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Veterinary Sciences
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2306-7381
Published by MDPI Homepage  [84 journals]
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 306: Risk Factors for Antimicrobial
           Resistance of Staphylococcus Species Isolated from Dogs with Superficial
           Pyoderma and Their Owners

    • Authors: Cheng-Hung Lai, Yu-Chan Ma, Wei-Yau Shia, Yu-Ling Hsieh, Chao-Min Wang
      First page: 306
      Abstract: The microbial communities on the skin of dogs include several species of bacteria, which contribute to skin health and disease. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, cultured at high frequency from the skin of dogs, is an opportunistic pathogen causing superficial pyoderma. Effective treatment against S. pseudintermedius infections is an important issue in veterinary medicine. However, multiple antibiotic-resistant mechanisms gradually developed by bacteria make treatment more challenging nowadays. Drug-resistant genes may have the chance to be transferred from infected dogs to other staphylococci in humans. The objective of this survey is to investigate the bacterial species that cause canine superficial pyoderma and characterize the antibiotic-resistant profiles and drug-resistant genes of isolated S. pseudintermedius. In addition, the possible risk factors causing S. pseudintermedius colonizing owners were also evaluated by a questionnaire survey. Sixty-five bacteria were isolated from dogs with superficial pyoderma, which included 47 S. pseudintermedius (72.3%), 12 other staphylococci (18.5%), 4 other Gram-positive bacteria (6.2%) and 2 Gram-negative bacteria (3.1%). Strains containing mecA and blaZ genes showed multiple-drug resistance characteristics. Dogs that received antimicrobial treatment within a recent month were at significantly higher risk of MRSP infections. Only five S. pseudintermedius strains (8.33%) were isolated from 60 samples of owners. Risk factor analysis indicated there was no significant association between S. pseudintermedius isolated from dogs and owners, but the “Keeping three or more dogs” and “Dogs can lick the owner’s face” have high odds ratios of 3.503 and 5.712, respectively. MRSP isolates belonged to three different dru types, including dt11y (29.41%), dt11a (47.06%) and dt10cp (23.53%). In conclusion, the major pathogen of canine superficial pyoderma is found to be S. pseudintermedius in Taiwan, and isolates which are mecA- or blaZ-positive are generally more resistant to commonly used antibiotics. Although S. pseudintermedius isolated from the owners might be transferred from their dogs, definite risk factors should be examined in the future study.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070306
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 307: Investigations into Salmonella
           Contamination in Feed Mills Producing Rations for the Broiler Industry in
           Great Britain

    • Authors: Rebecca Gosling, Claire Oastler, Christopher Nichols, George Jackson, Andrew D. Wales, Robert H. Davies
      First page: 307
      Abstract: Feed-associated Salmonella serovars continue to be reported in poultry flocks. A study was conducted to investigate Salmonella contamination in major commercial feed mills that produce rations for broiler chickens within Great Britain. Dust and large moist gauze swab samples (12,791) were collected from 22 feed mills on 31 visits. Salmonella was isolated from 20 mills, with 15 mills (75%) having fewer than 5% Salmonella-positive samples. Fifty-one Salmonella serovars were isolated, with a large proportion of isolates being Salmonella (S.) Kedougou (29.4%) or S. 13,23:i:- (21.4%). European Union-regulated Salmonella serovars (Enteritidis, Infantis, Typhimurium and its monophasic variants) were isolated from 12 mills, mostly from non-processing areas, accounting for 40 isolates (4.4% of all Salmonella-positive samples). Fifteen Salmonella serovars were only isolated once. In terms of individual sampling locations within the mill, the waste handling locations were significantly more likely to be Salmonella-positive than some other mill locations. When sampling locations were grouped, samples collected from finished product areas were significantly less likely to be Salmonella-positive for Salmonella than some other mill areas. In conclusion, this study found that most mills producing broiler rations showed low-level Salmonella contamination.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070307
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 308: Ultrasonographical Assessment of
           Caudal Vena Cava Size through Different Views in Healthy Calves: A Pilot

    • Authors: Hélène Casalta, Valeria Busoni, Justine Eppe, Sigrid Grulke, Anne-Christine Merveille, Nassim Moula, Kris Gommeren
      First page: 308
      Abstract: Ultrasonographic measurements of the caudal vena cava (CVC) and aorta (Ao) are known as reliable tools to assess intravascular volume status in humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of obtaining ultrasonographical measurements of CVC and Ao in two different views, assess intra- and interobserver variability, and study the effect of sex, age, body weight, and breed on measurements in healthy calves. The diameter and area of CVC and Ao were measured by a single investigator in two anatomic sites (subxiphoid and paralumbar window) in 48 calves aged less than 60 days and then repeated 2.5 months after the first assessment. For intra- and interobserver variability assessment, CVC and Ao measurements were repeated by three observers on five randomly selected calves. CVC and Ao measurements were easily obtained in PV and more difficult to obtain in SV. CVC and Ao area in PV showed high repeatability and reproducibility. A positive correlation was highlighted between age and CVC and Ao measurements in both sites. In conclusion, CVC size assessment by point of care ultrasound can be easily performed at a paralumbar site in calves under 4 months of age and could be used to assess intravascular volume status.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070308
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 309: Melatonin Receptors: A Key
           Mediator in Animal Reproduction

    • Authors: Yuan Gao, Shuqin Zhao, Yong Zhang, Quanwei Zhang
      First page: 309
      Abstract: Melatonin, a hormone produced by the mammalian pineal gland, influences various physiological activities, many of which are related to animal reproduction, including neuroendocrine function, rhythm regulation, seasonal behavior, gonadogenesis, gamete development and maturation, sexual maturation, and thermoregulation. Melatonin exerts beneficial actions mainly via binding with G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), termed MT1 and MT2. Melatonin receptors are crucial for mediating animal reproduction. This paper reviews the characteristics of melatonin receptors including MT1 and MT2, as well as their roles in mediating signal transduction and biological effects, with a focus on their function in animal reproduction. In addition, we briefly summarize the developments in pharmacological research regarding melatonin receptors as drug targets. It is expected that this review will provide a reference for further exploration and unveiling of melatonin receptor function in reproductive regulation.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070309
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 310: Treatment of Y-T Humeral Fractures
           with Polyaxial Locking Plate System (PAX) in 14 Dogs

    • Authors: Filippo Maria Martini, Paolo Boschi, Filippo Lusetti, Chadi Eid, Andrea Bonardi
      First page: 310
      Abstract: The aim of this study is to report the results and to review the outcome of 14 cases of Y-T humeral fractures repair using paired polyaxial locking system (PAX) plates through a combined medial and lateral approach. Fourteen consecutive dogs, with traumatic humeral Y-T fractures, met the inclusion criteria. This study includes signalment, preoperative radiographs, type of implants, radiographic bone healing assessment, complications, range of motion (ROM) of the elbow and limb function evaluated at 120 days after surgery. Postoperative radiographs revealed adequate anatomic reconstruction, and in all cases, bone healing has been achieved. No implant failure was observed. Functional outcome was excellent in 7 dogs (no lameness and preserved ROM), good in 4 (slight lameness and moderate ROM reduction) and discrete in 2 (mild lameness and severe ROM reduction). Complications were encountered in 2/14 patients with implant-associated infection resolved after long-term antibiotic treatment and implant removal. The PAX system is shown to be a valid alternative for the treatment of Y-T humeral fractures, offering the benefit of polyaxial insertion of locking screws. The possibility of angle locking screws is helpful in the distal humeral bicondylar fractures, providing additional options for screw placement in juxtarticular fractures, avoiding fracture lines or other implants.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070310
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 311: Validation of a Commercial
           Indirect ELISA Kit for the Detection of Bovine alphaherpesvirus1
           (BoHV-1)-Specific Glycoprotein E Antibodies in Bulk Milk Samples of Dairy

    • Authors: Cecilia Righi, Carmen Iscaro, Laura Ferroni, Sergio Rosati, Claudia Pellegrini, Chiara Nogarol, Elisabetta Rossi, Annalisa Dettori, Francesco Feliziani, Stefano Petrini
      First page: 311
      Abstract: In this study, we validated a commercial indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect antibodies to glycoprotein E (gE) of Bovine alphaherpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) in bulk milk (BM) samples using the OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals. The assay performance characteristics were evaluated using a panel of positive (n = 36) and negative (n = 80) samples with known infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) status. The assay showed adequate repeatability (within-run and between-run), with a coefficient of variability (CV%) of replicates below 30%; only two 1:40 diluted samples had a CV% above 20%. Additionally, an agreement analysis of the qualitative results of replicates led to a Gwet’s agreement coefficient of 0.99 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.96–1.00, p < 0.001). The estimated diagnostic sensitivity (DSe) and diagnostic specificity (DSp) were 100% (95% CI: 90.3–100%) and 97.5% (95% CI: 91.3–99.7%), respectively. Overall, a good level of agreement was observed between the assay results and the true IBR status of samples (weighted Cohen’s κ: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.78–1.00). The findings demonstrate that the indirect ELISA kit validated here is an easy-to-use and economical method to differentiate infected and gE-deleted marker vaccine-immunised animals using BM samples.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070311
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 312: Zebrafish: A Model to Study and
           Understand the Diabetic Nephropathy and Other Microvascular Complications
           of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    • Authors: Charles Sharchil, Amulya Vijay, Vinu Ramachandran, Sambhavi Bhagavatheeswaran, Reena Devarajan, Bhupendra Koul, Dhananjay Yadav, Anandan Balakrishnan
      First page: 312
      Abstract: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a complicated metabolic illness that has had a worldwide impact and placed an unsustainable load on both developed and developing countries’ health care systems. According to the International Diabetes Federation, roughly 537 million individuals had diabetes in 2021, with type 2 diabetes mellitus accounting for the majority of cases (T2DM). T2DM is a chronic illness defined by insufficient insulin production from pancreatic islet cells. T2DM generates various micro and macrovascular problems, with diabetic nephropathy (DN) being one of the most serious microvascular consequences, and which can lead to end-stage renal disease. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has set the way for its future as a disease model organism. As numerous essential developmental processes, such as glucose metabolism and reactive metabolite production pathways, have been identified in zebrafish that are comparable to those seen in humans, it is a good model for studying diabetes and its consequences. It also has many benefits over other vertebrate models, including the permeability of its embryos to small compounds, disease-driven therapeutic target selection, in vivo validation, and deconstruction of biological networks. The organism can also be utilized to investigate and understand the genetic abnormalities linked to the onset of diabetes problems. Zebrafish may be used to examine and visualize the growth, morphology, and function of organs under normal physiological and diabetic settings. The zebrafish has become one of the most useful models for studying DN, especially when combined with genetic alterations and/or mutant or transgenic fish lines. The significant advancements of CRISPR and next-generation sequencing technology for disease modelling in zebrafish, as well as developments in molecular and nano technologies, have advanced the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of several human diseases, including DN. In this review, we emphasize the physiological and pathological processes relating to microvascular problems in zebrafish, as well as the many experimental zebrafish models used to research DN, and the DN-related outcomes and mechanisms observed in zebrafish.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070312
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 313: Influence of Gallic
           Acid-Containing Mouth Spray on Dental Health and Oral Microbiota of
           Healthy Cats—A Pilot Study

    • Authors: Chaiyavat Chaiyasut, Bhagavathi Sundaram Sivamaruthi, Muruganantham Bharathi, Chawin Tansrisook, Sartjin Peerajan, Khontaros Chaiyasut, Suchanat Khongtan, Kittidaj Tanongpitchayes, Nichaphat Thongma, Natcha Chawnan, Kriangkrai Thongkorn
      First page: 313
      Abstract: This pilot study aimed to investigate the effects of gallic acid-containing mouth spray on oral microbiota in healthy cat subjects. Forty healthy cats were recruited and randomly allocated to the control (G1; n = 20) and treatment groups (G2; n = 20). The cats were treated with mouth spray twice daily for 42 days. The changes in the gingival index (GI) and plaque index (PI) were measured at baseline (day 0) and end of the study (42nd day). The changes in the oral microbial composition of representative animals (control, n = 9; and treatment, n = 8) were also evaluated at baseline and end of the study. Oral microbial composition was assessed by amplifying the V1–V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene from supragingival dental plaque DNA extracts. The sequences were annotated using the QIIME 2.0. The GI and PI were significantly reduced after 42 days of treatment. The deep sequencing revealed that mouth spray influenced the cats’ oral microbiome and was significantly diverse. About 20 phyla and 59 species were observed after 42 days of mouth spray usage in cats’ oral microbiota. The number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of post-treatment samples (PoTS) of G2 was greatly reduced compared to other samples. Further analysis revealed that mouth spray acts substantially against Desulfomicrobium orale, one of the known pathogens in periodontal disease. The mouth spray efficiently reduced the growth of 22 species and uprooted 17 species. Moreover, the mouth spray supported the growth of normal oral microbiota, including Moraxella and Neisseria species. The preliminary study suggested that the gallic acids-containing mouth spray could be an essential oral product to improve the oral hygiene of the cats. Moreover, further studies are needed to confirm the beneficial effect of mouth spray on cats.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070313
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 314: Growth Performance, Blood
           Metabolites, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality in Finishing Wagyu
           Crossbred Beef Cattle Receiving Betaine–Biotin–Chromium (BBC)

    • Authors: Sukanya Poolthajit, Wuttikorn Srakaew, Theerachai Haitook, Chaiwat Jarassaeng, Chalong Wachirapakorn
      First page: 314
      Abstract: Eighteen Wagyu crossbred steers (average initial body weight: 596.9 ± 46.4 kg; average age: 36 ± 2.7 months) were subjected to three levels of betaine–biotin–chromium (BBC) supplementation for 98 days before slaughter. Animals were fed a basal diet and BBC supplemented at 0, 3 or 6 g/kg of dry matter (DM). The experimental design was a randomized complete block design by a group of animals with six replicates. The intake and digestibility among treatments were not different (p > 0.05). The average daily gain (ADG) of steers that received BBC at 6 g/kg of DM (0.79 kg/day) tended to be higher (p = 0.07) than that of those receiving BBC at 0 and 3 g/kg/day (0.52 and 0.63 kg/day, respectively). Blood metabolites were not different (p > 0.05) among treatments. Carcass characteristic traits included chilled carcass dressing percentage and loin eye area, while meat quality included drip loss, cooking loss, and Warner-Bratzler shear force were not different (p > 0.05). Back fat thickness tended to be higher (p = 0.07) in steers fed BBC at 6 g/kg. The marbling score did not differ (p > 0.05) among treatments; however, the intramuscular fat content of the longissimus dorsi (LD) on a DM basis was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in steers fed BBC at 6 g/kg (39.8% DM) than in those fed BBC at 0 g/kg (28.2% DM) and at 3 g/kg (29.1% DM). Based on the findings, BBC supplementation had no effect on growth performance and carcass characteristics; however, BBC at 6 g/kg DM increased fat content in LD muscle of finishing Wagyu crossbred steers.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070314
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 315: Successful Treatment of Vertebral
           Osteosarcoma in a Cat Using Marginal Surgical Excision and Chemotherapy

    • Authors: Giuliano, De Busscher, Lu, Ng, Beatty
      First page: 315
      Abstract: A three-year-old male neutered Norwegian Forest cat was referred for bilateral ambulatory paraparesis and spinal pain. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a mass involving the right epaxial muscles with vertebral canal invasion and causing marked extradural spinal cord compression was identified. At surgery, the mass was debulked and a right hemilaminectomy was performed. Histopathology was diagnostic of fibroblastic osteosarcoma. Residual osteolytic lesions of the osteosarcoma were present at the level of the spinous process of the second lumbar vertebra. Four cycles of adjuvant doxorubicin chemotherapy were administered followed by oral toceranib phosphate. Neurological signs improved gradually over weeks to months and the lesion in the spinous process was no longer visible on radiographs. At one year from diagnosis, an MRI of the T3-L3 (3rd thoracic vertebra to the 3rd lumbar vertebra) spinal region and a whole-body computer tomography (CT) scan found no evidence of the osteosarcoma in the spine or of any metastasis. All medications were stopped and, at the time of writing 16 months later, the patient is neurologically normal with no signs of cancer recurrence. This is the first case report documenting the complete resolution of vertebral osteosarcoma lesions after treatment with doxorubicin followed by toceranib phosphate. The treatment also prevented tumor recurrence and was associated with an exceptionally long-term survival time.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070315
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 316: Primary Broiler Hepatocytes for
           Establishment of a Steatosis Model

    • Authors: Cai Zhang, Sudan Meng, Chenxu Li, Zijun Yang, Guoyong Wang, Xueying Wang, Yanbo Ma
      First page: 316
      Abstract: Fatty liver hemorrhage syndrome (FLHS) in chickens is characterized by steatosis and bleeding in the liver, which has caused huge losses to the poultry industry. This study aimed to use primary cultured broiler hepatocytes to establish a steatosis model to explore the optimal conditions for inducing steatosis by incubating the cells with a fat emulsion. Primary hepatocytes were isolated from an AA broiler by a modified two-step in situ perfusion method. Hepatocytes were divided into an untreated control group and a fat emulsion group that was incubated with 2.5, 5, 10, or 20% fat emulsion for different times to determine the optimal conditions for inducing steatosis of primary hepatocytes. Incubation of the cells with 10% fat emulsion resulted in cell viability at 48 h of 67%, which was higher than the control group and met the requirements of the model. In the second experiment, steatosis was induced by incubating hepatocytes with 10% fat emulsion for 48 h. In consequence, the apoptosis rate decreased (p > 0.05) and the concentration of ALT (p < 0.001), AST (p < 0.01), and TG (p < 0.05) increased significantly; the expression level of SREBP-1c (p < 0.05) increased, and the expression levels of PPARα (p < 0.001), CPT1 (p < 0.001), and CPT2 (p < 0.05) were lower in the fat emulsion group than in the control group. In conclusion, the induction condition was selected as 10% fat emulsion incubation for 48 h, and we successfully established a fatty liver degeneration model for broilers.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070316
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 317: Methicillin-Resistant
           Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Other Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococci
           and Mammaliicoccus (MRNaS) Associated with Animals and Food Products in
           Arab Countries: A Review

    • Authors: Chahrazed Belhout, Rachid Elgroud, Patrick Butaye
      First page: 317
      Abstract: The prevalence of methicillin resistance in staphylococci has been increasing globally and is currently one of the major public health concerns. In particular, treating infections caused by staphylococci with acquired antimicrobial resistance is problematic, as their treatment is more difficult. The resistance is found both in human and animal staphylococcal strains. Methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) have also been increasingly reported in wildlife. In Arab countries, MRS has been detected in food producing animals and food products; however, the risk this poses is somewhat unclear, and still a significant lack of information on the trend and distribution of these pathogens in these countries, which have a specific ecosystem (desert) and traditions (Muslim culture). In this manuscript, we aim to provide an overview of the prevalence and the major MRS clonal lineages circulating in these specific countries and compare to them other situations with different ecosystems and cultures.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070317
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 318: Seronegative Myasthenia Gravis
           with Concomitant SARS-CoV-2 Infection in a Dog

    • Authors: Musteata, Borcea, Despa, Ștefănescu, Ivănescu, Hrițcu, Baisan, Lăcătuș, Solcan
      First page: 318
      Abstract: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a disorder of neuromuscular transmission affecting the neuromuscular junction. The majority of cases involve an autoimmune attack against AChR, but a limited number of patients are seronegative for AChR antibodies. Viral infection is incriminated as a trigger for MG occurrence, and in a limited number of reports, infection with SARS-CoV-2 was found to be associated with MG expression in humans. In this report, we describe case of seronegative generalized MG in a 2-year-old crossbred female dog associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection due to close exposure to an infected owner.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070318
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 319: Isolation, Molecular
           Characterization, and Antibiotic Resistance of Avian Pathogenic
           Escherichia coli in Eastern China

    • Authors: Dossêh Jean Apôtre Afayibo, Hong Zhu, Beibei Zhang, Lan Yao, Hosny Ahmed Abdelgawad, Mingxing Tian, Jingjing Qi, Yali Liu, Shaohui Wang
      First page: 319
      Abstract: Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) causes colibacillosis in avians, resulting in considerable losses in the poultry industry. APEC showed zoonotic potential initially related to the fact that APEC serves as the reservoir of virulence genes and antibiotic resistance genes for other E. coli. Thus, we determine the serotypes, phylogenetic groups, virulence genes distribution, and antibiotic resistance profiles of APEC isolates in eastern China. A total of 230 APEC were isolated from diseased chicken and duck with typical colibacillosis symptoms. Serotyping identified that O78 (44.78%) was the predominant serotype. The majority of APEC isolates were classified into B2 (29.57%), A (26.96%), D (20.00%), and B1 (18.26%), respectively. Among the 15 virulence genes, a high prevalence of ibeB (99.57%), fimC (91.74%), mat (91.30%), ompA (83.04%), and iss (80.43%) genes was observed. Except for low resistance rates for imipenem (1.7%) and polymyxin B (0.4%), most of the APEC isolates were resistant to erythromycin (98.7%), enrofloxacin (96.1%), tetracycline (95.2%), doxycycline (93.9%), lincomycin (90.0%), and streptomycin (90.0%). Moreover, all APEC exhibit multi-drug resistance. This study indicated that APEC isolates harbor a variety of virulence genes and showed multi-antibiotic resistance profiles, providing proof for understanding the epidemiological background and zoonotic potential of APEC in poultry farms.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070319
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 320: Colonisation Patterns of Nosema
           ceranae in the Azores Archipelago

    • Authors: Ana Rita Lopes, Raquel Martín-Hernández, Mariano Higes, Sara Kafafi Segura, Dora Henriques, Maria Alice Pinto
      First page: 320
      Abstract: Nosema ceranae is a highly prevalent pathogen of Apis mellifera, which is distributed worldwide. However, there may still exist isolated areas that remain free of N. ceranae. Herein, we used molecular tools to survey the Azores to detect N. ceranae and unravel its colonisation patterns. To that end, we sampled 474 colonies from eight islands in 2014/2015 and 91 from four islands in 2020. The findings revealed that N. ceranae was not only present but also the dominant species in the Azores. In 2014/2015, N. apis was rare and N. ceranae prevalence varied between 2.7% in São Jorge and 50.7% in Pico. In 2020, N. ceranae prevalence increased significantly (p < 0.001) in Terceira and São Jorge also showing higher infection levels. The spatiotemporal patterns suggest that N. ceranae colonised the archipelago recently, and it rapidly spread across other islands, where at least two independent introductions might have occurred. Flores and Santa Maria have escaped the N. ceranae invasion, and it is remarkable that Santa Maria is also free of Varroa destructor, which makes it one of the last places in Europe where the honey bee remains naive to these two major biotic stressors.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070320
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 250: Effects of ACTH-Induced Long-Term
           Hypercortisolism on the Transcriptome of Canine Visceral Adipose Tissue

    • Authors: Miguel Tavares Pereira, Isabelle Martin, Hubert Rehrauer, Mariusz P. Kowalewski, Felicitas S. Boretti, Nadja S. Sieber-Ruckstuhl
      First page: 250
      Abstract: Cushing’s syndrome, or hypercortisolism (HC), a common endocrinopathy in adult dogs, is caused by chronic hypercortisolemia. Among different metabolic disorders, this syndrome is associated with enhanced subcutaneous lipolysis and visceral adiposity. However, effects of HC in adipose tissue, especially regarding visceral adipose tissue (VAT), are still poorly understood. Herein, the transcriptomic effects of chronic HC on VAT of dogs were evaluated. For this, subcutaneously implanted ACTH-releasing pumps were used, followed by deep RNA sequencing of the canine VAT. Prolonged HC seems to affect a plethora of regulatory mechanisms in VAT of treated dogs, with 1190 differentially expressed genes (DEGs, p and FDR < 0.01) being found. The 691 downregulated DEGs were mostly associated with functional terms like cell adhesion and migration, intracellular signaling, immune response, extracellular matrix and angiogenesis. Treatment also appeared to modulate local glucocorticoid and insulin signaling and hormonal sensitivity, and several factors, e.g., TIMP4, FGF1, CCR2, CXCR4 and HSD11B1/2, were identified as possible important players in the glucocorticoid-related expansion of VAT. Modulation of their function during chronic HC might present interesting targets for further clinical studies. Similarities in the effects of chronic HC on VAT of dogs and humans are highlighted.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-25
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9060250
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 251: Minute Cellular Nodules as Early
           Lesions in Rats with Silica Exposure via Inhalation

    • Authors: Yaqian Li, Fuyu Jin, Tian Li, Xinyu Yang, Wenchen Cai, Shifeng Li, Xuemin Gao, Na Mao, Heliang Liu, Hong Xu, Fang Yang
      First page: 251
      Abstract: Mechanisms of silicosis have yet to be clarified, and pathological conditions are inaccurately described in some experimental studies on silicosis. This study was aimed at describing initial lesions in silicosis, as observed in rats with silica exposure via inhalation, and major histopathologic alterations. Male Wistar rats were exposed to silica for 24 weeks. Hematoxylin and eosin staining indicated the presence of “cellular nodule+ macrophage alveolitis” in rats exposed to silica from the 2–16 weeks time points and “fibrotic cellular + cellular nodule” in rats exposed to silica via inhalation for 24 weeks. By immunohistochemistry, the following were noted: a continual increase in the positive expression of CD68 in macrophages in the lungs of rats exposed to silica; hyperplasia in alveolar type II cells (AT2); loss of original phenotypes in fibrotic cellular nodules, macrophages, and AT2 cells; loss of endothelial cells in silicotic nodules; and positive expression of α-smooth muscle actin in macrophages. Typical pathological changes in silicosis were also summarized. Among these changes were macrophage alveolitis, cellular nodules, and fibrotic cellular nodules, including an increase in minute cellular nodules in the early stages and the formation of fibrotic cellular nodules in the late stages.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-25
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9060251
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 252: Evidence-Based Application of
           Acupuncture for Pain Management in Companion Animal Medicine

    • Authors: Janice L. Huntingford, Michael C. Petty
      First page: 252
      Abstract: The use of veterinary acupuncture for pain relief is expanding among small animal practitioners. Although acupuncture was developed as part of the medical system in Ancient China, research into the scientific basis of its effects is expanding rapidly. Acupuncture is very effective for analgesia on a local, segmental, and suprasegmental level. Many forms of acupuncture can be used independently or as part of a balanced multi-modal approach for the control of acute and chronic pain. In the hands of a skilled practitioner, acupuncture can be a safe and effective modality for treating pain in companion animals. This article outlines the mechanisms of action of acupuncture, its related neurophysiology and provides examples from the literature demonstrating its effectiveness.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-26
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9060252
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 253: Mammary Fibroadenoma in Cats: A
           Matter of Classification

    • Authors: Filippo Torrigiani, Valentina Moccia, Barbara Brunetti, Francesca Millanta, Guillermo Valdivia, Laura Peña, Laura Cavicchioli, Valentina Zappulli
      First page: 253
      Abstract: Benign mammary lesions are infrequent in cats. Among these, the most common is feline fibroadenomatous change, a hyperplastic/dysplastic change associated with hormonal imbalances. Although never thoroughly described in scientific literature, feline fibroadenomas, which share some morphological features with fibroadenomatous change, have been variably included in classification systems. The aim of this study was to characterise feline mammary fibroadenomas from a histological and immunophenotypical point of view in order to allow the standardisation of classification. Nine cases were retrospectively collected from eight female and one male cat with no history of hormonal stimulation. Diagnostic inclusion criteria were defined and immunohistochemistry was performed. Histologically, nodules were composed of neoplastic epithelial cells arranged in arborizing lobular-like structures surrounded by abundant proliferating stroma. In all analysed cases, epithelial elements showed immunolabelling for pancytokeratin, cytokeratin19, and β-catenin. Interestingly, five cases showed multifocal epithelial vimentin positivity. Epithelial nuclear oestrogen receptor positivity was observed in three of the nine samples. In all cases, myoepithelial cells did not extend into the interstitium. Stromal cells expressed vimentin, calponin, and mild β-catenin. The median Ki67 scores were 18% and 8.3% in the epithelial and stromal components, respectively. This study describes, for the first time, the morphological and immunophenotypical features of feline mammary fibroadenoma, highlighting its existence as a separate entity from fibroadenomatous change.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-26
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9060253
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 254: Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA)
           Induces Redox Status Disruption in Swine Granulosa Cells

    • Authors: Giuseppina Basini, Simona Bussolati, Veronica Torcianti, Francesca Grasselli
      First page: 254
      Abstract: Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is employed in the production and processing of several plastic materials, mainly during the production of waterproof fabrics or nonstick cookware. PFOA is identified as a substance of very high concern, as it is classified as a persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT) substance because of its persistence in the environment and its potential accumulation in organisms. Thus, safe levels of exposure cannot be established, and PFOA emissions should be minimized. PFOA has recently been linked to several health concerns in humans. In particular, a disruptive effect on redox status homeostasis has been documented, with a potential impairment of normal reproductive function that requires adequate oxidative balance. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of PFOA (2, 20, and 200 ng/mL) on ovarian granulosa cells, a model of reproductive cells. The obtained results reveal that PFOA stimulated cell viability (p < 0.05). Regarding the effects on free radical production, O2−, NO, and H2O2 were significantly inhibited (p < 0.05), while the nonenzymatic antioxidant power was not significantly modified. Collectively, the present results deserve attention since free radical molecules play a crucial role in ovarian follicle development leading to a successful ovulation.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-26
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9060254
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 255: Advantages and Challenges of
           Differential Immune Cell Count Determination in Blood and Milk for
           Monitoring the Health and Well-Being of Dairy Cows

    • Authors: Sabine Farschtschi, Martin Mattes, Michael W. Pfaffl
      First page: 255
      Abstract: A key challenge of the 21st century will be to provide the growing world population with a sustainable and secure supply of food. Consequently, the dairy farming’s primary task is to lower milk losses and other inefficiencies associated with diseased cows. Moreover, a shift from curative to preventive health management would be desirable for mastitis and a wide variety of other infectious and non-infectious cattle diseases, some of which are known to have profound negative effects on the performance and well-being of cows. Differential cell counting (DCC), a procedure that aims to determine the proportions of different somatic cell types in raw milk samples, has not only the potential to optimize mastitis diagnostics, but it could furthermore serve as a diagnostic tool for monitoring the general and overall health status of dairy cows. Based on a broad search of the literature, the practical utility of various types of DCC is summarized and discussed in this review. Since it might be of advantage to interpret DCC with the aid of data from studies in humans, differences between the immune systems of humans and dairy cattle, with a special focus on surface marker expression profiles and γδ (gamma delta) T-cell characteristics, are also described.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-27
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9060255
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 256: Bibliometric Analysis of
           Veterinary Communication Education Research over the Last Two Decades:
           Rare Yet Essential

    • Authors: Zih-Fang Chen, Yi-Hsin Elsa Hsu, Jih-Jong Lee, Chung-Hsi Chou
      First page: 256
      Abstract: Research of veterinary communication education is a relatively rare but important field, and its importance has been increasingly noticed recently. This study aims to describe the existing veterinary education research literature by adopting the systematic bibliometric approach. We conducted a comprehensive literature exploration on worldwide veterinary education and veterinary communication education publications in the Web of Science Core Collection database from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2021. VOSviewer and EXCEL were used to identify trends and patterns in characteristics of the publications, including author affiliations and countries, and the publishing journals. Based on our search criteria, in the past 22 years, there have been 6006 veterinary education publications with 101 publications in 2000, 684 publications in 2021 (577% increase), and 677 communication-related publications with 9 publications in 2000, 107 publications in 2021 (1189% increase). The VOSviewer results indicate that both the United States and England were the most vigorous countries with close collaboration. Our results show the publication quantity has been increasing at a sharp slope rate over the past twenty years, which indicates the importance and growth of veterinary education and the veterinary communication education research field, and identifies the international collaborations among countries and institutions.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-27
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9060256
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 257: Clinical and Magnetic Resonance
           Imaging (MRI) Features, Tumour Localisation, and Survival of Dogs with
           Presumptive Brain Gliomas

    • Authors: Marta Pons-Sorolla, Elisabet Dominguez, Michał Czopowicz, Anna Suñol, Christian Maeso Ordás, Carles Morales Moliner, Marc Pérez Soteras, Patrícia Montoliu
      First page: 257
      Abstract: Brain gliomas are common tumours diagnosed in dogs. However, limited information is available on the clinical features and overall survival time (OS) in dogs receiving palliative treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible associations between presenting complaint, tumour localisation, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) features, survival times, and reason for the death of dogs with suspected intracranial glioma treated palliatively. Sixty dogs from a single institution were retrospectively included (from September 2017 to December 2021). Dogs were included if a presumptive diagnosis of brain glioma was obtained based on an MRI scan and medical history. French Bulldogs were overrepresented (40/60); 46 out of 60 dogs (77%) presented due to epileptic seizures (ES) and in 25/60 dogs (42%), cluster seizures or status epilepticus were the first manifestation of the disease. Dogs with suspected gliomas located in the piriform lobe showed a higher probability of presenting due to epilepsy compared to dogs with glioma in other regions, and more frequently died or were euthanised because of increased ES. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) features differed between localisations. Fronto-olfactory tumours were more frequently, whereas piriform tumours were less frequently, classified as suspected high-grade glioma. The median survival time was 61 days. Dogs with contrast-enhancing suspected gliomas had significantly shorter OS. This study provides additional information on the clinical features and survival of dogs with suspected brain gliomas treated palliatively.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-27
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9060257
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 258: Phylogenetic and Mutation Analysis
           of the Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Sequence Isolated in Costa
           Rica from a Mare with Encephalitis

    • Authors: Bernal León, Gabriel González, Alessandro Nicoli, Alicia Rojas, Antonella Di Pizio, Lisbeth Ramirez-Carvajal, Carlos Jimenez
      First page: 258
      Abstract: Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis virus (VEEV) is an arboviral pathogen in tropical America that causes lethal encephalitis in horses and humans. VEEV is classified into six subtypes (I to VI). Subtype I viruses are divided into epizootic (IAB and IC) and endemic strains (ID and IE) that can produce outbreaks or sporadic diseases, respectively. The objective of this study was to reconstruct the phylogeny and the molecular clock of sequences of VEEV subtype I complex and identify mutations within sequences belonging to epizootic or enzootic subtypes focusing on a sequence isolated from a mare in Costa Rica. Bayesian phylogeny of the VEEV subtype I complex tree with 110 VEEV complete genomes was analyzed. Evidence of positive selection was evaluated with Datamonkey server algorithms. The putative effects of mutations on the 3D protein structure in the Costa Rica sequence were evaluated. The phylogenetic analysis showed that Subtype IE-VEEV diverged earlier than other subtypes, Costa Rican VEEV-IE ancestors came from Nicaragua in 1963 and Guatemala in 1907. Among the observed non-synonymous mutations, only 17 amino acids changed lateral chain groups. Fourteen mutations located in the NSP3, E1, and E2 genes are unique in this sequence, highlighting the importance of E1-E2 genes in VEEV evolution.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-28
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9060258
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 259: Evaluation of the Iatrogenic
           Sciatic Nerve Injury following Double Pelvic Osteotomy Performed with
           Piezoelectric Cutting Tool in Dogs

    • Authors: Roberto Properzi, Francesco Collivignarelli, Andrea Paolini, Amanda Bianchi, Massimo Vignoli, Ilaria Falerno, Andrea De Bonis, Roberto Tamburro
      First page: 259
      Abstract: (1) Background: The double pelvic osteotomy (DPO) is a prophylactic surgical procedure associated with 0.4% incidence of sciatic nerve injury. The piezoelectric cutting tool is a surgical device able to involve only mineralized tissue avoiding neurovascular tissue and other soft tissue. This study aimed to evaluate the sciatic nerve injury observed in dogs underwent iliac osteotomy performed using the piezoelectric cutting tool. (2) Methods: Dogs underwent DPO performed with piezoelectric cutting tool were included. Neurological assessment was performed 6 and 24 h after surgery and then repeated 12 days, 4 and 8 weeks after surgery. Temporary and or permanent sciatic nerve injury were recorded. (3) Results: 84 DPOs performed in fifty dogs were included. No temporary/permanent neurological disease associated with iatrogenic damage of the sciatic nerve were observed. (4) Conclusions: The iliac osteotomy performed with piezoelectric cutting tool was not associated to iatrogenic sciatic nerve injury.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-29
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9060259
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 260: Analysis of Uterine Blood Flow in
           Breeding Sows through the Estrus and Early Diestrus, and after Artificial

    • Authors: Salvador Ruiz, Juan Carlos Gardón, Iván Hernández-Caravaca, Chiara Luongo, Francisco Alberto García-Vázquez
      First page: 260
      Abstract: This study aimed to determine uterine blood flow indices by transabdominal Doppler ultrasound in sows (n = 18) under different conditions: (i) sows after estrus detection (day 0, D0); (ii) sows 2 h after artificial insemination (AI), performed 24 h after detection of estrus (day 1, D1); (iii) sows in early diestrus (day 5, D5). Moreover, three different types of seminal doses were used for AI depending on the ejaculate fraction included (F1: doses containing only the rich fraction of the ejaculate; F2: F1 + the transition fraction between rich and poor fractions; F3: F2 and poor fraction). The statistical analysis revealed significant differences in some indices regarding the period of analysis (D0, D1, and D5). Diastolic velocity and mean velocity showed lower values at D5 in comparison with D0 and D1 (p < 0.01). On the other hand, the pulsatility index and the relationship systolic velocity/diastolic velocity indicated higher values at D5 in comparison with D0 and D1 (p < 0.01). No differences were observed regarding the type of seminal dose used in any of the time points analyzed (p > 0.05). Neither insemination per se nor the type of ejaculate fraction used immediately modified the uterine vascularity, but some indices are affected by the stage of the estrus cycle (estrus vs. early diestrus).
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-30
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9060260
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 261: The Equine Dental Pulp:
           Histomorphometric Analysis of the Equine Dental Pulp in Incisors and Cheek

    • Authors: Jessica Roßgardt, Laura Beate Heilen, Kathrin Büttner, Jutta Dern-Wieloch, Jörg Vogelsberg, Carsten Staszyk
      First page: 261
      Abstract: To maintain a healthy and functional status, equine hypsodont teeth have to produce lifelong large amounts of subocclusal dentin to prevent occlusal pulp exposure, which is caused by occlusal wear. To examine the cyto- and histological components that guarantee the lifelong high productivity of equine pulp, a limited number of ten incisors and ten cheek teeth from seven adult horses (aged 5 to 24 years) and five foals were sampled for preliminary histomorphometric and histomorphological evaluations. Independently of age, the equine dental pulp featured constant layers of predentin and odontoblastic cells, as well as soft connective tissue, composed of a cellular fibrous matrix, in which blood vessels and nerve fibers were embedded. As a result of the progressive deposition of newly formed dentin, the layer of dentin became thicker with age, and the size of the pulp chamber decreased. In contrast to the brachydont teeth, the morphological characteristics of the odontoblastic layer and the width of the predentin layer did not change with age. Therefore, it is assumed that the equine pulp tissue retained their juvenile status, which explains its unchanged ability to produce high amounts of subocclusal dentin. These preliminary, but clinically significant, findings are worthy of further investigation in order to identify strategies for equine-specific endodontic therapies.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-30
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9060261
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 262: Overweight Management through Mild
           Caloric Restriction in Multigenerational Long-Tailed Macaque Breeding

    • Authors: Dian G. M. Zijlmans, Annemiek Maaskant, Annet L. Louwerse, Elisabeth H. M. Sterck, Jan A. M. Langermans
      First page: 262
      Abstract: Caloric restriction (CR) is an effective method to reduce overweight in captive non-human primates (NHPs). CR has been applied to individually- and pair-housed NHPs, but whether applying CR can be effective and safe in group-housed NHPs has not yet been assessed. This study investigates the effect of mild (20%) CR on adult overweight and biochemical parameters, immature growth, veterinary consultations, and reproductive success in multigenerational long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) breeding groups. Data were derived from anthropometric measurements and blood samples during yearly health checks, complemented with retrospective data on veterinary consultations and reproductive success. Adult body measures decreased after CR, with heavier individuals and females losing more weight compared to leaner individuals and males. CR lowered cholesterol levels in adults but had no overall effect on other biochemical parameters. Yet, biochemical parameters of individuals with high baseline values were reduced more compared to individuals with low baseline values. Immature growth, veterinary consultations and reproductive success were not influenced by CR. Thus, CR targeted the right individuals, i.e., overweight adults, and had no adverse effects on the variables examined in this study. This implies that mild CR can be a valuable overweight management strategy in group-housed NHPs.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9060262
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 263: Comparative Study of Phenotypes
           and Genetics Related to the Growth Performance of Crossbred Thai
           Indigenous (KKU1 vs. KKU2) Chickens under Hot and Humid Conditions

    • Authors: Kitsadee Chomchuen, Veeraya Tuntiyasawasdikul, Vibuntita Chankitisakul, Wuttigrai Boonkum
      First page: 263
      Abstract: To improve the body weight and growth performance traits of crossbred Thai indigenous chickens, phenotypic performance and genetic values were estimated. Crossbred Thai indigenous chickens, designated KKU1 and KKU2, were compared. The data included 1375 records of body weight (BW0, BW2, BW4, and BW16), breast circumference at 6 weeks of age (BrC6), and average daily gain (ADG0–2, ADG0–4, and ADG0–6). A multi-trait animal model with the average information-restricted maximum likelihood (AI-REML) was used to estimate the genetic parameters and breeding values. The results showed that the body weight and breast circumference traits (BW2, BW4, BW6, and BrC6) for the mixed sex KKU1 chickens were higher than for the KKU2 chickens (p < 0.05). For the growth performance traits, the KKU1 chickens had higher average daily gain and feed intake and a lower feed conversion ratio than the KKU2 chickens (p < 0.05). The survival rates were not different except at up to 6 weeks of age, when that of the KKU1 chickens was slightly lower. The specific combining ability, heritability, genetic and phenotypic correlations, and estimated breeding values showed that the KKU1 chickens had better genetics than the KKU2 chickens. In conclusion, KKU1 chickens are suitable for development as crossbred Thai indigenous chickens for enhanced growth performance and for commercial use.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9060263
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 264: Antimicrobial Resistant Salmonella
           in Chelonians: Assessing Its Potential Risk in Zoological Institutions in

    • Authors: Clara Marin, Bárbara Martín-Maldonado, Marta Cerdà-Cuéllar, Sandra Sevilla-Navarro, Laura Lorenzo-Rebenaque, Laura Montoro-Dasi, Alicia Manzanares, Teresa Ayats, Aida Mencía-Gutiérrez, Jaume Jordá, Fernando González, Carlos Rojo-Solís, Carlos Barros, Daniel García-Párraga, Santiago Vega
      First page: 264
      Abstract: Salmonella is mostly noted as a food-borne pathogen, but contact with chelonians has also been reported as a source of infection. Moreover, high levels of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) have been reported in Salmonella isolated from wild and captive reptiles. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of Salmonella AMR carriage by chelonians admitted to two zoological institutions in Spain, characterizing the isolates to assess the Salmonella AMR epidemiology in wildlife. To this end, 152 chelonians from nine species were sampled upon their arrival at the zoological nuclei. Salmonella identification was based on ISO 6579-1:2017 (Annex D), isolates were serotyped and their AMR analysed according to the EU Decision 2013/652. Moreover, the genetic relationship of the isolates was assessed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Results showed 19% (29/152) of the chelonians positive to Salmonella, all of them tortoises. For all isolates, 69% (20/29) were resistant and 34% (10/29) multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains. PFGE clustered isolates according to the serovar, confirming a low genetic diversity. In conclusion, this study shows a high presence of MDR Salmonella strains in tortoises at their entry into zoological nuclei. This condition highlights the need to establish Salmonella detection protocols for the entry of animals into these centres.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9060264
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 265: A Canine Case of Nocardia africana
           Infection Detected by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption
           Ionization—Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    • Authors: Ji-Seon Yoon, Hyungjae So, Beomsung Joo, Jihong Park, In-Seong Jeong, Gi-Jong Lee, Jinho Park
      First page: 265
      Abstract: Nocardiosis, a rare infectious disease in dogs and cats, is caused by Gram-positive aerobic actinomycetes of the genus Nocardia. A one-year-old castrated male Great Dane was presented with clinical signs of an ulcerated nodule on the right ear, which was observed after two weeks of treatment with cyclosporine and prednisolone due to idiopathic hepatitis. Cytological examination revealed pyogranulomatous inflammatory cells and blanched filamentous rods. To detect infectious agents, serosanguinous discharge of the nodule was subjected to bacterial and fungal cultures. For phenotyping of the infectious agents, colonies on blood agar culture plates were further analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI)-time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (VITEK MS). The MALDI-TOF spectra were identified as N. africana. Thus, the present case was diagnosed as cutaneous nocardiosis. The skin lesions of ulcerated nodules with fistulous tracts were gradually resolved by the administration of meropenem (8 mg/kg TID, IV) and doxycycline (5 mg/kg BID, PO). Although complete resolution of the skin lesions was observed on day 91 after the initial presentation, single administration of doxycycline was continued until day 198 after the initial presentation to prevent recurrence. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of Nocardia africana infection in a dog. In addition, our results show that MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis could be a useful tool for the detection of Nocardia. spps.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9060265
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 266: The Relevance of Screening for
           Vector-Borne Diseases in Dogs with Proteinuria Living in an Endemic
           Region: A Retrospective Study

    • Authors: Margarida L. Q. M. Paz, Telmo Casimiro, José H. D. Correia, Rodolfo O. Leal
      First page: 266
      Abstract: This study aims to assess the main causes of proteinuria in dogs from the region of Lisbon (Portugal), estimating the relevance of screening for canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs). A cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted. Medical records from proteinuric dogs (urinary protein–creatinine ratio > 0.5) presented to a Veterinary Teaching Hospital over a two-year period were reviewed for signalment, established diagnosis, proteinuria origin, and CVBD screening results. A total of 106 dogs were included. The median age was 9.5 years old (IQR: 7–12). Proteinuria was considered of renal origin in 76% of cases (46% of them had a presumptive diagnosis of glomerulonephritis secondary to CVBD, 27% chronic kidney disease, 26% systemic disease possible to induce proteinuria, and 1% leptospirosis). Proteinuria was classified as post-renal or mixed-origin in 17% and 7% of cases, respectively. About 35% of proteinuric dogs were positive for at least one CVBD. Of them, 84% were seropositive for one CVBD, while 16% tested positive for two or more. Among dogs testing positive for CVBD, 89% were seropositive for Leishmania infantum. This study showed that about one-third of proteinuric dogs tested positive for CVBDs, highlighting the relevance of their screening in dogs with proteinuria living in endemic regions.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9060266
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 267: Bulbus Destruction by Choroidal
           Melanocytoma in a Dog: A 3-Year History

    • Authors: Nadine Nautscher, Martin Steffl, Katharina Schmon, Eva Ludwig
      First page: 267
      Abstract: A 3-year-old male Slovak Hound with retinal detachment was presented. The causative intraocular mass was detected by ultrasonography, and the course of the disease was monitored over a 3-year period. Enucleation was performed due to secondary glaucoma. A benign choroidal melanocytoma was diagnosed by histopathology. To our knowledge, this is the first report that describes the disease over such a long period of time. The mild course of the disease questions enucleation of eyes with no or minor symptoms. Conventional treatment may be a suitable alternative to surgery for dogs with high anesthesia risks.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9060267
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 268: Brazilian Organic Honey from
           Atlantic Rainforest Decreases Inflammatory Process in Mice

    • Authors: Diego Romário-Silva, Josy Goldoni Lazarini, Marcelo Franchin, Severino Matias de Alencar, Pedro Luiz Rosalen
      First page: 268
      Abstract: Honey is an ancient food in the human diet, and the chemical composition of some types of honey has been associated with several beneficial biological effects. Among them, honey has been highlighted to improve health and control inflammatory processes. However, there is no study elucidating the mechanism of action of honey produced organically. Here, we separated organic honey (OH) samples from the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest into eight different profiles (OH-1 to OH-8) and evaluated, in vitro and in vivo, their anti-inflammatory potential. To determine cell viability, RAW 264.7 macrophages were treated with several concentrations of OH-1 up to OH-8, and anti-inflammatory activity was assessed through NF-κB activation and TNF-α levels. All types of the studied honey up to a concentration of 4% (w/v) did not interfere with macrophage viability and decreased NF-kB activation and TNF-α levels in macrophage culture in vitro. OH-7 was selected as the most promising anti-inflammatory and used in subsequent assays. Mice pretreated orally with OH-7 showed a decrease in neutrophil migration and TNF-α level. Thus, these types of Brazilian organic honey show promising anti-inflammatory potential, particularly the OH-7 variety. Brazilian organic honey may lead to the development of new products and/or be incorporated into food for use in veterinary medicine and human health as well.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-02
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9060268
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 269: Prevalence and Characterisation of
           Multiresistant Bacterial Strains Isolated in Pigs from the Island of

    • Authors: Rossana Abreu, Cristobalina Rodríguez-Álvarez, Beatriz Castro-Hernandez, Maria Lecuona-Fernández, Juan Carlos González, Yurena Rodríguez-Novo, Maria de los Angeles Arias Rodríguez
      First page: 269
      Abstract: Background: Antibiotic-resistant bacteria can circulate among human and animal populations through direct contact with animals, as well as via food and the environment. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and characterisation of multiresistant bacteria in pig samples. Methods: 224 samples of pig livestock were taken at the slaughterhouse on the island of Tenerife. A nasal and a rectal sample were collected from each pig. The presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus coagulase-negative (MRCoNS), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), extended-spectrum ß-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (BLEE), carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE), and colistin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae was investigated. The resistance genes of the isolated bacteria were characterised by specific PCRs depending on the microorganism to be studied, and in vitro antimicrobial resistance was determined using the broth microdilution method (Vitek®2 system bioMérieux®, Nurtingen, Germany). Results: MRSA prevalence was 73.21% (164 isolates). MRCoNS prevalence was 9.8% (22 isolates), S. sciuri being the prevalent species. Six isolates presented a 2.7% prevalence of extended-spectrum ß-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (BLEE) in the CTX-M-1 group. No vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), or colistin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae were isolated. Conclusion: we found a high presence of multiresistant bacteria, suggesting the need for increased control and surveillance of this type of strains in pig livestock and a better understanding of the possible transmission routes of these microorganisms through livestock products.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-03
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9060269
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 270: Occurrence of Histamine in
           Commercial Cat Foods under Different Storage Conditions

    • Authors: Alberto Altafini, Paola Roncada, Gaetan Minkoumba Sonfack, Alessandro Guerrini, Gianluca Antonio Romeo, Giorgio Fedrizzi, Elisabetta Caprai
      First page: 270
      Abstract: In fish-based foods, one of the effects of inappropriate storage can be the formation of biogenic amines. Among these, histamine is considered one of the most toxic. The purpose of the present study is to assess the occurrence of histamine in fish-based pet foods, and to evaluate the changes in histamine content during storage at different temperatures. For the analysis, an LC-MS/MS method was used. Fifty-eight pet foods were purchased, and an aliquot of them was analyzed just after opening the packages. Histamine was detected in 12 samples and concentrations ranged from 1.5 to 30.1 mg/kg. The remaining of each positive sample was divided into seven subsamples. One of them was used as a control sample and kept at −20 °C, while the other six were exposed to different environmental conditions. Samples exposed to room temperature showed no significant changes in histamine levels, while samples exposed to high temperatures showed significant increases in histamine content. Finally, samples exposed to refrigerator temperature showed a slight decrease in histamine levels. Under the experimental conditions, the EU limit of 100 mg/kg established for fishery products was never exceeded. These results seem to indicate a low risk of histamine intoxication in cats fed fish-based pet food.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-04
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9060270
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 271: Trouble for Horses in Paradise:
           Toxicity and Fatality Resulting from the Consumption of Indigofera spicata
           (Fabaceae) on Oahu Island

    • Authors: Mohsen Mohamad Ramadan, Devon Dailey
      First page: 271
      Abstract: This is the first account of fatal toxicity in horses resulting from grazing on the pasture plant creeping indigo, Indigofera spicata, on the island of Oahu, in the Hawaiian Islands. A survey in the town of Waialua on the north shore of Oahu island indicated that creeping indigo is common and abundant on grazing lands during the rainy season and requires intensive chemical and physical control measures. Four pastures were surveyed where ranchers reported mortality of more than 17 horses since 2020. We document these incidents to alert state animal and livestock support officials, groups monitoring invasive species, and horse owners regarding the problem of this noxious weed and to support breeders with information to confront its invasiveness. Herbicide treatment is not economically feasible, and breeders opted to physically uproot the plants from the paddocks and restrain horses to clear pastures as they were eliminating the plants. We urge state officials for a long-term control strategy to reduce the problems associated with this weed.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-04
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9060271
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 272: Development of Nested PCR for
           SARS-CoV-2 Detection and Its Application for Diagnosis of Active Infection
           in Cats

    • Authors: Ivo Sirakov, Ralitsa Popova-Ilinkina, Dobrinka Ivanova, Nikolina Rusenova, Hristiyan Mladenov, Kalina Mihova, Ivan Mitov
      First page: 272
      Abstract: SARS-CoV-2 emerged in 2019 and found diagnostic laboratories unprepared worldwide. To meet the need for timely and accurate virus detection, laboratories used rapid Ag tests and PCR kits based on costly multi-channel real-time techniques. This study aimed to develop a conventional nested PCR based on the SARS-CoV-2 N gene, validate it against some approved assays, and apply it to samples from six cats with respiratory symptoms obtained in early 2020 during the first COVID-19 wave in humans in Bulgaria. The nested PCR technique showed 100% sensitivity and specificity; it could detect extracted SARS-CoV-2 RNA at concentrations as low as 0.015 ng/μL. The results identified the six tested cat samples as positive. Sequence analysis performed in two of them confirmed this. The presented technique is reliable, easy to implement and inexpensive, and can be successful in strategies for the prevention and control of SARS-CoV-2 in humans, cats and other susceptible species.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-05
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9060272
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 273: Multidetector-Row CT Findings in
           Dogs with Different Primary Parathyroid Gland Diseases

    • Authors: Alessia Cordella, Jessica Bertaccini, Marco Rondena, Andrea Zoia, Giovanna Bertolini
      First page: 273
      Abstract: Primary hyperparathyroidism in dogs is a possibly life-threatening condition, characterized by the excess of parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion, which leads to an increase in serum ionized calcium level. The utility of computed tomography (CT) in the detection and characterization of parathyroid diseases in dogs has not been assessed to date. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe the use of multidetector-row CT (MDCT) for the diagnosis of parathyroid disease in dogs. For this descriptive, single-center study, the database of the San Marco Veterinary Clinic was searched for dogs having a suspicion of parathyroid disease who underwent contrast-enhanced MDCT in the period from 2005 to 2021. Dogs with histopathology of the affected parathyroid gland were subsequently considered for inclusion. A total of 22 parathyroid glands were included: 12 adenomas, 8 adenocarcinomas, and two glands with hyperplasia. Several CT features were evaluated, including parathyroid gland affected, lateralization, shape, size, attenuation, and contrast-enhancement. Although the overlap between the appearance of different diseases exists, contrast-enhanced CT was a useful method for the diagnosis of parathyroid disease in dogs.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-06
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9060273
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 274: Retrospective Longitudinal Survey
           on Canine Vector-Borne Pathogens: Trends and Challenges of 10 Years of
           Activities of a Veterinary Blood Bank

    • Authors: Giulia Morganti, Arianna Miglio, Iolanda Moretta, Ambra L. Misia, Giulia Rigamonti, Valentina Cremonini, Maria T. Antognoni, Fabrizia Veronesi
      First page: 274
      Abstract: Canine vector-borne pathogens (CVBPs) represent a challenge for veterinary transfusion medicine, since some can be transmitted by blood transfusion and are of zoonotic concern. Epidemiological data on CVBPs, obtained during 10 years of pre-donor screening (2012–2021) by a veterinary blood bank in central Italy, were used to conduct a retrospective epidemiological longitudinal survey. The results were obtained using the Immunofluorescent Antibody Test (IFAT) conducted on sera in order to assess IgG antibodies against Leishmania infantum, Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocythophilum, Babesia canis, and Rickettsia conorii; the modified Knott’s test and an ELISA kit were used to detect Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens. In total, 324 out of the 1260 canine blood donors (25.71%) tested seropositive for at least one pathogen. The highest overall positive rate was detected for L. infantum (12.22%), followed by E. canis (2.30%), A. phagocytophilum (1.19%), D. repens (0.95%), D. immitis (0.32%), and B. canis (0.16%). From 2012 to 2014, a prevalence of 20.12% was recorded for R. conorii. Mixed infections were recorded in 21 dogs. For all the CVBPs investigated, significant differences (p < 0.05) were not observed over the period studied. The results evidenced a non-negligible prevalence of CVBPs in canine donors, which were selected based on strict criteria concerning regular endo- and ectoparasite controls. The results confirmed that the blood bank could be a reliable local epidemiological observatory. The need for implemented screening is discussed.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-06
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9060274
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 275: Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism on
           Spermatogenesis Associated 16 Gene-Coding Region Affecting Bovine Leukemia
           Virus Proviral Load

    • Authors: Hirohisa Mekata, Mari Yamamoto
      First page: 275
      Abstract: Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is an etiological agent of malignant lymphoma in cattle and is endemic in many cattle-breeding countries. Thus, the development of cattle genetically resistant to BLV is desirable. The purpose of this study was to identify novel single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to resistance to BLV. A total of 146 DNA samples from cattle with high BLV proviral loads (PVLs) and 142 samples from cattle with low PVLs were used for a genome-wide association study (GWAS). For the verification of the GWAS results, an additional 1342 and 456 DNA samples from BLV-infected Japanese Black and Holstein cattle, respectively, were used for an SNP genotyping PCR to compare the genotypes for the identified SNPs and PVLs. An SNP located on the spermatogenesis associated 16 (SPATA16)-coding region on bovine chromosome 1 was found to exceed the moderate threshold (p < 1.0 × 10−5) in the Additive and Dominant models of the GWAS. The SNP genotyping PCR revealed that the median values of the PVL were 1278 copies/50 ng of genomic DNA for the major homozygous, 843 for the heterozygous, and 621 for the minor homozygous genotypes in the Japanese Black cattle (p < 0.0001). A similar tendency was also observed in the Holstein cattle. We found that cattle with the minor allele for this SNP showed 20–25% lower PVLs. Although the mechanisms through which this SNP impacts the PVL remain unknown, we found a novel SNP related to BLV resistance located on the SPATA16 gene-coding region on bovine chromosome 1.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-06
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9060275
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 276: Changes in the Oxidative Stress
           Status of Dogs Affected by Acute Enteropathies

    • Authors: Alessia Candellone, Flavia Girolami, Paola Badino, Watanya Jarriyawattanachaikul, Rosangela Odore
      First page: 276
      Abstract: Canine acute enteropathies (AE) are common morbidities primarily managed with supportive therapy. However, in some cases, unnecessary courses of antibiotics are empirically prescribed. Recent studies in humans have hypothesized the use of antioxidants as a possible alternative and/or support to antimicrobial drugs in uncomplicated cases. Considering the global need to reduce the antibiotic use, the aim of the study was to compare the oxidative burden of the diarrhetic population to that of healthy dogs. Forty-five patients suffering from uncomplicated acute diarrhea (AD) and 30 controls were screened for clinical and biochemical parameters, and serum redox indices (reactive oxygen metabolites, dROMs; serum antioxidant capacity, SAC; oxidative stress index, OSi). The average levels of dROMs in AD dogs were significantly higher (p < 0.001) than in healthy dogs, while SAC did not significantly differ between the two groups. However, the OSi values (ratio between dROMs and SAC) significantly increased (p < 0.001) in AD dogs compared to controls. The study demonstrates that canine AD could induce redox imbalance. Although its role in the etiopathogenesis and evolution of the disease should be further investigated, our results suggest that the improvement of the patient oxidative status, possibly through the dietary administration of antioxidants, could support the management of canine AE, reducing the use of antibiotics.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-06
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9060276
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 277: Evaluation of Tumor Grade and
           Proliferation Indices before and after Short-Course Anti-Inflammatory
           Prednisone Therapy in Canine Cutaneous Mast Cell Tumors: A Pilot Study

    • Authors: Shawna Klahn, Nikolaos Dervisis, Kevin Lahmers, Marian Benitez
      First page: 277
      Abstract: Glucocorticoid administration is a common clinical practice that attempts to decrease the inflammation associated with and improve the resectability of canine mast cell tumors (MCTs). However, the impact of neoadjuvant glucocorticoids on the histological features and proliferation indices of canine MCTs is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in tumor grade, mitotic count, Ki67, AgNOR, and AgNORxKi67 scores following short-course anti-inflammatory neoadjuvant prednisone in canine patients with MCTs. This was a prospective single-arm pilot study. Client-owned dogs with treatment-naïve cytologically confirmed MCTs were enrolled. Patients underwent an initial incisional biopsy followed by a 10–14-day course of anti-inflammatory prednisone and surgical resection. All histological samples were randomized, masked, and evaluated by a single pathologist. Unstained paired pre- and post-treatment samples were submitted to a commercial laboratory for Ki67 and AgNOR immunohistochemical analysis. There were 11 dogs enrolled with 11 tumors. There were no statistical differences between the pre- and post-treatment histological parameters of mitotic index, Ki67, AgNOR, or Ki67xAgNOR. There were no clinically significant alterations between pre-treatment and post-treatment in the assignment of tumor grades. A short course of anti-inflammatory prednisone does not appear to alter the histological parameters that affect grade determination or significantly alter the proliferation indices in canine MCTs.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-07
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9060277
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 278: Impact of Obesity on Lung Function
           in Cats with Bronchoconstriction

    • Authors: Alicia Caro-Vadillo, J. Alberto Montoya-Alonso, Laín García-Guasch
      First page: 278
      Abstract: Obesity is a nutritional disorder commonly diagnosed in adult cats that has been associated with an increased risk of different chronic diseases including respiratory diseases. The main objective of this study is to define if there is a relation between lung function measured by barometric whole-body plethysmography and obesity in cats with bronchoconstriction. Fifty-three cats were included in the study. All animals presented a bronchoconstriction status diagnosed with an Enhanced Pause (Penh) value higher than the reference range. Based on a standardized 9-point body condition scale, 36 cats were normal-weight cats (with BCS < 6), and 17 cats were considered overweight or obese cats (with BCS ≥ 6). Overweight cats were mainly male cats and older, and presented lower tidal volume values, lower minute volume values, and lower peak inspiratory and expiratory flows than normal-weight cats. According to the results of the present study, overweight cats showed a more compromised lung function parameters related to restrictive pattern compared with normal-weight cats. However, overweight cats did not show a higher bronchoconstriction level compared with normal-weight cats.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-07
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9060278
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 279: Small Ruminant Farming in Tribal
           Areas of Dera Ghazi Khan, Punjab, Pakistan

    • Authors: Muhammad Ameen Jamal, Samiullah Khan, Yanhua Su, Chang Yang, Heng Zhao, Kaixiang Xu, Deling Jiao, Wenmin Cheng, Abdul Rauf, Mahboob Ali, Sohail Ahmad, Yubo Qing, Hong-Jiang Wei
      First page: 279
      Abstract: Provincially Administered Tribal Areas (PATA) of Punjab-Pakistan are comprised of hilly mountains with small ruminants as the sole source of income. In this study, farming practices, their productivity, health and the economic value of sheep were evaluated in PATA through a survey of farmers (n = 138) holding 11,558 heads of sheep. Out of a total population, 87% were non-descriptive flocks, and nine percent and four percent were purebred flocks belonging to the Kajli and Thali populations, respectively. Sheep flocks were mainly (86%) reared under the traditional production system and had a delayed onset of puberty. There was low influence of season on the reproduction, and the majority of flocks (78%) were bred throughout the year. The lack of proper vaccination and poor management exposed the flocks to bacterial, viral and parasitic infections, which lead to high mortality in lambs (~22%) and adults (~32%). The share of sheep in farmers livelihood was 42%, and only 20% of producers’ living standard was improved with sheep farming, but the rise in rearing more sheep was quite low (20%). Although the livestock department arranged farmers’ training, the majority of farmers (83%) never participated in training and had no knowledge of modern technologies. Collectively, the traditional sheep production systems, poor management, lack of vaccination, marketing channels and farmers training hampered the sheep rearing and producers’ livelihood in the PATA of Punjab-Pakistan. However, developing model livestock farms, conducting farmer training, establishing a viable market for dairy products, and introducing subsidy policy interventions can improve the sheep farming in these areas.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-07
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9060279
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 280: Inguinal Hernia in Nonhuman
           Primates: From Asymptomatic to Life-Threatening Events

    • Authors: Melissa A. de la Garza, Sara R. Hegge, Jaco Bakker
      First page: 280
      Abstract: In this study, a review of available data and literature on the epidemiology and anamnesis of inguinal hernias in nonhuman primates, as well as on their clinical evaluation and surgical management, was conducted. Inguinal hernias are assumed to be relatively common in male nonhuman primates. Clinical signs are usually limited to a visible or palpable mass in the groin region without pain or systemic illness. Most hernias contain omentum. Careful monitoring is an acceptable treatment option for those animals. Size, the danger of incarceration, and the presence of strangulation are important factors when considering surgical repair. A strangulated inguinal hernia is an emergency, requiring prompt surgery to avoid tissue necrosis and death. Imaging techniques, as well as computed tomography (CT), ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), provide information about the anatomical characteristics of the suspected region, allowing for a diagnosis and treatment. An inguinal hernia repair can be performed with either open surgery or laparoscopic surgery. The hernia repair can be achieved by mesh or suture. Decisions regarding which repair technique to use depend on the surgeon′s skill level and preference. Complication and recurrence rates are generally low. The most common postsurgical complication is a recurrence of the hernia. Contraceptive measures are not indicated in breeders, as there is no known hereditary component, and the presence of hernia does not appear to affect fertility, nor does it predispose to occurrence, recurrence, or incarceration.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-08
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9060280
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 281: Symblepharon, Ankyloblepharon, and
           Salt Gland Dysfunction in a Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta)

    • Authors: Andrea Affuso, Cristina Di Palma, Leonardo Meomartino, Antonino Pace, Serena Montagnaro, Valeria Russo, Giuseppina Mennonna, Fabiana Micieli, Fulvio Maffucci, Sandra Hochscheid, Francesco Lamagna, Ilaria D’Aquino, Barbara Lamagna
      First page: 281
      Abstract: Adhesions involving the bulbar and the palpebral conjunctiva (Symblepharon) may interfere with tear drainage, cause chronic conjunctivitis, and reduce ocular motility. This condition may be associated with adhesion of the edges of the upper and lower eyelids (ankyloblepharon). The present case describes bilateral symblepharon, ankyloblepharon and salt gland dysfunction in a juvenile Caretta caretta. The loggerhead presented both eyelids swollen, ulcerated, and not separable when rescued. Eye examination was not possible, but ultrasonography showed right bulbar integrity, while the left eye was smaller, with a thicker cornea that had lost its normal doubled lined structure. Surgical dissection of the fibrous adhesions between the palpebral and bulbar conjunctiva, cornea, and third eyelid was performed, and large dacryoliths were removed. The microscopic findings were consistent with chronic keratoconjunctivitis. Ultrastructurally, no virus-like particles were observed. In addition, tissue samples were negative for herpesvirus by qualitative PCR. The eyelids of both eyes and the corneal epithelium of the right eye healed; moreover, the vision was restored in the right eye. There were no recurrences after 12 months of follow-up, and the turtle was released 16 months after the end of treatments on the southern Tyrrhenian coast in the western Mediterranean Sea. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of symblepharon with ankyloblepharon and salt gland dysfunction in Caretta caretta turtle. Ocular ultrasonography was helpful in the preliminary diagnostic work-up.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-08
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9060281
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 282: Phenotypic and Genotypic Screening
           of Colistin Resistance Associated with Emerging Pathogenic Escherichia
           coli Isolated from Poultry

    • Authors: Heba Badr, Abdelhafez Samir, Essam Ismail El-Tokhi, Momtaz A. Shahein, Flourage M. Rady, Ashraf S. Hakim, Ehab Ali Fouad, Engy Farahat El-Sady, Samah F. Ali
      First page: 282
      Abstract: Chickens continue to be an important reservoir of zoonotic multidrug-resistant illnesses. Antimicrobial resistance correlated with colistin has emerged as a critical concern worldwide in the veterinary field and the public health sector. The current study investigated the prevalence of multidrug-resistant avian pathogenic Escherichia coli among chicken farms in three Egyptian governorates, focusing on colistin resistance assessment. A total of 56 Escherichia coli isolates were recovered out of 120 pooled samples obtained from diseased chicken broilers (46.7%). The E. coli isolates were serotyped to nine different serotypes; the highest incidence was for O125 (n = 18). The E. coli isolates demonstrated multidrug-resistant patterns against 10 antibiotics, especially clindamycin, tetracycline, streptomycin and ampicillin, by 100, 100, 96.4 and 92.9%, respectively. On the other hand, colistin resistance was 41.1% using AST. All E. coli isolates displayed positive colistin resistance growth on chromogenic medium, but only 25% represented this positivity via MIC estimation and Sensititre kit. PCR results revealed that all isolates harbored mcr-1, but no isolates harbored the other 2–5 mcr genes. In conclusion, the study demonstrated the emergence of multidrug-resistant, especially colistin-resistant, E. coli among chicken broiler flocks, and mcr-1 is the master gene of the colistin resistance feature.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-09
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9060282
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 283: Prevalence and Predictors of
           Radiographically Apparent Upper Urinary Tract Urolithiasis in Eight Dog
           Breeds Predisposed to Calcium Oxalate Urolithiasis and Mixed Breed Dogs

    • Authors: Alexis M. Hoelmer, Jody P. Lulich, Aaron K. Rendahl, Eva Furrow
      First page: 283
      Abstract: Data on upper urinary tract (UUT) uroliths in dogs are important to understanding their etiology. The aim of this retrospective case-control study was to determine the prevalence and identify predictors of radiographically apparent UUT uroliths in dog breeds at increased risk for calcium oxalate uroliths (CaOx risk breeds) and mixed breed dogs. Radiologist reports of three-view abdominal radiographs were reviewed from 251 purebred dogs of 8 CaOx risk breeds and 68 mixed breed dogs. UUT uroliths were more common in CaOx risk breeds than mixed breed dogs (23% versus 6%, respectively; OR = 4.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7–18.9, p < 0.001). UUT uroliths were more common in dogs with lower urinary tract (LUT) uroliths (predominantly calcium-containing) than those without (41% versus 5%, respectively; OR = 13.6, 95% CI 6.3–33.1, p < 0.001), and LUT uroliths predicted the presence of UUT uroliths in the multivariable regression (OR = 6.5, 95% CI 2.8–16.7, p < 0.001). Increasing age (p < 0.001) and lower body weight (p = 0.0016) were also predictors of UUT urolith presence in the multivariable regression. The high prevalence of UUT uroliths in dogs with LUT uroliths supports a shared mechanism for their formation.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-09
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9060283
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 284: Antimicrobial Resistance of
           Clinical and Commensal Escherichia coli Canine Isolates: Profile
           Characterization and Comparison of Antimicrobial Susceptibility Results
           According to Different Guidelines

    • Authors: Vera Fernandes, Eva Cunha, Telmo Nunes, Elisabete Silva, Luís Tavares, Luísa Mateus, Manuela Oliveira
      First page: 284
      Abstract: Background: Pyometra is a diestrual chronic disease frequently associated with Escherichia coli. Initial pyometra treatment involves empiric antimicrobial therapy whose suitability should be confirmed by antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Antimicrobial resistance is a major health issue for veterinary medicine, rendering surveillance studies essential. Our goal was to determine the susceptibility profile of E. coli isolates obtained from healthy and pyometra-presenting dogs and to compare the application of different antimicrobial susceptibility guidelines. Methods: The antimicrobial susceptibility profile (ASP) of 74 E. coli isolates was determined by disk diffusion, using six antimicrobials commonly used in veterinary medicine. Profiles were assessed by CLSI VET01S, CLSI M100 and EUCAST guidelines. β-lactamases-encoding genes blaTEM, blaSHV and blaOXA were detected by multiplex PCR. Biofilm production ability was evaluated by pellicle formation assays in Luria–Bertani medium. Results: Variations in the resistance frequency were observed for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cephalexin and cefotaxime (29.7–54.1%, 10.8–16.2% and 1.4–4.1%, respectively). Results varied slightly between clinical and commensal isolates, as well as their biofilm-forming ability. Genes blaTEM, blaSHV and blaOXA were detected in 25.5%, 11.8% and 9.8% of isolates, respectively. Conclusions: Results show the importance of ASP determination in veterinary isolates and the need for using standardized and validated testing methods and harmonized interpretive criteria.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-09
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9060284
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 285: Tumor-Homing of Mesenchymal Stem
           Cells Infected with Oncolytic Virus in a Canine Patient

    • Authors: Pablo Delgado-Bonet, Beatriz Davinia Tomeo-Martín, Gustavo Ortiz-Díez, Ana Judith Perisé-Barrios
      First page: 285
      Abstract: Intravenous administration of oncolytic adenovirus (OAds) can be challenging, although various vehicles for the delivery of the virus to the tumor have been described. The efficacy of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as a virus vehicle has been reported in mouse models and canine and human patients, but the actual action mechanism has never been described in patients. It is of importance to determine whether MSCs infected with OAds can reach the tumor and release the virus in a clinical setting. For this purpose, GFP-labeled MSCs were infected with an OAd and inoculated into a companion dog diagnosed with spontaneous lung carcinoma. Forty-eight hours later, the tumor was excised and analyzed microscopically by flow cytometry for GFP fluorescence detection, and a cellular culture was established. Peripheral blood samples were taken to quantify the oncolytic adenovirus by qRT-PCR. Green fluorescence cells detected in the cellular culture by microscopy and flow cytometry revealed 0.69% GFP-positive cells in the tumor. OAd in peripheral blood was confirmed by qRT-PCR during follow-up. For the first time, the tumoral-homing capacity of OAds infected-MSC has been confirmed in a clinical setting, helping to explain the clinical response mechanism, whose efficacy was previously reported in canine and human patients.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-09
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9060285
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 286: Experimental Infection of Pigs
           with a ST 245 Brachyspira hyodysenteriae Isolated from an Asymptomatic Pig
           in a Herd with No History of Swine Dysentery

    • Authors: José Paulo H. Sato, Amanda G. S. Daniel, Carlos E. R. Pereira, Mariana R. Andrade, Ricardo P. Laub, Michelle P. Gabardo, Luisa V. A. Otoni, Nubia R. Macedo, Javier A. Barrera-Zarate, Roberto M. C. Guedes
      First page: 286
      Abstract: Swine dysentery (SD) is characterized by a severe mucohemorrhagic colitis caused by infection with Brachyspira species. In infected herds the disease causes considerable financial loss due to mortality, slow growth rates, poor feed conversion, and costs of treatment. B. hyodysenteriae is the most common etiological agent of SD and infection is usually associated with disease. However, isolated reports have described low pathogenic strains of B. hyodysenteriae. The aim of this study was to describe an experimental infection trial using a subclinical B. hyodysenteriae isolated from an animal without clinical signs and from a disease-free herd, to evaluate the pathogenicity and clinical pathological characteristics compared to a highly clinical isolate. Forty-eight 5-week-old pigs were divided into three groups: control, clinical and the subclinical isolates. The first detection/isolation of B. hyodysenteriae in samples of the animals challenged with a known clinical B. hyodysenteriae strain (clinical group) occurred 5th day post inoculation. Considering the whole period of the study, 11/16 animals from this group were qPCR positive in fecal samples, and diarrhea was observed in 10/16 pigs. In the subclinical isolate group, one animal had diarrhea. There were SD large intestine lesions in 3 animals at necropsy and positive B. hyodysenteriae isolation in 7/15 samples of the subclinical group. In the control group, no diarrhea, gross/microscopic lesions, or qPCR positivity were observed. Clinical signs, bacterial isolation, macroscopic and histologic lesions were significantly difference among groups, demonstrating low pathogenicity of the subclinical isolate in susceptible pigs.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9060286
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 287: Flow Cytometric Analysis of
           Leukocyte Populations in the Lung Tissue of Dromedary Camels

    • Authors: Jamal Hussen, Turke Shawaf, Naser Abdallah Al Humam, Sameer M. Alhojaily, Mohammed Ali Al-Sukruwah, Faisal Almathen, Francesco Grandoni
      First page: 287
      Abstract: Respiratory tract infections are among the most common infections in dromedary camels, with a high impact on animal health, production, and welfare. Tissue-specific distribution of immune cells is one of the important factors that influence the nature and outcome of the immune response to pathogens. Several protocols have recently been described for the flow cytometric analysis of immune cells in the lung tissue of several species. However, no such protocol currently exists for dromedary camels. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to establish a flow cytometric protocol for the identification of immune cell populations in the camel lung tissue and the evaluation of some of their phenotypic and functional properties. Combined staining of camel lung leukocytes with monoclonal antibodies to the pan-leukocyte marker CD45 and the myeloid cell marker CD172a allowed the identification of myeloid cells (CD45+CD172a+) and lymphoid cells (CD45+CD172a−) in the lung of healthy camels. The cell adhesion molecules CD11a and CD18 were found in a higher abundance on myeloid cells compared to lymphoid cells. Based on their differential expression of the LPS receptor CD14, macrophages (CD172a+CD14high cells) were identified as the most abundant immune cell population in the camel lung tissue. In contrast to their dominance in camel peripheral blood, granulocytes (CD172a+CD14low) presented only a minor population in the lung tissue. The higher frequency of γδ T cells in the lung tissue than in peripheral blood suggests a role for these cells in the pulmonary immune system. Flow cytometric analysis of bacterial phagocytosis and ROS production upon bacterial stimulation revealed high antimicrobial activity of camel lung phagocytes, which was comparable with the antimicrobial activity of blood granulocytes. Comparative analysis of immune cell distribution between the cranial and caudal lobes of the camel lung revealed a higher frequency of granulocytes and a lower frequency of macrophages in the cranial compared to the caudal lung lobe. In addition, the higher frequency of cells expressing the M2 macrophage marker CD163 in the caudal lung tissue, with a slightly higher fraction of MHCII-positive cells (M1 phenotype) in the cranial lung tissue, may suggest the distribution of different macrophage subtypes in the different lobes of the camel lung. Such differences between lung lobes could influence the effectiveness of the immune response to infection or vaccination with respiratory pathogens. Collectively, the present study identified some similarities and differences between camels and other farm animals regarding the distribution of the main immune cell populations in their lungs. Further studies are required for comprehensive immunophenotyping of the cellular pulmonary immune system in camels.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9060287
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 288: Describing and Characterizing the
           Literature Regarding Umbilical Health in Intensively Raised Cattle: A
           Scoping Review

    • Authors: Matthew B. Van Van Camp, David L. Renaud, Todd F. Duffield, Diego E. Gomez, William J. McFarlane, Joanne Marshall, Charlotte B. Winder
      First page: 288
      Abstract: The objective of this scoping review was to describe and characterize the existing literature regarding umbilical health and identify gaps in knowledge. Six databases were searched for studies examining umbilical health in an intensively raised cattle population. There were 4249 articles initially identified; from these, 723 full text articles were then screened, with 150 articles included in the review. Studies were conducted in the USA (n = 41), Brazil (n = 24), Canada (n = 13), UK (n = 10), and 37 additional countries. Seventeen were classified as descriptive, 24 were clinical trials, and 109 were analytical observational studies. Umbilical outcomes evaluated in descriptive studies were infection (n = 11), parasitic infection (n = 5), and hernias (n = 2). Of the clinical trials, only one examined treatment of navel infections; the remainder evaluated preventative management factors for navel health outcomes (including infections (n = 17), myiasis (n = 3), measurements (n = 5), hernias (n = 1), and edema (n = 1)). Analytical observational studies examined risk factors for umbilical health (n = 60) and umbilical health as a risk factor (n = 60). Studies examining risk factors for umbilical health included navel health outcomes of infections (n = 28; 11 of which were not further defined), hernias (n = 8), scoring the navel sheath/flap size (n = 16), myiasis (n = 2), and measurements (n = 6). Studies examining umbilical health as a risk factor defined these risk factors as infection (n = 39; of which 13 were not further defined), hernias (n = 8; of which 4 were not further defined), navel dipping (n = 12), navel/sheath scores as part of conformation classification for breeding (n = 2), measurements (n = 3), and umbilical cord drying times (n = 2). This review highlights the areas in need of future umbilical health research such as clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of different treatments for umbilical infection. It also emphasizes the importance for future studies to clearly define umbilical health outcomes of interest, and consider standardization of these measures, including time at risk.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-11
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9060288
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 289: Repeatability of Health and
           Welfare Traits and Correlation with Performance Traits in Dairy Goats
           Reared under Low-Input Farming Systems

    • Authors: Sotiria Vouraki, Athanasios I. Gelasakis, Vasileia Fotiadou, Georgios Banos, Georgios Arsenos
      First page: 289
      Abstract: The objectives of the study were to estimate the repeatability of health and welfare traits and investigate their association with performance in three breeds of dairy goats reared under low-input farming systems in Greece. A total of 1210 goats of Eghoria (n = 418), Skopelos (n = 429), and Damascus (n = 363) breeds were assessed. Udder health, parasitic resistance, welfare, milk yield and quality, and body condition score were recorded monthly for two milking periods. Udder health records included somatic cell count (SCC) and total viable count (TVC). Based on combinations of SCC and TVC and thresholds set at >106 cells/mL and >2 × 104 cfu/mL, respectively, additional udder health phenotypes were defined. Parasitism included myiasis, tick infestation, gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) and cestode faecal egg count (FEC), and lungworm faecal larval count (FLC). Infection with each of the endoparasites was defined based on FEC/FLC. Welfare assessment parameters included the presence of ear and horn injuries, ocular and nasal discharge, body and udder abscesses, injury and lesions on the skin of different regions, diarrhoea, hernias, overgrown hooves, arthritis, lameness, and udder asymmetry. Trait repeatability and animal correlations were estimated. Significant (p < 0.05) repeatability was reported for all udder health and most welfare traits in all breeds, GIN and cestode FEC, and GIN and lungworm infection in Eghoria, and myiasis in Skopelos. Correlations of health and most of welfare traits with performance were non-significant or favourable. Overall, results demonstrate potential to improve health and welfare of the studied breeds without compromising performance.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-11
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9060289
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 290: Innovative Use of Olive, Winery
           and Cheese Waste By-Products as Functional Ingredients in Broiler

    • Authors: Eleftherios Bonos, Ioannis Skoufos, Konstantinos Petrotos, Ioannis Giavasis, Chrysanthi Mitsagga, Konstantina Fotou, Konstantina Vasilopoulou, Ilias Giannenas, Evangelia Gouva, Anastasios Tsinas, Angela Gabriella D’Alessandro, Angela Cardinali, Athina Tzora
      First page: 290
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dietary use of novel silage that was created by combining three agro-industrial wastes produced in bulk, i.e., olive mill wastewater, grape pomace, and deproteinized feta cheese whey, in the diets of broiler chickens. A total of 216 one-day-old male Ross-308 chicks were randomly allocated to three treatment groups with six replications (12 chicks per pen). Three isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets were formulated to include the examined silage at 0%, 5%, or 10%. Commercial breeding and management procedures were employed throughout the trial. At the end of the trial (day 35), tissue samples were collected for analysis. Feeding 10% silage resulted in increased (p ≤ 0.001) final body weight (p ≤ 0.001) and feed intake. Jejunum and cecum microflora, as well as breast and thigh meat microflora, were modified (p ≤ 0.05) by the dietary inclusion. Thigh meat oxidative stability was improved (p < 0.01) by the silage supplementation. In addition, breast and thigh meat fatty acid profiles were different, respectively, (p < 0.05) in the supplemented treatments compared to the control. The examined silage was successfully tested in broiler diets with potential benefits for their performance and meat quality.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-12
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9060290
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 291: Feline Gastrointestinal
           Eosinophilic Sclerosing Fibroplasia—Extracellular Matrix Proteins
           and TGF-β1 Immunoexpression

    • Authors: Néstor Porras, Agustín Rebollada-Merino, Fernando Rodríguez-Franco, Andrés Calvo-Ibbitson, Antonio Rodríguez-Bertos
      First page: 291
      Abstract: Feline gastrointestinal eosinophilic sclerosing fibroplasia (FGESF) has been described as an inflammatory disorder with an eosinophilic component with etiopathogenesis that is still unknown. Sixteen intestinal samples from two veterinary diagnostic services (2014–2017) were included in the study. A histopathological criterion classified the cases into three grades (mild, moderate, and severe) according to the distribution of the lesions and the course. An immunohistochemical study of collagen I, collagen III, fibronectin, and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) was performed in each case. An immunohistochemical study of mild grades shows greater collagen III immunoexpression, compared to collagen I and fibronectin, which suggests an “early” stage of fibrosis. In more intense grades, an increased immunoexpression of collagen I, compared to collagen III, suggests a “late” stage of fibrosis. Otherwise, the highest expression of TGF-β1 was observed in the moderate phase, due to the high proliferation of reactive fibroblast and intense inflammation. The results suggest that the inflammatory infiltrate is the trigger for the elevation in TGF-β1, altering the collagen type III:I ratio. In conclusion, immunohistochemical studies can be a very useful method in diagnosing cases of FGESF of mild grades and could help to apply a differential diagnosis regarding feline eosinophilic chronic enteritis (CEE) in the context of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9060291
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 292: Dynamic Models of Within-Herd
           Transmission and Recommendation for Vaccination Coverage Requirement in
           the Case of African Swine Fever in Vietnam

    • Authors: Thi Ngan Mai, Satoshi Sekiguchi, Thi My Le Huynh, Thi Bich Phuong Cao, Van Phan Le, Van Hieu Dong, Viet Anh Vu, Anuwat Wiratsudakul
      First page: 292
      Abstract: African swine fever (ASF) is a highly contagious disease that is caused by the ASF virus (ASFV) with a high fatality rate in domestic pigs resulting in a high socio-economic impact. The pig business in Vietnam was recently affected by ASF for the first time. This study thus aimed to develop a disease dynamic model to explain how ASFV spreads in Vietnamese pig populations and suggest a protective vaccine coverage level required to prevent future outbreaks. The outbreak data were collected from ten private small-scale farms within the first wave of ASF outbreaks in Vietnam. Three methods were used to estimate the basic reproduction number (R0), including the exponential growth method, maximum likelihood method, and attack rate method. The average R0 values were estimated at 1.49 (95%CI: 1.05–2.21), 1.58 (95%CI: 0.92–2.56), and 1.46 (95%CI: 1.38–1.57), respectively. Based on the worst-case scenario, all pigs in a herd would be infected and removed within 50 days. We suggest vaccinating at least 80% of pigs on each farm once a commercially approved ASF vaccine is available. However, an improvement in biosecurity levels in small-scale farms is still greatly encouraged to prevent the introduction of the virus.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9060292
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 293: Prevalence of Reticulocytosis in
           the Absence of Anemia in Dogs with Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema Due to
           Myxomatous Mitral Valve Disease: A Retrospective Study

    • Authors: Sol-Ji Choi, Won-Kyoung Yoon, Hyerin Ahn, Woo-Jin Song, Ul-Soo Choi
      First page: 293
      Abstract: Myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) is the most common heart disease in small breed dogs. Dogs with MMVD commonly show clinical signs of dyspnea due to cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE). Reticulocytosis in the absence of anemia (RAA) is a hematological finding in hypoxic conditions. We aimed to assess the prevalence of RAA in dogs with CPE due to MMVD, and evaluate whether RAA is reversible with amelioration of dyspnea. Twenty-nine client-owned dogs with CPE due to MMVD were included. Dogs who died within 6 weeks of the onset of CPE were included in the non-survival group, while the others comprised the survival group. Of the 21 dogs, RAA was observed in 17 dogs (80.9%). In the RAA group, the absolute reticulocyte count significantly decreased as CPE resolved (p < 0.001). The mean absolute reticulocyte count in the RAA group was 163.90 ± 50.77 on the first measurement and 78.84 ± 25.64 after resolution of CPE. In the RAA group, no significant differences in mean absolute reticulocyte count were observed between the survival and non-survival groups at either the first or second measurement. Our results indicate that RAA occurs in dogs with MMVD-related CPE and can resolve after resolution of CPE.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9060293
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 294: Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms,
           Gene Expression and Economic Evaluation of Parameters Associated with
           Mastitis Susceptibility in European Cattle Breeds

    • Authors: Ahmed I. Ateya, Samer S. Ibrahim, Mona M. Al-Sharif
      First page: 294
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to explore single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), gene expression and economic evaluation of parameters associated with mastitis susceptibility in Holstein and Brown Swiss dairy cows. Two hundred and forty Holstein and Brown Swiss dairy cows (120 cows of each breed) were used in this study. The investigated dairy cows in each breed were allocated into two equal-sized groups (60 cows each); mastitis tolerant and affected groups. PCR-DNA sequencing of SELL, ABCG2, SLC11A1, FEZL, SOD1, CAT, GPX1, and AhpC/TSA revealed nucleotide sequence variations in the form of SNPs associated with mastitis tolerance/susceptibility in investigated Holstein and Brown Swiss dairy cows. Levels of SELL, SLC11A1 and FEZL gene expression were significantly up-regulated in mastitic Holstein and Brown Swiss dairy cows than in tolerant ones. Meanwhile, ABCG2, SOD1, CAT, GPX1, and AhpC/TSA genes were significantly downregulated. Regarding the economic parameters, significant differences were recorded for net returns and a reduction in the percentage of net profit, as the higher values of net returns were recorded for tolerant dairy cows than mastitic ones in both breeds; moreover, the net profit was reduced by 39% and 27% in mastitic Holstein and Brown Swiss dairy cows, respectively, when compared to tolerant ones. The results herein confirmed the potential significance of investigated genes as candidates for mastitis tolerance/susceptibility in Holstein and Brown Swiss dairy cows. Mastitis also has detrimental impacts on economic efficiency in dairy farms.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9060294
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 295: IL-1R8 as Pathoimmunological
           Marker for Severity of Canine Chronic Enteropathy

    • Authors: Federica Riva, Laura Bianchessi, Camilla Recordati, Alessia Inglesi, Vittoria Castiglioni, Lauretta Turin
      First page: 295
      Abstract: Chronic enteropathy (CE) is a severe multifactorial gastrointestinal disease that affects dogs and is driven by poorly characterized inflammatory pathways. Imbalance of pro-inflammatory response regulators, including IL-1R8, may be due to different factors, among which the infection with Helicobacteraceae is known to lead to a vicious circle in which excessive pro-inflammatory signaling and gastrointestinal injury reinforce each other and boost the disease. We investigated the expression of IL-1R8 in large intestine biopsies of dogs with or without clinical signs of CE and with previously assessed enterohepatic Helicobacter spp. colonization status by mean of quantitative real-time PCR. Our study revealed that IL-1R8 is downregulated in both acutely (p = 0.0074) and chronically (p = 0.0159) CE affected dogs compared to healthy controls. The data also showed that IL-1R8 expression tends to decrease with colonization by Helicobacter spp. Interestingly, a negative correlation was detected between the level of expression of IL-1R8 and the severity of macroscopic lesions identified by endoscopy and the crypt hyperplasia score. We further compared the expression levels between males and females and found no statistically significant difference between the two groups. No significant difference was observed in IL-1R8 expression profiles with the age of the animals either. Interestingly, an association was uncovered between IL-1R8 expression level and dog breed. Together, our data advance knowledge on gastrointestinal pathoimmunology in dogs and highlight the potential utilization of IL-1R8 as a diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic biomarker for canine chronic enteropathy.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9060295
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 296: Analysis of the Expression of
           Neurotrophins and Their Receptors in Adult Zebrafish Kidney

    • Authors: Pietro Cacialli, Carla Lucini
      First page: 296
      Abstract: Neurotrophins and their receptors are involved in the development and maintenance of neuronal populations. Different reports have shown that all neurotrophin/receptor pathways can also play a role in several non-neuronal tissues in vertebrates, including the kidney. These signaling pathways are involved in different events to ensure the correct functioning of the kidney, such as growth, differentiation, and regulation of renal tubule transport. Previous studies in some fish species have identified the neurotrophins and receptors in the kidney. In this study, for the first time, we compare the expression profiles (mRNA and protein) of all neurotrophin/receptor pathways in the kidney of the adult zebrafish. We quantify the levels of mRNA by using qPCR and identify the expression pattern of each neurotrophin/receptor pathway by in situ hybridization. Next, we detect the proteins using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Our results show that among all neurotrophins analyzed, NT-3/TrkC is the most expressed in the glomerule and tubule and in the hematopoietic cells, similar to what has been reported in the mammalian kidney.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9060296
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 297: Characterization of Equine Chronic
           Tendon Lesions in Low- and High-Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    • Authors: Carla Ulrike Doll, Kerstin von Pueckler, Julia Offhaus, Dagmar Berner, Janina Burk
      First page: 297
      Abstract: In equine medicine, experience regarding MRI of chronic tendon lesions is limited, and evidence on the suitability of different sequences in 3 T high-field MRI is scarce. Therefore, macroscopically healthy and altered tendons were examined by histology and in 0.27 T low- and 3 T high-field MRI, focusing on T1-weighted (T1w) sequences to visualize chronic lesions. In high-field MRI, tendons were positioned parallel (horizontal) and perpendicular (vertical) to the magnetic field, acknowledging the possible impact of the magic angle effect. The images were evaluated qualitatively and signal intensities were measured for quantitative analysis. Qualitative evaluation was consistent with the quantitative results, yet there were differences in lesion detection between the sequences. The low-field T1w GRE sequence and high-field T1w FLASH sequence with vertically positioned tendons displayed all tendon lesions. However, the horizontally scanned high-field T1w SE sequence failed to detect chronic tendon lesions. The agreement regarding tendon signal intensities was higher between high-field sequences scanned in the same orientation (horizontal or vertical) than between the same types of sequence (SE or FLASH), demonstrating the impact of tendon positioning. Vertical scanning was superior for diagnosis of the tendon lesions, suggesting that the magic angle effect plays a major role in detecting chronic tendon disease.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9060297
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 298: The Haptomonad Stage of Crithidia
           acanthocephali in Apis mellifera Hindgut

    • Authors: María Buendía-Abad, Pilar García-Palencia, Luis Miguel de Pablos, Raquel Martín-Hernández, Mariano Higes
      First page: 298
      Abstract: Crithidia acanthocephali is a trypanosomatid species that was initially described in the digestive tract of Hemiptera. However, this parasite was recently detected in honey bee colonies in Spain, raising the question as to whether bees can act as true hosts for this species. To address this issue, worker bees were experimentally infected with choanomastigotes from the early stationary growth phase and after 12 days, their hindgut was extracted for analysis by light microscopy and TEM. Although no cellular lesions were observed in the honey bee’s tissue, trypanosomatids had differentiated and adopted a haptomonad morphology, transforming their flagella into an attachment pad. This structure allows the protozoa to remain attached to the gut walls via hemidesmosomes-such as junctions. The impact of this species on honey bee health, as well as the pathogenic mechanisms involved, remains unknown. Nevertheless, these results suggest that insect trypanosomatids may have a broader range of hosts than initially thought.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9060298
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 299: Antibacterial Activity of Romanian
           Propolis against Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Dogs with Superficial
           Pyoderma: In Vitro Test

    • Authors: János Dégi, Viorel Herman, Violeta Igna, Diana Maria Dégi, Anca Hulea, Florin Muselin, Romeo Teodor Cristina
      First page: 299
      Abstract: Staphylococcal infection treatment in dogs is frequently associated with adverse side effects, high costs, prolonged treatment, and resistant strain selection. Staphylococcus aureus is the most frequently isolated staphylococci in cases of canine superficial pyoderma. The number of Staphylococcus strains to exhibit primary resistance to various drugs in vitro is increasing. Propolis has a diverse chemical composition and well-known therapeutic properties against bacterial infections. The current investigation evaluated in vitro the antimicrobial activity of the commercial allopathic antimicrobials, Romanian propolis ethanolic extracts, against clinical Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from superficial dermatitis clinical samples in dogs and two reference strains: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 43300, as the MSSA and MRSA positive controls, respectively, in western Romania. We used the microdilution broth technique to evaluate the susceptibility profile of the bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the Romanian propolis ethanolic extract ranged from 6 to 10 μg/mL for all isolates, determined by the broth microdilution method. The MICs of ethanolic Romanian propolis extracts had a pronounced antibacterial activity. These results indicate that propolis can potentially be used and recommended for in vivo experiments as a promising therapeutic agent against Staphylococcus aureus infections in superficial dermatitis of dogs.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9060299
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 300: Flies as Vectors and Potential
           Sentinels for Bacterial Pathogens and Antimicrobial Resistance: A Review

    • Authors: Ji-Hang Yin, Patrick John Kelly, Chengming Wang
      First page: 300
      Abstract: The unique biology of flies and their omnipresence in the environment of people and animals makes them ideal candidates to be important vectors of antimicrobial resistance genes. Consequently, there has been increasing research on the bacteria and antimicrobial resistance genes that are carried by flies and their role in the spread of resistance. In this review, we describe the current knowledge on the transmission of bacterial pathogens and antimicrobial resistance genes by flies, and the roles flies might play in the maintenance, transmission, and surveillance of antimicrobial resistance.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9060300
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 301: Spreading of Pasteurella multocida
           Infection in a Pet Rabbit Breeding and Possible Implications on Healed

    • Authors: Francesco D’Amico, Gaia Casalino, Giancarlo Bozzo, Antonio Camarda, Roberto Lombardi, Michela Maria Dimuccio, Elena Circella
      First page: 301
      Abstract: The number of pets such as dogs, cats, rabbits, and parrots has increased in European families. Social benefits to owners such as decreasing feelings of loneliness and anxiety are provided by pets which are also used in Animal-assisted Therapy (AAT). Nevertheless, human-animal interactions are also associated with health problems including allergies, asthma, and zoonosis. Rabbits may carry potential pathogens for humans. One of the most common bacteria that colonizes the oro-pharynx and the upper respiratory tract of rabbits is Pasteurella (P.) multocida. Transmission of the infection to humans results from scratches, licks, and bites but it also can occur from the inhalation of air particles containing the microorganism. Immunocompromised people or persons with pulmonary disorders are particularly susceptible to the infection. Infected rabbits may carry P. multocida with or without clinical signs. In this paper, the sensitivity to antibiotics and the invasiveness ability of P. multocida identified in a farm of pet rabbits affected by severe pasteurellosis were investigated. The strain was P. multocida belonging to capsular type A which is the type most often detected in humans. The identified strain was susceptible to the tested antibiotics, but it appeared equipped with several virulence genes which are responsible for fimbriae production, adhesion processes to host cells, enzyme production, and are involved in iron acquisition processes. These findings are of particular interest because rabbits recovered from pasteurellosis very often become carriers of the bacteria. Therefore, we suggest considering P. multocida screening in the routine medical checks of rabbits, especially if they are meant to be companion animals for children and elder people, given that the transmission of the pathogen cannot be excluded.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9060301
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 302: Effects of Backfat Thickness on
           Oxidative Stress and Inflammation of Placenta in Large White Pigs

    • Authors: Jian Hu, Peishi Yan
      First page: 302
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the backfat thickness of sows on reproductive performance and on lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, and inflammation. At farrowing, 60 sows were assigned to three groups: the low-backfat-thickness group (LBF, n = 20): sows’ backfat thickness was between 9 and 12 mm; the medium-backfat-thickness group (MBF, n = 20): sows’ backfat thickness was between 13 and 20 mm; and the high-backfat-thickness group (HBF, n = 20): sows’ backfat thickness was between 21 and 25 mm. Maternal and fetal blood and placental samples were collected. Compared with the LBF and HBF groups, the MBF group delivered a significantly greater number of live piglets than the LBF or HBF groups. The different backfat thicknesses of sows had different effects on the lipid-related hormones and adipokines of maternal and fetal serum and placenta. Sows with poor or excessive backfat displayed higher levels of oxidative stress and higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. According to these data, the thickness of a sow’s backfat affects the characteristics of farrowing piglets and their lipid metabolism, as well as placental inflammation, maternal inflammation, and oxidative stress. A moderate backfat thickness (between 13 and 20 mm) was associated with greater reproductive performance in sows.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-19
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9060302
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 303: Evaluation of the Fluorescence
           Polarization Assay for the Diagnosis of Brucellosis in Goat Milk

    • Authors: Dianelys Sotolongo-Rodríguez, Ricardo Gomez-Flores, Magda Celina Navarro-Soto, Beatriz Arellano-Reynoso, Patricia Tamez-Guerra, Carlos Ramírez-Pfeiffer
      First page: 303
      Abstract: The milk ring test is a detection assay for antibodies against Brucella in bovine milk. It has good sensitivity but tends to give false positive results. In this study, we standardized the application of the fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) for the detection of antibodies against B.melitensis in goat milk. We obtained negative serum and milk samples from healthy goat flocks in the northern zone of Nuevo León. Positive milk and negative, weak, and strong controls were obtained by mixing volumes of positive control serum with negative control milk. Milk samples were treated with citric acid, after which an FPA was performed. Results were then compared with the Rose Bengal test and the FPA in serum. Milk treatment allowed the quantification of antibodies in samples. Significant differences were found between the 2%, 4%, and 6% groups, compared with the control group (F3, 67 = 17.45, p < 0.0001) but not between the 2% and 4% groups (p = 0.0718). The cut-off value was 74.1 mP, with a sensitivity (Se) of 95% and a specificity (Sp) of 100%. Se and Sp values in field milk samples were 84% and 74.55%, respectively. Despite the FPA test on milk samples showed lower Se and Sp than the FPA test on serum samples, its cutoff may be adjusted. It may be recommended as a screening test in goat milk and become useful for the control and eradication of the disease.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9060303
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 304: Urinary Cytology: Potential Role
           in Canine Urinary Tract Infections

    • Authors: Ilaria Lippi, Verena Habermaass, Eleonora Gori, Valentina Virginia Ebani, Alessio Pierini, Veronica Marchetti
      First page: 304
      Abstract: The diagnosis of urinary tract infections (UTIs) requires a concomitant evaluation of clinical signs and urine culture, which is of fundamental to start an appropriate antibiotic treatment. Several factors, such as subclinical bacteriuria or pre-analytical errors, may make the interpretation of urine culture difficult. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between the finding of neutrophils and bacteria in unstained and stained canine urine sediment and the presence of clinical signs and positive urine culture. Urine samples from 35 dogs with clinical signs of UTI and 55 asymptomatic dogs with risk factors for UTI were prospectively collected by cystocentesis, divided into three aliquots, and submitted for: (1) physical and chemical Dipstick analysis and unstained urinary sediment (casts, crystals, bacteria, leucocytes, cells, parasites); (2) stained urinary sediment (extra/intracellular bacteria, degenerated and non-degenerated neutrophils); (3) qualitative and quantitative urine culture and antimicrobial sensitivity-test. The association between unstained and stained findings of urinary sediment and urine culture was tested. Sensibility, specificity, and positive/negative predictive values in diagnosing positive urine cultures of bacteria at unstained and stained evaluation were compared. Both wet-mount bacteriuria and the cytological presence of intracellular and extracellular bacteria, neutrophils, and degenerated neutrophils were successively associated with positive urine culture (p < 0.001). The presence of intracellular bacteria was the only independent predictor of positive urine culture. Total bacterial count did not differ significantly between symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs. Detection of extracellular and intracellular bacteriuria at stained urinary sediment significantly improved the sensibility of predicting positive urine culture. Cytologic evaluation of urinary sediment may be helpful in detecting signs of active inflammation, thus enhancing the clinical relevance of a positive urine culture.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9060304
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 305: Canine Cytokines Profile in an
           Endemic Region of L. infantum: Related Factors

    • Authors: Pablo Jesús Marín-García, Lola Llobat
      First page: 305
      Abstract: Canine leishmaniosis is caused by infection with parasite Leishmania infantum, which are transmitted by sandflies Phlebotomus. Canine leishmaniosis is an endemic disease in the Mediterranean region. The immune response could vary between hosts and determines the severity of the disease and clinical features. The aim of this study was to analyze the serum levels of cytokines TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-6, and IL-8, which are related to the activation of Th1 or Th2 immune responses in dogs living in the L. infantum endemic region. Moreover, we intend to relate and correlate these levels with different factors, such as sex, age, diet, lifestyle, and breed. Epidemiological data and serum were recovered for seventy-eight dogs, and serum levels of cytokines described previously were analyzed by using the ELISA method. The results showed differences in serum levels of IFN-γ, IL-2, and IL-8 between breeds. The lifestyle also affected serum levels of IL-2. The main conclusion of this study is that Ibizan hounds and crossbred dogs have a serological profile of cytokines that seems to indicate certain protections against infection by L. infantum compared to boxer and purebred breeds.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9060305
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 221: Molecular Detection and
           Differentiation of Arthropod, Fungal, Protozoan, Bacterial and Viral
           Pathogens of Honeybees

    • Authors: Lucas Lannutti, Fernanda Noemi Gonzales, Maria José Dus Santos, Mónica Florin-Christensen, Leonhard Schnittger
      First page: 221
      Abstract: The honeybee Apis mellifera is highly appreciated worldwide because of its products, but also as it is a pollinator of crops and wild plants. The beehive is vulnerable to infections due to arthropods, fungi, protozoa, bacteria and/or viruses that manage to by-pass the individual and social immune mechanisms of bees. Due to the close proximity of bees in the beehive and their foraging habits, infections easily spread within and between beehives. Moreover, international trade of bees has caused the global spread of infections, several of which result in significant losses for apiculture. Only in a few cases can infections be diagnosed with the naked eye, by direct observation of the pathogen in the case of some arthropods, or by pathogen-associated distinctive traits. Development of molecular methods based on the amplification and analysis of one or more genes or genomic segments has brought significant progress to the study of bee pathogens, allowing for: (i) the precise and sensitive identification of the infectious agent; (ii) the analysis of co-infections; (iii) the description of novel species; (iv) associations between geno- and pheno-types and (v) population structure studies. Sequencing of bee pathogen genomes has allowed for the identification of new molecular targets and the development of specific genotypification strategies.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-02
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9050221
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 222: ASIP Promoter Variants Predict the
           Sesame Coat Color in Shiba Inu Dogs

    • Authors: Stepan N. Belyakin, Daniil A. Maksimov, Maria A. Pobedintseva, Petr P. Laktionov, Dinara Voronova
      First page: 222
      Abstract: Animals exhibit a wide variety of genetically determined coat colors and pigmentation patterns that serve important roles in adaptation and communication. Although the genetics of the main coat colors in dogs have been studied extensively, there are types of coat pigmentation that have not been explained yet. Recently, an association between the variants in the ASIP gene Ventral (VP) and Hair Cycle (HCP) promoters with different coat colors in dogs has been established. Here, we used the new findings as a basis to investigate the genetics of the red sesame coat color in Shiba Inu dogs. Our study revealed that red sesame dogs carry a specific heterozygous ASIP promoter diplotype, VP2-HCP1/VP2-HCP3, where VP2-HCP1 is responsible for the red coat with a dark overlay, and VP2-HCP3 for a tan point-like pattern. This finding explains the inheritance of this coat color pattern and can be used by breeders to produce dogs with this rare phenotype. A comparison of sesame dogs (VP2-HCP1/VP2-HCP3) to a dog homozygous for the VP2-HCP1 promoter haplotype suggests that the incomplete dominance between the ASIP alleles may be involved in the sesame coat formation. These results are in good agreement with the new model explaining how different levels of ASIP gene expression affect the regulation of pigment synthesis in melanocytes.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-03
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9050222
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 223: Vagally Associated Second Degree
           Atrio-Ventricular Block in a Dog with Severe Azotemia and Evidence of
           Sympathetic Overdrive

    • Authors: Radu Andrei Baisan, Andreea Cătălina Turcu, Eusebiu Ionuț Condurachi, Vasile Vulpe
      First page: 223
      Abstract: A 14 years old, 6 kg, mix-breed male dog with severe azotemia due to urinary bladder herniation was presented to our Veterinary Teaching Hospital (VTH). Electrocardiography revealed normal heart rate of 100 bpm, evidence of sinus respiratory arrhythmia (SRA) and frequent second degree atrio-ventricular block following peak inspiratory phase suggestive of vagally-induced atrio-ventricular conduction delay. Echocardiographic examination showed mild mitral regurgitation without any other cardiac changes, and systolic (SAP) and diastolic (DAP) blood pressure values were 185/90 mmHg (SAP/DAP). Cardiac troponin I (cTnI) was increased to 7.3 ng/mL, suggesting a myocardial injury. A Holter examination revealed evidence of overall decrease in heart rate variability with evidence of sympathetic overdrive on time and frequency domain as well as when the non-linear Poincaré plot was analyzed. Based on the author’s knowledge, this is the first report of a second degree atrio-ventricular block associated with vagal activity in a dog, with evidence of sympathetic overdrive and severe azotemia.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-05
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9050223
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 224: ProAKAP4 Semen Concentrations as a
           Valuable Marker Protein of Post-Thawed Semen Quality and Bull Fertility: A
           Retrospective Study

    • Authors: Marta Dordas-Perpinyà, Nicolas Sergeant, Isabelle Ruelle, Jean-François Bruyas, Frédéric Charreaux, Sandrine Michaud, Sara Carracedo, Jaime Catalán, Jordi Miró, Maryse Delehedde, Lamia Briand-Amirat
      First page: 224
      Abstract: Functional sperm quality markers to predict bull fertility have been actively investigated. Among them, proAKAP4, which is the precursor of AKAP4, the main structural protein in the fibrous sheath of spermatozoa; appears to be promising, especially since spermatozoa lacking AKAP4 expression were shown to be immotile, abnormal, and infertile. In this study, the objective was to evaluate proAKAP4 concentration values with the classic sperm motility descriptors and fertility outcomes (NRR at 90 days) in post-thawed conditions of 10 bulls’ semen. ProAKAP4 expression was confirmed by Western blotting and proAKAP4 concentrations were determined by ELISA. Variations in proAKAP4 concentrations were observed independently of the motility sperm descriptors measured using computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA). A ProAKAP4 concentration of 38.67 ± 8.55 ng/10 million spermatozoa was obtained as a statistical mean of all samples. Threshold values of proAKAP4 were then determined between 19.96 to 96.95 ng/10 million spermatozoa. ProAKAP4 concentrations were positively correlated with progressive motility and the linearity coefficient. The sperm showing the lowest progressive motility were the samples exhibiting proAKAP4 concentrations below 20 ng/10 million spermatozoa. Furthermore, proAKAP4 concentrations were significantly higher in bulls with a higher NRR in the field. Our results demonstrate a correlation between the semen concentration of proAKAP4 and NRR-90d (p = 0.05) in post-thawed bull semen, highlighting the potential of proAKAP4 as a predictive marker of bull fertility.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9050224
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 225: Expression of Nerve Growth Factor
           and Its Receptor TrkA in the Reproductive System of Adult Zebrafish

    • Authors: Pietro Cacialli
      First page: 225
      Abstract: Nerve growth factor (NGF), a member of the neurotrophin family, has emerged as an active mediator in different crucial events in the peripheral and central nervous system. At the same time, several studies showed that this neurotrophin can also play a role in non-neuronal tissues (e.g., among gonads). In spite of a large number of studies present in mammals, investigations devoted to NGF and its receptor TrkA in the reproductive system of other animal models, such as teleost fish, are scarce. To increase our knowledge of NGF and its receptor in a vertebrate gonads model, the present report describes the expression patterns of ngf and trka mRNA in the testis and ovary of adult zebrafish. By using chromogenic and fluorescence in situ hybridization, we demonstrate that in the testis of adult zebrafish, ngf and its receptor trka are mainly expressed in spermatogony B and spermatocytes. In the ovary of this fish, ngf and trka are expressed at different stages of oocyte development. Altogether, these results show that this neurotrophin and its receptor have an important role in the reproductive system that is conserved during vertebrate evolution.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9050225
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 226: The Hygienic Status of Different
           Forage Types for Horses—A Retrospective Study on Influencing Factors
           and Associations with Anamnestic Reports

    • Authors: Sandra Intemann, Bernd Reckels, Dana Schubert, Petra Wolf, Josef Kamphues, Christian Visscher
      First page: 226
      Abstract: The hygienic quality of forage for horses is discussed as a potential health hazard, especially regarding respiratory diseases, colic, and hepatopathies. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the possible relations between microbiological counts, as well as endotoxin levels and disease symptoms. Data from microbiological examination reports were analyzed retrospectively, including the results of sensory examination, microbiological counts, and lipopolysaccharide contents. Sensory analysis gave an indication of deficiencies in microbiological analysis, but both methods did not give consistently equivalent results regarding the hygienic status of forage. The strongest agreements between sensory and microbiological findings were demonstrated in haylage regarding mold contamination. The influences of dry matter content on microbiological quality could be shown in haylage and hay, whereas this did not apply to straw. Deviations regarding molds and the detection of Aspergillus species occurred, especially in haylage, with values above 70% DM detected (39.6%, p=0.0021 and 47.2%, p = 0.0393). Aspergillus was detected more frequently, and average counts were higher in samples that were suspected to induce coughing in horses (p = 0.0118 and p = 0.0313, respectively). The results of the present study emphasize the importance of feed hygiene for equine respiratory health and the need for the microbiological examination of feedstuffs, since sensory analysis cannot provide an error-free prediction of microbial counts.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9050226
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 227: Biological Compositions of Canine
           Amniotic Membrane and Its Extracts and the Investigation of Corneal Wound
           Healing Efficacy In Vitro

    • Authors: Chompunut Permkam, Gunnaporn Suriyaphol, Sujin Sirisawadi, Nalinee Tuntivanich
      First page: 227
      Abstract: The usage of canine amniotic membrane (cAM) is mainly of interest in veterinary ophthalmology. Topical formulations of cAM could deliver the beneficial properties of cAM without the need for surgical intervention. The present study aimed to investigate biological compositions of cAM and its extracts, including their corneal wound healing efficacy. In this study, canine amniotic membrane extract (cAME) and lyophilized canine amniotic membrane extract (cAMX) were developed. Bioactive molecules related to corneal wound healing, including hepatocyte growth factor, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and -2, Thrombospondin-1 and Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist were studied at both gene and protein expression levels. Cell viability and wound healing assays were investigated for the possibility of cAME and cAMX as topical applications. The results demonstrated that all of the relevant genes and proteins were detected in cAM, cAME and cAMX. Both cAME and cAMX showed wound healing properties in vitro and cAME at 1.0 mg/mL concentration appeared to have the best healing efficacy. In conclusion, cAME and cAMX generated for topical use provided promising results in the healing of corneal defects.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9050227
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 228: Helicobacter spp. in the Stomach
           of Cats: Successful Colonization and Absence of Relevant Histopathological
           Alterations Reveals High Adaptation to the Host Gastric Niche

    • Authors: Sílvia Teixeira, Dulce Filipe, Manuela Cerqueira, Patrícia Barradas, Francisco Cortez Nunes, Fátima Faria, Freddy Haesebrouck, João R. Mesquita, Fátima Gärtner, Irina Amorim
      First page: 228
      Abstract: In addition to Helicobacter pylori, many non-Helicobacter pylori Helicobacters (NHPH) are able to cause gastric disease in humans. Cats are a natural reservoir for many of these species. Accordingly, living in close and intimate contact with animals has been identified as a risk factor, and an important zoonotic significance has therefore been attributed to NHPH. To determine the prevalence and associated gastric histopathological changes of Helicobacter species, the gastric mucosa of 71 cats were evaluated. Only four presented normal histopathological mucosa with the absence of spiral-shaped organisms. Normal gastric mucosa and the presence of spiral-shaped bacteria were observed in 13 cats. The remaining animals presented histopathological changes representative of gastritis. Helicobacter species were detected in 53 cats (74.6%) by at least one detection method. None of the animals were positive for H. pylori or for H. ailurogastricus. Helicobacter heilmannii organisms were identified in 20 animals, predominantly in the body gastric region. Helicobacter salomonis was the second most prevalent species (57.1%), although it was mainly found in association with other NHPH. Helicobacter felis and H. bizzozeronii were less frequently detected. The great majority of the Helicobacter spp. PCR-positive animals presented normal features regarding fibrosis/mucosal atrophy, neutrophils, eosinophils, or other inflammatory cells and lymphofollicular hyperplasia. Given the controversy and the strong evidence of absence of significant histopathological alterations associated with the presence of Helicobacter spp. in cats, it is possible to hypothesize that these bacteria may be able to adapt to the feline gastric microenvironment or even to comprise part of the gastric microbiome of this animal species. Thus, prudency must be taken when prescribing an antibiotic therapy based solely on the presence of these bacteria in the feline stomach.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9050228
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 229: Impact of Acute Blood Loss on
           Clinical, Hematological, Biochemical, and Oxidative Stress Variables in

    • Authors: Rejane Santos Sousa, Caroline Santos Sousa, Francisco Leonardo Costa Oliveira, Paulo Ricardo Firmino, Isadora Karolina Freitas Sousa, Valeria Veras Paula, Nohora Mercado Caruso, Enrico Lippi Ortolani, Antonio Humberto Hamad Minervino, Raimundo Alves Barrêto-Júnior
      First page: 229
      Abstract: Blood loss in sheep can have different causes and may result in anemia. We aimed to evaluate the clinical, hematological, and biochemical alterations and the oxidative stress generated by acute blood loss. Eighteen healthy sheep underwent phlebotomy to remove 40% of the blood volume and were evaluated clinically and by laboratory tests for clinical, biochemical, and blood gas variables and to assess oxidative stress before induction (T0), 30 min (T30 min), and 6 (T6 h), 12 (T12 h), and 24 h (T24 h) after blood loss. The sheep showed tachycardia from T30 min until T24 h, reduction in the hematocrit, number of erythrocytes, and hemoglobin concentration, with lower values at T24 h and increase in the number of leukocytes from T12 h on. There was a reduction in blood pH and oxygen pressure at T30 min, increased lactate concentration and reduced blood bicarbonate at this time. There was an increase in urea concentration from T6 h until the end of the study, with no change in creatinine levels. The animals did not show changes in the concentration of malonaldehyde, and in the activity of the enzymes superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase, but there was a reduction in the concentration of reduced glutathione at T24 h. The acute loss of 40% of blood volume is capable of promoting relevant clinical, hematological, blood gas, and biochemical alterations, and contributed to the appearance of oxidative stress with reduced glutathione concentration, suggesting that this process generated free radicals in sufficient quantity to diminish the action of antioxidants.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9050229
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 230: A Novel Oral Endoscopic Biopsy
           Procedure to Obtain Rumen Epithelial Samples

    • Authors: Yareellys Ramos-Zayas, Saúl A. Cantú-Reyes, Iris I. Tristán-Casas, Jorge R. Kawas
      First page: 230
      Abstract: Most in vivo studies related to ruminal development in calves use invasive techniques involving rumen-fistulated or euthanized animals. In consideration of animal welfare, we developed an oral endoscopic biopsy procedure to allow the obtaining of rumen epithelial samples, thus serving as an alternative for measuring the height and width of rumen papillae in calves in a safe, quick, and efficient manner that allows the slaughtering of calves to be avoided. This procedure was tested on 12 Brangus crossbred calves randomly distributed in two groups, with one fed a meal starter and the other an extruded starter feed. Calves underwent a 12-h fasting period, were restrained in a squeeze chute, administered a dose of atropine, and sedated with xylazine before the oral endoscopic biopsy procedure. A 120 cm long Olympus® oral flexible video endoscope and forceps were used to collect cranial–dorsal sac rumen epithelial tissue samples of approximately 0.5 mm. Endoscopy was successful in all 12 calves and the collected tissue samples were placed in formalin (10%) for further processing for obtaining rumen papillae measurements. Consumption of the extruded starter feed resulted in the increased (p = 0.035) width of rumen papillae. The oral endoscopic biopsy procedure implemented in this study was demonstrated to be successful and is thus an alternative technique for studying rumen epithelial development and morphometric alterations in calf rumen tissue.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9050230
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 231: Risk Factors for Severe and Fatal
           Heat-Related Illness in UK Dogs—A VetCompass Study

    • Authors: Emily J. Hall, Anne J. Carter, Guaduneth Chico, Jude Bradbury, Louise K. Gentle, Dominic Barfield, Dan G. O’Neill
      First page: 231
      Abstract: Heat-related illness (HRI) is predicted to increase in dogs due to rising global temperatures. This study evaluated retrospective VetCompass veterinary clinical records to explore geographical variability and ambient conditions associated with HRI events in UK dogs, and report the intrinsic (canine) and extrinsic (location, trigger, ambient weather) risk factors for severe disease and fatal outcome in dogs affected by HRI. Dogs living in London had the greatest odds for developing HRI compared with dogs living in the North West (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.31–2.74). The median ambient temperature on days of HRI events was 16.9 °C. For dogs with HRI, age, bodyweight and trigger were risk factors associated with severe disease. Age, skull shape and clinical grade of HRI presentation were associated with a fatal outcome. Whilst the majority of HRI events overall were triggered by exertion, the risk of severe disease was greater in situations where dogs could not escape the heat source (vehicular confinement), and the risk of death in HRI cases was greater for those dogs with reduced capacity to thermoregulate (older and brachycephalic dogs). These results highlight the need for better owner awareness of the factors that increase the risk of severe and fatal HRI, as a first stage in protecting canine welfare in the face of rising global temperatures.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9050231
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 232: Prevalence of Toxocara Eggs in
           Public Parks in the City of Valencia (Eastern Spain)

    • Authors: Belinda Rose Köchle, María Magdalena Garijo-Toledo, Lola Llobat, José Sansano-Maestre
      First page: 232
      Abstract: Toxocara spp. is one of the most common zoonotic geohelminths in the world. Its infections are associated with the accidental ingestion of contaminated soil and affecting, especially children. In this study, feces, and soil samples from 14 public parks in the city of Valencia were analyzed. The Telemann method and a modified version of a sieving technique were used to process feces and soil, respectively. None of the fecal samples and 10.9% of soil samples from five parks (35.7%) tested positive for the presence of Toxocara eggs. The most contaminated areas were the canine sanitary parks (30.8% of the samples), followed by socialization areas for dogs (9.7%); no positive samples were found at children’s playgrounds. Our results suggest that most pets in Valencia are periodically dewormed, although additional preventive measures should be applied, since the risk of infection exists probably due to the presence of stray dogs and feral cats.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9050232
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 233: Sucrose Inclusion in Gestating and
           Lactating Diets of Sows Modifies the Feeding Behavior of Post-Weaning Pigs
           for Sweet Solutions

    • Authors: Jaime Figueroa, Carolina Valenzuela, Sergio A. Guzmán-Pino
      First page: 233
      Abstract: Pigs display an innate preference for sweet taste compounds such as sucrose. However, the influence of sucrose supplementation into maternal diets has not been examined in pigs. We tested the hypothesis that sucrose inclusion into sows’ diets would modify the feeding behavior of post-weaning pigs for sweet and umami solutions. Twenty-two sows (85 days of gestation) were used. They randomly received a gestational and lactating diet with or without 50 g/kg of sucrose. Different sucrose and monosodium glutamate solutions were offered to the progeny to analyze different intake behavior measurements during nursery. Pigs born from treated sows presented a higher sucrose threshold than control animals (15 mM vs. 0.1 mM, p = 0.032) and displayed decreased sensory-motivated intake for this disaccharide (p < 0.023). Sucrose consumption decreased (p < 0.021) in pigs born from treated sows, as well as the consumption patterns for the less concentrated solutions (p < 0.014). The inclusion of sucrose into maternal diets (gestation and lactation) could modified pigs’ feeding behavior after weaning when offered sweet solutions, which speaks against the practicality of this supplementation in pig production systems.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9050233
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 234: Retroperitoneal Metastatic
           Apocrine Gland Ductal Adenocarcinoma in a Beagle Dog

    • Authors: Chang-Hwan Moon, Hyun-Ah Min, Hae-Beom Lee, Seong-Mok Jeong, Dae-Hyun Kim
      First page: 234
      Abstract: Tumors of sweat glands usually originate from apocrine glands and can develop throughout the body but are rare in dogs. This report describes the retroperitoneal metastasis of primary cutaneous apocrine adenocarcinoma. An 8-year-old, spayed female beagle dog, weighing 11.7 kg, presented with a history of anorexia, hypodynamia, and weight loss. Clinical examination, radiography, ultrasonography, and computed tomography revealed a skin mass on the dorsum of the right metatarsal region, an enlarged ipsilateral popliteal lymph node, and a retroperitoneal mass. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of the popliteal lymph node suggested metastasis of an apocrine sweat gland tumor. Surgical excision of the skin mass, popliteal lymph node, and retroperitoneal mass was performed. The retroperitoneal mass was diagnosed as a metastasis of primary cutaneous apocrine adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin 7 but negative for cytokeratin 20 and S100 proteins. There were no postoperative complications, except for temporary hindlimb edema, including local recurrence or metastasis, in the 6-month postoperative follow-up period. This case illustrates that although malignant apocrine gland tumors are rare in dogs, a wide resection of primary cutaneous apocrine gland adenocarcinomas is recommended because of the risk of local invasion or distant metastasis.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9050234
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 235: Blood Metabolites and Feed
           Utilization Efficiency in Thai-Native-Anglo-Nubian Goats Fed a Concentrate
           Diet Including Yeast Fermented Palm Kernel Cake Instead of Soybean Meal

    • Authors: Pin Chanjula, Chanadol Supapong, Puwadon Hamchara, Anusorn Cherdthong
      First page: 235
      Abstract: Feed is the most expensive component in goat production. Hence, lowering it is crucial to increasing producer profitability. The microbial community in rumen is vital for nutritional digestion and absorption in ruminants. Live yeast and yeast-based products generated from the strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae (commercial strain) are actively being used and investigated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of substituting soybean meal (SBM) in concentrate diets with yeast-fermented palm kernel cake protein (YFPKCP) on dry matter intake, digestibility, blood markers, and nitrogen balance. Five crossbred Thai Native-Anglo-Nubian goats (50% Thai Native goats with 50% Anglo-Nubian goats) weighing an average of 27 ± 2 kg were randomly allocated to one of five diets using a 5 × 5 Latin square design: 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% YFPKCP replacement for SBM. Plicatulum hay (Paspalum plicatulum Michx.) was provided ad libitum. There were no significant differences in dry matter (DM) intake among treatments, but the apparent digestibility of DM, crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) were affected (p < 0.05) by including YFPKCP in diets. They also tended to be slightly lower for goats fed the diet containing 100% YFPKCP replacement for SBM compared to other treatments. Ruminal pH, ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N), blood glucose, and packed cell volume were equivalent among treatments. On the other hand, replacement YFPKCP reduced digestibility and N absorption by up to 75% (p < 0.05). Furthermore, there was no difference in total volatile fatty-acid concentration among goats fed YFPKCP as a substitute for SBM. According to the results of this study, the level of YFPKCP in the concentrate replacement of SBM for goats fed plicatulum hay should be 75%.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9050235
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 236: Antimicrobial Activity from
           Putative Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria for the Biological Control of
           American and European Foulbrood Diseases

    • Authors: Massimo Iorizzo, Sonia Ganassi, Gianluca Albanese, Francesco Letizia, Bruno Testa, Cosimo Tedino, Sonia Petrarca, Franco Mutinelli, Alessandra Mazzeo, Antonio De Cristofaro
      First page: 236
      Abstract: The balance of the gut microbiome is important for the honey bee’s growth and development, immune function and defense against pathogens. The use of a beneficial bacteria-based strategy for the prevention and biocontrol of American foulbrood (AFB) and European foulbrood (EFB) diseases in honey bees offers interesting prospects. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are common inhabitants of the gastrointestinal tract of the honey bee. Among LABs associated with bee gut microbiota, Lactiplantibacillus plantarum (previously Lactobacillus plantarum) and Apilactobacillus kunkeei (formerly classified as Lactobacillus kunkeei) are two of the most abundant species. In this study, four Lactiplantibacillus plantarum strains and four Apilactobacillus kunkeei strains, isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) were selected for their in vitro inhibition ability of Paenibacillus larvae ATCC 9545 and Melissococccus plutonius ATCC 35311. In addition, these LABs have been characterized through some biochemical and functional characteristics: cell surface properties (hydrophobicity and auto-aggregation), carbohydrates assimilation and enzymatic activities. The antimicrobial, biochemical and cell surface properties of these LABs have been functional to their candidature as potential probiotics in beekeeping and for the biocontrol of AFB and EFB diseases.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9050236
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 237: Pelvic Endoprosthesis after
           Hemipelvectomy Using a 3D-Printed Osteotomy Guide for Infiltrative Osteoma
           in a Cat

    • Authors: Yoonho Roh, Jaemin Jeong, Youngjin Jeon, Daehyun Kim, Seongmok Jeong, Haebeom Lee
      First page: 237
      Abstract: With the development of 3D printing and surgical techniques, various defect reconstruction methods after tumor resection have been applied not only in humans but also in veterinary medicine. This report describes a case of reconstruction after hemipelvectomy for an osteoma in a cat using a 3D-printed pelvic endoprosthesis and micro total hip replacement (mTHR). A 5-year-old spayed female Turkish Angora cat was referred for a 1-month history of constipation and intermittent weight-bearing lameness in the left hindlimb. An osteoma in the pelvis measuring 4.5 × 3 × 5.4 cm was identified based on diagnostic examinations. A left mid-to-caudal partial and right caudal partial hemipelvectomy, and a left femoral head and neck osteotomy, were planned to remove the mass. Reconstruction of the bone defect using 3D-printed metal endoprosthesis and mTHR in the left hindlimb was intended. During right caudal partial hemipelvectomy, right femoral head and neck osteotomy was performed because there was infiltration in the medial wall of the acetabulum. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of an osteoma. Two weeks post-surgery, surgical debridement and femoral stem removal were performed because of delayed wound healing and sciatic neurapraxia, leading to femoral stem dislocation from the cup. The delayed wound healing and sciatic neurapraxia were appropriately addressed. The cat regained normal weight and defecation 4 weeks post-operatively. Two years post-surgery, the patient recovered with an almost normal gait. Hemipelvectomy with 3D-printed endoprosthesis provides a safe surgical option with favorable outcomes for neoplasms in the pelvis of cats.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9050237
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 238: Dextran Sulphate Sodium Acute
           Colitis Rat Model: A Suitable Tool for Advancing Our Understanding of
           Immune and Microbial Mechanisms in the Pathogenesis of Inflammatory Bowel

    • Authors: Petra Adamkova, Petra Hradicka, Helena Kupcova Skalnikova, Veronika Cizkova, Petr Vodicka, Silvia Farkasova Iannaccone, Monika Kassayova, Sona Gancarcikova, Vlasta Demeckova
      First page: 238
      Abstract: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of disorders causing inflammation in the digestive tract. Recent data suggest that dysbiosis may play a pivotal role in the IBD pathogenesis. As microbiome-based therapeutics that modulate the gut ecology have been proposed as a novel strategy for preventing IBD, the aim of presenting study was to evaluate the dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) rat model mainly in terms of microbial shifts to confirm its suitability for dysbiosis study in IBD. Acute colitis was induced using 5% DSS solution for seven days and rats were euthanized five days after DSS removal. The faecal/caecal microbiota was analyzed by next generation sequencing. Disease activity index (DAI) score was evaluated daily. Blood and colon tissue immunophenotyping was assessed by flow cytometry and histological, haematological, and biochemical parameters were also evaluated. The colitis induction was reflected in a significantly higher DAI score and changes in all parameters measured. This study demonstrated significant shifts in the colitis-related microbial species after colitis induction. The characteristic inflammation-associated microbiota could be detected even after a five day-recovery period. Moreover, the DSS-model might contribute to an understanding of the effect of different treatments on extraintestinal organ impairments. The observation that certain bacterial species in the gut microbiota are associated with colitis raises the question of whether these organisms are contributors to, or a consequence of the disease. Despite some limitations, we confirmed the suitability of DSS-induced colitis model to monitor microbial changes during acute colitis, in order to test attractive new microbiome-based therapies.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9050238
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 239: Genetic Diversity, Biofilm
           Formation, and Antibiotic Resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated
           from Cow, Camel, and Mare with Clinical Endometritis

    • Authors: Samy F. Mahmoud, Mahmoud Fayez, Ayman A. Swelum, Amal S. Alswat, Mohamed Alkafafy, Othman M. Alzahrani, Saleem J. Alsunaini, Ahmed Almuslem, Abdulaziz S. Al Amer, Shaymaa Yusuf
      First page: 239
      Abstract: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous opportunistic bacterium that causes diseases in animals and humans. This study aimed to investigate the genetic diversity, antimicrobial resistance, biofilm formation, and virulence and antibiotic resistance genes of P. aeruginosa isolated from the uterus of cow, camel, and mare with clinical endometritis and their drinking water. Among the 180 uterine swabs and 90 drinking water samples analysed, 54 (20%) P. aeruginosa isolates were recovered. Isolates were identified biochemically to the genus level by the automated Vitek 2 system and genetically by the amplification of the gyrB gene and the sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Multilocus sequence typing identified ten different sequence types for the P. aeruginosa isolates. The identification of ST2012 was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher than that of ST296, ST308, ST111, and ST241. The isolates exhibited significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased resistance to piperacillin (77.8%), ciprofloxacin (59.3%), gentamicin (50%), and ceftazidime (38.9%). Eight (14.8%) isolates showed resistance to imipenem; however, none of the isolates showed resistance to colistin. Multidrug resistance (MDR) was observed in 24 isolates (44.4%) with a multiple antibiotic resistance index ranging from 0.44 to 0.77. MDR was identified in 30 (33.3%) isolates. Furthermore, 38.8% and 9.2% of the isolates exhibited a positive extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL) and metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) phenotype, respectively. The most prevalent β-lactamase encoding genes were blaTEM and blaCTX-M, however, the blaIPM gene was not detected in any of the isolates. Biofilm formation was observed in 49 (90.7%) isolates classified as: 11.1% weak biofilm producers; 38.9% moderate biofilm producers; 40.7% strong biofilm producers. A positive correlation was observed between the MAR index and biofilm formation. In conclusion, the results highlighted that farm animals with clinical endometritis could act as a reservoir for MDR and virulent P. aeruginosa. The emergence of ESBLs and MBLs producing P. aeruginosa in different farm animals is a public health concern. Therefore, surveillance programs to monitor and control MDR P. aeruginosa in animals are required.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9050239
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 240: The Effects of Bacterial
           Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on Turkey Poults: Assessment of Biochemical
           Parameters and Histopathological Changes

    • Authors: Mohamed F. Abou Elazab, Nasr E. Nasr, Mohamed S. Ahmed, Barakat M. Alrashdi, Naief Dahran, Mohamed A. Alblihed, Ehab Kotb Elmahallawy
      First page: 240
      Abstract: A lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a large molecule and an outer membrane glycolipid found in Gram-negative bacteria, including Escherichia coli (E. coli). These molecules (LPS) target acute inflammatory responses and significant physiological changes. Importantly, E. coli is considered one of the most important bacterial causes of avian colibacillosis that affect domestic turkey industry. However, little information is available about the potential influence of LPS on the biochemical parameters and histopathological changes in turkey poults. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the influence of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) molecules on serum biomarkers and histopathological changes in turkey poults. The birds were randomly divided into five groups, as follows: group I did not receive any inoculation; group II was inoculated with sterile saline; and groups III, IV, and V were inoculated intraperitoneally with LPS at 0.01, 0.1, and 1 mg/kg of body weight (BW), respectively. The biochemical parameters and the histopathology of different organs were examined in all birds one day post-inoculation. Our results revealed hypolipidemia, hypoglycemia, a significant decrease in uric acid, and a significant increase in serum activities of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and creatine kinase (CK), as well as cardiac troponin T concentrations in treated groups. Moreover, there was a significant increase in α1-, β-, and γ-globulin concentrations and a decrease in albumin and α2-globulin concentrations in group V. However, a significant increase in α2- and γ-globulin levels and a decrease in albumin levels were detected in groups III and IV. In addition, significant decreases in the albumin/globulin ratio were recorded in all LPS-treated groups. Hepatocellular and cardiac muscle necrosis, slight renal changes, and massive pulmonary inflammatory reactions were recorded. This study provides valuable information about serum biomarkers, protein fractions, and histopathological changes in turkey poults treated with LPS for further investigations of pathophysiological mechanisms in avian medicine along with biomedical research.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-19
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9050240
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 241: Current and Future Molecular
           Diagnostics of Tick-Borne Diseases in Cattle

    • Authors: Kathryn Garcia, Mina Weakley, Tram Do, Sheema Mir
      First page: 241
      Abstract: Ticks and tick-borne diseases such as babesiosis, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, Lyme disease, Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever, and Rocky Mountain spotted fever pose a significant threat to animal and human health. Tick-borne diseases cause billions of dollars of losses to livestock farmers annually. These losses are partially attributed to the lack of sensitive, robust, cost effective and efficient diagnostic approaches that could detect the infectious pathogen at the early stages of illness. The modern nucleic acid-based multiplex diagnostic approaches have been developed in human medicine but are still absent in veterinary medicine. These powerful assays can screen 384 patient samples at one time, simultaneously detect numerous infectious pathogens in each test sample and provide the diagnostic answer in a few hours. Development, commercialization, and wide use of such high throughput multiplex molecular assays in the cattle tick-borne disease surveillance will help in early detection and control of infectious pathogens in the animal reservoir before community spread and spillover to humans. Such approaches in veterinary medicine will save animal life, prevent billions of dollars of economic loss to cattle herders and reduce unwanted stress to both human and animal health care systems. This literature review provides recent updates on molecular diagnostics of tick-borne pathogens and discusses the importance of modern nucleic acid high throughput multiplex diagnostic approaches in the prevention of tick-borne infection to livestock.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-21
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9050241
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 242: Dog Handler Beliefs regarding
           Barriers and Facilitators to Canine Health Promotion and Injury Prevention
           in Swedish Working Dog Trials and Competitions

    • Authors: Ann Essner, Catarina Kjellerstedt, Amie L. Hesbach, Kristina Svensson, Helena Igelström
      First page: 242
      Abstract: Dog trials and competitions involve various sport disciplines, e.g., obedience, agility, working dog trials and rally obedience. Dog handlers navigate their dogs through physically and mentally demanding tasks. The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of barriers and facilitators to canine health promotion and injury prevention described by dog handlers. Methods: Qualitative inductive content analysis was applied to systematically organize and interpret narrative data from 654 respondents’ answers to open-ended questions in an anonymous online inquiry. Results: Two categories, with seven sub-categories, emerged from the analysis: (1) Challenges in applying the regulations in dog trials and competitions, and (2) Implementation of animal welfare and canine well-being approaches. Respondents described the challenges in applying regulations in dog trials and competitions and lack of scientific research as barriers to their intent to prevent injuries in their dogs. Implementation of animal welfare and canine well-being approaches were described as facilitators. Conclusion: The findings imply that the stakeholders continuously need to work on bridging possible gaps between the canine welfare criteria and the scientific and empirical knowledge in canine sports and performance medicine.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-21
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9050242
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 243: Is Dog Owner Obesity a Risk Factor
           for Canine Obesity' A “One-Health” Study on
           Human–Animal Interaction in a Region with a High Prevalence of

    • Authors: Lourdes Suarez, Inmaculada Bautista-Castaño, Cristina Peña Romera, José Alberto Montoya-Alonso, Juan Alberto Corbera
      First page: 243
      Abstract: Obesity in humans is a growing global problem and is one of the greatest public health challenges we face today. Most researchers agree that, as in humans, the incidence in the companion animal population is also increasing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors contributing to canine obesity in a region with a high rate of human obesity (Canary Islands, Spain), co-occurrence of obesogenic risk factors, and a canine population with a high percentage of unneutered dogs. We have focused on owner risk factors that promote obesity in humans, such as weight, lifestyle, nutritional habits, and low physical activity, among others. Thus, the human–animal interaction relationship that contributes to human obesity and influences canine obesity has been studied. A multicentre cross-sectional analytical study of 198 pairs of dogs from urban households and their owners was used. A multivariable logistic regression study was completed to analyse owner characteristics variables associated with canine obesity. This transdisciplinary study was conducted with physicians and veterinarians using a “One Health” approach. Our results suggest that, in a region of high obesogenic risk, obese/overweight dogs are primarily female, older than 6 years, and neutered. Being an overweight dog owner was found to be the most important factor in the occurrence of obesity in dogs. Owners of overweight dogs were mainly females, older than 40 years, who did not engage in any physical activity. A strong correlation has been found between dog owners with low levels of education and obesity in their dogs. We suggest that veterinarians should develop and design strategies to encourage pet owners to engage in physical activity with their dogs for the benefit of both.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-22
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9050243
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 244: Relationship among Serum
           Progestagens, Cortisol, and Prolactin in Pregnant and Cycling Asian
           Elephants in Thailand

    • Authors: Patcharapa Towiboon, Kanokporn Saenphet, Chatchai Tayapiwattana, Siriwan Tangyuenyong, Gen Watanabe, Sittidet Mahasawangkul, Janine L. Brown, Chatchote Thitaram
      First page: 244
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to examine relationships among serum progestagens, cortisol, and prolactin in pregnant and normal cycling Asian elephants living in tourist camps in northern Thailand. Samples were collected twice a month for 22 months from nine elephants. Of those, four were pregnant (24.3 ± 2.9 years of age; range 21–28 years) and five (20.2 ± 9.6 years; range 8–34 years) exhibited normal ovarian cycles based on serum progestagen analyses. Gestation was divided into three periods: 1st (week 1–31), 2nd (week 32–62), and 3rd (week 63 to parturition), while the estrous cycle was divided into the follicular and luteal phases. Serum progestagens were higher during the luteal phase of the cycle (p < 0.003), whereas cortisol and prolactin were similar. In pregnant elephants, there were no differences in serum progestagens or cortisol concentrations across the three gestational periods, whereas prolactin concentrations increased significantly during the 2nd and 3rd periods (p < 0.0001). By contrast, prolactin concentrations in nonpregnant elephants were consistently low throughout the ovarian cycle. In one cycling female, prolactin concentrations were similar to pregnant elephants, perhaps because she was an allomother to two calves. Another cycling female exhibited consistently elevated cortisol concentrations, 5 to 10 times higher than the other elephants. There were no correlations between serum progestagens, cortisol, and prolactin throughout gestation; however, serum progestagens and cortisol were positively related in cycling elephants (r = 0.386, p < 0.001). From our results, there were a number of individual differences in reproductive hormonal patterns, so it is important to develop personalized monitoring programs for each elephant to enhance breeding success and create sustaining captive populations of elephants in Asia.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-22
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9050244
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 245: Characterization of Escherichia
           coli in Dogs with Pyometra and the Influence of Diet on the Intestinal
           Colonization of Extraintestinal Pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC)

    • Authors: Rafael Gariglio Clark Xavier, Paloma Helena Sanches da Silva, Hanna Dornelas Trindade, Gabriela Muniz Carvalho, Rafael Romero Nicolino, Patrícia Maria Coletto Freitas, Rodrigo Otávio Silveira Silva
      First page: 245
      Abstract: Despite its high frequency and clinical relevance, the pathogenesis of canine pyometra remains poorly understood. The most accepted hypothesis is that bacteria involved ascend from the intestinal tract, causing the uterine infection. Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) is the most frequent pathogen in canine pyometra, accounting for 57–100% of cases. The aim of the present study was to determine the frequency of phylogenetic groups and virulence factors in E. coli strains isolated from the uterine and rectal swabs of bitches with pyometra (n = 72) and from rectal swabs from healthy bitches fed commercial dry feed (n = 53) or a raw meat-based diet (RMBD; n = 38). A total of 512 strains of E. coli were isolated and divided into five categories according to the origin of the sample: 120 isolates from the uterine content of dogs with E. coli pyometra, 102 from the feces of bitches with E. coli pyometra, 75 from the feces of bitches without E. coli pyometra, 130 feces samples from healthy dogs fed commercial feed, and 85 feces samples from healthy dogs fed a raw meat-based diet. E. coli strains belonging to the B2 phylogroup and positive for virulence factor genes associated with adhesion (fimbriae type P [papC]) and production of toxins (α-hemolysin [hlyA] and uropathogenic specific protein [usp]) predominated in the uterine content and rectal swabs of bitches with E. coli pyometra. Interestingly, a lower growth rate of E. coli from the B2 phylogroup was observed in dogs fed a RMBD than in those fed commercial dry feed. The present study suggests that intestinal colonization by certain types of E. coli could be a risk factor for the occurrence of E. coli pyometra in bitches and that diet can influence intestinal colonization by such strains.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-22
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9050245
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 246: Strategies for Hypothermia
           Compensation in Altricial and Precocial Newborn Mammals and Their
           Monitoring by Infrared Thermography

    • Authors: Karina Lezama-García, Daniel Mota-Rojas, Julio Martínez-Burnes, Dina Villanueva-García, Adriana Domínguez-Oliva, Jocelyn Gómez-Prado, Patricia Mora-Medina, Alejandro Casas-Alvarado, Adriana Olmos-Hernández, Paola Soto, Ramon Muns
      First page: 246
      Abstract: Thermoregulation in newborn mammals is an essential species-specific mechanism of the nervous system that contributes to their survival during the first hours and days of their life. When exposed to cold weather, which is a risk factor associated with mortality in neonates, pathways such as the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA) are activated to achieve temperature control, increasing the circulating levels of catecholamine and cortisol. Consequently, alterations in blood circulation and mechanisms to produce or to retain heat (e.g., vasoconstriction, piloerection, shivering, brown adipocyte tissue activation, and huddling) begin to prevent hypothermia. This study aimed to discuss the mechanisms of thermoregulation in newborn domestic mammals, highlighting the differences between altricial and precocial species. The processes that employ brown adipocyte tissue, shivering, thermoregulatory behaviors, and dermal vasomotor control will be analyzed to understand the physiology and the importance of implementing techniques to promote thermoregulation and survival in the critical post-birth period of mammals. Also, infrared thermography as a helpful method to perform thermal measurements without animal interactions does not affect these parameters.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-23
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9050246
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 247: Changes in Neuropeptide Prohormone
           Genes among Cetartiodactyla Livestock and Wild Species Associated with
           Evolution and Domestication

    • Authors: Bruce R. Southey, Sandra L. Rodriguez-Zas
      First page: 247
      Abstract: The impact of evolution and domestication processes on the sequences of neuropeptide prohormone genes that participate in cell–cell signaling influences multiple biological process that involve neuropeptide signaling. This information is important to understand the physiological differences between Cetartiodactyla domesticated species such as cow, pig, and llama and wild species such as hippopotamus, giraffes, and whales. Systematic analysis of changes associated with evolutionary and domestication forces in neuropeptide prohormone protein sequences that are processed into neuropeptides was undertaken. The genomes from 118 Cetartiodactyla genomes representing 22 families were mined for 98 neuropeptide prohormone genes. Compared to other Cetartiodactyla suborders, Ruminantia preserved PYY2 and lost RLN1. Changes in GNRH2, IAPP, INSL6, POMC, PRLH, and TAC4 protein sequences could result in the loss of some bioactive neuropeptides in some families. An evolutionary model suggested that most neuropeptide prohormone genes disfavor sequence changes that incorporate large and hydrophobic amino acids. A compelling finding was that differences between domestic and wild species are associated with the molecular system underlying ‘fight or flight’ responses. Overall, the results demonstrate the importance of simultaneously comparing the neuropeptide prohormone gene complement from close and distant-related species. These findings broaden the foundation for empirical studies about the function of the neuropeptidome associated with health, behavior, and food production.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-23
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9050247
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 248: Photoperiodic Modulation in Immune
           and Reproductive Systems in Japanese Quails (Coturnix japonica): A
           Morphometric Perspective

    • Authors: Khizar Hayat, Ali Raza, Aitzaz Anas, Anas Sarwar Qureshi, Sarmad Rehan, Ameer Hamza Rabbani, Hafiz Faseeh ur Rehman, Abdul Ghaffar Qamar, Tayyab Rehman, Farah Deeba, Amber Salman
      First page: 248
      Abstract: The present study was designed to elucidate a relationship between lymphoid organs and reproductive activity in male Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica) bred in a temperate region of Pakistan (30.3753° N, 69.3451° E) in response to photoperiodic changes. The research focused primarily on the relative morphological changes in primary (thymus and bursa of Fabricius) and secondary (spleen) lymphoid organs with respect to seasonal variations in the histomorphometry of testicular tissue. For this purpose, a comparable number of clinically healthy Japanese quails were exsanguinated during active (April–May), regressive (September–October) and inactive (January–February) reproductive phases. Following an extensive gross measurement of lymphoid and reproductive organs, a histomorphometric analysis was performed on sampled tissues by employing ImageJ® software. Blood was collected for hormonal and leukocytic analysis. One-way ANOVA was used for statistical comparison. Testes had the highest parenchymal development in the active phase (80.66 ± 21.22 µm) and the lowest in the inactive phase (27.80 ± 7.22 µm). Conversely, a percentage change was evident in the sizes of primary (bursa: 61.5%, thymus: 46.9%) and secondary (spleen: 23.9%) lymphoid organs during inactive and active reproductive phases. This study demonstrated that a physiological trade-off is imperative between immune and reproductive systems for optimum survivability and reproductive performance.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-23
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9050248
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 249: A Descriptive Study of the Carpal
           Joint of Healthy Donkeys Using Ultrasonography, Computed Tomography, and
           Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    • Authors: Mohamed Salem, El-Sayed El-Shafaey, Alshimaa M. M. Farag, Sabry El-khodery, Zakriya Al Mohamad, Marwa Abass
      First page: 249
      Abstract: This study was conducted to establish a detailed anatomic reference for the carpal joint of apparently healthy donkeys using ultrasonography (US), computed tomographic (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Ten orthopedically sound adult donkeys were used for US examination of the carpal joint in each forelimb. Additionally, the carpi of ten donkey cadavers were subjected to CT and MRI examinations. The carpal joint was divided into four zones to simplify examination. US assessment of the carpal joint included transverse and longitudinal sonograms. CT was performed using three planes: axial, sagittal, and coronal. MRI was performed using axial and sagittal planes with two sequences: gradient-echo T1-weighted and proton density. The donkeys’ carpus US, CT, and MRI images were labeled and serially interpreted based on references and anatomical cross-sections. The anatomical characteristics of the carpal joint and the surrounding soft tissue structures were thoroughly described and precisely differentiated on US, CT, and MRI scans. It can be concluded that US, CT, and MRI are effective noninvasive diagnostic imaging tools for evaluating the carpal joint in donkeys. Moreover, these imaging modalities can aid in establishing a reference database for the carpal joint of donkeys, which differs from that of horses.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-23
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9050249
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2022)
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