors: Valentina Kubale, Branko Lobnikar, Miha Dvojmoč
      First page: 441
      Abstract: Personality types are related to trustworthy, reliable, and competent communication, especially when dealing with clients. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether the Myers–Briggs (MBTI) indicator could be used to detect differences in the personality preferences of students at the Veterinary Faculty, University of Ljubljana (VS) compared to students at the Faculty of Criminal Justice and Security, University of Maribor (CJS). Our aim was to profile the two cohorts of students in Slovenia, to compare profiles of students from the social and natural sciences with similar personality traits, and to compare them with published results. CJS are considered well-established, well-studied, non-science ombudsman profiles of students in Slovenia for whom care and safety will play important roles in their future work, similar to VS. Views of people’s duties to animals and the implications for animal care, safety, and welfare are also very important, especially for VS. For this reason, we tested the ethical viewpoints of the two cohorts of students using an interactive web-based program. Our results show that both VS and CJS had different MBTI types, with ISTJ (Introversion, Sensing, Thinking, and Judging) preferences predominating, followed by INFJ (Introverted, Intuitive, Feeling, and Judging) in VS and ESTJ (Extraverted, Observant, Thinking, and Judging) in CJS. Between the two cohorts, the ratio between ISFJ and INFJ was statistically different. In the animal ethics study, the utilitarian viewpoint was most prevalent and statistically higher in VS compared to CJS, where the animal rights perspective was most prevalent. Compared to previous profile studies, some differences were found that could be related to the COVID-19 pandemic and/or the different generations of students. Overall, this study highlights the importance of personality traits for better communication, work, and animal research in veterinary science as well as criminal justice.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-19
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080441
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 442: Malignant Catarrhal Fever in
           Sardinia (Italy): A Case Report

    • Authors: Elisabetta Coradduzza, Rosario Scivoli, Davide Pintus, Angela Maria Rocchigiani, Maria Giovanna Cancedda, Daria Sanna, Simona Macciocu, Fabio Scarpa, Roberto Bechere, Giantonella Puggioni, Ciriaco Ligios
      First page: 442
      Abstract: Using a multidisciplinary approach, this report describes a clinical case of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) occurring in a calf, which shared the pasture with sheep on a farm located in the island of Sardinia (Italy). We confirmed the conventional clinico-histopathological features of MCF, as well was the presence of Ovine herpesvirus type 2 (OvHV-2) DNA in several tissues, employing histological and virological investigations. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that this Sardinian OvHV-2 strain is genetically similar to all the other Italian strains. By Real Time PCR examinations of blood samples collected across Sardinia’s sheep population, which is considered the most important reservoir species, we discovered an OvHV-2 prevalence ranging from 20 to 30 percent. Despite the high prevalence of OvHV-2 in the Sardinian sheep population, clinical disease in bovine remains sporadic; further investigations are needed to understand the risk factors that regulate this epidemiological aspect.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-19
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080442
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 443: First Report of ‘Candidatus
           Mycoplasma haematomacacae’ in Laboratory-Kept Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca
           mulatta) Maintained in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    • Authors: Anna Claudia Baumel Mongruel, André Tavares Somma, Ana Cristina Araújo Pinto, Carla de Freitas Campos, Mônica Ingeborg Zuege Calado, Fabiano Montiani-Ferreira, Thállitha Samih Wischral Jayme Vieira, Rafael Felipe da Costa Vieira
      First page: 443
      Abstract: Health monitoring programs in animals used as experimental models are essential, since only disease-free subjects are considered suitable for research purposes. In laboratory-kept animals, hemoplasmas have been described as an important confounding variable. Different hemoplasma species have been detected infecting non-human primates (NHP) from Brazil. However, the occurrence of hemoplasma species in laboratory-kept NHP in Brazil has not-yet been assessed. Accordingly, this study aimed (i) to screen laboratory-kept rhesus monkeys for hemoplasmas, (ii) to verify if any of the hemoplasma-positive animals demonstrate hematological abnormalities, and (iii) to assess the genotype diversity of hemoplasma species in NHP from Brazil. Five out of eight (62.5%; 95% CI: 3.05–8.63) rhesus monkeys tested positive for hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. by PCR. Sequencing, phylogenetic, distance, and genotype diversity analyses of partial 16S rRNA gene demonstrate that rhesus monkeys were infected by ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haematomacacae’ (formerly ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemomacaque’). Assessments of partial 16S rRNA diversity of hemoplasma species in NHP suggest that at least four genetically diverse groups may occur in Brazil. Although no hematological abnormalities were demonstrated in rhesus monkeys evaluated herein, future studies are needed to elucidate the influence of ‘Ca. M. haematomacacae’ as a confounding variable on research studies.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-19
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080443
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 444: Nested PCR Detection of Pythium
           sp. from Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Canine Tissue Sections

    • Authors: Nelly O. Elshafie, Jessica Hanlon, Mays Malkawi, Ekramy E. Sayedahmed, Lynn F. Guptill, Yava L. Jones-Hall, Andrea P. Santos
      First page: 444
      Abstract: Pythium insidiosum is an infectious oomycete affecting dogs that develop the cutaneous or gastrointestinal form of pythiosis with a poor prognosis. If left untreated, pythiosis may be fatal. This organism is not a true fungus because its cell wall and cell membrane lack chitin and ergosterol, respectively, requiring specific treatment. Identifying the organism is challenging, as a hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain poorly stain the P. insidiosum hyphae and cannot be differentiated conclusively from other fungal or fungal-like organisms (such as Lagenidium sp.) morphologically. Our study aimed to develop a nested PCR to detect P. insidiosum and compare it with the traditional histopathologic detection of hyphae. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue scrolls from 26 dogs with lesions suggesting the P. insidiosum infection were assessed histologically, and DNA was extracted from the FFPE tissue sections for nested PCR. Agreement between the histologic stains, (H&E), periodic acid–Schiff (PAS), and/or Grocott methenamine silver (GMS) and the nested PCR occurred in 18/26 cases. Hyphae consistent with Pythium sp. were identified via histopathology in 57.7% of the samples, whereas the nested PCR detected P. insidiosum in 76.9% of samples, aiding in the sensitivity of the diagnosis of pythiosis in dogs. Using this combination of techniques, we report 20 canine cases of pythiosis over 18 years in Indiana and Kentucky, an unexpectedly high incidence for temperate climatic regions. Using a combination of histopathology evaluation and nested PCR is recommended to aid in the accurate diagnosis of pythiosis.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-19
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080444
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 445: Ex-Vivo Evaluation of “First
           Tip Closing” Radiofrequency Vessel Sealing Devices for Swine Small
           Intestinal Transection

    • Authors: Luca Lacitignola, Alberto Crovace, Giuseppe Passantino, Francesco Staffieri
      First page: 445
      Abstract: This study compared burst pressure (BP), number of activations, and histological assessment of ex vivo swine small intestine loops transected by stapler, a single fulcrum radiofrequency vessel sealing (RFVS) device, and the newly-developed jaws RFVS. Fifty (n = 50) 20 cm long jejunal loops were randomly assigned to be transected with RFVS devices and linear stapler (Caiman5, Caiman Maryland, Caiman12, Ligasure Atlas, and Stapler group as control respectively). Caiman5, Caiman12 and stapler required only one activation to complete the sealing. The mean BP in Caiman5 and Caiman Maryland groups were significantly lower (p < 0.05) than the S group as control and the other RFVS devices studied. RFVS Caiman12 and Ligasure Atlas produced mean BP values that were close to the Control and did not differ between them. The lumen was totally closed in the Caiman12 and Ligasure Atlas groups. The findings of this investigation were promising; we discovered that Caiman12 and Ligasure Atlas produce comparable mechanical capabilities as well as stapled intestinal closure, however Caiman12 need a single activation to complete the transection.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-19
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080445
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 446: Surgical Treatment of a
           Retropharyngeal Abscess in a Japanese Black Cow

    • Authors: Shoichi Okada, Kim Sueun, Ryosuke Ichikado, Kohei Kuroda, Yoshiyuki Inoue, Yoshiki Nakama, Hiroyuki Satoh, Reiichiro Sato
      First page: 446
      Abstract: A 17-month-old Japanese Black cow presented with inappetence, wheezing, dysphagia, and drooling. Radiography and ultrasonography revealed an oval, dorsal, pharyngeal mass, with an internal horizontal line demarcating the radiolucent area from the radio-opaque area. Upper airway endoscopy revealed pus-like deposits in the dorsal nasal passage, hyperemia, and edema in the dorsal pharynx, leading to swelling and airway obstruction. Manual palpation, after sedation, revealed a thickened mass surface, which was difficult to rupture with manual pressure. After inserting a linear sonographic probe through the mouth to establish the vascularity surrounding the mass and to identify a relatively thin-walled area, a trocar was pierced into the mass under endoscopic guidance, and the opening was enlarged manually. The mass was filled with stale pus-like material, which was removed manually. The abscess cavity was washed using saline and povidone–iodine. Day 1 post-surgery, dysphagia and wheezing disappeared. Day 16 post-surgery, endoscopy showed significant improvement in the airway patency. One year postoperatively, the owner reported that the cow had an uneventful recovery. For deep abscesses, such as bovine pharyngeal abscesses, it is important to perform a preoperative transoral Doppler ultrasonography to assess the vascularity and thickness of the abscess wall for safe trocar insertion and abscess drainage.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-20
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080446
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 447: Proliferation and Apoptosis of Cat
           (Felis catus) Male Germ Cells during Breeding and Non-Breeding Seasons

    • Authors: Luisa Valentini, Rosa Zupa, Chrysovalentinos Pousis, Rezart Cuko, Aldo Corriero
      First page: 447
      Abstract: The domestic cat (Felis catus) is a seasonal-breeding species whose reproductive period starts when the day length increases. Since the existing information on cat spermatogenesis is limited and somewhat contradictory, in the present study, germ cell proliferation and apoptosis in feral adult tomcats orchiectomized during reproductive (reproductive group, RG; February–July) and non-reproductive (non-reproductive group, NRG; November and December) seasons were compared. Cross-sections taken from the middle third of the left testis were chemically fixed and embedded in paraffin wax. Histological sections were processed for the immunohistochemical detection of proliferating germ cells (PCNA) and for the identification of apoptotic cells (TUNEL method). The percentage of PCNA-positive spermatogonia was higher in the RG than in the NRG. On the contrary, germ cell apoptosis was higher in the NRG than in the RG. Our results confirm that cat spermatogenesis is modulated on a seasonal basis and suggests that spermatogenesis control involves changes in germ cell proliferation and apoptosis according to a common paradigm of seasonally breeding species.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-20
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080447
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 448: Analysis of 1840 Equine
           Intraocular Fluid Samples for the Presence of Anti-Leptospira Antibodies
           and Leptospiral DNA and the Correlation to Ophthalmologic Findings in
           Terms of Equine Recurrent Uveitis (ERU)—A Retrospective Study

    • Authors: Tobias Geiger, Hartmut Gerhards, Bogdan Bjelica, Elke Mackenthun, Bettina Wollanke
      First page: 448
      Abstract: In the equine clinic of the LMU in Munich, therapeutic vitrectomies have been routinely performed in horses for three decades. The vitreous samples obtained during vitrectomies were usually tested for anti-Leptospira antibodies and for more than 20 years also by PCR for leptospiral DNA. If the indication for surgery was ophthalmologically inconclusive, an aqueous humor was collected preoperatively and examined for evidence of leptospiral infection. In this study, medical records from 2002 to 2017 were analyzed. Records for 1387 eyes affected by equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) and 237 eyes affected by another type of uveitis met the inclusion criteria. A total of 216 samples from healthy eyes were used as controls. In 83% of intraocular samples from ERU eyes, antibody titers of 1:100 or higher were detectable by microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Similarly, 83% of intraocular samples had anti-Leptospira antibodies detected by ELISA. In 72% of the intraocular specimens, leptospiral DNA was detectable by PCR. No antibodies were detectable in the samples from eyes with another type of uveitis or in the samples from healthy eyes. A PCR was positive in only one sample from a healthy eye. These results with a very high number of intraocular specimens demonstrate the great importance of an intraocular leptospiral infection for ERU. It can be concluded that for a reliable diagnosis of intraocular leptospiral infection or to reliably exclude an infection multiple tests should be applied.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-21
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080448
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 449: Possible Consequences of Climate
           Change on Survival, Productivity and Reproductive Performance, and Welfare
           of Himalayan Yak (Bos grunniens)

    • Authors: S. Sapkota, K. P. Acharya, R. Laven, N. Acharya
      First page: 449
      Abstract: Yak are adapted to the extreme cold, low oxygen, and high solar radiation of the Himalaya. Traditionally, they are kept at high altitude pastures during summer, moving lower in the winter. This system is highly susceptible to climate change, which has increased ambient temperatures, altered rainfall patterns and increased the occurrence of natural disasters. Changes in temperature and precipitation reduced the yield and productivity of alpine pastures, principally because the native plant species are being replaced by less useful shrubs and weeds. The impact of climate change on yak is likely to be mediated through heat stress, increased contact with other species, especially domestic cattle, and alterations in feed availability. Yak have a very low temperature humidity index (52 vs. 72 for cattle) and a narrow thermoneutral range (5–13 °C), so climate change has potentially exposed yak to heat stress in summer and winter. Heat stress is likely to affect both reproductive performance and milk production, but we lack the data to quantify such effects. Increased contact with other species, especially domestic cattle, is likely to increase disease risk. This is likely to be exacerbated by other climate-change-associated factors, such as increases in vector-borne disease, because of increases in vector ranges, and overcrowding associated with reduced pasture availability. However, lack of baseline yak disease data means it is difficult to quantify these changes in disease risk and the few papers claiming to have identified such increases do not provide robust evidence of increased diseases. The reduction in feed availability in traditional pastures may be thought to be the most obvious impact of climate change on yak; however, it is clear that such a reduction is not solely due to climate change, with socio-economic factors likely being more important. This review has highlighted the large potential negative impact of climate change on yak, and the lack of data quantifying that impact. More research on the impact of climate change in yak is needed. Attention also needs to be paid to developing mitigating strategies, which may include changes in the traditional system such as providing shelter and supplementary feed and, in marginal areas, increased use of yak–cattle hybrids.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-22
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080449
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 510: Facilitating Development of
           Problem-Solving Skills in Veterinary Learners with Clinical Examples

    • Authors: Amanda (Mandi) Nichole Carr, Roy Neville Kirkwood, Kiro Risto Petrovski
      First page: 510
      Abstract: This paper seeks to open discussion on the teaching of problem-solving skills in veterinary learners. We start by defining the term problem before discussing what constitutes problem-solving. For veterinary medical learners, problem-solving techniques are similar to those of decision-making and are integral to clinical reasoning. Problem-solving requires the veterinary learner to organize information logically to allow application of prior or new knowledge in arriving at a solution. The decision-making must encompass choices that provide the most beneficial and economical approach. In a modification of an existing protocol, we suggest the inclusion of the 5 elements: (1) define the problem list; (2) create an associated timeline; (3) describe the (anatomical) system involved or the pathophysiological principle applicable to the case; (4) propose management for the case; and (5) identify unique features of the case. During problem-solving activities, the instructor should take the role of facilitator rather than teacher. Skills utilized in the facilitation of problem-solving by learners include coaching, differential reinforcement, effective feedback, modelling and ‘think out loud’. Effective feedback must inform learners of their progress and performance, as this is fundamental to continued learning and motivation to succeed. In order to put the above into context, we end with an example case scenario showing how we would approach the teaching of problem-solving to veterinary learners.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-20
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9100510
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 511: Genetic Diversity of
           Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Serovars in Hungary

    • Authors: Gábor Kardos, Rita Sárközi, Levente Laczkó, Szilvia Marton, László Makrai, Krisztián Bányai, László Fodor
      First page: 511
      Abstract: A total of 114 Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae isolates from porcine hemorrhagic necrotic pleuropneumonia were characterized by the examination of biotype, serovar, antibiotic resistance genes, and genes of toxin production. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used to analyze their genetic relationship, which identified 16 clusters. Serovar 2 (50 isolates), serovar 13 (25 isolates), serovar 9 (11 isolates), and serovar 16 (7 isolates) were the most frequent serovars. Serovar 2 formed nine distinguishable clusters; serovar 13 and serovar 16 were less diverse, exhibiting two potentially related subclusters; serovar 9 was represented by a single cluster. Remarkably small differences were seen in the core genome when nine representative isolates of serovar 13 were subjected to whole-genome sequencing. Tetracycline resistance was relatively frequent in the two clusters of serovar 13; one of them was also frequently resistant against beta-lactams. Resistance in other serovars was sporadic. All isolates carried the apxIV gene. The toxin profiles of serovar 2 were characterized by the production of ApxII and ApxIII toxins, except for a small cluster of three isolates: serovar 9 and serovar 16 isolates produced ApxI and ApxII toxins. Serovar 13 carried apxII and apxIBD genes, indicating the production of the ApxII toxin, but not of ApxI or ApxIII. The unusually high frequency and low diversity of serovar 13 are not explained by its virulence properties, but the high frequency of resistance to beta-lactams and tetracyclines may have played a role in its spread. The emergence of serovar 16 may be facilitated by its high virulence, also explaining its high clonality.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-20
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9100511
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 512: Multiple Meningioma Resection by
           Bilateral Extended Rostrotentorial Craniotomy with a 3D-Print Guide in a

    • Authors: Kyohyuk Song, Haebeom Lee, Jaemin Jeong, Yoonho Roh
      First page: 512
      Abstract: A 13-year-old castrated male domestic shorthair cat was referred for the surgical removal of multiple meningiomas. The cat experienced generalized tonic–clonic seizures, altered mentation, mild proprioceptive ataxia, and circling. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed two round, solitary, well-delineated, space-occupying lesions suggestive of multiple meningiomas in the right frontal and occipital lobes. Before surgery, patient-specific three-dimensional (3D) printed models and guides were produced using a 3D program based on MRI and computed tomography (CT), and a rehearsal surgery was performed. With a 3D guide to find the location of the craniotomy lines, bilateral extended rostrotentorial craniotomy allowed en bloc resection of multiple meningiomas. The bone fragment was replaced and secured to the skull with a craniofacial plate and screws with an artificial dura. All of the surgical steps were performed without complications. The preoperative presenting signs were resolved by the time of follow-up examinations 2 weeks after surgery. Twelve months after the removal of the multiple meningiomas, the cat survived without further neurological progression. For the resection of multiple meningiomas, surgery can result in large bone defects and risk of massive hemorrhage. For this challenging surgery, patient-specific 3D models and guides can be effective for accurate and safe craniotomies.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-20
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9100512
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 513: Assessment of Semen Respiratory
           Activity of Domesticated Species before and after Cryopreservation: Boars,
           Bulls, Stallions, Reindeers and Roosters

    • Authors: Elena Nikitkina, Ismail Shapiev, Artem Musidray, Anna Krutikova, Kirill Plemyashov, Sofia Bogdanova, Victoria Leibova, Gennadiy Shiryaev, Julia Turlova
      First page: 513
      Abstract: To assess sperm quality, it is important to evaluate energy metabolism. The test substance 2.4-dinitrophenol (2.4-DNP) is an agent for destroying oxidative phosphorylation. 2.4-DNP shuts off the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from oxidation and then, the respiration rate increases. If the respiratory chain is damaged, there is little or no response to adding 2.4-DNP. The aim of this study was to analyze the respiratory activity and oxidative phosphorylation in semen before and after freezing and compare the obtained data with the fertilizing ability of sperm. There was a reduction in sperm respiration rates in all species after thawing. The respiration of spermatozoa of boars, bulls, stallions, reindeers and chicken showed responses to 2.4-dinitrophenol. The only difference is in the strength of the response to the test substance. After freezing and thawing, respiratory stimulation by 2.4-DNP decreased. The results of our study show that respiration rate is not correlated with pregnancy rates and egg fertility. However, there was a high correlation between the stimulation of respiration by 2.4-dinitrophenol and pregnancy rates. The test for an increase in respiration rate after adding 2.4-dinitrophenol could be a suitable test of the fertilizing ability of sperm.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-21
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9100513
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 514: First Case of a Cerebrocortical
           Ganglioglioma in a Dog

    • Authors: Laura Martín, Martí Pumarola, Raúl Altuzarra, Javier Espinosa, María Ortega
      First page: 514
      Abstract: Gangliogliomas are extremely rare tumors of the nervous system composed of neoplastic glial and neuronal cells. The aim of the present paper is to describe the clinical presentation, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and histopathological and immunophenotypical characteristics of a cerebral cortex ganglioglioma in a 7-year-old Border Collie. The dog presented an acute onset of tonic-clonic epileptic seizures. MRI revealed a well-defined large intra-axial mass located on the left forebrain, mainly affecting the frontal cortex. Following humane euthanasia, the histopathological examination of the mass revealed a diffuse proliferation of neoplastic glial cells mixed with anomalous neuronal bodies. Immunohistochemical analyses confirmed the presence of two different populations of neoplastic cells. Most neoplastic glial cells were immunoreactive to glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and the other subset of neoplastic cells were positive to neuronal markers such as PGP 9.5, synaptophysin (SYN) and neuron-specific enolase (NSE), suggestive of neuronal cells. These findings confirmed the diagnosis of a cerebrocortical ganglioglioma. To the authors knowledge, this is the first description of a ganglioglioma of the cerebral cortex in a dog.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-21
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9100514
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 515: Special Issue: Honey Bee Pathogens
           and Parasites

    • Authors: Julia Ebeling, Anne Fünfhaus, Sebastian Gisder
      First page: 515
      Abstract: Honey bees are important pollinators of agricultural crops and despite the reports about elevated local colony losses over the last few decades [...]
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-21
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9100515
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 516: Effects of Anesthesia on Cerebral
           Blood Flow and Functional Connectivity of Nonhuman Primates

    • Authors: Xiaodong Zhang
      First page: 516
      Abstract: Nonhuman primates (NHPs) are the closest living relatives of humans and play a critical and unique role in neuroscience research and pharmaceutical development. General anesthesia is usually required in neuroimaging studies of NHPs to keep the animal from stress and motion. However, the adverse effects of anesthesia on cerebral physiology and neural activity are pronounced and can compromise the data collection and interpretation. Functional connectivity is frequently examined using resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI) to assess the functional abnormality in the animal brain under anesthesia. The fMRI signal can be dramatically suppressed by most anesthetics in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, rsfMRI studies may be further compromised by inter-subject variations when the sample size is small (as seen in most neuroscience studies of NHPs). Therefore, proper use of anesthesia is strongly demanded to ensure steady and consistent physiology maintained during rsfMRI data collection of each subject. The aim of this review is to summarize typical anesthesia used in rsfMRI scans of NHPs and the effects of anesthetics on cerebral physiology and functional connectivity. Moreover, the protocols with optimal rsfMRI data acquisition and anesthesia procedures for functional connectivity study of macaque monkeys are introduced.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-22
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9100516
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 517: Effectiveness of a Modified
           Administration Protocol for the Medical Treatment of Feline Pyometra

    • Authors: Simona Attard, Roberta Bucci, Salvatore Parrillo, Maria Carmela Pisu
      First page: 517
      Abstract: Pyometra is a common uterine disease of dogs and cats, typical of the luteal phase. Traditionally, ovariohysterectomy was considered the elective treatment for pyometra, but in some cases, such as breeding subjects or patients with a high anesthesiologic risk, medical treatment is preferred. Aglepristone is a progesterone receptor blocker and its use proved to be effective for the medical treatment of pyometra in bitches and queens. The aim of this work is to report the effectiveness, in the feline species, of a modified aglepristone administration protocol. Five intact queens were referred to veterinary care centers for pyometra. Aglepristone (15 mg/kg) was administered at D0, D2, D5, and D8, as described by Contri and collaborators for dogs. An antibiotic treatment (marbofloxacin, 3 mg/kg) was associated, and uterine conditions were checked with regular ultrasonographic exams. The uterus returned to its normal condition 10 days after starting the treatment and no adverse effects were reported. After treatment, three queens had an uneventful pregnancy. Even if the treated group was restricted and homogeneous, the proposed modified protocol proved to be useful and promising for the medical treatment of pyometra in cats; further studies are planned to verify its effectiveness in the long-term prevention of recurrence.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-22
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9100517
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 518: Stuttering Priapism in a
           Dog—First Report

    • Authors: Françoise A. Roux, Florian Le Breuil, Julien Branchereau, Jack-Yves Deschamps
      First page: 518
      Abstract: A 5-year-old recently castrated male Doberman dog presented for prolonged erection of one week’s duration with associated pain and dysuria. This was the fourth episode within a year. Each episode was associated with an unusual event, which was stressful for the dog. Castration performed two months prior to the final episode did not prevent recurrence. Due to tissue necrosis, penile amputation and urethrostomy had to be performed. The dog recovered fully. Prolonged erection that persists beyond or that is unrelated to sexual stimulation is called “priapism”. This term refers to the Greek god Priapus, a god of fertility, memorialized in sculptures for his giant phallus. In humans, depending on the mechanism involved, priapism is classified as nonischemic or ischemic. Because prognosis and treatment are different, priapism must be determined to be nonischemic or ischemic. Nonischemic priapism is a rare condition observed when an increase in penile arterial blood flow overwhelms the capacity of venous drainage; it is often associated with penile trauma, and does not require medical intervention. Ischemic priapism is associated with decreased venous return. In humans, ischemic priapism accounts for 95% of cases, the majority of which are idiopathic. Ischemic priapism is a urological emergency; simple conservative measures such as aspiration of blood from the corpora cavernosa and intracavernosal injection of an adrenergic agent are often successful. Stuttering priapism, also called recurrent or intermittent priapism, is a particular form of ischemic priapism reported in humans that is characterized by repetitive episodes of prolonged erections. Management consists of treating each new episode as an episode of acute ischemic priapism, and preventing recurrence with oral medications such as dutasteride and/or baclofen, gabapentin, or tadalafil. To the authors’ knowledge, this case is the first report of stuttering priapism in a dog.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-23
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9100518
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 519: Physiological Indicators of Acute
           and Chronic Stress in Securely and Insecurely Attached Dogs Undergoing a
           Strange Situation Procedure (SSP): Preliminary Results

    • Authors: Giacomo Riggio, Carmen Borrelli, Marco Campera, Angelo Gazzano, Chiara Mariti
      First page: 519
      Abstract: The quality of the attachment bond towards the caregiver may affect the dog’s physiological responses to stressful stimuli. This study aimed to measure chronic and acute physiological parameters of stress in ten securely and ten insecurely attached dogs. The twenty experimental subjects were selected from a sample of dogs that participated with their owners in the Strange Situation Procedure. Saliva samples were collected before (T0) and after (T1) the test. Blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, and rectal temperature were measured after the test, only. At this time, a hair sample was also collected. RM ANOVA was used to analyse cortisol concentrations between secure and insecure dogs at T0 and T1. Mann–Whitney U test or T test were used for other physiological parameters. Insecure dogs had significant higher salivary cortisol concentrations than secure dogs at T1 (p = 0.024), but only a non-significant trend towards higher cortisol concentrations at T0 (p = 0.099). Post-test heart rate also tended to be higher in insecure compared to secure dogs (p = 0.077). No significant differences in hair cortisol concentration were found. The quality of attachment may affect the dog’s physiological response to acute stress, at least when related to separation from the caregiver. The effect of attachment on chronic stress requires further investigation.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-23
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9100519
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 520: Comparison of Certain Intrarectal
           Versus Intramuscular Pharmacodynamic Effects of Ketamine, Dexmedetomidine
           and Midazolam in Cats

    • Authors: Andrea Paolini, Massimo Vignoli, Giulia Guerri, Ilaria Falerno, Roberto Tamburro, Francesco Simeoni, Francesca Del Signore, Andrea De Bonis, Francesco Collivignarelli, Maria Cristina Salvo, Ilaria Cerasoli
      First page: 520
      Abstract: The aim of this clinical trial was to evaluate the impacts of administration via the intrarectal route (IR) in cats on their heart and respiratory rates, blood pressure, body temperature, and sedation quality compared to the intramuscular route (IM). The intramuscular group (IMG) received 0.003 mg kg−1 dexmedetomidine, 2 mg kg−1 ketamine, and 0.2 mg kg−1 midazolam while the intrarectal group (IRG) protocol was 0.003 mg kg−1 dexmedetomidine, 4 mg kg−1 ketamine, and 0.4 mg kg−1 midazolam. Cardiorespiratory values, temperature, and sedation score were measured 2 min after administration and then every 5 min up to the 40th minute. Cats belonging to IRG reacted less strongly to the drug, as opposed to those receiving intramuscular administration (2/10 in IRG vs. 8/10 in IMG). Average time between drug administration and standing position was 44.9 ± 5.79 in IRG and 57 ± 9.88 min in IMG. In IRG, maintenance of SpO₂ values is > 95% at each time point. Median and range peak of sedation {7 (5)} in IMG occurs at 20th, 25th, and 30th minutes post drug administration while was lower in IRG. Cardiorespiratory values were slightly lower in IMG than in IRG, but always constant in both treatments. Temperature did not differ between groups. At this dosage, although sedation score was higher in IMG, intrarectal route could be efficacious for performing minimally invasive clinical and diagnostic procedures in cats.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-23
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9100520
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 521: The Application of MALDI-TOF MS
           for a Variability Study of Paenibacillus larvae

    • Authors: Anna Kopcakova, Slavomira Salamunova, Peter Javorsky, Rastislav Sabo, Jaroslav Legath, Silvia Ivorova, Maria Piknova, Peter Pristas
      First page: 521
      Abstract: In recent decades, the significant deterioration of the health status of honey bees has been observed throughout the world. One of the most severe factors affecting the health of bee colonies worldwide is American foulbrood disease. This devastating disease, with no known cure, is caused by the Gram-positive spore-forming bacteria of Paenibacillus larvae species. At present, DNA-based methods are being used for P. larvae identification and typing. In our study, we compare two of the most advanced DNA-based technologies (rep-PCR and 16S rRNA analyses) with MALDI-TOF MS fingerprinting to evaluate P. larvae variability in Central Europe. While 16S rRNA analysis presents a very limited variation among the strains, MALDI-TOF MS is observed to be more efficient at differentiating P. larvae. Remarkably, no clear correlation is observed between whole-genome rep-PCR fingerprinting and MALDI-TOF MS-based typing. Our data indicate that MALDI-TOF protein profiling provides accurate and cost-effective methods for the rapid identification of P. larvae strains and provides novel perspectives on strain diversity compared to conventional DNA-based genotyping approaches. The current study provides a good foundation for future studies.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-23
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9100521
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 522: Modelling the Transmission of
           Coxiella burnetii within a UK Dairy Herd: Investigating the Interconnected
           Relationship between the Parturition Cycle and Environment Contamination

    • Authors: Dimitrios G. Patsatzis, Nick Wheelhouse, Efstathios-Al. Tingas
      First page: 522
      Abstract: Q fever infection in dairy herds is introduced through the transmission of the bacterium Coxiella burnetii, resulting in multiple detrimental effects such as reduction of lactation, abortions and chronic infection. Particularly in the UK, recent evidence suggests that the infection is endemic in dairy cattle. In this work, we investigate the dynamics of the disease with the aim to disentangle the relationship between the heterogeneity in the shedding routes and their effect on the environmental contamination. We develop a mathematical model for the transmission of Q fever within UK cattle herds by coupling the within-herd infection cycle of the disease with farm demographics and environmental effects, introduced by either the indoor or outdoor environment. Special focus is given on the mechanism of transmission in nulliparous heifers and multiparous cattle. We calibrate the model based on available knowledge on various epidemiological aspects of the disease and on data regarding farm demographics available in the UK DEFRA. The resulting model is able to reproduce the reported prevalence levels by field and in silico studies, as well as their evolution in time. In addition, it is built in an manner that allows the investigation of different housing techniques, farm management styles and a variety of interventions. Sensitivity analysis further reveals the parameters having the major effect in maintaining high prevalence levels of seropositive and shedding cattle. The present analysis aims also to indicate the gaps in the available data required to optimise the proposed model or future models that will developed on the basis of the one proposed herein. Finally, the developed model can serve as mathematical proof for the assessment of various interventions for controlling the dynamics of Q fever infection.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-24
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9100522
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2022)
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