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  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 220 journals)
Showing 1 - 63 of 63 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abanico Veterinario     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Research in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Small Animal Care     Full-text available via subscription  
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Agrivet : Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Pertanian dan Peternakan / Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Veteriner)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences     Open Access  
American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Analecta Veterinaria     Open Access  
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal - Science Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 181)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Animal Health Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Anthrozoos : A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Applied Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archiva Zootehnica     Open Access  
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi / Atatürk University Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Austral Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Equine Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Avian Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access  
Bangladesh Veterinarian     Open Access  
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Veteriner Udayana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CES Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia     Open Access  
Chilean Journal of Agricultural & Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Ciencia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access  
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Compendio de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Equine Veterinary Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Equine Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
EUREKA : Health Sciences     Open Access  
FAVE Sección Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Folia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Frontiers in Veterinary Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human & Veterinary Medicine - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ILAR Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Indonesia Medicus Veterinus     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intas Polivet     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Equine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Tropical Veterinary and Biomedical Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
InVet     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Iranian Journal of Veterinary Surgery     Open Access  
Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Irish Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Buffalo Science     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Parasite Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Small Animal Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of the Hellenic Veterinary Medical Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Selva Andina Research Society     Open Access  
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Veterinary Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Veterinary Forensic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medical Diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medicine     Open Access  
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu dan Kesehatan Hewan (Veterinary Science and Medicine Journal)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Medik Veteriner     Open Access  
Jurnal Medika Veterinaria     Open Access  
Jurnal Sain Veteriner     Open Access  
Jurnal Veteriner     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Kenya Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
kleintier konkret     Hybrid Journal  
Livestock     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Macedonian Veterinary Review     Open Access  
Matrix Science Medica     Open Access  
Medical Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Medical Mycology Case Reports     Open Access  
Medicina Veterinária (UFRPE)     Open Access  
Nepalese Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
New Zealand Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
New Zealand Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nigerian Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pet Behaviour Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
pferde spiegel     Hybrid Journal  
Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Preventive Veterinary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Rassegna di Diritto, Legislazione e Medicina Legale Veterinaria     Open Access  
Reproduction in Domestic Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Research in Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Research Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Veterinária     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Higiene e Sanidade Animal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencia Animal     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias (Colombian journal of animal science and veterinary medicine)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Complutense de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista de Ciência Veterinária e Saúde Pública     Open Access  
Revista de Ciências Agroveterinárias     Open Access  
Revista de Educação Continuada em Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú     Open Access  
Revista de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revista de Salud Animal     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista MVZ Córdoba     Open Access  
Revista Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revue Marocaine des Sciences Agronomiques et Vétérinaires     Open Access  
Revue Vétérinaire Clinique     Full-text available via subscription  
Salud y Tecnología Veterinaria     Open Access  
Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde     Hybrid Journal  
Science and Animal Health     Open Access  
Small Ruminant Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Spei Domus     Open Access  
Sri Lanka Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
SVU-International Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Tanzania Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
team.konkret     Open Access  
Theoretical and Applied Veterinary Medicine     Open Access  
Theriogenology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Tierärztliche Praxis Ausgabe G: Großtiere / Nutztiere     Hybrid Journal  
Tierärztliche Praxis Ausgabe K: Kleintiere / Heimtiere     Hybrid Journal  
Topics in Companion Animal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Trends in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tropical Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Turkish Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access  
UK Vet Equine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Ukrainian Journal of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences     Open Access  
Van Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
VCOT Open     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
veterinär spiegel     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Veterinaria     Open Access  
Veterinaria (Montevideo)     Open Access  
Veterinaria México     Open Access  
Veterinaria México OA     Open Access  
Veterinarski Glasnik     Open Access  
Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Veterinary and Animal Science     Open Access  
Veterinary and Comparative Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Veterinary Clinical Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Veterinary Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Veterinary Journal of Mehmet Akif Ersoy University / Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Veterinary Medicine and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Veterinary Medicine International     Open Access   (Followers: 5)

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Veterinary Sciences
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2306-7381
Published by MDPI Homepage  [246 journals]
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 651: Preliminary Study on the Host
           Response to Bivalent and Monovalent Autogenous Vaccines against Mycoplasma
           agalactiae in Dairy Sheep

    • Authors: Hany A. Hussein, Marco Tolone, Lucia Condorelli, Paola Galluzzo, Roberto Puleio, Irene Vazzana, Maria Luisa Scatassa, Gavino Marogna, Santino Barreca, Guido Ruggero Loria, Lucia Galuppo, Sergio Migliore
      First page: 651
      Abstract: In Italy, dairy sheep farming represents a vital agro-industry sector, but it is still challenged by contagious agalactia (CA), which is endemic there, and vaccination is the most economical and sustainable tool for control. This study aimed to evaluate the combined Mycoplasma agalactiae (Ma)-Staphylococcus aureus (Sa) vaccine (Ma–Sa) against the Ma mono-valent vaccine in ewes. Twelve primiparous Ma-free ewes were randomly grouped into three equal groups: first, the control group injected with placebo, second, the group vaccinated with the Ma mono-valent vaccine, and third, the group vaccinated with Ma–Sa combined vaccine, with two S/C doses at 45-day intervals. The animals were examined for serological, hematological, and somatic cell count (SCC) changes for 17 successive weeks. A significant increase in anti-Ma antibody mean titers, leukocytes, and platelets was observed in the vaccinated animals, with the highest values in those who received the combined vaccine. Neutrophils were high only in the animals who received the combined vaccine. SCC was lower in the vaccinated animals during the first six weeks. This study concludes that the combined Ma–Sa vaccines enhance immune response and potentiate its efficacy against Ma. This improvement might be attributed to the sensitization/activation effect of S. aureus on platelets, which are recoded to act as a key regulator for the coordination of all components of the innate immune system. Even though this study included a small number of animals, its findings about the potentialities of this inactivated vaccine in the control of CA are strongly encouraging. Further confirmation might be needed through additional replicates and a challenge study is needed before proceeding with widespread use.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-11-22
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9120651
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 652: The Current State of Veterinary
           Toxicology Education at AAVMC Member Veterinary Schools

    • Authors: David C. Dorman, Robert H. Poppenga, Regina M. Schoenfeld-Tacher
      First page: 652
      Abstract: This study assessed the depth, breadth, and perception of toxicology education in curricula at Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC) member veterinary schools. An online questionnaire was sent twice to all 54 AAVMC members and sent once to a veterinary toxicology list serve. The survey covered areas related to instructor demographics, the depth and extent of toxicology taught, and the respondent’s perceptions of their student’s ability to perform entrustable professional activities (EPA). Results were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Our survey resulted in a 44% response rate. All responding schools included toxicology in their curriculum, and it was a required course in 23 programs. Contact hours in stand-alone veterinary toxicology courses ranged from 14 to 45 h. Most respondents indicated that the current time allotted for toxicology was inadequate, despite indicating that most of their students could perform most EPAs autonomously. One exception related to the ability of students to analyze toxicology data. We found small variations in teaching methods and curriculum content. The results of our study can assist veterinary schools in evaluating their curricula to better prepare new graduates for the management of toxicology issues they may face in their veterinary careers.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-11-22
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9120652
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 653: Rothia nasimurium as a Cause of
           Disease: First Isolation from Farmed Chickens

    • Authors: Jiahao Zhang, Shaojiang Mo, Hu Li, Ruizhi Yang, Xiangjie Liu, Xiaoyue Xing, Yahui Hu, Lianrui Li
      First page: 653
      Abstract: Rothia nasimurium is a facultative anaerobic Gram-positive coccus belonging to the Rothia genus of the Micrococcaceae family. While Rothia nasimurium is considered an opportunistic pathogen, to date few studies have investigated its pathogenicity and drug resistance. In January 2022, chickens at a poultry farm in China’s Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region became ill and died. Treatment with commonly used Chinese medicines and antibiotics was ineffective, causing economic losses to the poultry farm. In order to determine the cause of the disease in these poultry farm chickens, the isolation and identification of the pathogens in the livers and other internal organs of the sick and dead chickens were performed. Further, animal pathogenicity tests, antibiotic susceptibility tests, and the detection of antibiotic resistance genes were carried out to analyze the pathogenicity and drug resistance of the identified pathogens. A Gram-positive coccus was isolated from the livers of the diseased chickens. The isolate was resistant to 17 antibiotics, including ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, and florfenicol, and was only sensitive to penicillin, amikacin, and tigecycline, to varying degrees. The results of the drug resistance gene testing indicated that the isolated bacterium carried 13 kinds of resistance genes. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, morphological observations, biochemical tests, and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis were performed on the isolated bacterium, and it was determined that the isolated bacterial strain was Rothia nasimurium. The animal pathogenicity tests showed that the isolate caused feather loss and death in chicks; the clinical symptoms and necropsy lesions of the test chicks were consistent with those observed in the farmed chickens. A review of the literature revealed that, to date, there are no reports of infection with Rothia nasimurium in chickens. Thus, in this study, Rothia nasimurium was isolated from chickens for the first time and an investigation of the biological characteristics of the bacterium was carried out in order to provide a reference for the clinical treatment, prevention, and control of Rothia nasimurium infection.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-11-22
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9120653
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 654: A Pilot Study on the Urine
           Proteome of Cats Fed a High-Protein Complete Diet, Supplemented with or
           without Arginine, Ornithine or Zeolite

    • Authors: Nadine Paßlack, Katharina Nöbauer, Karin Hummel, Ebrahim Razzazi-Fazeli, Vitaly Belik, Jürgen Zentek
      First page: 654
      Abstract: Proteome analyses can be used to detect biomarkers for the healthy and diseased organism. However, data in cats are scarce, and no information is available on the potential impact of nutritional interventions on the feline urine proteome. In the present study, a label-free shotgun proteomics approach was performed to investigate the urinary proteins of four healthy adult cats. Each animal received a high-protein complete diet without (w/o) or with supplements that could affect the protein metabolism: arginine (+100% compared to the arginine concentration in the w/o diet), ornithine (+200% compared to the arginine concentration in the w/o diet) or zeolite (0.375 g/kg body weight/day). Our results demonstrate a huge number of proteins in the urine of cats (516 ± 49, 512 ± 39, 399 ± 149 and 455 ± 134 in the w/o, arginine, ornithine and zeolite group, respectively), which are associated with several biological processes. In addition, up- and downregulated urinary proteins could be detected in the dietary supplementation periods. Overall, the present pilot study provides basic data on the urine proteome of healthy adult cats. With increasing information, the numerousness of urinary proteins implies the potential to identify biomarkers and metabolic pathways in the feline organism.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-11-22
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9120654
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 655: Electrocardiographic Findings and
           Cardiac Troponin I Assay in Dogs with SIRS Diagnosis

    • Authors: Michela Pugliese, Rocky La Maestra, Monica Ragusa, Mehmet Erman Or, Giordana Merola, Ettore Napoli, Annamaria Passantino
      First page: 655
      Abstract: Several studies performed in humans have demonstrated that the onset of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) represents a high risk condition to develop myocardial damage and arrhythmias. Therefore, we also hypothesized cardiac involment for dogs affected by SIRS. To assess this hypothesis, 24 dogs with a diagnosis of SIRS (13 entire males, 7 entire females, and 4 spayed females) with an age ranging from 4 to 11 years (mean 5.6 years) and an average weight of 24 kg (range from 5 to 47 kg) were enrolled. The dogs were divided into two groups according to their prognosis: Survivors (G1) and not survivors (G2), composed by 13 and 11 dogs, respectively. Moreover, healthy dogs were included as the control group (CTR). All the dogs with a history of cardiac or renal disease were excluded. At the inclusion, each patient underwent a physical examination and a complete cell count, and a biochemistry panel (including electrolyte profile) was performed; moreover, the blood cardiac Troponin I (cTnI) was measured. For each clinical variable indicative of SIRS, a score between 0 (absence) and 1 (presence) was applied. Furthermore, an electrocardiographic examination was recorded. Seventeen out of 24 (70.8%) dogs with SIRS showed arrhythmias, of which n. 6 belonged to the G1, while n. 11 belonged to the G2. Most represented findings were sinus tachycardia (7/17; 41.1%), followed by monomorphic premature ventricular beats (6/17; 35.3%), less common were first-degree atrioventricular block (2/17; 11.7%) and sinus bradycardia 1/17; 5.8%). Notably, in G1 dogs, only sinus tachycardia and premature ventricular beats were observed. G2 dogs presented a number of total and banded leukocytes significantly higher than those of G1 (p = 0.002 and 0.049), in the same manner, the clinical score suggestive of SIRS (3 vs. 2.1) was significantly higher in G2 than in G1 dogs (p = 0.01). Moreover, a significantly higher value of cTnI was observed in the G2 group compared to the G1 group (p = 0.006). Data presented here suggested a cardiac involvement in dogs with SIRS, analogously to humans, that may significantly influence the patient’s prognosis.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-11-24
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9120655
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 656: The Seroprevalence of Chlamydia
           Infection in Sheep in Shanxi Province, China

    • Authors: Chen-Xu Li, Jin Gao, Sheng-Rong Shi, Wen-Wei Gao, Xing-Quan Zhu, Yu-Ping Lei, Yu Zhang, Wen-Bin Zheng
      First page: 656
      Abstract: Chlamydia, an obligate intracellular bacterium, can cause chlamydiosis in humans and animals worldwide and also leads to serious economic losses to the sheep industry. However, the information on Chlamydia infection in sheep was limited in Shanxi Province, northern China. In the present study, a total of 984 serum samples of sheep were collected from 11 regions in Shanxi Province, northern China in the autumn of 2020. The antibodies against Chlamydia and Chlamydia abortus were examined by the indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA) and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. The result showed that 351 (35.67%, 95% CI 32.68–38.66) of 984 serum samples were positive for Chlamydia, and the seroprevalence ranged from 6.67% to 70.79% among the different regions. In addition, antibodies to C. abortus infection were detected in 78 (7.93%, 95% CI 6.24–9.61) of 984 serum samples, and the seroprevalence ranged from 6.24% to 14.81% among the different regions. This is the first report on the seroprevalence of Chlamydia and C. abortus in sheep in Shanxi province, northern China. The findings provide baseline information for preventing and controlling Chlamydia infection in sheep in Shanxi Province, China.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-11-24
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9120656
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 657: Pathogenic Effects of Single or
           Mixed Infections of Eimeria mitis, Eimeria necatrix, and Eimeria
           tenella in Chickens

    • Authors: Lixin Xu, Quanjia Xiang, Mongqi Li, Xiaoting Sun, Mingmin Lu, Ruofeng Yan, Xiaokai Song, Xiangrui Li
      First page: 657
      Abstract: Avian Eimeria species vary in their replication location, fecundity, and pathogenicity. They are required to complete the development within the limited space of host intestines, and some synergistic or antagonistic effects occur among different Eimeria species. This study evaluated the impact of Eimeria mitis on the outcome of Eimeria necatrix or Eimeria tenella challenge infection. The severity of E. mitis/E. necatrix and E. mitis/E. tenella mixed infections were quantified by growth performance evaluation, survival rate analysis, lesion scoring, blood stool scoring, and oocyst output counting. The presence of E. mitis exacerbated the outcome of co-infection with E. tenella, causing high mortality, intestinal lesion score, and oocyst production. However, E. mitis/E. tenella co-infection had little impact on the body weight gain compared to individual E. tenella infection. In addition, the presence of E. mitis appeared not to enhance the pathogenicity of E. necatrix, although it tends to inhibit the growth of challenged birds and facilitate oocyst output and mortality in an E. mitis/E. necatrix co-infection model. Collectively, the results suggested a synergistic relationship between E. mitis and E. tenella/E. necatrix when sharing the same host. The presence of E. mitis contributed to disease pathology induced by E. tenella and might also advance the impact of E. necatrix in co-infections. These observations indicate the importance of accounting for differences in the relationships among different Eimeria species when using mixed infection models.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-11-24
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9120657
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 658: Evaluation of the Anticoccidial
           Activity of Sheep Bile against Eimeria stiedae Oocysts and Sporozoites of
           Rabbits: An In Vitro Study

    • Authors: Mutee Murshed, Saleh Al-Quraishy, Mahmood A. Qasem
      First page: 658
      Abstract: Coccidiosis is one of the most common infectious diseases that causes digestive problems in rabbits, leading to global economic losses. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of bile obtained from sheep gallbladder on the sporulation and morphology of Eimeria stiedae oocysts and sporozoites affecting rabbit liver cells and to determine the best concentration for sporulation inhibition. Sporulation inhibition per milliliter was measured in samples exposed to five concentrations of sheep bile (SB) in a 2.5% potassium dichromate solution: 12.5%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% concentrations for oocysticidal activity and 125, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 μg/mL concentrations for antisporozoidal activity. A bioassay was performed to assess the in vitro anticoccidial activity of sheep bile against E. stiedae oocysts and sporozoite sporulation. In this assay, six-well plates with 5 mL of bile containing 1000 oocysts showed unsporulated oocysticidal activity after 48, 72, and 96 h and antisporozoidal activity after 12 and 24 h. A chemical assay was performed via infrared spectroscopy to investigate the presence of several anticipated active chemical compounds in sheep bile. Sheep bile was able to inhibit E. stiedae oocysts at 100% and 75% concentrations by about 91% and 81%, respectively. In addition, SB had the highest inhibition of E. stiedae sporozoite viability (92%) at a concentration of 1000 μg/mL and had the lowest inhibition of 8% at a concentration of 125 μg/mL. An increase in the incubation time and a higher dose generally increased the inhibition rate. The results showed that sheep gallbladder bile is effective due to its inhibitory potential and effect on the coccidian oocyst sporulation of E. stiedae. Further studies are needed to determine the precise active chemicals present in SB and their modes of action and application in vivo.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9120658
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 659: High Prevalence of Prototheca
           bovis Infection in Dairy Cattle with Chronic Mastitis in Ecuador

    • Authors: María P. Huilca-Ibarra, David Vasco-Julio, Yanua Ledesma, Salome Guerrero-Freire, Jeannete Zurita, Pablo Castillejo, Francisco Barceló Blasco, Lisseth Yanez, Darwin Changoluisa, Gustavo Echeverría, Carlos Bastidas-Caldes, Jacobus H. de Waard
      First page: 659
      Abstract: The genus Prototheca, a unicellular, non-photosynthetic, yeast-like microalgae, is a pathogen of concern for the dairy industry. It causes bovine mastitis that currently cannot be cured, and hence generates significant economic losses in milk production. In this study, for the first time in Ecuador, we identify Prototheca bovis as the etiologic agent of chronic mastitis in dairy cattle. Milk samples (n = 458) of cows with chronic mastitis were cultured on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA). Microscopy and cytB gene sequencing were used to identify Prototheca, whereby Prototheca bovis was isolated from 15.1% (n = 69) of the milk samples, one of the highest infection rates that can be found in the literature in a “non-outbreak” situation. No other Prototheca species were found. We were unable to isolate the alga from environmental samples. We showed that P. bovis was relatively resistant to disinfectants used to sterilize milking equipment on the cattle farms where it was isolated. We discuss how to avoid future infection and also hypothesize that the real prevalence of Prototheca infection in bovine mastitis is probably much higher than what was detected. We recommend a protocol to increase the diagnostic yield in the bacteriology laboratory.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9120659
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 660: Effect of Hot Water Bottles on
           Body Temperature during Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Dogs under General
           Anesthesia: A Retrospective Study

    • Authors: Yuki Shimizu, Teppei Kanda, Kenji Kutara, Akihiro Ohnishi, Kaori Saeki, Masahiro Miyabe, Taketoshi Asanuma, Katsumi Ishioka
      First page: 660
      Abstract: Prevention of hypothermia induced by anesthesia and enhanced by low environmental temperatures is difficult in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations in dogs as forced warming devices, including magnetic materials, are not acceptable for use in the MRI room. A hot water bottle (HWB) can be carried into an MRI examination room and can contribute to the prevention or attenuation of hypothermia. Here, we retrospectively investigated the effects of HWB on body temperature during MRI examinations in dogs under general anesthesia (GA). From anesthesia records of the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, Okayama University of Science, validated data of 100 dogs that underwent an MRI examination under GA were obtained and divided into the following two groups: one group received HWB, while the other did not. Decrease in rectal temperature 15 min after intubation was significantly smaller in the group using HWB than in the group without HWB. In conclusion, the use of hot water bottles might be one of the methods to attenuate hypothermia in the early period but should not be expected for complete prevention of hypothermia, and it was not recommendable necessarily for body temperature management during MRI examinations in dogs under general anesthesia.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9120660
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 661: Differences in the microRNAs
           Levels of Raw Milk from Dairy Cattle Raised under Extensive or Intensive
           Production Systems

    • Authors: Loubna Abou el qassim, Jaime Alonso, Ke Zhao, Sandrine Le Guillou, Jorge Diez, Fernando Vicente, Manuel Fernández-Sanjurjo, Eduardo Iglesias-Gutiérrez, Leluo Guan, Luis J. Royo
      First page: 661
      Abstract: Studying microRNA (miRNAs) in certain agri-food products is attractive because (1) they have potential as biomarkers that may allow traceability and authentication of such products; and (2) they may reveal insights into the products’ functional potential. The present study evaluated differences in miRNAs levels in fat and cellular fractions of tank milk collected from commercial farms which employ extensive or intensive dairy production systems. We first sequenced miRNAs in three milk samples from each production system, and then validated miRNAs whose levels in the cellular and fat fraction differed significantly between the two production systems. To accomplish this, we used quantitative PCR with both fractions of tank milk samples from another 20 commercial farms. Differences in miRNAs were identified in fat fractions: overall levels of miRNAs, and, specifically, the levels of bta-mir-215, were higher in intensive systems than in extensive systems. Bovine mRNA targets for bta-miR-215 and their pathway analysis were performed. While the causes of these miRNAs differences remain to be elucidated, our results suggest that the type of production system could affect miRNAs levels and potential functionality of agri-food products of animal origin.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-11-27
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9120661
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 662: Seroprevalence and Risk Factors
           for Q fever (Coxiella burnetii) Exposure in Smallholder Dairy Cattle in

    • Authors: Shedrack Festo Bwatota, Gabriel Mkilema Shirima, Luis E. Hernandez-Castro, Barend Mark de Clare Bronsvoort, Nick Wheelhouse, Isaac Joseph Mengele, Shabani Kiyabo Motto, Daniel Mushumbusi Komwihangilo, Eliamoni Lyatuu, Elizabeth Anne Jessie Cook
      First page: 662
      Abstract: Q fever is a zoonotic disease, resulting from infection with Coxiella burnetii. Infection in cattle can cause abortion and infertility, however, there is little epidemiological information regarding the disease in dairy cattle in Tanzania. Between July 2019 and October 2020, a serosurvey was conducted in six high dairy producing regions of Tanzania. Cattle sera were tested for antibodies to C. burnetii using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A mixed effect logistic regression model identified risk factors associated with C. burnetii seropositivity. A total of 79 out of 2049 dairy cattle tested positive with an overall seroprevalence of 3.9% (95% CI 3.06–4.78) across the six regions with the highest seroprevalence in Tanga region (8.21%, 95% CI 6.0–10.89). Risk factors associated with seropositivity included: extensive feeding management (OR 2.77, 95% CI 1.25–3.77), and low precipitation below 1000 mm (OR 2.76, 95% 1.37–7.21). The disease seroprevalence is relatively low in the high dairy cattle producing regions of Tanzania. Due to the zoonotic potential of the disease, future efforts should employ a “One Health” approach to understand the epidemiology, and for interdisciplinary control to reduce the impacts on animal and human health.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9120662
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 663: Ovarian Response and Fertility
           after Short-Term Progestagen/eCG Treatments Are Compromised in Nulliparous
           Sheep during Non-Breeding Season

    • Authors: Zurisaday Santos-Jimenez, Paula Martínez-Ros, Teresa Encinas, Juan Luis Morales-Cruz, Hugo Zuriel Guerrero-Gallegos, Ramiro Gonzalez-Avalos, Antonio Gonzalez-Bulnes, Juan Manuel Guillen-Muñoz
      First page: 663
      Abstract: The objective of this investigation was to determine the ovarian response, fertility, and prolificacy of nulliparous sheep when compared to multiparous sheep after a short-term (7 days) CIDR/eCG treatment which was administered during the non-breeding season. All the multiparous sheep, whereas only 54% of the nulliparous ewes, showed signs of estrus. However, 81.8% of the multiparous sheep and 100% of the nulliparous ewes ovulated. Fertility was also low after short-term progesterone treatments during the anestrous season in maiden sheep (30.8 vs. 72.7% in multiparous ewes). Such results indicate significant differences in the response to CIDR/eCG protocols for induction and synchronization of estrus and ovulation between nulliparous and multiparous sheep during the non-breeding season.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9120663
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 664: Intratesticular Versus
           Intrafunicular Lidocaine to Reduce Perioperative Nociception and
           Immunological Response in Ponies Undergoing Field Castration

    • Authors: Cecilia Vullo, Rosalia Crupi, Rosanna Di Paola, Salvatore Cuzzocrea, Enrico Gugliandolo, Vito Biondi, Giuseppe Catone
      First page: 664
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of intratesticular or intrafunicular lidocaine to reduce perioperative nociception and cytokine release in ponies undergoing field castration under total intravenous anaesthesia. Before castration, one group was injected with intrafunicular (FL) lidocaine and the other received intratesticular (TL) lidocaine. All ponies were premedicated with acepromazine (0.05 mg/kg) intramuscularly. Twenty minutes after the administration of acepromazine, xylazine (1 mg/kg) and butorphanol (0.02 mg/kg) were administered intravenously. Lidocaine 2% was given 1 ml/100 kg intrafunicularly in the FL groups or 2 ml/100 kg intratesticularly on each testicular side for TL. Surgery was performed by the same team of two experienced surgeons using Serra’s emasculator and an open technique was used for all ponies in order to promote postoperative drainage. In this study, we focused on the plasmatic levels of TNF-a and IL-6. The results from this study showed a significant difference in plasmatic concentrations of TNF-a and IL-6 between the two different locoregional anaesthetic protocols. Taken together, the results suggest that the intrafunicular lidocaine locoregional anaesthesia could be a useful technique in the anaesthesia protocol for field pony castration.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9120664
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 665: Reverse Sneezing in Dogs:
           Observational Study in 30 Cases

    • Authors: Jesús Talavera, Patricia Sebastián, Giorgia Santarelli, Ignacio Barrales, María Josefa Fernández del Palacio
      First page: 665
      Abstract: Reverse sneezing (RS) is a frequent reason for veterinary consultation, but there is scarce clinical information. The aim of this study was to describe clinical characteristics in a cohort of 30 dogs with RS. Signalment, clinical features, results of diagnostic tests, final diagnosis, and evolution were retrospectively evaluated. Sex and neuter status were equally distributed into diagnosis categories. A significantly higher representation of toys (<5 kg, 50%) and small-sized dogs (5–15 kg, 27%), in comparison to medium (15–30 kg, 17%) and large-sized dogs (>30 kg, 7%), was found. RS was the main owner concern in many of the cases (67%). Many cases presented chronic RS (60%, > 3 months), with more than one episode a week (60%). Most cases had an additional clinical respiratory sign (63%) and an unremarkable physical examination (63%). Inflammatory airway disorders were present in 57% of the cases, followed by anatomical–functional disorders (27%), and nasal/nasopharyngeal foreign bodies (10%). Two dogs (7%) remained as open diagnoses. Episodes of RS were persistent despite the treatment in 61% of the dogs with follow-up. Although some dogs manifest infrequent episodes of RS, being otherwise normal, RS should be considered a marker of potential irritation of the nasopharyngeal mucosa and should always be sufficiently investigated.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-11-29
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9120665
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 666: Detection of Colistin Sulfate on
           Piglet Gastrointestinal Tract Microbiome Alterations

    • Authors: Shulin Fu, Yuzhen Yuan, Xinyue Tian, Linglu Zhou, Ling Guo, Dan Zhang, Jing He, Chun Peng, Yinsheng Qiu, Chun Ye, Yu Liu, Bingbing Zong
      First page: 666
      Abstract: The gut microbiome exerts important functions on host health maintenance, whereas excessive antibiotic use may cause gut flora dysfunction resulting in serious disease and dysbiosis. Colistin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic with serious resistance phenomena. However, it is unclear whether colistin alters the gastrointestinal tract microbiome in piglets. In this study, 16s rDNA-based metagenome analyses were used to assess the effects of colistin on the modification of the piglet microbiome in the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, cecum, and feces. Both α- and β-diversity indices showed that colistin modified microbiome composition in these gastrointestinal areas. In addition, colistin influenced microbiome composition at the phylum and genus levels. At the species level, colistin upregulated Mycoplasma hyorhinis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Lactobacillus agilis, Weissella paramesenteroides, and Lactobacillus salivarius abundance, but downregulated Actinobacillus indolicus, Campylobacter fetus, Glaesserella parasuis, Moraxella pluranimalium, Veillonella caviae, Neisseria dentiae, and Prevotella disiens abundance in stomachs. Colistin-fed piglets showed an increased abundance of Lactobacillus mucosae, Megasphaera elsdenii DSM 20460, Fibrobacter intestinalis, and Unidentified rumen bacterium 12-7, but Megamonas funiformis, Uncultured Enterobacteriaceae bacterium, Actinobacillus porcinus, Uncultured Bacteroidales bacterium, and Uncultured Clostridiaceae bacterium abundance was decreased in the cecum. In feces, colistin promoted Mucispirillum schaedleri, Treponema berlinense, Veillonella magna, Veillonella caviae, and Actinobacillus porcinus abundance when compared with controls. Taken together, colistin modified the microbiome composition of gastrointestinal areas in piglets. This study provides new clinical rationalization strategies for colistin on the maintenance of animal gut balance and human public health.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-11-29
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9120666
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 667: Using Blood Transcriptome Analysis
           to Determine the Changes in Immunity and Metabolism of Giant Pandas with

    • Authors: Song Liu, Caiwu Li, Wenjun Yan, Senlong Jin, Kailu Wang, Chengdong Wang, Huiling Gong, Honglin Wu, Xue Fu, Linhua Deng, Changwei Lei, Ming He, Hongning Wang, Yanxi Cheng, Qian Wang, Shanshan Lin, Yan Huang, Desheng Li, Xin Yang
      First page: 667
      Abstract: A low reproductive rate coupled with human activities has endangered the giant panda, a species endemic to southwest China. Although giant pandas feed almost exclusively on bamboo, they retain carnivorous traits and suffer from carnivorous diseases. Additionally, their immune system is susceptible to aging, resulting in a reduced ability to respond to diseases. This study aimed to determine the genes and pathways expressed differentially with age in blood tissues. The differentially expressed genes in different age groups of giant pandas were identified by RNA-seq. The elderly giant pandas had many differentially expressed genes compared with the young group (3 years old), including 548 upregulated genes and 401 downregulated genes. Further, functional enrichment revealed that innate immune upregulation and adaptive immune downregulation were observed in the elderly giant pandas compared with the young giant pandas. Meanwhile, the immune genes in the elderly giant pandas changed considerably, including genes involved in innate immunity and adaptive immunity such as PLSCR1, CLEC7A, CCL5, CCR9, and EPAS1. Time series analysis found that giant pandas store glycogen by prioritizing fat metabolism at age 11, verifying changes in the immune system. The results reported in this study will provide a foundation for further research on disease prevention and the energy metabolism of giant pandas.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-11-30
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9120667
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 668: Joint Application of Lactobacillus
           plantarum and Bacillus subtilis Improves Growth Performance, Immune
           Function and Intestinal Integrity in Weaned Piglets

    • Authors: Yisi Liu, Wei Gu, Xiaoyi Liu, Youwei Zou, Yujun Wu, Youhan Xu, Dandan Han, Junjun Wang, Jinbiao Zhao
      First page: 668
      Abstract: This study was conducted to explore the effects of the joint application of Lactobacillus plantarum and Bacillus subtilis on growth performance, immune function, antioxidant capacity, intestinal integrity, and gut microbiota composition in weaned piglets. The piglets were allocated randomly into 4 dietary groups, which were a control diet (NC), NC + 150 ppm mucilage sulfate (PC), and 3 additional diets containing 1 kg/t (LT), 1.5 kg/t (MT), or 2 kg/t (HT) mixture of Lactobacillus plantarum and Bacillus subtilis, respectively. Results showed that joint application of Lactobacillus plantarum and Bacillus subtilis increased ADFI and ADG of weaned piglets in d 14~28 and d 28~42 (p < 0.05), and decreased serum concentrations of DAO, IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-2. The LT group increased jejunal and colonic sIgA contents compared with the PC group (p < 0.05). Groups of MT and HT increased colonic mRNA expression of host defense peptides and tight junction proteins compared with the NC and PC groups. The joint application of Lactobacillus plantarum and Bacillus subtilis increased the abundance of colonic Lactobacillus compared with NC and PC groups (p < 0.10). In conclusion, the joint application of Lactobacillus plantarum and Bacillus subtilis as an antibiotics alternative improved growth performance via promoting immune function and intestinal integrity of weaned piglets.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-11-30
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9120668
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 669: The Effect of Dog Presence on the
           Therapeutic Alliance: A Systematic Review

    • Authors: Timothy Collier, Pauleen Bennett, Vanessa Rohlf, Tiffani Howell
      First page: 669
      Abstract: The development of a therapeutic alliance represents one of the most important processes that occurs in psychological therapy and is one of the strongest predictors of treatment outcome. To ensure the effective delivery of psychological interventions, it is important to explore factors which may improve the therapeutic alliance. There are well-documented effects of human–animal interactions in social settings, and researchers have also considered the effect of dog presence on the therapeutic alliance. A systematic review was conducted in accordance with the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) checklist. Database searches included CINAHL, Cochrane, Embase, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Scopus. The inclusion criteria were studies that assessed the effect of dog presence on the therapeutic alliance and provided a quantitative outcome measure. Six studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the systematic review. Three of the included studies observed no significant effect of dog presence on the therapeutic alliance; three studies did observe a positive effect, with effect sizes ranging from d = 0.10 to d = 0.58. All six studies took place in either research or clinical settings. Studies differed in terms of help-seeking versus non-help-seeking populations, where help-seeking populations were genuinely pursuing a psychological intervention. Heterogeneity was observed regarding study procedure and outcome measures used. Current data is limited, and initial evidence suggests that the effect of dog presence on the therapeutic alliance remains unclear, illustrated by inconsistent outcomes across the included studies. Further research is warranted before introducing dogs into therapeutic settings for this purpose.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9120669
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 670: Characterization of Intestinal

    • Authors: Jingyi Sun, Weihao Chen, Zehu Yuan
      First page: 670
      Abstract: Diarrhea is one of the most commonly reported diseases in young farm animals. Escherichia coli (E. coli) F17 is one of the major pathogenic bacteria responsible for diarrhea. However, the pathogenicity of diarrhea in lambs involving E. coli F17 strains and how E. coli F17 infection modifies lambs’ intestinal microbiota are largely unknown. To evaluate diarrhea in newborn lambs with an infection of E. coli F17, 50 lambs were selected for challenge experiments and divided into four groups, namely, a high-dose challenge group, low-dose challenge group, positive control group, and negative control group. The E. coli F17 challenge experiments caused diarrhea and increased mortality in the experimental lamb population, with a higher prevalence (90%), mortality (35%), and rapid onset time (4–12 h) being observed in the high-dose challenge group than the results observed in the low-dose challenge group (75%, 10%, 6–24 h, respectively). After the challenge experiment, healthy lambs in the high-dose challenge group and severely diarrheic lamb in the low-dose challenge group were identified as lambs sensitive/resistant to E. coli F17 (E. coli F17 -resistant/-sensitive candidate, AN/SE) according to the histopathological detection. Results of intestinal contents bacteria plate counting revealed that the number of bacteria in the intestinal contents of SE lambs was 102~3-fold greater than that of the AN lambs, especially in the jejunum. Then, 16S rRNA sequencing was conducted to profile the intestinal microbiota using the jejunal contents, and the results showed that SE lambs had higher Lactococcus and a lower Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio and intestinal microbiota diversity in the jejunum than AN lambs. Notably, high abundance of Megasphaera elsdenii was revealed in AN lambs, which indicated that Megasphaera elsdenii may serve as a potential probiotic for E. coli F17 infection. Our study provides an alternative challenge model for the identification of E. coli F17-sensitive/-resistant lambs and contributes to the basic understandings of intestinal microbiota in lambs with different susceptibilities to E. coli F17.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9120670
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 671: Detection of a Novel
           Papillomavirus Type within a Feline Cutaneous Basal Cell Carcinoma

    • Authors: John S. Munday, Hayley Hunt, Geoff Orbell, Hayley Pfeffer
      First page: 671
      Abstract: A 4 cm diameter exophytic mass was excised from the left flank of a 10-year-old domestic short-haired cat. Histology of the superficial aspects of the mass revealed epidermal cells arranged in nests and trabeculae while the deeper parts of the mass consisted of small round cells arranged in sheets or bundles of elongate spindle-shaped cells. A diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) was made. Approximately 40% of the cells throughout the neoplasm contained prominent papillomaviral (PV)-induced cell changes. The BCC recurred three months after excision and grew rapidly. At this time a smaller mass was observed on the thorax. Due to the rapid recurrence of the BCC, the cat was euthanatized. As in the initial mass, histology of the recurrent mass revealed pleomorphic cells that often contained PV-induced cell changes. In contrast, the thoracic mass appeared as a more typical BCC and contained no histological evidence of PV infection. A novel PV DNA sequence was amplified from the flank BCC. While the sequence was most (75.1%) similar to Felis catus papillomavirus (FcaPV) 6, the level of similarity between the sequences is consistent with a novel PV type. No PV DNA was amplifiable from the thoracic mass. The case is unique due to the histological features of the BCC and the presence of a putative novel PV type. Observations from the present case add to the number of PV types associated with disease in cats as well as increasing the spectrum of PV-induced lesions in this species.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9120671
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 672: Impact of Supplementing
           Phytobiotics as a Substitute for Antibiotics in Broiler Chicken Feed on
           Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Biochemical Parameters

    • Authors: Anastasiya S. Zaikina, Nikolai P. Buryakov, Maria A. Buryakova, Artem Yu. Zagarin, Artem A. Razhev, Dmitrii E. Aleshin
      First page: 672
      Abstract: To determine the level of application and the effectiveness of the use of plant feed additives from sweet chestnut wood extract (Castanea Sativa Mill) in the diet of Cobb-500 cross broiler chickens, four groups were formed via the balanced groups method. The chickens in the experimental groups were supplemented with sweet chestnut wood extract in the main diet rather than a feed antibiotic at an amount of 500 g per ton of compound starter feed and 250 g per ton of grower and finisher in the second experimental group; 650 g per ton of compound starter feed and 325 g per ton of grower and finisher in the third experimental group; and 800 g per ton of compound starter feed and 400 g per ton of grower and finisher in the fourth experimental group. Supplementation with phytobiotics led to an increase in the digestibility of the dry matter in the second and third groups compared to the first experimental group. Furthermore, broiler chickens supplemented with a medium dose of phytobiotics revealed a significant difference in both crude protein and fiber when compared to the second experimental group (91.95% and 12.11% vs. 88.98% and 10.07%, respectively). The preslaughter weight of the birds in the phytobiotics supplemented groups was higher than in those fed with the lowest dosage of phytobiotic by 5.47%, and the difference was significant. There were no significant differences in terms of the blood biochemical parameters between the groups. In summary, the inclusion of plant feed additives from sweet chestnut wood extract as a substitute for an antibacterial drug in the diet of broiler chickens did not deteriorate the blood biochemical parameters and improved the intensity of the nutrient digestion process. As a result, it enhanced the quality indicators of the broiler carcass during the entire growth period.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-12-03
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9120672
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 673: Relation between the Dam’s
           Weight on Superficial Temperature of Her Puppies at Different Stages of
           the Post-Partum

    • Authors: Karina Lezama-García, Julio Martínez-Burnes, Juan Carlos Pérez-Jiménez, Adriana Domínguez-Oliva, Patricia Mora-Medina, Adriana Olmos-Hernández, Ismael Hernández-Ávalos, Daniel Mota-Rojas
      First page: 673
      Abstract: The thermal stability of newborns is an essential parameter that can be recorded to evaluate neonatal care. Knowing the thermal windows to evaluate and maintain a constant temperature helps significantly reduce neonatal mortality. This study aimed to assess the superficial temperature alterations in the distinct thermal windows of puppies with mothers of diverse weights and their repercussions. We evaluated the superficial temperature using infrared thermography at eight thermal windows and seven different times: when wet due to the fetal fluid immediately after birth until 24 h of life in newborn puppies from bitches divided into four bodyweight groups. The results revealed a positive correlation between the dam’s weight and the ability to achieve thermostability in the newborn puppies in all the evaluated thermal windows. The time effect showed the lowest temperatures when the puppies were still wet, a gradual increase, and the highest temperature at 24 h after birth. The thermal windows with the highest temperatures were abdominal, thoracic, nasal, and upper left palpebral, and those with the lowest were the thoracic limb brachial biceps, thoracic limb elbow, metacarpal, and femoral pelvic limb. A significant increase in the temperatures in the thermal windows of the abdominal, thoracic, and upper left palpebral immediately after ingesting colostrum was observed. The weight of the dams is an important factor that positively intervenes in the thermoregulatory capacity of the puppies, especially when newborns are dry and have been passed 24 h after birth.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-12-04
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9120673
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 674: Experimental Infection with
           Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Strain 232 in Swine Influences the Lower
           Respiratory Microbiota

    • Authors: Henrique Meiroz de Souza Almeida, Karina Sonalio, Marina Lopes Mechler-Dreibi, Fernando Antônio Moreira Petri, Gabriel Yuri Storino, Dominiek Maes, Luís Guilherme de Oliveira
      First page: 674
      Abstract: Mycoplasma (M.) hyopneumoniae, the etiological agent of swine enzootic pneumonia, has been reported to increase the susceptibility to secondary infections and modulate the respiratory microbiota in infected pigs. However, no studies have assessed the influence of M. hyopneumoniae on the respiratory microbiota diversity under experimental conditions. Therefore, this study evaluated the impact of M. hyopneumoniae infection on the respiratory microbiota of experimentally infected swine over time. To accomplish this, 12 weaned pigs from a M. hyopneumoniae-free farm were divided into two groups: M. hyopneumoniae strain 232 infected (n = 8) and non-infected (n = 4). The first group received 10 mL of Friis medium containing 107 CCU/mL of M. hyopneumoniae while the control group received 10 mL of sterile Friis medium. Inoculation of both groups was performed intratracheally when the animals were 35 days old (d0). At 28 days post-inoculation (dpi) and 56 dpi, 4 infected animals plus 2 controls were humanely euthanized, and biopsy samples of nasal turbinates (NT) and bronchus-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples were collected. The DNA was extracted from the individual samples, and each group had the samples pooled and submitted to next-generation sequencing. Taxonomic analysis, alpha and beta diversity indexes, weighted unifrac, and unweighted unifrac distances were calculated. A high relative frequency (99%) of M. hyopneumoniae in BALF samples from infected animals was observed with no significant variation between time points. The infection did not seem to alter the diversity and evenness of bacterial communities in NT, thus, M. hyopneumoniae relative frequency was low in NT pools from infected animals (28 dpi—0.83%; 56 dpi—0.89%). PCoA diagrams showed that BALF samples from infected pigs were grouped and far from the control samples, whereas NT from infected animals were not separated from the control. Under the present coditions, M. hyopneumoniae infection influenced the lower respiratory microbiota, which could contribute to the increased susceptibility of infected animals to respiratory infections.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-12-05
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9120674
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 675: Isolation, Characterization and
           Whole Genome Analysis of an Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli Phage

    • Authors: Leping Wang, Yizhou Tan, Yuying Liao, Lei Li, Kaiou Han, Huili Bai, Yajie Cao, Jun Li, Yu Gong, Xiaoye Wang, Hao Peng
      First page: 675
      Abstract: Escherichia coli (O78) is an avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC). It can cause perihepatitis, pericarditis, septicemia and even systemic infections in the poultry industry. With the incidence of antibiotic resistance reaching a crisis point, it is important to find alternative treatments for multidrug-resistant infections. The use of phages to control pathogens is a promising therapeutic option for antibiotic replacement. In this study, we isolated a lytic phage called vB_EcoS_GN06 from sewage. It lysed APEC GXEC-N22. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the phage belongs to family Siphoviridae. Phage GN06 has a 107,237 bp linear double-stranded DNA genome with 39.2% GC content and 155 coding sequences. It belongs to the genus Tequintavirus, subfamily Markadamsvirinae. The multiplicity of infection of 0.01 and the one-step growth showed that the latent time is 60 min and the burst size is 434 PFU/cell. Temperature and pH stability tests showed that phage GN06 was stable in the range of 4 °C–60 °C and pH 5–9. GN06 showed significant inhibition of APEC both within the liquid medium and in biofilm formation. These results suggest that phage GN06 has the potential to control bacterial pathogens. Thus, GN06 has the potential to be a new potential candidate for phage therapy.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-12-05
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9120675
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 676: Application of ORF3 Subunit
           Vaccine for Avian Hepatitis E Virus

    • Authors: Hongjian Yan, Zengna Chi, Hui Zhao, Yawen Zhang, Yuduo Zhang, Yixin Wang, Shuang Chang, Peng Zhao
      First page: 676
      Abstract: Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the main etiologic pathogen of chicken big liver and spleen disease which is widely prevalent in China in recent years. However, due to the lack of a highly effective culture system in vitro, a genetically engineered subunit vaccine is the main direction of vaccine development. In this study, ORF3 genes of VaHEV strain from laying hens and YT-aHEV strain from broilers were amplified, respectively, and ORF3 protein was successfully expressed by Escherichia coli prokaryotic expression system. The serum samples were collected periodically to detect avian HEV antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence after specific pathogen free chickens immunized with the two proteins and their mixed proteins, the results showed that all serum samples were positive for antibodies to avian HEV. The antibody-positive chickens were artificially challenged with the cell-adapted strain YT-aHEV strain. The chickens from the immunized control group were infected successfully; no fecal detoxification was detected in the immunized group. In this study, two representative strains of ORF3 subunit vaccines of laying hens and broilers were prepared by prokaryotic expression, the immune effects of different proteins of these were evaluated through immunization and challenge studies in vivo, which provided a new technical possibility for prevention and control of avian HEV.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-12-05
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9120676
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 583: HER2 Overexpression and
           Cytogenetical Patterns in Canine Mammary Carcinomas

    • Authors: L. V. Muscatello, F. Gobbo, E. Di Oto, G. Sarli, R. De Maria, A. De Leo, G. Tallini, B. Brunetti
      First page: 583
      Abstract: Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is a tyrosine kinase receptor that promotes tumor cell growth and is implicated in the pathogenesis of human breast cancer. The role of HER2 in canine mammary carcinomas (CMCs) is not clear. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the protein expression and cytogenetic changes of HER2 and their correlation with other clinical–pathological parameters in CMC. We retrospectively selected 112 CMCs. HER2, ER, and Ki67 were assessed by immunohistochemistry. HER2 antibody validation was investigated by immunoblot on mammary tumor cell lines. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed with probes for HER2 and CRYBA1 (control gene present on CFA9). HER2 protein overexpression was detected in 15 carcinomas (13.5%). A total of 90 carcinomas were considered technically adequate by FISH, and 8 out of 90 CMC (10%) were HER2 amplified, 3 of which showed a cluster-type pattern. HER2 overexpression was correlated with an increased number of HER2 gene copies (p = 0.01; R = 0.24) and overall survival (p = 0.03), but no correlation with ER, Ki67, grade, metastases, and tumor-specific survival was found. Surprisingly, co-amplification or polysomy was identified in three tumors, characterized by an increased copy number of both HER2 and CRYBA1. A morphological translocation-fusion pattern was recognized in 20 carcinomas (22%), with a co-localized signal of HER2 and CRYBA1. HER2 is not associated with clinical–pathological parameters of increased malignancy in canine mammary tumors, but it is suitable for studying different amplification patterns.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-10-22
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110583
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 584: Subtotal Ovariohysterectomy
           Following Fetal Maceration and Pyometra in a Maiden Welsh Pony Mare

    • Authors: Rory Nevard, Raphael Labens, Cyril P Stephen
      First page: 584
      Abstract: Fetal maceration and pyometra were diagnosed in a 16-year-old maiden Welsh pony mare. Due to anatomical and surgical difficulties encountered throughout treatment, previously reported techniques including both per-vaginum removal of fetal remnants and ovariohysterectomy were attempted and resulted in novel complications. Fetal bones were unable to be removed completely transcervically due to failure of cervical dilation despite repeated attempts. Subsequent surgical complications such as inadequate exposure of the uterus and incorporation of fetal bones into the uterine stump following ovariohysterectomy also occurred. This case highlights some of the difficulties in managing rare cases of mid-term fetal loss and retention that result in maceration. Ultimately, this may provide useful insights to practitioners when managing similar cases in future.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-10-23
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110584
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 585: Utilization of Mao (Antidesma
           thwaitesianum Muell. Arg.) Pomace Meal to Substitute Rice Bran on Feed
           Utilization and Rumen Fermentation in Tropical Beef Cattle

    • Authors: Nirawan Gunun, Pichad Khejornsart, Sineenart Polyorach, Chatchai Kaewpila, Thachawech Kimprasit, Ittipol Sanjun, Anusorn Cherdthong, Metha Wanapat, Pongsatorn Gunun
      First page: 585
      Abstract: This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of replacing rice bran with mao pomace meal on feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation in beef cattle. Four crossbred (50% Brahman × 50% Thai native) beef cattle with an initial body weight of 195 ± 13 kg and 16 months of age were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments included four levels of RB replacement with mao pomace meal at 0, 33, 67, and 100% in concentrate diets. Rice straw was used as a roughage source, fed ad libitum. Replacement of mao pomace meal with rice bran did not affect (p > 0.05) the intakes of concentrate, rice straw, and total dry matter intake. Ether extract intake decreased linearly when increasing the levels of mao pomace meal (p < 0.01). The experimental diets had no effect (p > 0.05) on the digestibility of fiber and crude protein, while dry matter, organic matter, and ether extract digestibility decreased linearly in the group of mao pomace meal replacing rice bran (p < 0.05). Increasing levels of mao pomace meal in concentrate diets did not alter rumen pH, ammonia–nitrogen, or total volatile fatty acid concentration (p > 0.05). The proportion of propionate increased linearly (p < 0.05), whereas acetate and the acetate to propionate ratio decreased linearly (p < 0.05) when replacing rice bran with mao pomace meal. Moreover, the proportion of propionate was greatest, while acetate was lowest when mao pomace meal was included at 100% in the concentrate diet. In conclusion, the replacement of rice bran with mao pomace meal in a diet could enhance the efficiency of rumen fermentation. Nonetheless, it reduced the digestion of nutrients in tropical beef cattle.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-10-23
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110585
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 586: An Overview of Transboundary

    • Authors: Gyanendra Gongal, Habibar Rahman, Kishan Chand Thakuri, Kennady Vijayalakshmy
      First page: 586
      Abstract: Transboundary animal diseases (TADs) pose a serious threat to the sustainability and economic viability of the existing animal agriculture ecosystem in south Asia. The rapid spread of African swine fever and lumpy skin diseases in south Asia must be considered a wake-up call to prevent the entry, spread, and establishment of new exotic TADs, as south Asia has the highest density of livestock populations, and it will have a huge socioeconomic impact. Regional cooperation for the prevention and control of TADs is necessary, but rational decisions should be made to initiate even sub-regional cooperation in the present geopolitical situation. Cross-border collaboration for surveillance, early warnings, and animal movement control should be encouraged on a bilateral or multilateral basis as many countries share a porous border. Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), peste des petits ruminants (PPR), and avian influenza (AI) have been identified as regional priority TADs, and many regional and country initiatives have been undertaken in the last two decades that need to be translated into action. The incursion of exotic TADs into south Asia has compelled us to rethink overall policies and strategies for prevention and control of TADs. This paper took into consideration six emerging and endemic TADs of viral origin to suggest a future course of action.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-10-24
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110586
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 587: Prevalence of Gastric Ulceration
           in Horses with Enterolithiasis Compared with Horses with Simple Large
           Intestinal Obstruction

    • Authors: Valeria Albanese, Amelia Munsterman, Andreas Klohnen
      First page: 587
      Abstract: Enterolithiasis is a well-documented cause of colic in horses, especially in some geographic areas such as California and Florida. This retrospective case-control study aims at comparing the prevalence of gastric ulcers in horses affected by enterolithiasis to that in horses affected by other types of large intestinal obstruction. Two hundred and ninety-six horses were included in the study sample. Horses that had surgery for the removal of one or more enteroliths were included in the study as cases. Patients that had surgery for large intestinal simple obstructions other than enterolithiasis (large colon displacement, non-strangulating large colon torsion, and large and small colon impactions) were selected to match case horses for age, sex, and breed and included as controls. A total of 101/148 horses with enteroliths (68%) had gastric ulcers diagnosed during hospitalization, compared with 46/148 of matched controls (31%). There was a significant association between enterolithiasis and gastric ulceration (odds ratio 4.76, p < 0.0001), and a greater prevalence in Thoroughbreds as compared with other breeds (odds ratio 22.6, p < 0.0001). We concluded that enterolithiasis is significantly associated with gastric ulceration (p < 0.0001). The association is stronger in Thoroughbreds.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-10-25
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110587
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 588: Effect of Procyanidin on Canine
           Sperm Quality during Chilled Storage

    • Authors: Xiaogang Huang, Zhihong Zhao, Ronggen Wang, Ying Ma, Yonghui Bu, Minhua Hu, Shouquan Zhang
      First page: 588
      Abstract: Procyanidin (PC) is a polyphenolic compound with antioxidant activity. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of PC on canine sperm quality after 72 h of storage at 4 °C. The collected ejaculates were separated into four equal aliquots and treated with various concentrations of PC (0, 10, 30, and 50 μg/mL) in Tris-citric-fructose-egg yolk (TCFE) extender and stored at 4 °C for 72 h. The findings revealed that 30 μg/mL PC was the optimum concentration for significantly improving sperm motility (p < 0.05). Sperm samples treated with 30 μg/mL PC had substantially greater plasma membrane integrity, acrosome integrity, and mitochondrial membrane potential than the control group (p < 0.05). Furthermore, T-AOC and the expression levels of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1) genes were significantly higher in sperm treated with 30 μg/mL PC than those in control (p < 0.05). In summary, this study discovered that adding PC to the TCFE extender enhanced sperm quality and that 30 μg/mL PC was the optimal concentration for canine sperm when stored at 4 °C.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-10-26
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110588
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 589: Effects of a Multimodal Approach
           Using Buprenorphine with/without Meloxicam on Food Intake, Body Weight,
           Nest Consolidating Behavior, Burrowing Behavior, and Gastrointestinal
           Tissues in Postoperative Male Mice

    • Authors: Kayo Furumoto, Yuka Sasaki, Masakatsu Nohara, Nagisa Takenaka, Noritaka Maeta, Teppei Kanda
      First page: 589
      Abstract: Distress affects animal welfare and scientific data validity. There is a lack of reports on the effects of multimodal analgesic approaches in mice. In this study, under the hypothesis that a multimodal analgesic protocol using buprenorphine with meloxicam has analgesic effects, we evaluated the effects of a multimodal analgesic protocol using buprenorphine with meloxicam on the well-being of mice during analgesic administration by changing the dosage of meloxicam. A total of 42 Slc:ICR male mice were categorized into nonsurgical and surgical groups (7 mice per group) and treated with an anesthetic (isoflurane) and analgesics (buprenorphine ± meloxicam). Analgesics were administered for 48 h after treatment. Buprenorphine (subcutaneous; 0.1 mg/kg/8 h) and meloxicam (subcutaneous; 0, 2.5, or 5 mg/kg/24 h) were administered twice. Body weight, food intake, nest consolidation score, and latency to burrow were evaluated. A significant decrease in food intake was observed 24 h after treatment, while a significant increase was observed 48 h post-treatment in all groups. Body weight showed a decreasing trend but was not significantly reduced. Furthermore, stomach, duodenum, and jejunum tissues showed no morphological abnormalities. Significant differences in burrow diving scores and the latency to burrow were observed between some groups, but these were not regarded as a consequence of the surgery and/or the meloxicam dose. When buprenorphine and meloxicam were combined, administering up to 5 mg/kg/day of meloxicam for 48 h to male mice after abdominal surgery had no significant negative effects on any tested parameters. In conclusion, a multimodal analgesic protocol of buprenorphine with meloxicam is among the options for increasing well-being in mice following abdominal surgery.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-10-26
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110589
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 590: Mortality during Transport of Pigs
           Subjected to Long Journeys: A Study in a Large European Abattoir

    • Authors: Eleonora Marti, Eleonora Nannoni, Giulio Visentin, Luca Sardi, Giovanna Martelli, Simona Belperio, Gaetano Liuzzo
      First page: 590
      Abstract: To date, especially in Europe, few studies have analysed the implications of long journeys on pig welfare and economic losses, expressed in terms of transport mortality. This study retrospectively analysed data collected from slaughtering registers and travel journals in a large Italian abattoir. We focused on pig transports coming from abroad and arriving at the slaughter plant after long journeys (a total of 59,982 pigs over 370 journeys). We explored the relationship between mortality and the following variables: country of origin, journey duration, astronomical season, stocking density on the truck, number of stops, and prolonged stops during the journey (lasting more than 60 min, likely due to traffic jams or truck problems). Overall, the low mortality rate observed (0.09%) was in line with European estimates. The factors with a significant or tendential effect on mortality during transport were the astronomical season (p = 0.0472, with higher mortality in spring) and the presence of prolonged stops during the journey (p = 0.069, tendential effect). Journey duration, stocking density, country of origin, and the number of stops were not statistically significant. In conclusion, based on this case study, using transport mortality combined with data collected during the common routine activity by the Public Veterinary Services in slaughterhouses could be a simple screening method for identifying problematic journeys or transport conditions.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-10-27
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110590
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 591: Genetic Characteristics of Canine
           Adenovirus Type 2 Detected in Wild Raccoon Dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides)
           in Korea (2017–2020)

    • Authors: Yoon-Ji Kim, Sook-Young Lee, Young-Sik Kim, Eun-Jee Na, Jun-Soo Park, Jae-Ku Oem
      First page: 591
      Abstract: Adenovirus has been detected in a wide range of hosts like dogs, foxes, horses, bats, avian animals, and raccoon dogs. Canine adenoviruses with two serotypes host mammals and are members of the mastadenovirus family. Canine adenovirus type 1 (CAdV-1) and canine adenovirus type 2 (CAdV-2) cause infectious canine hepatitis and infectious bronchial disease, respectively. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of CAdV-1 and 2 in wild Nyctereutes procyonoides in Korea in 2017–2020 from 414 tissue samples, including the liver, kidney, lung, and intestine, collected from 105 raccoon dog carcasses. Only CAdV-2 was detected in two raccoon dogs, whereas CAdV-1 was not detected. Tissue samples from raccoon dogs were screened for CAdV-1 and CAdV-2 using conventional PCR. Adenovirus was successfully isolated from PCR positive samples using the Vero cell line, and the full-length gene sequence of the isolated viruses was obtained through 5’ and 3’ rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The major genes of the isolated CAdV-2/18Ra54 and CAdV-2/18Ra-65 strains showed the closest relationship with that of the CAdV-2 Toronto A26/61 strain isolated from Canada in 1976. There is no large mutation between CAdV-2, which is prevalent worldwide, and CAdV-2, which is prevalent in wild animals in Korea. In addition, it is still spreading and causing infections. The Toronto A26/61 strain, which showed the most similarity to CAdV-2/18Ra-54, was likely transmitted to wild animals through vaccinated companion animals, suggesting that further research is needed on safety measures surrounding animal vaccination. This study provides information on the genetic characteristics and prevalence of canine adenovirus in domestic wild animals and provides a better understanding of canine adenovirus.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-10-27
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110591
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 592: Antibiotic Resistance and Species
           Profile of Enterococcus Species in Dogs with Chronic Otitis Externa

    • Authors: Jun Kwon, Hyoung Joon Ko, Myoung Hwan Yang, Chul Park, Se Chang Park
      First page: 592
      Abstract: Otitis externa, a common disease in dogs, has different etiologies. Enterococcus is a Gram-positive bacterium that frequently causes opportunistic ear infections. Here, we determined the distribution of Enterococcus in canine otitis externa via time-of-flight mass spectrometry and biochemical tests and evaluated their resistance patterns to 10 commonly used antibiotics. Among the 197 Enterococcus isolates, E. faecalis (48.7%; 96/197) was the most common, followed by E. faecium (21.3%; 42/197), E. casseliflavus (11.7%; 23/197), E. hirae (10.7%; 21/197), E. avium (3.6%; 7/197), E. gallinarum (2.5%; 5/197), E. canintestini (1.0%; 2/197), and E. durans (0.5%; 1/197). All isolates were tested for antibiotic resistance using the Kirby–Bauer disc diffusion method. Enterococcus faecalis strains were highly resistant to erythromycin (45.8%) and rifampin (34.3%) but were generally susceptible to penicillin class antibiotics. In contrast, E. faecium isolates were highly resistant to penicillin class antibiotics (ampicillin, 61.9%; penicillin, 71.4%). Most importantly, E. faecium demonstrated high resistance to most of the antibiotics used in this study. Multidrug resistance was found in 28.4% of the isolates (56/197). This study shows prevalence and antibiotics resistance profiles of Enterococcus species in canine chronic otitis externa. The results can contribute to establish therapeutic strategies of Enterococcus infections and be used as a comparable index of antibiotic resistance of Enterococcus in the future.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-10-27
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110592
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 593: A Case of a Small-Breed Dog with
           Diet-Related Dilated Cardiomyopathy Showing Marked Improvements in Cardiac
           Morphology and Function after Dietary Modification

    • Authors: Takahiro Saito, Ryohei Suzuki, Yunosuke Yuchi, Yuyo Yasumura, Takahiro Teshima, Hirotaka Matsumoto, Hidekazu Koyama
      First page: 593
      Abstract: An 11-year-old intact female Papillion weighing 2.1 kg was referred to our institution with the main complaint of shallow, rapid breathing. At the first visit (day 0), although clinical signs improved due to the use of medication from the primary hospital, transthoracic radiography and echocardiography revealed left heart enlargement and left ventricular dysfunction. A clinical diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) was made and oral administration of pimobendan, temocapril, and taurine was initiated. However, on day 10, the respiratory status worsened and furosemide was prescribed. On day 54, no significant improvement in heart size was observed. Additionally, the diet that this patient received met the recommendation for diet-related DCM by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, and the patient’s diet was changed from a grain-free diet to a grain-containing diet. On day 1191, the patient’s respiratory status was stable and no clinical signs were observed. Transthoracic radiography and echocardiography revealed an improvement in left heart size. Additionally, improvements in the left and right ventricular myocardial strains were observed after changing the diet. We suggest that it may be necessary to suspect a dietary association with dilated cardiomyopathy, and a good prognosis might be expected by dietary modification, even in small-breed dogs.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-10-27
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110593
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 594: Humeral Aneurysmal Bone Cyst in a
           Cat with Sequential Computed Tomographic Findings

    • Authors: Kihoon Kim, Hyungjoon Kim, Hyosung Kim, Yeonhea Lee, Jaehwan Kim, Sunhee Do, Hwiyool Kim
      First page: 594
      Abstract: A 7-year-old spayed female domestic shorthair cat presented with a swollen right forelimb and mild lameness. On physical examination, the mass was palpable in the right humeral region, and the cat exhibited pain on palpation. Radiography revealed an expansile osteolytic lesion at the proximal end of the right humerus. Computed tomography (CT) revealed an expansile bony mass on the proximal end of the right humerus and a mild periosteal reaction around the acromion of the scapula. Amputation of the right forelimb, including the scapula and removal of the axillary lymph node, were strongly recommended to the owner, but were declined. Four months after the initial presentation, the cat presented with a dramatically swollen right forelimb and progressive lameness. CT was performed again. In addition to osteolytic changes in the mass, vascular development had occurred at the cranioproximal region. The right forelimb, including the scapula and ipsilateral lymph nodes, was removed. The cat died during the postoperative recovery period. Based on clinical, diagnostic imaging, and histological findings, the final diagnosis was aneurysmal bone cyst. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of an aneurysmal bone cyst in the humerus of a cat.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-10-27
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110594
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 595: Comparison of Analytical Values
           after Changing to the International Standardized Method for Lactate
           Dehydrogenase and Alkaline Phosphatase Measurements in Mouse and Rat

    • Authors: Kayo Furumoto, Noboru Fujitani, Masakatsu Nohara, Akihisa Hata
      First page: 595
      Abstract: Since April 2020, the method for lactate dehydrogenase (LD) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity measurements in Japan has been switched from the Japan Society of Clinical Chemistry (JSCC) reference method, which is only used in Japan, to the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) reference method. However, in some species, the relationship between the blood values of both enzymes measured by the two methods remains unclear. Hence, values measured by these two methods cannot be used interchangeably. Therefore, this relationship was examined in ICR mice and Wistar/ST rats. The LD and ALP values obtained by both methods were plotted on scatter graphs, and regression equations were obtained. To compare the JSCC (x) and IFCC (y) methods, regression equations were generated for LD values in non-hemolytic samples as follows: y = 0.954x − 4.008 for ICR mice and y = 0.963x − 6.324 for Wistar/ST rats. The conversion factors from the JSCC to the IFCC methods were 0.954 (mice) and 0.963 (rats). The conversion coefficients from the IFCC to the JSCC methods were 1.048 (mice) and 1.088 (rats). For ALP values in fasted mouse and rat samples, the regression equations were y = 0.336x − 2.247 and y = 0.314x − 17.626, respectively. The conversion factors from the JSCC to the IFCC methods were 0.336 (mice) and 0.314 (rats). The conversion coefficients from the IFCC to the JSCC methods were 2.978 (mice) and 3.188 (rats). These conversion factors can be used for the mutual conversion of both measured values during the transition period from the JSCC to the IFCC method. However, it should be noted that the conversion coefficients for both LD and ALP were affected by isozyme composition.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-10-27
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110595
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 596: A Reciprocal Transplant Experiment
           Confirmed Mite-Resistance in a Honey Bee Population from Uruguay

    • Authors: Yamandú Mendoza, Estela Santos, Sabrina Clavijo-Baquett, Ciro Invernizzi
      First page: 596
      Abstract: In the past few years there has been an increasing interest for the study of honey bee populations that are naturally resistant to the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, aiming to identify the mechanisms that allow the bees to limit the reproduction of the mite. In eastern Uruguay there are still bees resistant to mites that survive without acaricides. In order to determine if the differential resistance to V. destructor was maintained in other environments, a reciprocal transplant experiment was performed between the mite-resistant bee colonies and the mite-susceptible bee colonies from the east and the west of the country, respectively, infesting bees with local mites. In both regions, the mite-resistant colonies expressed a higher hygienic behavior and presented a higher phoretic mites/reproductive mites and mites in drone cells/mites in worker cells ratio than the mite-susceptible colonies. All the mite-susceptible colonies died during fall–winter, while a considerable number of mite-resistant colonies survived until spring, especially in the east of the country. This study shows that the bees in the east of the country maintain in good measure the resistance to V. destructor in other regions and leaves open the possibility that the mites of the two populations have biases in the reproductive behavior.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110596
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 597: The Use of Oncept Melanoma Vaccine
           in Veterinary Patients: A Review of the Literature

    • Authors: MacKenzie A. Pellin
      First page: 597
      Abstract: The Oncept melanoma vaccine is xenogeneic DNA vaccine targeting tyrosinase. It is USDA approved for treatment of stage II to III canine oral melanoma and is also used off-label for melanomas arising in other locations and in other species. While the vaccine appears safe, the published data is mixed as to whether it provides a survival benefit, and the use of the vaccine is somewhat controversial in the veterinary oncology community. In this paper, the published literature describing the use of Oncept is reviewed and evaluated.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110597
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 598: Postnatal Dynamics of Circulating
           Steroid Hormones in Mule and Equine Neonates

    • Authors: Yatta Linhares Boakari, Erin Legacki, Maria Augusta Alonso, Ana Carolina Francisco dos Santos, Marcilio Nichi, Alan J. Conley, Claudia Barbosa Fernandes
      First page: 598
      Abstract: It is necessary to study hormonal patterns from mules to recognize alterations and neonatal maladaptation. Our objective was to evaluate concentrations of hormones in mule (n = 6) and equine foals (n = 6). Blood was collected at T0, 1, 6 and 12 h after birth. Hormone concentrations were evaluated using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Effects of time, group and interactions and regression analysis were evaluated (p < 0.05). There was a cubic and quadratic decline in mule and equine foals, respectively, for 3β,20α-dihydroxy-DHP. Mule foals were born with lower circulating 3β,20α-dihydroxy-DHP concentrations, which might be related to progestogen concentrations in mares with a hybrid placenta. Corticosterone and cortisol concentrations remained unchanged for the first hour post-foaling then declined in mule and equine foals (p < 0.0001). Dehydroepiandrosterone was the main androgen present. There was a decrease in dihydrotestosterone at 12 h (p = 0.002). Differences in the temporal patterns of secretion within each steroid class, pregnanes, corticoids, and androgens, suggest they were derived from different tissue sources, presumptively the placenta, adrenals and gonads of the fetus/neonate, respectively. Mule and horse foals were born without evidence of testosterone secretion. For the first time, steroid hormone levels were measured in neonatal mules, and this will provide insight into neonatal physiology that differs from equine and allow us to gain an understanding of mules that have rarely been studied. Further studies are needed to elucidate the effects of hybrid pregnancies in the steroid endocrinology of neonates.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110598
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 599: Ultrasound Diagnosis in Small
           Ruminants: Occurrence and Description of Genital Pathologies

    • Authors: Mário Felipe Alvarez Balaro, Isabel Oliveira Cosentino, Ana Clara Sarzedas Ribeiro, Felipe Zandonadi Brandão
      First page: 599
      Abstract: This study reports the occurrence and appearance of various reproductive tract pathologies of small ruminants diagnosed using ultrasound. An eight-year retrospective study of collected ultrasound data was carried out in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil from September 2012 to July 2020. A total of 3463 animals from 16 sheep flocks and 10 dairy goat flocks, raised under extensive and intensive management systems, respectively, were used in the study. All animals were submitted to an ultrasound examination of their reproductive tract. Data were analyzed using Fisher’s exact test (p < 0.05), to compare disorder frequencies within and between species. Ewes (4.14%) had fewer reproductive disorders than does (8.98%), while rams (43.63%) and bucks (56.25%) presented no significant differences. Hydrometra was the most frequent finding in does, represented by 50.98% of cases; while, in ewes, recent fetal loss (22.85%) and cystic endometrial hyperplasia (20.00%) were the most frequent. In bucks, the findings showed no clear differences; while, for rams, the most frequent finding was testicular microlithiasis (75.00%). Ultrasonography offers clinically useful information about the reproductive tract via the images it provides; knowledge of which makes it possible to improve the diagnosis, therapy, and prognosis of genital pathologies.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110599
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 600: Identification of a
           5-Methylcytosine Site (mC-7) That May Inhibit CXCL11 Expression and
           Regulate E. coli F18 Susceptibility in IPEC-J2 Cells

    • Authors: Xiaoru Shi, Luchen Yu, Rufeng Huang, Wenbin Bao, Shenglong Wu, Zhengchang Wu
      First page: 600
      Abstract: The primary pathogen causing post-weaning diarrhea in piglets is Escherichia coli F18 (E. coli F18), hence it is essential to investigate the mechanism governing E. coli F18 resistance in native pig breeds. Based on the previous RNA-seq results of the duodenum from E. coli F18-resistant and -susceptible Meishan piglets, CXCL11, an important functional gene, was preliminarily screened. In this investigation, in order to further examine the expression regulation mechanism of E. coli F18 in intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) against E. coli F18 infection, CXCL11 gene expression on IPEC-J2 cells infected by E. coli F18 was detected, which was significantly downregulated (p < 0.01). Secondly, the overexpression on the IPEC-J2 cell line was successfully structured, and a relative quantification method of the PILIN, bacteria enumeration, and immunofluorescence assay indicated that the CXCL11 overexpression significantly reduced the ability of E. coli F18 to interact with IPEC-J2 in vitro. The promoter region of the CXCL11 gene was predicted to contain a CpG island (−619 ~ −380 bp) of which 13 CpG sites in the sequencing region were methylated to varying degrees, and the methylation level of one CPG site (mC-7) positively linked negatively with the expression of the CXCL11 gene (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, a dual luciferase assay detected the mutation of the mC-7 site that significantly inhibited the luciferase activity of the CXCL11 gene promoter (p < 0.01). Transcription factor prediction and expression verification indicated that mC-7 is located in the OSR1-binding domain, and that its expression level is related to E. coli F18 susceptibility. We speculated that methylation modification of the mC-7 site of the CpG island in the promoter region of the CXCL11 gene might inhibit the binding of transcription factor OSR1 with the mC-7 site, and then affect its expression level to regulate the susceptibility to E. coli F18.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110600
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 601: Dural Changes Induced by an
           Ultrasonic Bone Curette in an Excised Porcine Spinal Cord

    • Authors: Rizou Ota, Eri Iwaki, Kentaro Sakai, Tomohiro Haraguchi, Yasuyuki Kaneko, Satoshi Sekiguchi, Ryoji Yamaguchi, Kiyokazu Naganobu
      First page: 601
      Abstract: In spinal surgery, ultrasonic bone curettes are considered unlikely to cause mechanical injury to the dura; however, there is little evidence to support this claim. We investigated the effect of direct contact with an ultrasonic bone curette on the dura and the protective effect of covering the dura with a cotton pattie using an excised porcine spinal cord. The ultrasonic bone curette was pressed against the porcine spinal cord with constant force and activated for 1 s, with or without covering the dura with a cotton pattie. The dural surface and cross-section were observed using electron and light microscopy. When the ultrasonic bone curette was applied directly against the dura, most specimens showed non-perforating dural injuries. However, none of the specimens showed dural perforation. Histological changes were also observed. The use of a cotton pattie reduced the occurrence of these changes, although it did not prevent them when ultrasonic vibration was applied with a large force. We considered ultrasonic bone curettes to have a low risk of dural perforation and, thus, to be a safe surgical device as long as they did not accidentally make strong contact with the dura.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110601
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 602: The Equine Dental Pulp: Analysis
           of the Stratigraphic Arrangement of the Equine Dental Pulp in Incisors and
           Cheek Teeth

    • Authors: Jessica Roßgardt, Laura Beate Heilen, Kathrin Büttner, Jutta Dern-Wieloch, Jörg Vogelsberg, Carsten Staszyk
      First page: 602
      Abstract: In the crown pulp of brachydont teeth, a cell-free and a cell-rich zone are established beneath the odontoblastic layer, indicating a mature status. For the equine dental pulp, there are no descriptions which allow for a comparative analysis with regard to functional requirements in terms of lifelong secondary dentin production to compensate for occlusal wear. For histomorphological and immunohistological investigations, ten incisors and ten check teeth were used from seven adult horses and five foals. In the periphery of the equine dental pulp, a constant predentin and odontoblastic cell layer was present, followed by densely packed fibroblastic cells, capillary networks, and a high concentration of nerve fibers, suggesting a subodontoblastic supportive zone. Whilst the size of the equine dental pulp decreased with age, the numbers of blood vessels, nerve fibers, and fibroblastic cells increased with age. Histological analysis of the equine dental pulp did not show a cell-free and cell-rich zone as described in the brachydont crown pulp. The equine dental pulp remained in a juvenile status even in aged horses, with morphological features indicating a high capacity for dentine production.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-10-30
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110602
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 603: The Genomic and Genetic Evolution
           Analysis of Rabbit Astrovirus

    • Authors: Qiaoya Zhao, Ye Tian, Liping Liu, Yifei Jiang, Haitao Sun, Shanjie Tan, Bing Huang
      First page: 603
      Abstract: Rabbit astrovirus (RAstV) is a pathogen that causes diarrhea in rabbits, with high infection rate at various stages, which can often cause secondary or mixed infections with other pathogens, bringing great economic losses to the rabbit industry. In this study, 10 samples were collected from cases of rabbits with diarrhea on a rabbit meat farm in the Shandong area of China. The positive sample for astrovirus detected by RT-PCR was inoculated into an RK 13 cell line. A rabbit astrovirus strain named Z317 was successfully isolated, which produced an obvious cytopathic effect 48 h post-inoculation in the RK 13 cell line. The genome structure of this isolate was studied by high-throughput sequencing, showing that the Z317 strain had the highest similarity with the American strain TN/2208/2010, with 92.43% nucleotide homology, belonging to group MRAstV-23. The basic properties of the Z317 capsid (Cap) protein were analyzed, and 10 liner B cell epitopes were screened with the online biosoft Bepipred 2.0 and SVMTriP, including 445–464, 186–205, 655–674, 88–107, 792–811, 45–64, and 257–276 amino acids. This is the first contribution concerning RAstV genomes in China; more studies are needed to understand the diversity and impact of RAstV on rabbit health.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-10-31
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110603
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 604: Use of Transversus Abdominis Plane
           and Intercostal Blocks in Bitches Undergoing Laparoscopic Ovariectomy: A
           Randomized Controlled Trial

    • Authors: Andrea Paolini, Francesco Santoro, Amanda Bianchi, Francesco Collivignarelli, Massimo Vignoli, Silvia Scialanca, Salvatore Parrillo, Ilaria Falerno, Andrea De Bonis, Martina Rosto, Roberto Tamburro
      First page: 604
      Abstract: In humans and dogs, loco-regional anesthesia is associated with lower peri-operative opioid consumption and less related side effects. The combination of transversus abdominis plane (TAP) and intercostal blocks can be used to desensitize the entire abdominal wall in dogs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of TAP and intercostal blocks in bitches undergoing laparoscopic ovariectomy. Twenty client-owned bitches were enrolled in this double-blinded randomized controlled trial. After premedication with dexmedetomidine, methadone and ketamine, the animals were randomized into two groups. Dogs in the TAP group received intercostal blocks from T8 to T10 and a TAP block with ropivacaine. Dogs in the FEN group received a fentanyl bolus and a constant rate infusion for the entire duration of the procedure. Intra-operative cardiovascular stability, post-operative pain scores, rescue opioid requirement, dysphoria during recovery, time to attain sternal recumbency and interest in food at 6 h post-extubation were compared. Bitches in the TAP group received a statistically significant lower amount of rescue fentanyl intra-operatively and methadone post-operatively. Pain scores were lower in the TAP group until 6 h post-extubation. No difference was found for dysphoric recoveries, time to attain sternal recumbency and appetite at 6 h post-extubation. No adverse event was recorded for any of the dogs. The combination of TAP and intercostal blocks can be part of an effective multi-modal analgesic strategy in bitches undergoing laparoscopic ovariectomy.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-10-31
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110604
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 605: Less Typical Courses of
           Rhodococcus equi Infections in Foals

    • Authors: Alicja Rakowska, Agnieszka Marciniak-Karcz, Andrzej Bereznowski, Anna Cywińska, Monika Żychska, Lucjan Witkowski
      First page: 605
      Abstract: This article aims to present several interesting and less typical courses of Rhodococcus equi infections in foals, collected during the 2019–2021 foaling seasons in some Polish studs. The study was conducted by the Division of Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, Warsaw University of Life Sciences—SGGW, and concentrated on ultrasonographic contribution to diagnostics and treatment of the disease. Among many standard cases of rhodococcal pneumonia, some rare ones occurred. The aforementioned issues include the potential contribution of rhodococcal infection to a grave outcome in a prematurely born filly, lost as a yearling, so-called “extrapulmonary disorders” (EPD), a hypothesis of inherited immunodeficiency with grave outcome in a breeding dam line from one stud, and macrolide-induced anhidrosis. The main benefit of this report would be to supplement the general picture of clinical rhodococcosis.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-10-31
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110605
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 606: Climate Change Influences the
           Spread of African Swine Fever Virus

    • Authors: Shraddha Tiwari, Thakur Dhakal, Tae-Su Kim, Do-Hun Lee, Gab-Sue Jang, Yeonsu Oh
      First page: 606
      Abstract: Climate change is an inevitable and urgent issue in the current world. African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a re-emerging viral animal disease. This study investigates the quantitative association between climate change and the potential spread of ASFV to a global extent. ASFV in wild boar outbreak locations recorded from 1 January 2019 to 29 July 2022 were sampled and investigated using the ecological distribution tool, the Maxent model, with WorldClim bioclimatic data as the predictor variables. The future impacts of climate change on ASFV distribution based on the model were scoped with Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP 2.6, 4.5, 6.0, and 8.5) scenarios of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) bioclimatic data for 2050 and 2070. The results show that precipitation of the driest month (Bio14) was the highest contributor, and annual mean temperature (Bio1) was obtained as the highest permutation importance variable on the spread of ASFV. Based on the analyzed scenarios, we found that the future climate is favourable for ASFV disease; only quantitative ratios are different and directly associated with climate change. The current study could be a reference material for wildlife health management, climate change issues, and World Health Organization sustainability goal 13: climate action.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-11-01
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110606
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 607: Preliminary Studies on the
           Intrahepatic Anatomy of the Venous Vasculature in Cats

    • Authors: Mélanie Davy Metzger, Elke Van der Vekens, Juliane Rieger, Franck Forterre, Simona Vincenti
      First page: 607
      Abstract: Hepatic surgeries are often performed in cats to obtain a disease diagnosis, for the removal of masses, or for the treatment of shunts. Whereas the vascular anatomy of the liver has been studied in dogs, such evidence is lacking in cats. The current study used corrosion casts of portal and hepatic veins and computed tomography (CT) analysis of the casts to identify and describe the intrahepatic anatomy in healthy cat livers (n = 7). The results showed that feline livers had a consistent intrahepatic portal and venous anatomy, with only minor disparities in the numbers of secondary and tertiary branches. The feline portal vein consistently divided into two major branches and not three, as previously described in the literature for cats. The finding of a portal vein originating from the right medial lobe branch leading to the quadrate lobe in 4/7 specimens is a novelty of the feline anatomy that was not previously described in dogs. Partial to complete fusion of the caudate process of the caudate and the right lateral lobe, with a lack of clear venous separation between the lobes, was present in two specimens. These findings allowed a detailed description of the most common intrahepatic venous patterns in cats. Further anatomical studies should be encouraged to confirm the present findings and to investigate the utility of this information in surgical settings.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-11-02
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110607
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 608: Immune and Genomic Analysis of
           Boxer Dog Breed and Its Relationship with Leishmania infantum Infection

    • Authors: Luis Álvarez, Pablo-Jesús Marín-García, Pilar Rentero-Garrido, Lola Llobat
      First page: 608
      Abstract: Leishmaniosis, one of the most important zoonoses in Europe, is caused by Leishmania infantum, an intracellular protozoan parasite. This disease is endemic in the Mediterranean area, where the main reservoir is the dog. Several studies indicate a possible susceptibility to L. infantum infection with clinical signs in some canine breeds. One of them is the boxer breed, which shows a high prevalence of disease. In this study, immunological and genomic characterization of serum samples from boxer dogs living in the Mediterranean area were evaluated to analyze the immune response and the possible genetic explanation for this susceptibility. Serum levels of cytokines IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-18 were determined by ELISA commercial tests, while the genotyping study was performed using the CanineHD DNA Analysis BeadChip. The results show relevant differences in the serum levels of cytokines compared to published data on other canine breeds, as well as sequence changes that could explain the high susceptibility of the boxer breed to the disease. Concretely, polymorphic variants in the CIITA, HSF2BP, LTBP1, MITF, NOXA1, PKIB, RAB38, RASEF, TLE1, and TLR4 genes were found, which could explain the susceptibility of this breed to L. infantum infection.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-11-02
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110608
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 609: Oviduct Epithelial Cell-Derived
           Extracellular Vesicles Improve Porcine Trophoblast Outgrowth

    • Authors: Xun Fang, Bereket Molla Tanga, Seonggyu Bang, Chaerim Seo, Heyyoung Kim, Islam M. Saadeldin, Sanghoon Lee, Jongki Cho
      First page: 609
      Abstract: Porcine species have a great impact on studies on biomaterial production, organ transplantation and the development of biomedical models. The low efficiency of in vitro-produced embryos to derive embryonic stem cells has made achieving this goal a challenge. The fallopian tube plays an important role in the development of embryos. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) secreted by oviductal epithelial cells play an important role in the epigenetic regulation of embryo development. We used artificially isolated oviductal epithelial cells and EVs. In this study, oviductal epithelial cell (OEC) EVs were isolated and characterized through transmission electron microscopy, nanoparticles tracking analysis, western blotting and proteomics. We found that embryo development and blastocyst formation rate was significantly increased (14.3% ± 0.6% vs. 6.0% ± 0.6%) after OEC EVs treatment. According to our data, the inner cell mass (ICM)/trophectoderm (TE) ratio of the embryonic cell number increased significantly after OEC EVs treatment (43.7% ± 2.3% vs. 28.4% ± 2.1%). Meanwhile, the attachment ability of embryos treated with OEV EVs was significantly improved (43.5% ± 2.1% vs. 29.2% ± 2.5%, respectively). Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), we found that the expression of reprogramming genes (POU5F1, SOX2, NANOG, KLF4 and c-Myc) and implantation-related genes (VIM, KRT8, TEAD4 and CDX2) significantly increased in OEC EV-treated embryos. We report that OEC EV treatment can improve the development and implantation abilities of embryos.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-11-04
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110609
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 610: Immune Activated Cellular Therapy
           for Drug Resistant Infections: Rationale, Mechanisms, and Implications for
           Veterinary Medicine

    • Authors: Lynn M. Pezzanite, Lyndah Chow, Alyssa Strumpf, Valerie Johnson, Steven W. Dow
      First page: 610
      Abstract: Antimicrobial resistance and biofilm formation both present challenges to treatment of bacterial infections with conventional antibiotic therapy and serve as the impetus for development of improved therapeutic approaches. Mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) therapy exerts an antimicrobial effect as demonstrated in multiple acute bacterial infection models. This effect can be enhanced by pre-conditioning the MSC with Toll or Nod-like receptor stimulation, termed activated cellular therapy (ACT). The purpose of this review is to summarize the current literature on mechanisms of antimicrobial activity of MSC with emphasis on enhanced effects through receptor agonism, and data supporting use of ACT in treatment of bacterial infections in veterinary species including dogs, cats, and horses with implications for further treatment applications. This review will advance the field’s understanding of the use of activated antimicrobial cellular therapy to treat infection, including mechanisms of action and potential therapeutic applications.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-11-04
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110610
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 611: Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma
           (DLBCL) in an Aged Raccoon (Procyon lotor)

    • Authors: Giulia D’Annunzio, Luca Gelmini, Giuseppe Sarli, Andrea Luppi, Francesca Gobbo, Patrizia Bassi, Gianluca Rugna
      First page: 611
      Abstract: A 15-years-old, captive, female raccoon (Procyon lotor) was necropsied after a one-week history of apathy and self-isolation. Gross changes consisted of the severe enlargement of the mesenteric lymph node; hepatosplenomegaly with multifocal to coalescing, white tan nodules in the spleen and liver,; and pale kidneys. Histologically, neoplastic CD79α-positive lymphocytes effaced the mesenteric lymph node and multifocally infiltrated the spleen, liver, and kidneys, and focally infiltrated the heart. Based on pathological and immunohistochemical findings, as well as the canine-adapted World Health Organization (WHO) diagnostic criteria, a diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) was made.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-11-04
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110611
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 612: Efficiency of Feed Utilization,
           Ruminal Traits, and Blood Parameters of Goats Given a Total Mixed Diet
           Ration Containing Extracted Oil Palm Meal

    • Authors: Pin Chanjula, Sarong So, Chanon Suntara, Rittikeard Prachumchai, Anusorn Cherdthong
      First page: 612
      Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the inclusion levels of extracted oil palm meal (EOPM) from biodiesel byproducts in the total mixed ration (TMR) for goats on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance, blood parameters, and rumen fermentation characteristics. The EOPM was included at 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% dry matter (DM) to formulate into four dietary treatments and assigned to goats with an average age of 12 months and an initial body weight of 23 ± 0.5 kg in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The PROC MIXED procedure was used to analyze all data, and the orthogonal polynomial was tested for EOPM levels using the SAS program. The DM intake, nitrogen, and metabolizable energy linearly (p < 0.05) increased when there was increased EOPM inclusion. Increasing EOPM inclusions resulted in (p < 0.05) a linear increase in fiber digestibility but did not affect DM, crude protein, or ether extract. Total volatile fatty acids increased (p < 0.05) linearly with increasing EOPM inclusions. The EOPM inclusions did not alter the bacteria, fungi, and protozoal populations. Blood parameters were not affected by the inclusions of EOPM except globulin, triglyceride, and MCV concentration. This study revealed that EOPM could be included in up to 20% DM in TMR for goats with no negative impact.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-11-04
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110612
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 613: Effect of In Ovo Vitamin C
           Injection against Mobile Phone Radiation on Post-Hatch Performance of
           Broiler Chicks

    • Authors: Fatma Yenilmez
      First page: 613
      Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the effect of in ovo injection of vitamin C to reduce the harmful effects of electromagnetic waves (EMWs) emitted from mobile phones on chicken embryos. In this study, a total of 750 fertilized eggs of Ross 308 were exposed to EMWs for 1050 min during the incubation period. On the 17th day of incubation, the eggs were divided into three groups and solutions were injected into the amnion sac of embryos. The chicks were housed separately in accordance with in ovo treatments for 5 wk after hatching. An in ovo vitamin C injection resulted in a lower hatching weight. The post-hatch mortality or production efficiency factor of birds in the in ovo vitamin C injection group and the intact egg group were comparable, and were better than that of the other negative control group. In ovo vitamin C injection in eggs subjected to EMWs significantly increased their body weight gain, carcass weight, abdominal fat weight, and AST levels, but reduced spleen weight and PON-1 levels. In conclusion, an in ovo vitamin C injection in eggs subject to mobile phone EMWs improved the post-hatch performance of chicks, but low PON and high AST activities indicate an increase in oxidative damage among broiler chicks.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-11-05
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110613
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 614: Effect of Feed Supplementation
           with Tripotassium Citrate or Sodium Chloride on the Development of Urinary
           Calcium Oxalate Crystals in Fattening Pigs

    • Authors: Joris Vrielinck, Geert P. J. Janssens, Ilias Chantziaras, An Cools, Dominiek Maes
      First page: 614
      Abstract: The present study investigated whether dietary supplementation of tripotassium citrate or NaCl reduced the prevalence of calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) uroliths in fattening pigs on a farm with a high prevalence of COD uroliths. Each group (control, TPC, NaCl) consisted of three batches of approximately 260 fattening pigs each. Performance, water intake, markers for bone resorption (CTX) and bone formation (osteocalcin) and urinalysis from samples taken at the farm and in the slaughterhouse were investigated. Performance parameters, feed and water intake, CTX and osteocalcin were not significantly different between the groups (p > 0.05). The main crystals found were struvite, COD, calcite and amorphous crystals. The prevalence of COD crystals was lower in samples from the slaughterhouse in each group. Microscopic and biochemical examination of urine showed large differences between samples from the farm and the slaughterhouse. In conclusion, there were no beneficial effects of feed supplementation with TPC or NaCl on the prevalence of COD crystals but TPC has a clear promoting influence on the development of alkaline calcite crystals. Urinalysis from samples taken at the slaughterhouse does not fully reflect the situation on the farm.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-11-06
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110614
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 615: Lipopolysaccharide Promotes the
           Proliferation and Differentiation of Goose Embryonic Myoblasts by
           Promoting Cytokine Expression and Appropriate Apoptosis Processes

    • Authors: Jinhui Wang, Mengsi Fu, Danning Xu, Nan Cao, Wanyan Li, Yunbo Tian, Xumeng Zhang, Yunmao Huang
      First page: 615
      Abstract: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can trigger a series of immune reactions, leading to the occurrence of disease and a decrease in the growth performance of geese. However, the mechanisms of LPS in geese muscle development have not been reported. This study aimed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of LPS on proliferation and differentiation of goose embryonic myoblasts. Embelin and belnacasan combined with LPS were used to explore these effects. Our results demonstrated that LPS significantly induced inflammatory cytokine production in both proliferation and differentiation stages. LPS and embelin treatment significantly improved the proliferation ability (p < 0.05), while LPS reduced the differentiation ability of goose embryonic myoblasts. By adding embelin, the differentiation ability of myoblasts was enhanced, while by adding belnacasan, LPS treatment led to a lower differentiation ability. Combined with the correlation of the expression levels of myogenic, cell cycle, and inflammatory-related genes and proteins, it is speculated that one of the reason for the decrease of differentiation ability of goose embryo myoblasts induced by LPS is the increase of the expression levels of pro-inflammatory factors. Moreover, LPS, embelin and belnacasan, and LPS treatments could significantly increase the apoptosis rate of goose embryonic myoblasts. Taken together, these findings suggest that LPS promotes the proliferation and differentiation of goose embryonic myoblasts by promoting cytokine expression and appropriate apoptosis processes. These findings lay a foundation for the study of the mechanisms of LPS in goose muscle development.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-11-06
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110615
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 616: Pregnancies following Protocols
           for Repetitive Synchronization of Ovulation in Primiparous Buffaloes in
           Different Seasons

    • Authors: Giorgio A. Presicce, Domenico Vistocco, Massimo Capuano, Luigi Navas, Angela Salzano, Giovanna Bifulco, Giuseppe Campanile, Gianluca Neglia
      First page: 616
      Abstract: Primiparous buffaloes were tested in two periods of the year characterized, by either low or high reproductive efficiency. They were subjected to two protocols for synchronization of ovulation: (i) Ovsynch (OV) and (ii) progesterone based (P4) treatment. After calving, the animals underwent a series of four cycles of re-synchronization protocols. The season did not affect pregnancy rates when the results of the two treatments were pooled together with regard to the first synchronization protocol, followed by AI. Pregnancy rates were similar during the low breeding season (50.3% vs. 57.4% in OV and P4, respectively), but different during the high breeding season (50.4% vs. 67.7% in OV and P4, respectively; p = 0.000). Logistic regression confirmed a significant effect of treatment and season interaction on pregnancy (p = 0.003). Following re-synchronization, a treatment by season interaction was detected during the low breeding season (odds ratio = 2.233), in favor of P4. Finally, a survival analysis showed a better response of animals subjected to P4 treatment from the second AI onward. In conclusion, the pooled data of pregnancy rates from both treatments between seasons are not different following AIs. Better results, though, were obtained from the implementation of P4 treatment, and are recorded in a season-fashioned mode when the comparison is made following first or cumulative AIs.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-11-07
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110616
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 617: The Chemical Composition,
           Fermentation End-Product of Silage, and Aerobic Stability of Cassava Pulp
           Fermented with Lactobacillus casei TH14 and Additives

    • Authors: Sunisa Pongsub, Chanon Suntara, Waroon Khota, Waewaree Boontiam, Anusorn Cherdthong
      First page: 617
      Abstract: This study evaluated the effects of cassava pulp fermented with Lactobacillus casei TH14, urea, and molasses on its chemical composition, the fermentation end-product of silage, and aerobic stability. A 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with a randomized complete block design was employed. The first factor: level of L. casei TH14 [L; 0 and 105 cfu/kg fresh matter (FM)], the second factor: level of molasses (M; 0 and 4% DM), the third factor: level of urea (U; 0 and 4% DM), and the number of days of fermentation (7, 14, and 21 days) were evaluated using a statistical block. There were interactions among CSP fermented with different additives on DM content (p < 0.05). The control group (CON) and CSP fermented with L, L×M, and L×U had lower DM contents than U, U×M, and L×U×M. The crude protein of CSP was increased by interaction of L×U and U×M additives (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). Interaction effects between L and U and NDF content were detected (p < 0.05). The L×U combination resulted in a significantly lower NDF than the other groups. The interaction between L×U×M had no effect on the change in the CSP fermentation process (p > 0.05). The combination of U×M caused a poorer pH than other groups (p < 0.01). The ammonia-N content was higher than others, when CSP was fermented with L×U (p < 0.01) or U×M (p < 0.05), respectively. The lactic acid levels in fermented CSP were higher (p < 0.01) than in other groups through the L. casei. The interaction between L×U×M had an influence on lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (p < 0.01) and aerobic bacteria (p < 0.01). The highest LAB population (p < 0.01) at 106 cfu/g FM was found in CSP fermented with L. casei and molasses. In conclusion, the current study shows that CSP treated with L×U×M resulted in good preservation by recovering DM, a low number of aerobic bacteria, and greater LAB than other treatments, with the exception of the L×U×M addition. A 21-day fermentation period is advised because it produces products with greater levels of crude protein, lactic acid, acetic acid, and propionic acid.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-11-07
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110617
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 618: Evaluation of a Point-of-Care
           Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) Test Kit (RapidSTATUS™ FIV) to
           Determine the FIV Status of FIV-Vaccinated and FIV-Unvaccinated Pet Cats
           in Australia

    • Authors: Ashley Cheang, Mark E. Westman, Jennifer Green
      First page: 618
      Abstract: Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a retrovirus that can cause immunosuppression, co-morbidities, and neoplasia in infected cats, and is commonly tested for in veterinary clinics and animal shelters in Australia. FIV diagnosis using point-of-care (PoC) kits to detect FIV antibodies in Australia is complicated by the commercial availability of an inactivated whole-FIV vaccine. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of the RapidSTATUS™ FIV antibody test kit in FIV-vaccinated and FIV-unvaccinated cats in Australia. Plasma from pet cats of known FIV vaccination and FIV infection statuses (n = 361), comprised of 57 FIV-uninfected cats annually vaccinated against FIV, 10 FIV-uninfected cats with lapsed FIV vaccination histories, 259 FIV-unvaccinated/FIV-uninfected cats, and 35 FIV-infected cats, was tested. RapidSTATUS™ FIV testing had sensitivity of 97.1% (34/35) and specificity of 100% (326/326), with an overall accuracy of 99.7% (360/361). Additional testing was undertaken using plasma from FIV-uninfected cats recently administered a primary FIV vaccination course (n = 12) or an annual booster FIV vaccination (n = 10). RapidSTATUS™ FIV was 98.8% (81/82) accurate and 100% (32/32) accurate in cats recently administered primary or annual FIV vaccinations, respectively. The high level of accuracy of RapidSTATUS™ FIV (98.8–100%) therefore establishes this PoC kit as a DIVA (differentiating infected from vaccinated animals) test. RapidSTATUS™ FIV is recommended to aid animal shelters, veterinarians, and researchers in Australia to accurately determine FIV infection status, irrespective of FIV vaccination history.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-11-08
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110618
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 619: Sound Localization Ability in Dogs

    • Authors: Cécile Guérineau, Miina Lõoke, Anna Broseghini, Giulio Dehesh, Paolo Mongillo, Lieta Marinelli
      First page: 619
      Abstract: The minimum audible angle (MAA), defined as the smallest detectable difference between the azimuths of two identical sources of sound, is a standard measure of spatial auditory acuity in animals. Few studies have explored the MAA of dogs, using methods that do not allow potential improvement throughout the assessment, and with a very small number of dog(s) assessed. To overcome these limits, we adopted a staircase method on 10 dogs, using a two-forced choice procedure with two sound sources, testing angles of separation from 60° to 1°. The staircase method permits the level of difficulty for each dog to be continuously adapted and allows for the observation of improvement over time. The dogs’ average MAA was 7.6°, although with a large interindividual variability, ranging from 1.3° to 13.2°. A global improvement was observed across the procedure, substantiated by a gradual lowering of the MAA and of choice latency across sessions. The results indicate that the staircase method is feasible and reliable in the assessment of auditory spatial localization in dogs, highlighting the importance of using an appropriate method in a sensory discrimination task, so as to allow improvement over time. The results also reveal that the MAA of dogs is more variable than previously reported, potentially reaching values lower than 2°. Although no clear patterns of association emerged between MAA and dogs’ characteristics such as ear shape, head shape or age, the results suggest the value of conducting larger-scale studies to determine whether these or other factors influence sound localization abilities in dogs.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-11-08
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110619
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 620: A Review of Radiomics and
           Artificial Intelligence and Their Application in Veterinary Diagnostic

    • Authors: Othmane Bouhali, Halima Bensmail, Ali Sheharyar, Florent David, Jessica P. Johnson
      First page: 620
      Abstract: Great advances have been made in human health care in the application of radiomics and artificial intelligence (AI) in a variety of areas, ranging from hospital management and virtual assistants to remote patient monitoring and medical diagnostics and imaging. To improve accuracy and reproducibility, there has been a recent move to integrate radiomics and AI as tools to assist clinical decision making and to incorporate it into routine clinical workflows and diagnosis. Although lagging behind human medicine, the use of radiomics and AI in veterinary diagnostic imaging is becoming more frequent with an increasing number of reported applications. The goal of this paper is to provide an overview of current radiomic and AI applications in veterinary diagnostic imaging.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-11-08
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110620
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 621: Hydrogen-Rich Water Mitigates
           LPS-Induced Chronic Intestinal Inflammatory Response in Rats via Nrf-2 and
           NF-κB Signaling Pathways

    • Authors: Jin Peng, Qi He, Shuaichen Li, Tao Liu, Jiantao Zhang
      First page: 621
      Abstract: Long-term exposure to low-dose lipopolysaccharide can impair intestinal barriers, causing intestinal inflammation and leading to systemic inflammation. Hydrogen-rich water possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory functions and exerts inhibitory effects on various inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated whether oral hydrogen-rich water could prevent lipopolysaccharide-induced chronic intestinal inflammation. An experimental model was established by feeding hydrogen-rich water, followed by the injection of lipopolysaccharide (200 μg/kg) in the tail vein of rats after seven months. ELISA, Western blot, immunohistochemistry, and other methods were used to detect related cytokines, proteins related to the NF-κB and Nrf-2 signaling pathways, and tight-junction proteins to study the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of hydrogen-rich water. The obtained results show that hydrogen-rich water significantly increased the levels of superoxide dismutase and structural proteins; activated the Nrf-2 signaling pathway; downregulated the expression of inflammatory factors cyclooxygenase-2, myeloperoxidase, and ROS; and decreased the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. These results suggest that hydrogen-rich water could protect against chronic intestinal inflammation in rats caused by lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway by regulating the Nrf-2 signaling pathway.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-11-08
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110621
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 622: Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) Less
           than 1000 ppm in Drinking Water Did Not Impact Nursery Pig Performance

    • Authors: Ryan Samuel
      First page: 622
      Abstract: High concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) in water have been reported to increase the incidence of diarrhea and reduce nursery pig growth performance. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of drinking water with high concentrations of TDS from sulfate salts on nursery pigs. Weaned pigs sorted to equalize gender were placed in 44 pens with 26 pigs per pen. One of four water treatments was randomly assigned to each pen: (1) combination of CaSO4, MgSO4, and NaSO4; (2) CaSO4; (3) MgSO4; (4) NaSO4. Access to water and feed (nursery diets fed in four phases) was unrestricted throughout. The weights of pens were measured, feed remaining on weigh days was calculated, and pen water meters were read on d 0, 7, 21, 35, and 42. Water treatment did not affect (p > 0.07) average daily gain, average daily feed intake, or gut integrity of pigs. Water disappearance tended to be greater (p = 0.10) in pens receiving the CaSO4 water compared to the combination treatment from d 21 to 35. The TDS concentrations from sulfate salts used in this experiment did not impact the growth performance or feed or water disappearance of newly weaned nursery pigs.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-11-08
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110622
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 623: Antinociceptive Effect of a
           Sacro-Coccygeal Epidural of Morphine and Lidocaine in Cats Undergoing

    • Authors: Amândio Dourado, Anabela Gomes, Paulo Teixeira, Luís Lobo, Jorge T. Azevedo, Isabel R. Dias, Rui Pinelas
      First page: 623
      Abstract: Background: A commonly described analgesic protocol for ovariohysterectomy (OHE) combines systemic opioids, sedatives, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. However, systemic analgesia does not fully prevent perioperative visceral and somatic pain triggered by the surgical stimulus. Objectives: To compare the analgesic effects and quality of recovery of systemic analgesia with those of a sacrococcygeal epidural injection of lidocaine and morphine in cats undergoing elective OHE. Methods: Twenty domestic female cats were premedicated with dexmedetomidine (0.01 mg kg−1 IM) and alfaxalone (1.5 mg kg−1 IM) and randomly assigned to one of two analgesic protocols: methadone (0.2 mg kg−1 IM) in the control group CTR (n = 10) and methadone (0.1 mg kg−1 IM) + epidural (lidocaine 2% (0.3 mL kg−1) + morphine 1% (0.1 mg kg−1) diluted with NaCl 0.9% to a total volume of 1.5 mL in the SCC-E group (n = 10). General anaesthesia was induced with alfaxalone (1 mg kg−1 IV) and maintained with sevoflurane in 100% oxygen. Non-invasive blood arterial pressure and cardiorespiratory variables were recorded. The quality of recovery was assessed using a simple descriptive scale. Before surgery and 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 h post-op pain was assessed using the UNESP-Botucatu multidimensional composite pain scale (MCPS) and mechanical nociception thresholds (MNT). The repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare groups over time. Comparison between groups was performed using independent samples t-test if the assumption of normality was verified, or the Mann–Whitney test. The chi-square test of independence and exact Fisher’s test were used to compare groups according to recovery quality. Results: Heart rate and systolic arterial pressure increased significantly from baseline values in the CTR group and did not change in the SCC-E group. In the CTR group, MNT and UNESP-Botucatu-MCPS scores increased significantly from baseline for all assessment points and the first 3 h, respectively, whereas this did not occur in the SCC-E group. Conclusions and clinical relevance: Based on our results, the SCC-E administration of lidocaine 2% with morphine 1% is a reasonable option to provide perioperative analgesia in cats submitted to OHE, compared to a systemic protocol alone.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-11-08
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110623
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 624: Association of High Somatic Cell
           Counts Prior to Dry off to the Incidence of Periparturient Diseases in
           Holstein Dairy Cows

    • Authors: Ashley Egyedy, Eduardo Barahona Rosales, Burim N. Ametaj
      First page: 624
      Abstract: Intramammary infections (mastitis) of dairy cows, along with other periparturient diseases, have become problematic within the dairy industry as they lead to loss of milk production. The main objective of this study was to determine whether elevated somatic cell counts (SCC) in cows prior to drying off are related to the incidence of other periparturient diseases. Additionally, we determined whether milk composition and milk yield are affected by a high SCC prior to drying off. Somatic cell counts of milk samples were determined prior to dry off (n = 140) and were used to classify cows in the study as high (>200,000 cells/mL) or low (<200,000 cells/mL) SCC. The composition of milk was analyzed before drying off and at 1 and 2 weeks after calving. The results showed that an elevated SCC before drying off was related to the incidence of ketosis. Cows with a high SCC at drying off also showed an increased likelihood of retained placenta, metritis, and lameness postpartum; however, it was not statistically significant. Milk lactose was lower in cows with high SCC, whereas protein content was lower after parturition. Milk production was lower for cows with pre-drying elevated SCC, particularly for cows with retained placenta, ketosis, and mastitis. In conclusion, cows with pre-drying elevated SCC were more likely to develop disease after parturition and produce less milk and with lower lactose and protein content.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-11-09
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110624
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 625: Histological and Biochemical
           Analysis after Posterior Mandibular Displacement in Rats

    • Authors: Ioannis Lyros, Despoina Perrea, Konstantinos Tosios, Nikolaos Nikitakis, Ioannis A. Tsolakis, Efstratios Ferdianakis, Eleni Fora, Theodoros Lykogeorgos, Michael P. Maroulakos, Emmanouil Vardas, Maria Georgaki, Erofili Papadopoulou, Apostolos I. Tsolakis
      First page: 625
      Abstract: The present study aimed to investigate any biochemical and histological changes of the rat condyle and mandible in animals that had sustained mandibular growth restriction. Seventy-two male Wistar rats were divided into two equal groups, experimental and control. Each group consisted of three equal subgroups. The animals were sacrificed 30, 60, and 90 days after the start of the experiment. Blood samples were collected from the eye, and the osteoprotegerin (OPG), Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor Kappa B Ligand (RANKL), and Macrophage Colony-Stimulating factor (MCSF)concentrations were measured by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. A histological analysis was performed on the mandibular condyles. The blood serum values of OPG, RANKL, and MCSF did not exhibit any statistically significant difference between groups or subgroups. However, significant histological changes became evident after a histomorphometric condylar examination was performed. The Bone Surface/Total Surface ratio appeared reduced in the anterior and posterior regions of the condyle. In addition, the Posterior Condylar Cartilage Thickness was measured and determined to be significantly diminished. The present intervention that employed orthodontic/orthopedic devices did not prove to have any significant effect on the circulating proteins under study. Posterior displacement of the mandible may culminate only in local histological alterations in condylar cartilage thickness and its osseous microarchitecture.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-11-10
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110625
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 626: Oral Electrolyte and Water
           Supplementation in Horses

    • Authors: Lindinger
      First page: 626
      Abstract: Horses that sweat for prolonged periods lose considerable amounts of water and electrolytes. Maintenance of hydration and prevention of dehydration requires that water and electrolytes are replaced. Dehydration is common in equine disciplines and can be avoided, thus promoting equine wellness, improved performance and enhanced horse and rider safety. Significant dehydration occurs through exercise or transport lasting one hour or more. Oral electrolyte supplementation is an effective strategy to replace water and electrolytes lost through sweating. The stomach and small intestine serve as a reservoir for uptake of water and electrolytes consumed 1 to 2 h prior to exercise and transport. The small intestine is the primary site of very rapid absorption of ions and water. Water and ions absorbed in the small intestine are taken up by muscles, and also transported via the blood to the skin where they serve to replace or augment the losses of water and ions in the body. Effective electrolyte supplements are designed to replace the proportions of ions lost through sweating; failure to do so can result in electrolyte imbalance. Adequate water must be consumed with electrolytes so as to maintain solution osmolality less than that of body fluids in order to promote gastric emptying and intestinal absorption. The electrolyte supplement should taste good, and horses should be trained to drink the solution voluntarily prior to and during transport, and prior to and after exercise.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-11-10
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110626
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 627: Evaluation of Resting Serum Bile
           Acid Concentrations in Dogs with Sepsis

    • Authors: Lara Baptista, Danica Pollard, Andrea Di Bella
      First page: 627
      Abstract: Recent studies in the human literature suggest that serum bile acid concentrations could be an early predictor of short-term survival in critically ill patients. However, there is no available information in the veterinary literature regarding serum bile acid concentrations in dogs with sepsis. We aimed to evaluate if resting serum bile acid concentrations differ between septic and non-septic dogs. This was a retrospective observational study, of medical records at a single referral center over a twelve-year period. Twenty-six client-owned dogs diagnosed with sepsis were identified. Twenty-one dogs presenting with a non-hepatobiliary systemic disease and twenty-nine dogs admitted for an elective orthopedic procedure, considered otherwise healthy, were selected as control groups. Resting serum bile acid concentrations were significantly higher in the septic compared to the non-septic groups (ill control and orthopedic control groups). However, when assessing bile acid concentrations between groups individually, no difference was identified between the septic and the orthopedic control group. These results should be interpreted cautiously.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-11-11
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110627
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 628: Does TLS Exist in Canine Mammary
           Gland Tumours' Preliminary Results in Simple Carcinomas

    • Authors: Giada Giambrone, Stefania Di Giorgio, Cecilia Vullo, Gabriele Marino, Roberto Puleio, Francesca Mariotti, Giuseppe Mazzullo, Alessandra Sfacteria
      First page: 628
      Abstract: Neoplastic progression is influenced by the expression of tumour antigens that activate an anti-tumour immune response. Human medical studies show that this body defence is carried out in secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) but also directly in the tumour through organized cellular aggregates that are called tertiary lymphoid structures (TLSs). However, their occurrence has different meanings in different tumour types. For example, the presence of TLSs in breast cancer is associated with the most aggressive subtypes. This paper aimed to study TLSs in canine mammary simple carcinomas. A morphological assessment of the inflammatory infiltrate was performed on H&E sections of fifty cases. Immunohistochemistry was then carried out to typify the inflammatory cells in the tumour microenvironment. Results showed that, sometimes, inflammatory infiltrates were organized in follicles close to high-grade carcinomas, simulating a lymphoid organization, as in breast cancer. Therefore, we can assume that even in canine mammary tumours, TLSs exist and they are entities to consider due to their presence in the most aggressive histotypes or tumours with a high degree of malignancy.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-11-11
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110628
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 629: Fifty Years of Wildlife Diseases
           in Europe: A Citation Database Meta-Analysis

    • Authors: Rachele Vada, Stefania Zanet, Ezio Ferroglio
      First page: 629
      Abstract: Although wildlife has progressively been recognized as a booster for the spillover of pathogens to humans and other wild and domestic animals, the interest of scientists in this topic has not been constant over time and uniform in its targets. Epidemiological outbreaks and technological development have contributed to this. Through the analysis of the number of publications from a citation database, we aimed to obtain an indicator of the scientific community’s interest towards wildlife diseases over the years. Using Web of Science, bibliographic searches were performed by adding to the basic search string “Wildlife AND Disease” terms detailing topics such as aspect investigated, pathogen type, aetiologic group and species group. For each host species group, the 100 most frequent Medical Subject Headings (MeSHs) related to specific diseases in each decade were extracted. The scientific production regarding wildlife diseases has increased 3.7 times the relative proportion of publications on diseases during the last 50 years, focusing mainly on zoonotic or epizootic pathogens, and with a sharp growth in contemporary hot topics. Wildlife disease scenarios are complex and challenging to approach. Knowing the trends in the scientific interest in the past decades may pose a guide to direct future steps and actions in several fields, from public health to ecosystem management.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-11-11
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110629
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 630: High Concentration of FBS Can Save
           mTOR Down-Regulation Caused by Mycoplasmas bovis Infection

    • Authors: Xiaochun Wu, Jinrui Ma, Shangdong Jia, Xudong Zhang, Xinlan Zhang, Zhen An, Yanquan Wei, Xiaoyong Xing, Fengqin Wen, Yuan Gao, Shijun Bao
      First page: 630
      Abstract: Mycoplasmas bovis (M. bovis) is an important pathogen that causes a variety of diseases, such as bovine respiratory diseases and causes significant losses to the national cattle industry every year, seriously affecting the development of the cattle industry worldwide. The pathogenic mechanism of M. bovis infection is still unknown, which leads to the lack of timely diagnosis and treatment. In this study, embryonic bovine lung (EBL) cells, infected with M. bovis were collected for gene profiling and detection of marker genes in the mTOR signaling pathway. The result showed that M. bovis infection significantly inhibits EBL growth in a dose-dependent manner. The transcription profiling data uncovered that M. bovis infection repressed a series of gene expressions in EBL cells, which are mainly related to metabolic process and immune response. Notably, many marker genes in the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway showed down-regulation after M. bovis infection. Further evidence showed that M. bovis infection inhibits expression of mTOR signaling pathway marker genes in EBL cells, which are time dependent. To further understand the M. bovis-induced inhibitory effect of mTOR signaling pathway, this study employed FBS as a supplement for exogenous nutrients and found that addition of a high concentration of FBS can rescue M. bovis-induced cell damage. In addition, a high concentration of FBS can rescue down-regulated mTOR signaling, including increasing transcriptional expression and protein phosphorylation level of mTOR pathway marker genes. This study demonstrated that M. bovis infection leads to inhibition of the nutrient metabolic pathway mTOR in a time-dependent manner, which would be helpful to further understand M. bovis infection mechanism and develop a new efficient anti-mycoplasma strategy targeting mTOR signaling.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-11-11
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110630
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 631: Can Stray Cats Be Reservoirs of
           Antimicrobial Resistance'

    • Authors: Valeria Gargano, Delia Gambino, Tiziana Orefice, Roberta Cirincione, Germano Castelli, Federica Bruno, Paolo Interrante, Mariangela Pizzo, Eva Spada, Daniela Proverbio, Domenico Vicari, Marília Salgado-Caxito, Julio A. Benavides, Giovanni Cassata
      First page: 631
      Abstract: The emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global problem that requires a One Health approach. Despite several studies have reported the role of companion animals as reservoirs of AMR, limited information is available regarding the role of cats in the circulation of AMR. In this study, we evaluated the phenotypic and genotypic profile of 75 Escherichia coli isolated from rectal swabs and fecal samples of 75 stray cats (living in solitary or in a colony) sampled in Palermo (Sicily, Italy), to determine whether these animals may participate in the spread of AMR. Susceptibility to 8 antibiotics was tested using Minimum Inhibitory Concentration assays, while the presence of the common antibiotic resistance genes blaTEM, blaCTX-M, tet(A), and tet(B) was investigated by PCR. From the 75 E. coli isolates analyzed, 43% were resistant to at least one of the eight antibiotics tested, with 31% of the isolates resistant to ampicillin, 23% to cefotaxime, 21% to tetracycline, 20% to cefazolin, and 17% to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Most isolates harbored the blaTEM gene (29%), followed by blaCTX-M (23%), tet(A) (21%), and tet(B) (20%). Our results confirm the fecal carriage of antibiotic-resistant E. coli and clinically relevant resistance genes in stray cats. This study highlights the potential role of stray cats in the spread of AMR in urban environments, emphasising the need to better understand their role in AMR circulation when planning strategies to combat it.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-11-12
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110631
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 632: Transcriptomic Analysis of Large
           Yellow Croaker (Larimichthys crocea) during Early Development under
           Hypoxia and Acidification Stress

    • Authors: Yabing Wang, Run Chen, Qian Wang, Yanfeng Yue, Quanxin Gao, Cuihua Wang, Hanfeng Zheng, Shiming Peng
      First page: 632
      Abstract: Fishes live in aquatic environments and several aquatic environmental factors have undergone recent alterations. The molecular mechanisms underlying fish responses to hypoxia and acidification stress have become a serious concern in recent years. This study revealed that hypoxia and acidification stress suppressed the growth of body length and height of the large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea). Subsequent transcriptome analyses of L. crocea juveniles under hypoxia, acidification, and hypoxia–acidification stress led to the identification of 5897 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the five groups. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analyses revealed that several DEGs were enriched in the ‘protein digestion and absorption’ pathway. Enrichment analysis revealed that this pathway was closely related to hypoxia and acidification stress in the five groups, and we found that genes of the collagen family may play a key role in this pathway. The zf-C2H2 transcription factor may play an important role in the hypoxia and acidification stress response, and novel genes were additionally identified. The results provide new clues for further research on the molecular mechanisms underlying hypoxia–acidification tolerance in L. crocea and provides a basic understanding of the potential combined effects of reduced pH and dissolved oxygen on Sciaenidae fishes.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-11-12
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110632
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 633: Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi
           Sensu-Lato-Specific Antibodies in Sera of Canine and Equine Origin—A
           Comparative Study with Two Line Immunoassays

    • Authors: Sophie Charlotte Doff, Jasmin Wenderlein, Anna Wiesinger, Stephanie Hiereth, Sebastian Ulrich, Reinhard K. Straubinger
      First page: 633
      Abstract: Lyme borreliosis is a vector-borne disease in humans and animals caused by bacteria from the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex (Bbsl). The possible transmission of Bbsl from companion animals to humans via ticks makes this disease important in terms of One Health approaches. Thus, early and accurate diagnosis and treatment are of utmost importance. Today’s standard for the detection of specific antibodies against Bbsl is a two-tiered test system based on an ELISA for screening combined with a line immunoassay (LIA) for confirmation. In this study, 200 canine and 200 equine serum samples with known antibody status were tested with two different LIAs (A and B). Results were compared regarding sensitivity, specificity, the diagnostic outcome for dogs and horses, as well as operability of the test. The results for canine serum samples corresponded to 94.0%, making both LIAs a good choice for LB diagnostic in dogs. For equine serum samples, the agreement of both tests was 65.5%, displaying the challenge equine samples still provide in LB diagnostic. Major concerns were the interpretation of the OspA antigen (AG) signal and the use of unspecific (i.e., p100/p83) or too sensitive signals on the LIA. The operability of both LIAs was equally user-friendly. Regarding the tests’ evaluation, the scanning process provided by LIA A was a major advantage considering the comparability of the tests.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-11-14
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110633
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 634: A Quadruplex qRT-PCR for
           Differential Detection of Four Porcine Enteric Coronaviruses

    • Authors: Hongjin Zhou, Kaichuang Shi, Feng Long, Kang Zhao, Shuping Feng, Yanwen Yin, Chenyong Xiong, Sujie Qu, Wenjun Lu, Zongqiang Li
      First page: 634
      Abstract: Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), and swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV) are four identified porcine enteric coronaviruses. Pigs infected with these viruses show similar manifestations of diarrhea, vomiting, and dehydration. Here, a quadruplex real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) assay was established for the differential detection of PEDV, TGEV, PDCoV, and SADS-CoV from swine fecal samples. The assay showed extreme specificity, high sensitivity, and excellent reproducibility, with the limit of detection (LOD) of 121 copies/μL (final reaction concentration of 12.1 copies/μL) for each virus. The 3236 clinical fecal samples from Guangxi province in China collected between October 2020 and October 2022 were evaluated by the quadruplex qRT-PCR, and the positive rates of PEDV, TGEV, PDCoV, and SADS-CoV were 18.26% (591/3236), 0.46% (15/3236), 13.16% (426/3236), and 0.15% (5/3236), respectively. The samples were also evaluated by the multiplex qRT-PCR reported previously by other scientists, and the compliance rate between the two methods was more than 99%. This illustrated that the developed quadruplex qRT-PCR assay can provide an accurate method for the differential detection of four porcine enteric coronaviruses.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-11-16
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110634
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 635: The Kitty Microbiome Project:
           Defining the Healthy Fecal “Core Microbiome” in Pet Domestic

    • Authors: Holly H. Ganz, Guillaume Jospin, Connie A. Rojas, Alex L. Martin, Katherine Dahlhausen, Dawn D. Kingsbury, Carlton X. Osborne, Zhandra Entrolezo, Syd Redner, Bryan Ramirez, Jonathan A. Eisen, Madeleine Leahy, Chase Keaton, Janine Wong, Jennifer Gardy, Jessica K. Jarett
      First page: 635
      Abstract: Here, we present a taxonomically defined fecal microbiome dataset for healthy domestic cats (Felis catus) fed a range of commercial diets. We used this healthy reference dataset to explore how age, diet, and living environment correlate with fecal microbiome composition. Thirty core bacterial genera were identified. Prevotella, Bacteroides, Collinsella, Blautia, and Megasphaera were the most abundant, and Bacteroides, Blautia, Lachnoclostridium, Sutterella, and Ruminococcus gnavus were the most prevalent. While community composition remained relatively stable across different age classes, the number of core taxa present decreased significantly with age. Fecal microbiome composition varied with host diet type. Cats fed kibble had a slightly, but significantly greater number of core taxa compared to cats not fed any kibble. The core microbiomes of cats fed some raw food contained taxa not as highly prevalent or abundant as cats fed diets that included kibble. Living environment also had a large effect on fecal microbiome composition. Cats living in homes differed significantly from those in shelters and had a greater portion of their microbiomes represented by core taxa. Collectively our work reinforces the findings that age, diet, and living environment are important factors to consider when defining a core microbiome in a population.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-11-16
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110635
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 636: The Barretos Cancer Hospital
           Animal Facility: Implementation and Results of a Dedicated Platform for
           Preclinical Oncology Models

    • Authors: Silvia A. Teixeira, Mayara de Cassia Luzzi, Ana Carolina Baptista Moreno Martin, Terence Teixeira Duarte, Mônica de Oliveira Leal, Gustavo Ramos Teixeira, Monise Tadin Reis, Carlos Roberto Almeida Junior, Karina Santos, Matias Eliseo Melendez, Diego da Cunha Silveira Alves da Silva, Priscila Neves Bernécule, Higor Vinicius Lourenço Firmino, Ana Laura Vieira Alves, Denise Peixoto Guimarães, João Vitor Borduqui, Ana Carolina Laus, Bruna Minniti Mançano, Rui Manuel Reis
      First page: 636
      Abstract: The Barretos Cancer Hospital Animal Facility (BCHAF) is a unique facility in Brazil exclusively dedicated to working with animal models for cancer research. In this article, we briefly present our modern facility and the main experiments performed, focusing on mutant strains of mice (PTCH-knockout and ApcMin mice), xenograft models, and patient-derived xenografts (PDXs). Our results show the progress and challenges in establishing these models and the need for having an appropriate representation of our cancer population to better understand tumor biology and to identify cancer biomarkers, which could be putatively targeted, allowing for personalized therapy.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-11-16
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110636
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 637: Isolation and Identification of
           Volatile Substances with Attractive Effects on Wohlfahrtia magnifica from
           Vagina of Bactrian Camel

    • Authors: Jiaqi Xue, Dongdong Ai, Xiangjun Xu, Changmei Wang, Xinji Jiang, Tana Han, Demtu Er
      First page: 637
      Abstract: Vaginal myiasis is one of the most serious parasitic diseases in Bactrian camels. At present, there are no reports on biological control measures of the disease. In this paper, the metabolomic analysis of vaginal secretions from susceptible and non-susceptible camels was performed by ACQUITY UPLC H-Class Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatograph. The results matched in 140 vaginal compounds. Methylheptenone, 1-octen-3-ol, and propyl butyrate and their mixtures were selected for gas chromatography-electroantennography (GC-EAD), electroantennography (EAG), behavioral experiments and trapping experiments of Wohlfahrtia magnifica (W. magnifica). Results showed that the W. magnifica had EAG responses to the three compounds, respectively. The EAG responses of female flies to different concentrations of methylheptenone were significantly different, but to the others had no significant difference, and there was no significant difference in the same compounds between the different sexes. Behavioral and trapping experiments showed that methylheptenone and 1-octen-3-ol have significant attraction to W. magnifica, but there was no significant difference to propyl butyrate. When methylheptenone and 1-octen-3-ol were mixed in different proportions, it was found that a mixture at the ratio of 1:1 and 0.5:1 had extremely significant and significant attraction, respectively, to both male and female W. magnifica. The study showed that, except for propyl butyrate, the higher the concentrations of the other two compounds, the stronger the attractivity to the W. magnifica, and a mixture at the ratio of 1:1 could enhance the attractivity to the W. magnifica.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-11-16
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110637
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 638: Hemophilia A Resulting in Severe
           Hyperesthesia Due to Extraparenchymal Spinal Cord Hemorrhage in a Young
           Golden Retriever Puppy

    • Authors: Charlotte Lubbers, Martijn Beukers, Niklas Bergknut, Geert Paes
      First page: 638
      Abstract: A ten-week-old male Golden retriever puppy was presented with severe hyperesthesia, mild neurological deficits and episcleral bleeding. Clotting times showed a normal prothrombin time (PT) and prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPPT). Computed tomography (CT) of the vertebral column showed intradural, extraparenchymal hyperattenuating changes on precontrast CT images and epidural mass lesions, suggestive of hematorrhachis. Hemophilia A was confirmed by a low-factor VIII activity (FVIII:C). Although the dog improved clinically with intravenous analgesia and cage rest, it was euthanized by the owners’ choice because of the risk of developing future episodes of spontaneous hemorrhage. In young male puppies with severe hyperesthesia and mild neurological deficits, hemophilia A should be considered as a possible differential diagnosis.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-11-17
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110638
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 639: Transcriptome Analysis Reveals
           Genes Contributed to Min Pig Villi Hair Follicle in Different Seasons

    • Authors: Ming Tian, Xinmiao He, Wentao Wang, Yanzhong Feng, Dongjie Zhang, Zhongqiu Li, Di Liu
      First page: 639
      Abstract: The Min pig, a local pig breed in China, has a special trait which has intermittent villus and coat hair regeneration. However, the regulation and mechanism of villus in Min pigs have not yet been described. We observed and described the phenotype of Min pig dermal villi in detail and sequenced the mRNA transcriptome of Min pig hair follicles. A total of 1520 differentially expressed genes (DEG) were obtained.K-means hierarchical clustering showed that there was a significant expression pattern difference in winter compared with summer. Gene enrichment and network analysis results showed that the hair growth in Min pigs was closely related to the composition of desmosomes and regulated by an interaction network composed of eight core genes, namely DSP, DSC3, DSG4, PKP1, TGM1, KRT4, KRT15, and KRT84. Methylation analysis of promoters of target genes showed that the PKP1 gene was demethylated. Our study will help to supplement current knowledge of the growth mechanism of different types of hair.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-11-17
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110639
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 640: Virome Profiling of an Amur
           leopard cat Reveals Multiple Anelloviruses and a Bocaparvovirus

    • Authors: Yang Liu, Lanshun Sun, Zhongzhong Tu, Sheng Sun, Yue Sun, Le Yi, Changchun Tu, Biao He
      First page: 640
      Abstract: As a small top predator, Amur leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis euptilurus) is widely distributed in northeast Asia and plays an important role in the control of small rodent populations and in the maintenance of ecological equilibrium. However, the viruses harbored by this creature have been rarely investigated. Here, we report the DNA and RNA eukaryotic virome profiling of an injured Amur leopard cat followed by PCR validation, which revealed diverse anelloviruses in multiple organs and a bocaparvovirus in the lymph, but no RNA viruses. These anelloviruses have diverse genomic structures and are classified into four phylogroups with viruses of various felines, while the bocaparvovirus is extremely similar to those recovered from diarrheal domestic cats, illustrating the transmission of the virus between domestic animals and wildlife. These data provide the first insight into the genetic diversity of Amur leopard cat viruses, highlighting the need for further investigation of wild animals.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-11-17
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110640
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 641: miR-708-5p Regulates Myoblast
           Proliferation and Differentiation

    • Authors: Xueli Xu, Hui Lu, Dong Xu, Zonggang Yu, Nini Ai, Kaiming Wang, Xintong Li, Jun He, Jun Jiang, Haiming Ma, Yuebo Zhang
      First page: 641
      Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators involved in the myogenic process in skeletal muscles. miR-708-5p plays an important role in various biochemical and physiological processes, but its function in skeletal myogenesis remain unclear. In this study, we first explored the effects of miR-708-5p on C2C12 proliferation and differentiation by overexpression and interference experiments. Then, we predicted the target genes of miR-708-5p and analyzed their function. We found that miR-708-5p was gradually increased during myoblast differentiation. Overexpression of miR-708-5p significantly inhibited cell proliferation and promoted the differentiation of myoblasts. A total of 253 target genes were predicted using a bioinformatics approach. These genes were significantly enriched in muscle growth-related GO terms and KEGG pathways, such as actin filament organization, actin cytoskeleton organization, PI3K-Akt pathway, insulin pathway, and Jak-STAT pathway. Among them, Pik3ca, Pik3r3, and Irs1 were considered to be the key target genes of miR-708-5p. To sum up, miR-708-5p inhibited C2C12 cells proliferation and promoted C2C12 cells differentiation. Its target genes significantly enriched in GO terms and KEGG pathways related to the development and growth of muscle. Our results provided a basis for studies on the function and mechanism of miR-708-5p regulating skeletal muscle growth and development.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-11-18
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110641
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 642: Histopathological Features of
           Myxoid Pleomorphic Liposarcoma in an African Pygmy Hedgehog (Atelerix

    • Authors: Eun-Joo Lee, Kyu-Shik Jeong
      First page: 642
      Abstract: Myxoid pleomorphic liposarcoma is characterized by pathological features of both pleomorphic liposarcoma and myxoid liposarcoma, as the name suggests. In this case, a myxoid pleomorphic liposarcoma was observed in a 5-year-old male African pygmy hedgehog. It consisted of ~60% of the myxoid substance area with proliferating round cells and ~30% of pleomorphic neoplastic cells. The subject presented with extrapulmonary metastasis, but a good prognosis during 6 months of follow-up, which is similar to the characteristics of myxoid liposarcoma. The histopathological features of myxoid pleomorphic liposarcoma may reflect the features of either myxoid liposarcoma or pleomorphic liposarcoma depending on the proportion of each histopathological feature. The proportion of the pleomorphic area and the myxoid area may offer information on the prognosis and metastasis of myxoid pleomorphic liposarcoma, which will be helpful for setting up a treatment plan. Thus, analyzing the proportion of pleomorphic area and myxoid area could be suggested as one of the ways to predict clinical outcomes. In addition to the fact that this is the first case of a myxoid pleomorphic liposarcoma in hedgehogs, this case is meaningful, considering the unique histopathological characteristics and rare incidence of myxoid pleomorphic liposarcoma that could be important in humans as well.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-11-19
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110642
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 643: Postoperative Observation of
           Spaying with the Silicon Ring on the Ovaries in Heifers: A Retrospective
           Study in 28 Cases

    • Authors: Byung-Hoon Ko, Dong-Gun Park, Won-Jae Lee
      First page: 643
      Abstract: Although spaying prepubertal heifers has routinely been conducted to control cattle herd and improve meat quality, understandings of the postoperative changes following new spaying methods with the silicon ring on the ovaries via colpotomy remain limited. Therefore, as a retrospective study, 28 cases of spayed heifers were reviewed for postoperative changes after employing this method, with inclusion criteria including complete medical records for clinical observation, ultrasonography, measuring reproductive hormones, and tracking slaughter records. No mortality and heat signs at the pubertal age postoperatively occurred in spayed animals. On ultrasonography during rectal examination, the ovaries were enlarged without any folliculogenesis from one week, while massive ovarian edema appeared from two weeks, and ovaries were no longer palpable at four weeks post-surgery. In hormones, whereas estrogen and progesterone levels did not change from prepubertal to pubertal age in spayed animals, luteinizing hormone levels progressively increased during this period and reached a higher level at pubertal period than unspayed controls. Although carcass weight and yield were similar between groups upon slaughter at pubertal age, the spayed animals presented higher carcass quality (marbling degree) than that of controls. These results may contribute to develop herd management strategies, including control of estrus in cattle.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-11-21
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110643
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 644: Determination of the Stifle Angle
           at Standing Position in Dogs

    • Authors: Thomas Giansetto, Pierre P. Picavet, Michaël Lefebvre, Marc Balligand
      First page: 644
      Abstract: Background: The cranial cruciate ligament rupture is one of the most common orthopaedic diseases encountered in dogs. Surgical techniques have been developed to stabilize the stifle, with an overall accepted benefit of tibial osteotomies among which is the tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA). Prior to surgery, the required TTA must be determined on a strict lateral radiographical view of the affected stifle with femur and tibia at an angle of 135° as initially recommended. This value, initially determined in only two dog breeds, has been considered the mean standard value of the canine stifle angle during the mid-stance phase. Methods: We sought to determine if this particular stifle angle around mid-stance phase was similar among multiple dog breeds. We built up a custom-made radiographic system for stifle angle measurement in standing dogs. Results: A mean value of stifle angle of 145° was obtained. Mean stifle angle at mid-stance phase in a healthy dog is regularly higher than 135° and is likely breed and individual dependent. Conclusions: The pre-operative measurement of the required TTA made on stifles in 145° extension, a value close to full physiological extension could contribute to decreasing the incidence of late post-operative meniscal lesion, consecutive to underestimation of TTA.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-11-21
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110644
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 645: Detection and Characterization of
           a Novel Picornavirus in European Badger (Meles meles)

    • Authors: Andrea Palombieri, Paola Fruci, Vittorio Sarchese, Serena Robetto, Riccardo Orusa, Alessio Arbuatti, Vito Martella, Barbara Di Martino, Federica Di Profio
      First page: 645
      Abstract: The recent development of unbiased metagenomic next-generation sequencing has provided a richer view of the wild animal virome making it necessary to expand the knowledge about virus diversity in wildlife, as well as to monitor their potential transmission to domestic animals or humans. In the present study, by screening collections of enteric specimens from wild animals, a novel picornavirus was identified in the intestinal content of a badger (Meles meles). By enrichment with a sequence-independent single-primer amplification (SISPA) approach and deep sequencing with Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) platform, the genome sequence of a novel picornavirus strain, Badger/3A-2019/ITA, was reconstructed. On comparison based on the polyprotein sequences, the virus was distantly related (58.7% and 59.7% sequence identity at the nucleotide and amino acid level, respectively) to the feline picornavirus strain FFUP1, identified in 2012 in Portugal and classified into genus Sakobovirus within the species Sakobuvirus A. Upon phylogenetic, pairwise homology, and distance analyses performed on the P1, 2Chel, 3Cpro, and 3Dpol proteins and the complete genomic sequence, the badger picornavirus may be considered a member of a new sakobuvirus species, which we propose as Sakobuvirus B.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-11-21
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110645
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 646: Impact of Water Sources and Shared
           Fence Lines on Bovine Respiratory Disease Incidence in the First 45 Days
           on Feed

    • Authors: Hector A. Rojas, Brad J. White, David E. Amrine, Robert L. Larson, Sarah F. Capik, Brandon E. Depenbusch
      First page: 646
      Abstract: Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is a frequent disease in feedlot cattle, but little is known on the role of pen housing conditions. The objective of this research is to use a retrospective analysis with data from 10 U.S. feedlots to determine potential associations between BRD risk during the first 45 days after arrival with pen-level management factors including the number of water sources, shared water sources, and shared fence lines. Generalized linear mixed models were used to evaluate associations between management factors, cattle demographics, and BRD incidence. The effect of shared water sources on BRD risk was modified by arrival weight and cohort size (p < 0.05). Cattle with two water sources had lower BRD morbidity (5.55% ± 0.98) compared to cattle with one water source (8.80% ± 1.50) when arrival weight was 227 kg to 272 kg, while there were few differences in heavier weight cattle. Cattle with two water sources had lower BRD morbidity (3.11% ± 0.56) compared to one water (5.50% ± 0.10) when cohort size was 100–175 head, but there were no BRD morbidity differences when bigger or smaller cohorts were evaluated. Shared fence lines and water sources were associated with BRD risk; however, no biologically meaningful results were identified. The number of water sources was associated with BRD risk, and effects were modified by cohort size and arrival weight.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-11-21
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110646
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 647: Histomorphology and Chemical
           Constituents of Interdigital Gland of Vembur Sheep, Ovis aries

    • Authors: Thangavel Rajagopal, Selvam Mahalakshmi, Thirukonda Ravindhran Gayathri, Naganathan Muruganantham, Marimuthu Muthukatturaja, Durairaj Rajesh, Kamatchi Rameshkumar, Ponnirul Ponmanickam, Mohammad Abdulkader Akbarsha, Govindaraju Archunan
      First page: 647
      Abstract: The interdigital gland is a specialized skin gland located between the digits of Artiodactyla (i.e., even-toed ungulates). Its secretion participates in semiochemical communication, and protects from ultraviolet radiation as well as fungal and bacterial infection of the feet. The present study aimed at finding if there are male-female differences in the anatomy, morphology, and volatile compounds of the interdigital gland of the South Indian breed of Vembur sheep. A total of 24 sheep (12 each of male and female) were spotted at the slaughterhouse and the interdigital gland was removed for examination. The anatomical examination revealed it to resemble a tobacco pipe and to consist of a body, flexure, and excretory duct with an external orifice located at the cleft of the digits. Morphometrically, the interdigital glands differed between males and females. The gland possesses a distinct fibrous capsule, epidermis, and dermis. The fibrous capsule contains several parallel bundles of collagen fibers, nerve fibers, and blood vessels, etc. The epidermis consists of keratinized squamous epithelium formed of stratum basale, stratum granulosum and stratum spinosum. The dermis consists of hair follicles, nerve plexuses, arrector pili muscles, and apocrine and sebaceous glandular lobules. The latter, lined by a simple cuboidal epithelium, are arranged in clusters of acini in the upper portion of the dermis. The apocrine secretory lobules, made up of parenchymal cells, are found in the lower portion of the dermis. The density and diameter of the apocrine and sebaceous secretory lobules were significantly higher in the males than females. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis confirmed the apocrine and sebaceous secretory components. Twenty-three major compounds were identified in the interdigital gland postings of male and female sheep, among which butanoic acid, 2-methylpropanoic acid, 1-heptanol and octadecanoic acid were present only in the male glandular post, whereas octane, 7-hexyl-tridecane, tetradecane, heptadecane and decanoic acid were present only in the female glandular post. Tetradecanol, tetradecanoic acid and hexadecanol peaks, reportedly antibacterial compounds in pronghorn antelopes, were highly prominent in both male and female sheep. Thus, the interdigital gland of Vembur sheep has two major secretory lobules, namely, sebaceous and apocrine, larger in males than females, which secrete a variety chemical compounds that may serve as chemical communication systems and protect the sheep from foot-borne diseases.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-11-21
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110647
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 648: The Pivotal Role of Stem Cells in
           Veterinary Regenerative Medicine and Tissue Engineering

    • Authors: Hussein M. El-Husseiny, Eman A. Mady, Mahmoud A. Y. Helal, Ryou Tanaka
      First page: 648
      Abstract: The introduction of new regenerative therapeutic modalities in the veterinary practice has recently picked up a lot of interest. Stem cells are undifferentiated cells with a high capacity to self-renew and develop into tissue cells with specific roles. Hence, they are an effective therapeutic option to ameliorate the ability of the body to repair and engineer damaged tissues. Currently, based on their facile isolation and culture procedures and the absence of ethical concerns with their use, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are the most promising stem cell type for therapeutic applications. They are becoming more and more well-known in veterinary medicine because of their exceptional immunomodulatory capabilities. However, their implementation on the clinical scale is still challenging. These limitations to their use in diverse affections in different animals drive the advancement of these therapies. In the present article, we discuss the ability of MSCs as a potent therapeutic modality for the engineering of different animals’ tissues including the heart, skin, digestive system (mouth, teeth, gastrointestinal tract, and liver), musculoskeletal system (tendons, ligaments, joints, muscles, and nerves), kidneys, respiratory system, and eyes based on the existing knowledge. Moreover, we highlighted the promises of the implementation of MSCs in clinical use in veterinary practice.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-11-21
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110648
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 649: PPARγ/mTOR Regulates the
           Synthesis and Release of Prostaglandins in Ovine Trophoblast Cells in
           Early Pregnancy

    • Authors: Kexing Hao, Jing Wang, Zhiyuan Li, Huihui Chen, Bin Jia, Guangdong Hu
      First page: 649
      Abstract: Trophoblast cells synthesize and secrete prostaglandins (PGs), which are essential for ruminants in early gestation to recognize pregnancy. Hormones in the intrauterine environment play an important role in regulating PGs synthesis during implantation, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, co-treatment of sheep trophoblast cells (STCs) with progesterone (P4), estradiol (E2), and interferon-tau (IFN-τ) increased the ratio of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) to prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) and upregulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) expression, while inhibiting the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway and activating cellular autophagy. Under hormone treatment, inhibition of PPARγ activity decreased the ratio of PGE2/PGF2α and cellular activity, while activating expression of the mTOR downstream marker—the phosphorylation of p70S6K (p-p70S6K). We also found that the PPARγ/mTOR pathway played an important role in regulating trophoblast cell function. Inhibition of the mTOR pathway by rapamycin increased the ratio of PGE2/PGF2α and decreased the expression of apoptosis-related proteins after inhibiting PPARγ activity. In conclusion, our findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanism of prostaglandin regulation of trophoblast cells in sheep during early pregnancy, indicating that the PPARγ/mTOR pathway plays an important role in PGs secretion and cell viability.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-11-21
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110649
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 650: Colistin Use in European
           Livestock: Veterinary Field Data on Trends and Perspectives for Further

    • Authors: Wiebke Jansen, Jobke van Hout, Jeanine Wiegel, Despoina Iatridou, Ilias Chantziaras, Nancy De Briyne
      First page: 650
      Abstract: Polymyxin E (colistin) is a medically important active substance both in human and veterinary medicine. Colistin has been used in veterinary medicine since the 1950s. Due to the discovery of the plasmid-borne mcr gene in 2015 and the simultaneously increased importance in human medicine as a last-resort antibiotic, the use of colistin for animals was scrutinised. Though veterinary colistin sales dropped by 76.5% between 2011 to 2020, few studies evaluated real-world data on the use patterns of colistin in different European countries and sectors. A survey among veterinarians revealed that 51.9% did not use or ceased colistin, 33.4% decreased their use, 10.4% stabilised their use, and 2.7% increased use. The most important indications for colistin use were gastrointestinal diseases in pigs followed by septicaemia in poultry. A total of 106 (16.0%) responding veterinarians reported governmental/industry restrictions regarding colistin use, most commonly mentioning “use only after susceptibility testing” (57%). In brief, colistin was perceived as an essential last-resort antibiotic in veterinary medicine for E. coli infections in pigs and poultry, where there is no alternative legal, safe, and efficacious antimicrobial available. To further reduce the need for colistin, synergistic preventive measures, including improved biosecurity, husbandry, and vaccinations, must be employed.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-11-21
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9110650
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 577: Occurrence and Definitions of
           Intra and Postoperative Complications Related to Laparoscopy in Equids: A
           Scoping Review

    • Authors: Anna Cerullo, Marco Gandini, Gessica Giusto
      First page: 577
      Abstract: Laparoscopy is a common approach in equine surgery and has the advantage of improved visibility and diagnostic accuracy, decreased morbidity and hospitalization time. However, despite the numerous benefits, there can be intraoperative and postoperative complications which could have important welfare and economic consequences. The aim of this study was to perform a scoping review to identify current evidence on the occurrence, definition and classification of intra and postoperative complications in equine laparoscopy. A scoping review was conducted in scientific databases. Peer-reviewed scientific articles in the English language on laparoscopy in equids between 1992 and 2022 were included. Data on the study method, sample size, surgical procedure, intra and postoperative complications were extracted and charted. One hundred sixty-four articles met the final inclusion criteria. A definition of “intraoperative complication” was given in one study. Difference between “minor” or “major” intraoperative complications were reported in 12 articles and between “minor” or “major” postoperative complications in 22 articles. A total of 22 intraoperative and 34 postoperative complications were described. The most reported intraoperative complication was hemorrhage from ovary or mesovary (12.7%), while the most reported postoperative complications were incisional complications (64.2%) and postoperative pain (32.7%). There is a need for implementation of criteria for defining complications. The adoption of classification systems and standard definitions would help surgeons to make decisions about the most appropriate treatment, and it is also essential to allow comparisons between research results.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-10-17
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9100577
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 578: Diagnostic Imaging Studies on
           Local and Systemic Erythropoietin Application for Promoting Bone
           Regeneration in Rat Calvarial Defects

    • Authors: Tsvetan Chaprazov, Radina Vasileva, Kiril Atliev, Elena Firkova
      First page: 578
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of local and systemic application of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) on the healing of rat calvarial defects. Twenty-four male skeletally-mature Wistar rats were used. Two bone 5 mm critical size defects were created in calvarial bones of each rat. In rats from experimental group I (n = 12), EPO was applied locally on a collagen cone in left defects, whereas a collagen cone soaked with physiological saline was placed in right defects. The rats from experimental group II were injected once intraperitoneally with 4900 IU/kg EPO; a collagen cone was only placed in left defects, whereas the right defects were left empty. The systemic effect of EPO treatment was monitored by haematological analyses on days 0, 30 and 90. Bone healing was monitored via radiography and computed tomography on the same time intervals. The results demonstrated that local EPO application had no significant effect on haemopoiesis, unlike the systemic application. At the same time, it resulted in new bone formation and therefore, could be successfully used as a means of promoting bone regeneration.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9100578
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 579: Detection and Genome Sequence
           Analysis of Avian Metapneumovirus Subtype A Viruses Circulating in
           Commercial Chicken Flocks in Mexico

    • Authors: Henry M. Kariithi, Nancy Christy, Eduardo L. Decanini, Stéphane Lemiere, Jeremy D. Volkening, Claudio L. Afonso, David L. Suarez
      First page: 579
      Abstract: Avian metapneumoviruses (aMPV subtypes A-D) are respiratory and reproductive pathogens of poultry. Since aMPV-A was initially reported in Mexico in 2014, there have been no additional reports of its detection in the country. Using nontargeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) of FTA card-spotted respiratory samples from commercial chickens in Mexico, seven full genome sequences of aMPV-A (lengths of 13,288–13,381 nucleotides) were de novo assembled. Additionally, complete coding sequences of genes N (n = 2), P and M (n = 7 each), F and L (n = 1 each), M2 (n = 6), SH (n = 5) and G (n = 2) were reference-based assembled from another seven samples. The Mexican isolates phylogenetically group with, but in a distinct clade separate from, other aMPV-A strains. The genome and G-gene nt sequences of the Mexican aMPVs are closest to strain UK/8544/06 (97.22–97.47% and 95.07–95.83%, respectively). Various amino acid variations distinguish the Mexican isolates from each other, and other aMPV-A strains, most of which are in the G (n = 38), F (n = 12), and L (n = 19) proteins. Using our sequence data and publicly available aMPV-A data, we revised a previously published rRT-PCR test, which resulted in different cycling and amplification conditions for aMPV-A to make it more compatible with other commonly used rRT-PCR diagnostic cycling conditions. This is the first comprehensive sequence analysis of aMPVs in Mexico and demonstrates the value of nontargeted NGS to identify pathogens where targeted virus surveillance is likely not routinely performed.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-10-19
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9100579
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 580: A High Grade Astrocytoma with
           Pilocytic Morphology in a 5-Month-Old American Bulldog

    • Authors: Kelly Muller, Eunbee Kim, Abbie Lebowitz, Heather Daverio
      First page: 580
      Abstract: A 23-week-old female intact American Bulldog was presented for a two-week history of progressive circling to the right, twitching, and altered mentation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a non-contrast enhancing hemorrhagic mass centered in the right thalamus with concurrent subdural and intraventricular hemorrhage. Post-mortem histologic examination of the brain confirmed a mass centered on the thalamus with histomorphologic features consistent with a high-grade astrocytoma with pilocytic morphology. To the authors’ knowledge, the present case is the first to report clinical and imaging characteristics of a high-grade astrocytoma with pilocytic morphology in a young dog.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-10-20
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9100580
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 581: The Use of Virtual-Problem-Based
           Learning during COVID-19 Pandemic Emergency: Veterinary Students’

    • Authors: Fabiana Micieli, Giovanni Della Valle, Chiara Del Prete, Paolo Ciaramella, Jacopo Guccione
      First page: 581
      Abstract: The COVID-19 global pandemic emergency forced us to replace the “traditional and in presence” clinical, pre-graduating, veterinary medical training with clinical virtual-problem-based learning (v-PBL). This prospective cross-sectional case-control study aimed to evaluate the students’ perception of the v-PBLs compared to the traditional veterinary clinical training (t-VCT). The t-VCT consisted of supervised management of clinical cases admitted at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital and in the field. The v-PBL consisted of genuine clinical cases shared by tutors throughout an online platform. A survey was delivered to all the fifth-year students who completed the t-VCT or the v-PBL. The survey was completed by 49% of the students. Overall student satisfaction regarding the training experiences was high in both groups, but it was less in the v-PBL than in the t-VCT group. The students of the v-PBL group perceived that they could not improve their practical clinical skills through online sessions, and they emphasized how it could be employed as support for traditional practical activities. All the students are satisfied with the supervision and considered the training correctly focused on relevant learning objectives and the task clearly explained. Stimulating the integration of knowledge and lifelong learning skills replicating life experiences the v-PBLs represented an attractive curricular alternative for veterinary education.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-10-21
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9100581
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 582: Effect of Dietary Chlorogenic Acid
           on Growth Performance, Antioxidant Function, and Immune Response of
           Broiler Breeders under Immune Stress and Stocking Density Stress

    • Authors: Dongying Bai, Kexin Liu, Xianglong He, Haiqiu Tan, Yanhao Liu, Yuqian Li, Yi Zhang, Wenrui Zhen, Cai Zhang, Yanbo Ma
      First page: 582
      Abstract: The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary chlorogenic acid supplementation on the growth performance, antioxidant function, and immune response of broiler breeders exposed to immune stress or high stocking density stress. The test was divided into two stress models. For the immune stress test, 198 birds were distributed into three experimental treatments with six replicates per treatment. The treatments were: (1) saline control (birds injected with saline and fed basal diet), (2) LPS group (birds injected with 0.5 mg LPS/kg body weight and fed basal diet), and (3) CGA + LPS group (birds injected with LPS and fed basal diet supplemented with 1 g/kg CGA. LPS was intraperitoneally injected from day 14, and then daily for 10 days. For the high stocking density stress model, 174 birds were distributed into three experimental treatments with six replicates per treatment. The treatments were: (1) controls (birds fed basal diet and raised at a stocking density of 14 broilers per m2), (2) high-density group (birds fed with basal diet and raised at a stocking density of 22 broilers per m2), and (3) high density + CGA group (birds fed with 1 g/kg CGA and raised at a stocking density of 22 broilers per m2). Results showed that LPS injection and high stocking density significantly decreased the body weight and feed intake of broiler breeders, while CGA supplementation increased feed intake of broiler breeders under LPS injection and high stocking density stress. Moreover, LPS injection and high stocking density increased the concentration of corticosterone in serum, and CGA addition remarkably downregulated serum corticosterone levels. The GSH level decreased with LPS injection and CGA increased the GSH concentration in the intestines of immune-stressed broiler breeders. LPS injection promoted the production of circulating proinflammatory cytokines (serum IL-1β and TNF-α) by 72 h after LPS injection. Dietary supplementation with CGA prevented the increase in serum TNF-α caused by LPS. These results suggest that dietary inclusion of 1 g/kg CGA could increase the feed intake of broiler breeders and alleviate the effects of inflammatory mediator stress and exposure to high stocking density.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-10-21
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9100582
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2022)
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