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  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 225 journals)
Showing 1 - 63 of 63 Journals sorted by number of followers
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 166)
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Veterinary Record     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Veterinary Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Australian Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Small Animal Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Equine Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Veterinary Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Veterinary and Comparative Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
New Zealand Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Anthrozoos : A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Research in Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Preventive Veterinary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Equine Veterinary Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Trends in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Veterinary Clinical Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Veterinary Parasitology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Research Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Nursing Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medical Diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Medicine International     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Irish Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Avian Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Animal Health Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Human & Veterinary Medicine - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Topics in Companion Animal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Zoonoses and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Equine Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Veterinary Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ILAR Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Medical Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Theriogenology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Veterinary Medicine and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Small Ruminant Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advanced Research in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
New Zealand Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Reproduction in Domestic Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
VCOT Open     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Veterinary Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Kenya Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Tropical Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias (Colombian journal of animal science and veterinary medicine)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu dan Kesehatan Hewan (Veterinary Science and Medicine Journal)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Veteriner     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Veteriner Udayana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Tanzania Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Pet Behaviour Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Abanico Veterinario     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Austral Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Livestock     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Hellenic Veterinary Medical Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Medicine: Research and Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Science Development     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Research Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Higiene e Sanidade Animal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
veterinär spiegel     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chilean Journal of Agricultural & Animal Sciences     Open Access  
CES Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia     Open Access  
Veterinaria México OA     Open Access  
Compendio de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Veterinary Surgery     Open Access  
Ciencia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Nepalese Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Sri Lanka Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Salud y Tecnología Veterinaria     Open Access  
Veterinary Parasitology : X     Open Access  
Jurnal Medik Veteriner     Open Access  
Tierärztliche Praxis Ausgabe K: Kleintiere / Heimtiere     Hybrid Journal  
Tierärztliche Praxis Ausgabe G: Großtiere / Nutztiere     Hybrid Journal  
Van Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Rassegna di Diritto, Legislazione e Medicina Legale Veterinaria     Open Access  
Veterinaria (Montevideo)     Open Access  
SVU-International Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Matrix Science Medica     Open Access  
Veterinary Journal of Mehmet Akif Ersoy University / Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Analecta Veterinaria     Open Access  
Veterinarski Glasnik     Open Access  
Medicina Veterinária (UFRPE)     Open Access  
Veterinaria     Open Access  
Jurnal Sain Veteriner     Open Access  
International Journal of Tropical Veterinary and Biomedical Research     Open Access  
Revista de Ciência Veterinária e Saúde Pública     Open Access  
Jurnal Medika Veterinaria     Open Access  
Veterinary Parasitology : Regional Studies and Reports     Full-text available via subscription  
Revue Vétérinaire Clinique     Full-text available via subscription  
Folia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Science and Animal Health     Open Access  
FAVE Sección Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Wartazoa. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Indonesia Medicus Veterinus     Open Access  
Spei Domus     Open Access  
Revista de Educação Continuada em Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access  
Revista Veterinaria     Open Access  
Journal of the Selva Andina Research Society     Open Access  
Bangladesh Veterinarian     Open Access  
Journal of Buffalo Science     Hybrid Journal  
Revista de Ciências Agroveterinárias     Open Access  
Intas Polivet     Full-text available via subscription  
Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi / Atatürk University Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Revue Marocaine des Sciences Agronomiques et Vétérinaires     Open Access  
Nigerian Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Veterinária     Open Access  
Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde     Hybrid Journal  
Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access  
Macedonian Veterinary Review     Open Access  
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú     Open Access  
Revista Complutense de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Medical Mycology Case Reports     Open Access  
Veterinaria México     Open Access  
Revista de Salud Animal     Open Access  
Revista de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revista MVZ Córdoba     Open Access  
Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
InVet     Open Access  
Zeitschrift für Ganzheitliche Tiermedizin     Hybrid Journal  
team.konkret     Open Access  
pferde spiegel     Hybrid Journal  
kleintier konkret     Hybrid Journal  

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Veterinary Sciences
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2306-7381
Published by MDPI Homepage  [84 journals]
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 377: Follicular Dynamics and Pregnancy
           Rate in Nellore Heifers Submitted to Fixed-Time Artificial Insemination
           Protocols (FTAI)

    • Authors: Filipe Prudente da Silva, Kedson Alessandri Lobo Neves, Francisco R. A. Correa, Lílian K. X. Silva, Helder R. Batista, Welligton C. da Silva, Nohora Mercado Caruso, Antonio Humberto Hamad Minervino
      First page: 377
      Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate follicular dynamics and pregnancy rates in Nellore heifers submitted to fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) protocols associated with equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) or follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). Nellore heifers (n = 259) were used, divided into two studies. Experiment I evaluated the ovarian follicular dynamics in 64 Nellore heifers submitted to different FTAI protocols (n = 32/group) using either FSH or eCG. In Experiment II, the pregnancy rate was evaluated in 195 heifers submitted to FTAI protocols and divided into two groups: FSH (n = 97) and eCG (n = 98). In Experiment I, the ultrasound examination showed that the maximum diameter of the dominant and preovulatory follicles and the ovulation time were similar between the FSH and eCG groups (p > 0.05). However, the ovulation rate was higher in the eCG group when compared to FSH (p = 0.014). In Experiment II, females that received eCG presented a higher pregnancy rate (58.1%) when compared to FSH (40.2%) (p = 0.012). The use of eCG in the FTAI protocol in Nellore heifers promoted a higher ovulation rate and increased pregnancy rate and may be the most suitable alternative to increase conception rates in animals that are raised in an extensive system under tropical conditions in the Amazon.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-22
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080377
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 378: Magnetic Resonance Imaging and
           Magnetic Resonance Imaging Cholangiopancreatography of the Pancreas in
           Small Animals

    • Authors: Chiara Briola
      First page: 378
      Abstract: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) have emerged as non-invasive diagnostic techniques for the diagnosis of pancreatic and pancreatic duct disorders in humans. The number of studies focused on MR and MRCP for pancreatic disease in small animals is very limited. MR has been described for the evaluation of insulinoma in dogs and to investigate pancreatitis in cats. The studies were based on a standard protocol with T2 weighted (w) fast recovery fast spin-echo (FRFSE) with and without fat suppression, T1w FSE pre-contrast and T1w FSE post-contrast with and without fat suppression. MRCP after secretin stimulation has been described in cats to assess the pancreatic ductal system, taking advantage of pulse sequences heavily T2w as rapid acquisition with rapid enhancement (RARE), fast-recovery fast spin-echo (FRFSE) sequences and single-shot fast spin-echo (SSFSE) sequences. In addition to the standard protocol, fast spoiled gradient recalled echo pulse sequences (fSPGR) and volume interpolated 3D gradient-echo T1w pulse sequences pre and post-contrast have also been used in cats, reaching the goal of assessing the biliary tree and the pancreatic duct with the same sequence and in multiple planes. Despite the small amount of data, the results show potential, and the most recent technical innovations, in particular, focused on diffusion MRI and fast acquisition, further support the need for continued evaluation of MRI as an effective instrument for the investigation of pancreatic disease.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-23
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080378
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 379: Association of Lactoferrin and
           Toll-like Receptor 2 Genotypes with Mastitis and Milk Components in
           Vietnamese Holstein Cattle

    • Authors: Lan Doan Pham, Nguyen Van Ba, Le Quang Nam, Phong Vuong Tuan, Duy Ngoc Do
      First page: 379
      Abstract: Mastitis is one of the most widespread diseases in dairy cows and causes huge losses for the dairy industry. Molecular markers can be used for the quick diagnosis of mastitis infection, consequently reducing the loss caused by this disease. Lactoferrin (LTF) and Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) have been suggested as candidate genes for mastitis; however, their associations with the mastitis incidence and milk components have not been reported in Vietnamese Holstein cows. This study examined the association of TLR2 and LTF polymorphisms with subclinical mastitis and milk components in the Holstein breed raised in Vietnam. Among 192 samples, we identified 44 mastitis-positive samples (22.92%). The mastitis significantly reduced the fat and lactose components in milk (p < 0.001) but increased the protein concentration in milk. A total of 94 (49%) and 98 (51%) cows had AA and AB genotypes for the LTF gene, respectively. No significant association was found between the LTF genotypes and the milk component traits or mastitis incidence (p > 0.05). The interaction between LTF and mastitis incidence was significantly associated with the protein percentage (p = 0.01). A total of 78, 76, and 38 cows had genotypes GG, GT, and TT for the TLR2 gene, respectively. TLR2 genotypes were not significantly associated with mastitis incidence (p > 0.05) but were significantly associated with pH value (p = 0.03). The interaction between TLR2 and mastitis incidence was significantly associated with the fat (p = 0.02) and protein percentage (p = 0.04). Further studies are required to confirm the roles of LTF and TFL2 in mastitis in the Holstein breed in Vietnam.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-25
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080379
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 380: Novel Sources of Bioactive
           Molecules: Gut Microbiome of Species Routinely Exposed to Microorganisms

    • Authors: Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui, Morhanavallee Soopramanien, Ahmad M. Alharbi, Hasan Alfahemi, Naveed Ahmed Khan
      First page: 380
      Abstract: The development of novel bioactive molecules is urgently needed, especially with increasing fatalities occurring due to infections by bacteria and escalating numbers of multiple-drug-resistant bacteria. Several lines of evidence show that the gut microbiome of cockroaches, snakes, crocodiles, water monitor lizards, and other species may possess molecules that are bioactive. As these animals are routinely exposed to a variety of microorganisms in their natural environments, it is likely that they have developed methods to counter these microbes, which may be a contributing factor in their persistence on the planet for millions of years. In addition to the immune system, the gut microbiota of a host may thwart colonization of the gastro-intestine by pathogenic and/or foreign microorganisms through two mechanisms: (i) production of molecules with antibacterial potential targeting foreign microorganisms, or (ii) production of molecules that trigger host immunity targeting foreign microorganisms that penetrate the host. Herein, we discuss and deliberate on the current literature examining antibacterial activities that stem from the gut bacteria of animals such as crocodiles, cockroaches, and water monitor lizards, amongst other interesting species, which likely encounter a plethora of microorganisms in their natural environments. The overall aim is to unveil a potential library of novel bioactive molecules for the benefit of human health and for utilization against infectious diseases.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-25
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080380
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 381: Effects of Artemisinin on
           Escherichia coli–Induced Mastitis in Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells
           and Mice

    • Authors: Zhaoming Li, Jiaqing Hu, Xiaozhou Wang, Yongzhen Du, Jinhua Yin, Jian Gao, Bo Han, Shuai Cui, Yongxia Liu, Jianzhu Liu
      First page: 381
      Abstract: Bovine mastitis is an important disease affecting dairy farming, and it causes large economic losses to the dairy industry. Escherichia coli (E. coli) is considered to be a causative environmental pathogen and frequently enters into mammary glands, causing inflammation. Artemisinin is a highly effective malaria remedy and is not easy to develop drug resistance to. In recent years, other effects of artemisinin (including antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, etc.) have been increasingly discovered and applied. The current study aimed to investigate whether artemisinin could attenuate E. coli–induced inflammation. Through the E. coli mastitis model in MAC-T cells and mice, the protective effects of artemisinin were analyzed by CCK-8 (Cell Counting Kit-8), Western blot, and RT-qPCR. The results showed that artemisinin reversed the decrease of cell viability and upregulated TLR4 (toll-like receptor 4)/NF-κB (nuclear factor κB) and MAPK (mitogen activated protein kinase)/p38 signaling pathways, as well as restrained the expression of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β mRNA caused by E. coli. Meanwhile, artemisinin also alleviated mammary tissue damage, reduced inflammatory cells’ infiltration, and decreased the levels of inflammatory factors in a mice mastitis model. This study demonstrated that artemisinin alleviated the inflammatory response of mouse mastitis and MAC-T cells induced by E. coli, thus providing a practical approach for the clinical control of mastitis.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-26
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080381
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 382: The Swine Erysipelas Vaccine
           SER-ME Effectively Protects Pigs against Challenge with the Erysipelothrix
           rhusiopathiae M203/I257 SpaA-Type Variant

    • Authors: Misako Morimoto, Atsushi Kato, Kotoe Nogami, Yuta Akaike, Takaaki Furusawa, Hiroe Kojima, Chihiro Sasakawa
      First page: 382
      Abstract: Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae causes swine erysipelas (SE). Sporadic SE outbreaks in Japan are mostly caused by the E. rhusiopathiae serovar 1a variant featured by methionine (M) and isoleucine (I) at amino acid positions 203 and 257 of the surface protective antigen (Spa) A protein (M203/I257 SpaA-type). To determine if current vaccines are effective against infection with this variant in pigs, one representative inactivated vaccine, SER-ME (containing E. rhusiopathiae serovar 2a), was evaluated. All vaccinated pigs survived without any apparent clinical signs after lethal challenge with the Fujisawa reference strain or the variant. This indicates that the SER-ME vaccine effectively protects pigs against the infection of E. rhusiopathiae M203/I257 SpaA-type variant. Current vaccines in Japan, including SER-ME, suggest that outbreaks in Japan are unlikely caused by vaccine failure.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-26
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080382
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 383: Canine Gastric Cancer: Current
           Treatment Approaches

    • Authors: Diana Araújo, Inês Cabral, Nuno Vale, Irina Amorim
      First page: 383
      Abstract: Human gastric cancer (GC) ranks as the fifth most prevalent cancer worldwide, and is the third leading cause of cancer-related death. The incidence of GC is lower in dogs than in humans, accounting for less than 1% of all canine malignancies. In recent years, efforts have been made to understand the pathogenesis of GC and in find an appropriate therapy to maximize curative results, such as adjuvant chemotherapy treatments in addition to surgery. Although surgery is the first-line treatment, it is associated with several complications. In terms of chemotherapeutic intervention, canine gastric cancer has not received much attention, probably due to its late diagnosis, fast progression, low median survival time, and very high mortality rate, along with the lack of publications with concrete scientific results. In this review, we explore canine GC and the pharmacological approach used in the treatment of this often-fatal disease.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-26
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080383
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 384: Human and Animal Brucellosis in
           Nigeria: A Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis in the Last Twenty-One Years

    • Authors: Kabiru O. Akinyemi, Christopher O. Fakorede, Kehinde O. Amisu, Gamal Wareth
      First page: 384
      Abstract: The global burden of human and animal brucellosis remains enormous. The disease, which is endemic in Nigeria, lacks appropriate attention and national data. This review estimated the burden and distribution of human and animal brucellosis in Nigeria in the last twenty years (2001–2021). Publications reporting the detection of brucellosis in Nigeria were sorted from different search engines, including PubMed, ResearchGate, Scopus, and Google Scholar, to generate data on its prevalence, spatial distribution, and predisposing factors. The results of the national seroprevalence of human and animal brucellosis as revealed in this study were 17.6% (554/3144) and 13.3% (8547/64,435), respectively. Specifically, 15.8% (7178/45,363) seroprevalence of brucellosis was recorded in northern Nigeria as against 8.7% (1902/21,740) seroprevalence in the southern part. It also indicated that 78.7% of the detected brucellae were un-typed. The Brucella species detected were B. abortus (15.2%), B. melitensis (4%), B. suis (1.8%), and B. canis (0.4%). This study revealed that brucellosis is endemic in Nigeria. Culture and molecular methods for detecting brucellosis and reports on antimicrobial susceptibility testing remain a conjecture. This review will help researchers redirect their research focus and serve as a guide for policymakers on measures for managing brucellosis in Nigeria.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-26
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080384
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 385: Efficacy of Antimicrobial
           Treatment in Dogs with Atopic Dermatitis: An Observational Study

    • Authors: Evi I. Sofou, Svetlina Aleksandrova, Elisa Badulescu, Manolis Chatzis, Manolis Saridomichelakis
      First page: 385
      Abstract: There is a shortage of studies reporting the efficacy of antimicrobial treatment of dogs with atopic dermatitis (AD) and skin infections (SIs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the change in the severity of skin lesions and pruritus, and the overall efficacy of antimicrobial treatment, in dogs with AD and bacterial overgrowth/infection and/or Malassezia dermatitis. A total of 20 dogs with AD and SIs were prospectively enrolled (group A) and they were examined before and after the administration of systemic antimicrobials that resulted in the resolution of SIs. In addition, 19 dogs fulfilling the same inclusion criteria and treated with systemic, with or without topical antimicrobials, were included retrospectively (group B). Since there were no major differences between the groups, their results were combined. The severity of skin lesions decreased significantly, by 30% based on Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index-4 (CADESI-4), by 28.1% based on the erythema domain of CADESI-4 and based on owner’s global assessment of the severity of skin lesions. Pruritus decreased significantly, by 34.7% based on the Pruritus Visual Analogue Scale (PVAS). The efficacy of antimicrobial treatment was assessed as good to excellent by the investigator and the owner in 55% and 60% of the dogs, respectively. Despite the significant improvement, there was high variability in the response to treatment among dogs. Further studies are needed to find factors that determine the response to antimicrobial treatment in dogs with AD and SIs.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-27
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080385
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 386: Recombinant Ehrlichia canis GP19
           Protein as a Promising Vaccine Prototype Providing a Protective Immune
           Response in a Mouse Model

    • Authors: Boondarika Nambooppha, Amarin Rittipornlertrak, Anucha Muenthaisong, Pongpisid Koonyosying, Paweena Chomjit, Kanokwan Sangkakam, Sahatchai Tangtrongsup, Saruda Tiwananthagorn, Nattawooti Sthitmatee
      First page: 386
      Abstract: The intracellular bacterium Ehrlichia canis is the causative pathogen of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) in dogs. Despite its veterinary and medical importance, there is currently no available vaccine against this pathogen. In this study, the recombinant GP19 (rGP19) was produced and used as a recombinant vaccine prototype in a mouse model against experimental E. canis infection. The efficacy of the rGP19 vaccine prototype in the part of stimulating B and T cell responses and conferring protection in mice later challenged with E. canis pathogen were evaluated. The rGP19-specific antibody response was evaluated by ELISA after E. canis challenge exposure (on days 0, 7, and 14 post-challenge), and demonstrated significantly higher mean antibody levels in rGP19-immunized mice compared with adjuvant-immunized and naive mice. Significantly lower ehrlichial loads in blood, liver, and spleen DNA samples were detected in the immunized mice with rGP19 by qPCR. The up-regulation of IFNG and IL1 mRNA expression were observed in mice immunized with rGP19. In addition, this study detected IFN-γ-producing memory CD4+ T cells in the rGP19-immunized mice and later infected with E. canis on day 14 post-infection period using flow cytometry. The present study provided a piece of evidence that rGP19 may eliminate E. canis by manipulating Th1 and B cell roles and demonstrated a promising strategy in vaccine development against E. canis infection in the definitive host for further study.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-27
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080386
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 387: Canine Leishmaniasis: Update on
           Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention

    • Authors: Manuel Morales-Yuste, Joaquina Martín-Sánchez, Victoriano Corpas-Lopez
      First page: 387
      Abstract: Dog are the main reservoir of Leishmania infantum, causing canine leishmaniasis, an incurable multisystemic disease that leads to death in symptomatic dogs, when not treated. This parasite causes visceral, cutaneous, and mucosal leishmaniasis in people in the Mediterranean Basin, North Africa, South America, and West Asia. This disease is mostly unknown by veterinarians outside the endemic areas, but the disease is expanding in the Northern Hemisphere due to travel and climate change. New methodologies to study the epidemiology of the disease have found new hosts of leishmaniasis and drawn a completely new picture of the parasite biological cycle. Canine leishmaniasis diagnosis has evolved over the years through the analysis of new samples using novel molecular techniques. Given the neglected nature of leishmaniasis, progress in drug discovery is slow, and the few drugs that reach clinical stages in humans are unlikely to be commercialised for dogs, but several approaches have been developed to support chemotherapy. New-generation vaccines developed during the last decade are now widely used, along with novel prevention strategies. The implications of the epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of canine leishmaniasis are fundamental to public health.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-27
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080387
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 388: Sphingolipidomics of Bovine Pink
           Eye: A Pilot Study

    • Authors: Paul L. Wood, Lynda M. J. Miller
      First page: 388
      Abstract: Sphingolipids are essential structural components of tear film that protect the surface of the eye from dehydration. A detailed analysis of the effects of pink eye infections on the sphingolipidome in cattle has not previously been undertaken. We recently published a new assay utilizing high-resolution mass spectrometric monitoring of the chloride adducts of sphingolipids that provides enhanced sensitivity and specificity. Utilizing this assay, we monitored decreases in the levels of tear film ceramides with short-chain fatty acids, hydroxy-ceramides, phytoceramides, and hydroxy-phytoceramides. Dihydroceramide levels were unaltered and increased levels of ceramides with long-chain fatty acids (24:0 and 24:1) were monitored in cattle with pink eye. The data from this pilot study (n = 8 controls and 8 pink eye) demonstrate a major disruption of the lipid tear film layer in pink eye disease, that can result in severe eye irritation and damage.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-28
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080388
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 389: Effects of Saccharomyces boulardii
           Supplementation on Nutritional Status, Fecal Parameters, Microbiota, and
           Mycobiota in Breeding Adult Dogs

    • Authors: Giorgia Meineri, Elisa Martello, David Atuahene, Silvia Miretti, Bruno Stefanon, Misa Sandri, Ilaria Biasato, Maria Rita Corvaglia, Ilario Ferrocino, Luca Simone Cocolin
      First page: 389
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the administration of Saccharomyces boulardii on the nutritional, immunological, inflammatory, and stress status and on the composition of the gut microbiota and mycobiota in healthy adult dogs. A total of 25 American Staffordshire Terrier dogs were selected and randomly assigned to two groups: control (CTR, n = 12) and treated (TRT, n = 13) groups. No significant differences were found between the two groups regarding body weight, body condition score, and fecal score. No significant differences in microbiota/mycobiota, short chain fatty acids, indole/skatole, histamine, zonulin, or lactoferrin were detected. Indeed, supplementation with S. boulardii significantly decreased fecal calprotectin Immunoglobulin A, indicating an improvement in the gut well-being. Interestingly, fecal cortisol significantly decreased in dogs belonging to the TRT group compared to the CTR, suggesting both an improvement of the intestinal status and a reduction of stress, a common condition affecting animals managed in a breeding environment.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-28
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080389
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 390: Skin Barrier Reinforcement Effect
           Assessment of a Spot-on Based on Natural Ingredients in a Dog Model of
           Tape Stripping

    • Authors: Adrien Idée, Marion Mosca, Didier Pin
      First page: 390
      Abstract: Skin barrier restoration is an important part of atopic dermatitis therapy. We investigated the effect of a spot-on containing plant-based essential fatty acids and essential oils on skin barrier parameters in a dog model of acute skin barrier disruption, using five healthy beagle dogs maintained in a laboratory setting. Four test sites on the dorsum and a control site on the abdomen were defined on each dog. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and skin surface hydration (SSH) were measured before and after tape stripping on the first day and then for three consecutive days, over four consecutive weeks. The spot-on was applied at the end of each of the first three weeks. The increase in TEWL after tape stripping was reduced after the spot-on application and reached control values in Weeks 3 and 4. SSH after tape stripping was reduced in Week 4 compared with the baseline. Thus, the ATOP 7® spot-on significantly reduced acute skin barrier impairment in a dog model. The use of this product should be further evaluated as a potential treatment for skin barrier defects such as canine atopic dermatitis.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-28
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080390
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 391: The Ring-Necked Pheasant
           (Phasianus colchicus) Industry within the United Kingdom and the Threat
           Posed by Mycoplasma gallisepticum: A Review

    • Authors: Matthew J. Balfour
      First page: 391
      Abstract: In ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infection is frequently associated with infectious sinusitis. This condition causes swelling of the infraorbital sinuses, upper respiratory distress, depression and variable levels of mortality, and is considered one of the most important clinical and economic diseases of pheasants. This review provides a brief overview of the structure of the UK pheasant industry, with reference to the various stages within the supply chain, common diseases and challenges facing the industry. The current understanding of MG transmission, prevalence, clinical expression, diagnosis and control strategies in pheasants is subsequently summarised. In addition, this review aims to assess the current gaps in knowledge relating specifically to MG in pheasants, with reference and extrapolation where appropriate to data gathered from other species.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-29
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080391
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 392: Orthodontic Treatment of Dogs
           during the Developmental Stage: Repositioning of Mandibular Canine Teeth
           with Intercurrent Mandibular Distoclusion

    • Authors: Małgorzata Peruga, Grzegorz Piątkowski, Jakub Kotowicz, Joanna Lis
      First page: 392
      Abstract: Linguoverted mandibular canines are relatively rare among craniofacial abnormalities, and they are an isolated anomaly. They are most often caused by non-genetic factors such as persistent deciduous canine teeth or trauma coinciding with the eruption of permanent teeth. Another factor may be mandible narrowing or underdevelopment in the transverse dimension and vestibular inclination of the maxillary canine teeth. This article presents a procedure based on three cases where the position of the mandibular canine tooth was corrected using human orthodontic appliances modified to affect the canine dental system. The incline of the appliance was made to stimulate the protrusion of the mandible while the teeth were closing. After approximately 4 weeks, the lower canine teeth moved along the incline of the appliance, and tilt toward the flews was achieved.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-29
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080392
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 393: Simultaneous Analysis of the p16
           Gene and Protein in Canine Lymphoma Cells and Their Correlation with pRb

    • Authors: Leni Maylina, Satoshi Kambayashi, Kenji Baba, Masaru Okuda
      First page: 393
      Abstract: Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16 (CDKN2A) primarily functions as a negative regulator of the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) pathway to prevent pRb phosphorylation, thus playing a critical role in cell cycle arrest. In canine lymphoma cells, methylation due to inactivation of the p16 gene has been reported. However, its protein expression has not been examined in previous studies. In our in vitro study, the gene and protein expression of p16 and phosphorylated pRb were examined simultaneously in eight canine lymphoma and leukemia cell lines (17-71, CLBL-1, GL-1, CLC, CLGL-90, Ema, Nody-1, and UL-1). Methylation of the p16 gene was also explored using the demethylation drug 5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-Aza). After 5-Aza treatment, p16 gene and protein expression increased and pRb phosphorylation decreased, suggesting that both hypermethylation of the p16 gene and pRb hyperphosphorylation occurred in four out of eight cell lines (CLBL-1, CLC, Nody-1, and UL-1). Moreover, the estimation of p16’s protein expression was better than that of p16’s mRNA expression because the expression of the protein was more stable than those of the gene, and highly related to the phosphorylation of pRb. These results revealed that p16’s protein expression could be a promising biomarker for canine lymphoma cells.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-29
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080393
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 394: The Italian Network of
           Laboratories for Veterinary Oncology (NILOV) 2.0: Improving Knowledge on
           Canine Tumours

    • Authors: Maria Ines Crescio, Giuseppe Ru, Luca Aresu, Elena Bozzetta, Maria Giovanna Cancedda, Katia Capello, Massimo Castagnaro, Azzurra Carnio, Cristiano Cocumelli, Barbara Degli Uberti, Claudia Eleni, Greta Foiani, Niccolò Fonti, Lucia Rita Gibelli, Lorella Maniscalco, Elisabetta Manuali, Valentina Moccia, Orlando Paciello, Antonio Petrella, Antonio Petrini, Alessandro Poli, Roberto Puleio, Elisabetta Razzuoli, Paola Scaramozzino, Katia Varello, Marta Vascellari, Valentina Zappulli, Angelo Ferrari, on behalf of NILOV on behalf of NILOV
      First page: 394
      Abstract: Advances in tumour research are crucial, and comparative oncology can improve the knowledge in several ways. Dogs are not only models of specific naturally occurring tumours but can also be sentinels of environmental exposures to carcinogens, as they share the same environment with their owners. The purpose of this work was to describe the data collected by The Italian Network of Laboratories for Veterinary Oncology in the first 9 years of activity (2013–2021) and to evaluate their potential epidemiological significance. Frequencies of tumour topographies and main morphologies in dogs were described, analysed and compared, calculating age-adjusted proportional morbidity ratios and considering several risk factors (breed, sex, period and region of residence). These observations allowed us to highlight differences not only in morphology and topography of some tumours but also to formulate hypotheses on the potential role of some risk factors, e.g., neutering/spaying or geographical location. In our opinion, the results of this case series confirm the importance of initiating and consolidating animal cancer registration initiatives that would facilitate the possibility of conducting multicentric collaborative studies to deepen the knowledge of the epidemiology of tumours in dogs from a comparative perspective.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-30
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080394
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 395: Hormonal Homologies between Canine
           Mammary Cancer and Human Breast Cancer in a Series of Cases

    • Authors: Paloma Jimena de Andrés, Sara Cáceres, Juan Carlos Illera, Belén Crespo, Gema Silván, Felisbina Luisa Queiroga, Maria José Illera, Maria Dolores Pérez-Alenza, Laura Peña
      First page: 395
      Abstract: The validity of spontaneous canine mammary cancer (CMC) as a natural model for the study of human breast cancer (HBC) from a hormonal point of view has never been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we analyzed the immunohistochemical expression of aromatase (Arom) and steroid receptors [estrogen receptor α (ER α), estrogen receptor β (ER β), progesterone receptor (PR) and androgen receptor (AR)] and intratumor steroid hormone levels of 17β-estradiol (E2), estrone sulfate (SO4E1), progesterone (P4), androstenedione (A4), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and testosterone (T) in 78 samples of mammary cancer—51 human breast cancer (HBC) and 27 canine mammary cancer (CMC)—and corresponding controls. Frequency of tumors expressing Arom, ERβ, PR, and AR was similar in both species, whereas ERα+ tumors were less frequent in the canine species. There was a closer similarity between premenopausal HBC and CMC. In HBC and CMC, all hormones assayed were increased in tumors compared to control samples. Intratumor androgen levels were similar in the two species, although levels of progesterone and estrogens were higher in the HBC samples than the CMC samples. Statistical associations among Arom, receptors, and hormones analyzed suggest that the major hormonal influence in both species is estrogenic through the ER, being the α isoform predominant in the human samples. Our findings further support CMC as a spontaneous model for the study of HBC, especially premenopausal HBC, although several differences, such as the more prevalent ERα immunoexpression and higher intratumor levels of estrogens and P4 in HBC, should be taken into account in comparative hormonal studies.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-29
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080395
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 396: Canine Fecal Microbiota
           Transplantation: Current Application and Possible Mechanisms

    • Authors: Maimaiti Tuniyazi, Xiaoyu Hu, Yunhe Fu, Naisheng Zhang
      First page: 396
      Abstract: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an emerging therapeutic option for a variety of diseases, and is characterized as the transfer of fecal microorganisms from a healthy donor into the intestinal tract of a diseased recipient. In human clinics, FMT has been used for treating diseases for decades, with promising results. In recent years, veterinary specialists adapted FMT in canine patients; however, compared to humans, canine FMT is more inclined towards research purposes than practical applications in most cases, due to safety concerns. Therefore, in order to facilitate the application of fecal transplant therapy in dogs, in this paper, we review recent applications of FMT in canine clinical treatments, as well as possible mechanisms that are involved in the process of the therapeutic effect of FMT. More research is needed to explore more effective and safer approaches for conducting FMT in dogs.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-30
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080396
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 397: Tolerability of
           Atovaquone—Proguanil Application in Common Buzzard Nestlings

    • Authors: Anja Wiegmann, Tony Rinaud, Meinolf Ottensmann, Oliver Krüger, Andrea Springer, Marko Legler, Michael Fehr, Christina Strube, Nayden Chakarov
      First page: 397
      Abstract: Differences in drug tolerability among vertebrate groups and species can create substantial challenges for wildlife and ex situ conservation programmes. Knowledge of tolerance in the use of new drugs is, therefore, important to avoid severe toxicity in species, which are both commonly admitted in veterinary clinics and are of conservation concern. Antimalarial drugs have been developed for use in human medicine, but treatment with different agents has also long been used in avian medicine, as haemosporidian infections play a major role in many avian species. This study investigates the effects of the application of atovaquone–proguanil (Malarone®, GlaxoSmithKline) in common buzzards (Buteo buteo). The potential effects of treatment on body condition, growth rate, and chemical blood parameters of nestlings were assessed. All individuals survived the treatment, and no effects on body condition, growth rate, and chemical blood parameters were observed. Our results suggest the tolerability of Malarone® in common buzzards at a single dose of on average 11 mg/kg body weight. For its safe use, we recommend further studies to determine pharmacokinetics in different avian species as well as to assess the effects of repeated treatment.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-30
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080397
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 398: Prevalence, Diagnosis and
           Improving the Effectiveness of Therapy of Mastitis in Cows of Dairy Farms
           in East Kazakhstan

    • Authors: Nurzhamal Mukhamadieva, Mardan Julanov, Dinara Zainettinova, Vasyl Stefanik, Zhanat Nurzhumanova, Aitbek Mukataev, Anuarbek Suychinov
      First page: 398
      Abstract: In the present work, the prevalence, etiological factors and effective treatment scheme of mastitis in cows of dairy farms “Balke” and “Madi-R” in Eastern Kazakhstan were investigated. In total, 210 heads were investigated on two farms. The incidence of mastitis in cows on dairy farms is not the same in different years. Average clinical mastitis was detected in 35.4% of cows in 2016, 19.6% in 2017, 28.5% in 2018, and in 2019 in 16.4% of cows. The prevalence rates of subclinical mastitis by year had some differences. So, in 2016—36.5% of cows, then in 2017—21.5%, 2018—19.3% and in 2019—22.6%. In cows with udder inflammation, serum calcium 9.37 ± 0.15 mg/% with a range of 8.0 to 10.8 mg/%, phosphorus 3.58 ± 0.07 mg/% (3.0 to 4.3 mg/%), reserve alkalinity 363.46 ± 6.69 mg/% (320 to 440), carotene 0.49 ± 0.03 mg/% (0.220 to 0.988 mg/%), which are in the lower limit of physiological parameters. The drug “Dorob” was tested during the study of comparative effectiveness of treatment methods. The results of the study showed that this drug has anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and stimulating healing actions. The treatment of the sick cows with catarrhal mastitis has shown that a total of 8 cows have recovered in the control group and 10 cows in the experimental group with the preparation “Dorob”. The period of recovery in the control group was 8.8 ± 0.39, and in the experimental group—6.2 ± 0.28 (p < 0.05). The drug does not contain antibiotics and hormonal preparations. The inclusion of the drug in the scheme of treatment allows for effectively treating inflammatory processes in the udder of cows and restoring their productivity with minimal cost of time and money.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-30
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080398
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 399: Evaluation of a Novel Precordial
           Lead System for the Electrocardiographic Diagnosis of Right Ventricular
           Enlargement in Dogs

    • Authors: Giovanni Grosso, Tommaso Vezzosi, Cesara Sofia Pergamo, Martina Bini, Valentina Patata, Oriol Domenech, Rosalba Tognetti
      First page: 399
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of precordial leads for the detection of right ventricular enlargement (RVE) in dogs. This was a prospective observational study. The RVE was defined by echocardiography. The amplitude (mV) of the Q, R, and S waves, the R/S ratio, and the mean electrical axis (MEA) of the QRS complex were assessed on the 12-lead ECG. The ROC curve and the Youden index yielded the best cutoffs for RVE detection. An area under the curve (AUC) > 0.7 defined suitable diagnostic accuracy. A total of 84 dogs, 27 with RVE and 57 healthy controls, were enrolled. Q wave amplitude in aVR (cutoff > 0.10 mV; AUC = 0.727), R/S ratio in V4 (cutoff < 1.15; AUC = 0.842), R/S ratio in V5 (cutoff < 1.95; AUC = 0.839) and S wave amplitude in V6 (cutoff > 0.70 mV; AUC = 0.703) showed suitable diagnostic accuracy in detecting RVE. Among dogs with RVE, only 9/27 (33%) presented a right shift of MEA. Differently, 19/27 (70%) showed at least one of the identified precordial lead criteria. Assessment of the R/S ratio in V4 and V5 and S wave amplitude in V6 increases the diagnostic accuracy of ECG in distinguishing between dogs with RVE and healthy dogs.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-30
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080399
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 400: Clinical Case of Feline
           Leishmaniosis: Therapeutic Approach and Long-Term Follow-Up

    • Authors: Ettore Napoli, Giovanni De Benedetto, Cristina Fazio, Francesco La Russa, Gabriella Gaglio, Emanuele Brianti
      First page: 400
      Abstract: The response to allopurinol treatment and survival time of a case of feline leishmaniosis in a FIV co-infected cat is herein reported. In May 2019, a 13-year-old neutered European Shorthair male was referred due to weight loss and exfoliative dermatitis. Lymphadenomegaly and splenomegaly were detected upon clinical inspection, while the presence of several Leishmania infantum amastigotes were detected on splenic and lymphonodal fine needle aspiration (FNA). Allopurinol (10 mg/kg PO q 12 h) was administered. After two months, the cat’s clinical symptoms disappeared, and the owners decided to interrupt the therapy. In February, two reddish nodular fleshy neoformations appeared in both eyes, and amastigotes of Leishmania were detected by cytology on conjunctival swabs. Allopurinol treatment was re-started at the same rate; the ocular lesions regressed in two weeks, and the owner again decided to interrupt the therapy. In July, the patient had a new relapse, but the owner, tired of continuous relapses, refused further treatment of the disease. The cat’s health condition continued to worsen: in October 2021, the ocular lesions appeared again, and in November the patient died. This case underlines the effectiveness of allopurinol and highlights how interruption of treatment frequently leads to relapse, impairing the animal’s health condition and prognosis.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-31
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080400
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 401: Comparison between Some Phenotypic
           and Genotypic Methods for Assessment of Antimicrobial Resistance Trend of
           Bovine Mastitis Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Bulgaria

    • Authors: Nikolina Rusenova, Nasko Vasilev, Anton Rusenov, Aneliya Milanova, Ivo Sirakov
      First page: 401
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the resistance of bovine mastitis S. aureus isolates from farms in Bulgaria to different classes of chemotherapeutic drugs by comparison of some phenotypic and genotypic methods by means of Cohen’s kappa statistics. The study comprised 546 milk samples from subclinical and clinical mastitis at 14 farms from 9 districts in the country. A total of 92 Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated from tested samples and identified by nuc PCR. The results demonstrated high levels of resistance to sulfadimethoxine (87%), followed by resistance to penicillin (33.7%), erythromycin (13%), streptomycin (8.7%), tetracycline (6.5%) and gentamicin (1.1%). The comparison of both phenotypic tests with respect to 9 antimicrobials revealed strong agreement with kappa coefficient 0.836. An almost complete agreement was evidenced between phenotypic resistance to penicillin and blaZ gene presence, to methicillin with mecA gene, to tetracycline with tet genes, but the agreement between erythromycin resistance and erm genes presence was moderate. This study was the first to demonstrate discrepancy between the behaviour to cefoxitin in the disk diffusion test and oxacillin in the MIC test for an isolate shown to carry the mecA gene in the subsequent genetic analysis. Considering the detected discrepancies for some of isolates, an integral evaluation through phenotypic and molecular methods for monitoring of antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus is recommended.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-31
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080401
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 402: Ovarian Neuroglial Choristoma in a

    • Authors: Eleonora Brambilla, Barbara Banco, Stefano Faverzani, Paola Scarpa, Alessandro Pecile, Debora Groppetti, Claudio Pigoli, Marco Giraldi, Valeria Grieco
      First page: 402
      Abstract: Neuroglial choristomas are rare malformations consisting of heterotopic mature neural tissue at a site isolated from the brain or spinal cord. In human medicine, neuroglial choristomas are predominantly reported in the head and in the neck, except for one recent case reported in a foot of a child. In domestic animals, neuroglial choristomas are exceedingly rare, reported only in the retina of a dog, in the pharynx and in the skin of two kittens, and within the oropharynx of a harbor seal. A three-year-old intact female Jack Russell Terrier presented for elective ovariectomy exhibited a cystic lesion 2 cm in diameter expanding in the right ovary. Histological examination of the lesion revealed a mass composed of well-organized neuroglial tissue. Immunohistochemistry with primary antibodies against GFAP, NSE, and IBA-1 confirmed the neuroglial origin of the mass. At the time of this writing, 7 years after ovariectomy, the dog was clinically normal. Together with a recent case described in the foot of a child, this case confirms that neuroglial choristoma may also be found far from the skull or spine, supporting the hypothesis that they may arise from an early embryological migration defect.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080402
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 403: Green Tea Extract in the Extender
           Improved the Post-Thawed Semen Quality and Decreased Amino Acid Mutation
           of Kacang Buck Sperm

    • Authors: Suherni Susilowati, Imam Mustofa, Wurlina Wurlina, Tatik Hernawati, Yudit Oktanella, Soeharsono Soeharsono, Djoko Agus Purwanto
      First page: 403
      Abstract: This study was the first to combine the addition of antioxidants to a skim milk–egg yolk (SM–EY) extender and different equilibration periods to obtain higher quality post-thawed Kacang buck semen. This study aimed to determine the effects of green tea extract (GTE) on the quality of frozen Kacang goat sperm equilibrated for one and two hours. The pool of Kacang buck ejaculate was equally divided into four portions and was diluted in an SM–EY extender that contained four doses of 0, 0.05, 0.10, and 0.15 mg of GTE/100 mL for T0, T1, T2, and T3 groups, respectively. The aliquots were treated for an equilibration period of 1–2 h before further processing as frozen semen. Post-thawed semen quality was evaluated for sperm quality. The Sanger method was used for DNA sequencing, and the amino acid sequence was read using MEGA v.7.0. The post-thawed semen of the T2 group that was equilibrated for one hour had the highest semen quality. Pre-freezing motility had the highest determination coefficient compared to post-thawed sperm motility. This study is the first to report amino acid mutation due to freeze–thawing. The frequency of amino acid mutations revealed that T2 was the least mutated amino acid. Glycine, valine, leucine, serine, and asparagine strongly correlated to post-thawed sperm motility. It can be concluded that a combination of 0.1 mg GTE/100 mL extender as an antioxidant and one-hour equilibration period resulted in the best post-thawed Kacang buck semen quality.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080403
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 404: Hand2os1 Regulates the Secretion
           of Progesterone in Mice Corpus Luteum

    • Authors: Yanni Jia, Lu Liu, Suhua Gong, Haijing Li, Xinyan Zhang, Ruixue Zhang, Aihua Wang, Yaping Jin, Pengfei Lin
      First page: 404
      Abstract: The corpus luteum plays a key role in pregnancy maintenance and estrous cycle regulation by secreting progesterone. Hand2os1 is an lncRNA located upstream of Hand2, with which a bidirectional promoter is shared and is involved in the regulation of cardiac development and embryo implantation in mice. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and regulation of Hand2os1 in the ovaries. Here, we used RNAscope to detect differential expression of Hand2os1 in the ovaries of cycling and pregnant mice. Hand2os1 was specifically detected in luteal cells during the proestrus and estrus phases, showing its highest expression in the corpus luteum at estrus. Additionally, Hand2os1 was strongly expressed in the corpus luteum on day 4 of pregnancy, but the positive signal progressively disappeared after day 8, was detected again on day 18, and gradually decreased after delivery. Hand2os1 significantly promoted the synthesis of progesterone and the expression of StAR and Cyp11a1. The decreased progesterone levels caused by Hand2os1 interference were rescued by the overexpression of StAR. Our findings suggest that Hand2os1 may regulate the secretion of progesterone in the mouse corpus luteum by affecting the key rate-limiting enzyme StAR, which may have an impact on the maintenance of pregnancy.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-02
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080404
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 405: Emergence, Dissemination and
           Antimicrobial Resistance of the Main Poultry-Associated Salmonella
           Serovars in Brazil

    • Authors: Diéssy Kipper, Andréa Karoline Mascitti, Silvia De Carli, Andressa Matos Carneiro, André Felipe Streck, André Salvador Kazantzi Fonseca, Nilo Ikuta, Vagner Ricardo Lunge
      First page: 405
      Abstract: Salmonella infects poultry, and it is also a human foodborne pathogen. This bacterial genus is classified into several serovars/lineages, some of them showing high antimicrobial resistance (AMR). The ease of Salmonella transmission in farms, slaughterhouses, and eggs industries has made controlling it a real challenge in the poultry-production chains. This review describes the emergence, dissemination, and AMR of the main Salmonella serovars and lineages detected in Brazilian poultry. It is reported that few serovars emerged and have been more widely disseminated in breeders, broilers, and layers in the last 70 years. Salmonella Gallinarum was the first to spread on the farms, remaining as a concerning poultry pathogen. Salmonella Typhimurium and Enteritidis were also largely detected in poultry and foods (eggs, chicken, turkey), being associated with several human foodborne outbreaks. Salmonella Heidelberg and Minnesota have been more widely spread in recent years, resulting in frequent chicken/turkey meat contamination. A few more serovars (Infantis, Newport, Hadar, Senftenberg, Schwarzengrund, and Mbandaka, among others) were also detected, but less frequently and usually in specific poultry-production regions. AMR has been identified in most isolates, highlighting multi-drug resistance in specific poultry lineages from the serovars Typhimurium, Heidelberg, and Minnesota. Epidemiological studies are necessary to trace and control this pathogen in Brazilian commercial poultry production chains.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-03
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080405
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 406: The Effect of Supplementation with
           Weizmannia coagulans Strain SANK70258 to Coccidia-Infected Broilers Is
           Similar to That of a Coccidiostat Administration

    • Authors: Masanori Aida, Ryouichi Yamada, Shin-ichi Nakamura, Taishi Imaoka, Hikari Shimonishi, Toshiki Matsuo, Itaru Taniguchi, Takamitsu Tsukahara
      First page: 406
      Abstract: To determine whether it could also improve the production performance of Eimeria-infected broilers, Weizmannia coagulans strain SANK70258 (WC) supplementation was compared with coccidiostat lasalocid-A sodium (AM) administration. First, to determine the optimum WC dose, newly hatched broiler chick groups (n = 10) were untreated or consecutively given WC (0.005%, 0.01%, 0.03%, and 0.1%) and AM until slaughter (31 days of age). At day 21, all chicks were infected with coccidia. From the economical and practical viewpoints, 0.03% WC supplementation was the best dose. Second, newly hatched broiler chick groups (n = 10) were untreated or given 0.03% WC and AM. Each group was run in triplicate. At day 21, two chicks/pen with the farthest body weights as per the group’s mean body weight were spared, and the remaining inoculated with coccidia. At days 42 and 49, the WC and AM groups had significantly greater body weights and daily weight gains. Intestinal lesion scores were lower in 29-day-old AM and WC. Oocyst numbers were lower in 29- and 49-day-old AM and WC, but only 29- and 49-day-old AM had higher Escherichia coli levels. To conclude, although WC and AM induced similar growth performance in coccidium-infected chicks, unlike AM, the E. coli levels did not increase with WC.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-03
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080406
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 407: Ultrasonographic Findings of
           Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency in Dogs

    • Authors: Tina Pelligra, Caterina Puccinelli, Veronica Marchetti, Simonetta Citi
      First page: 407
      Abstract: Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) is a syndrome characterized by insufficient synthesis of pancreatic enzymes leading to clinical symptoms of malabsorption and maldigestion. There are no studies about ultrasonographic appearance of the pancreas with EPI in dogs. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe ultrasound features of the pancreas during EPI in this species. Dogs with history and clinical signs of maldigestion, serum canine trypsin-like immunoreactivity (cTLI) values <5 µg/L, and abdominal ultrasound exam were included in the study. Size, shape, margin, echogenicity, echostructure, and pancreatic duct appearance of the right pancreatic lobe were valued. Additional sonographic intestinal findings were recorded. Thirty-four dogs were included. The mean pancreatic thickness in our population was significantly lower than the mean reference values of healthy dogs. In 68% of dogs, the pancreas had a normal ultrasound appearance. Ultrasonographic intestinal abnormal findings were identified in 85% of dogs and were suggestive of inflammatory bowel disease. Despite the fact that EPI is a functional diagnosis, ultrasound evaluation should be considered among the useful tests. The finding of a normal but thinned pancreas associated with sonographic intestinal signs of inflammatory bowel disease in dogs with typical history and supportive clinical signs could suggest a diagnosis of EPI.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-04
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080407
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 408: Evaluation of Side Effects and
           Long-Term Protection of a Sustained-Release Injectable Moxidectin
           Formulation against Dirofilaria immitis Infection in Dogs: An
           Observational—In Field Multicentric Study

    • Authors: Cristina Vercelli, Luigi Bertolotti, Elisa Gelsi, Carlo Gazza, Giovanni Re
      First page: 408
      Abstract: The sustained-release moxidectin formulation Afilaria SR is a relatively new product and has been labelled to prevent Dirofilaria immitis infection in dogs for a six months-period. An observational, in field multicentric study was performed, aiming to evaluate the tolerability and the long-term prevention of Afilaria SR in Italy, a country where filariasis is endemic. The study was designed to include not less than 300 dogs, older than 6 months, of any breed. Side effects were recorded by veterinarians and antigenic tests were performed after 210, 365, 730, and 1095 days after the administration of the drug. A total of 583 dogs were recruited from 2018 to 2021 and all of them were negative with respect to antigenic tests at all time points, indicating that 100% of protection was achieved. Ranking of adverse reactions and correlation to patient features were analyzed using descriptive statistics and χ2 square test, respectively. Afilaria SR was well tolerated: 13% of dogs experienced mild reactions and only two dogs out of 583 (0.3%) demonstrated anaphylactoid/angioneurotic reactions, resolved administering corticosteroids. These data support that Afilaria SR prevented Dirofilaria immitis disease in all enrolled dogs and the low number and the low grade of side effects indicate the high safety profile of the product.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-04
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080408
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 409: Microbiome Profile of Dogs with
           Stage IV Multicentric Lymphoma: A Pilot Study

    • Authors: Feriel Yasmine Mahiddine, Inhwan You, Heekee Park, Min Jung Kim
      First page: 409
      Abstract: Changes in the gut microbiome can be associated with diseases and affect the overall health of an individual. In the current study, the gut microbiome profile of dogs diagnosed with advanced stages of multicentric lymphoma was compared with that of healthy dogs and analyzed. For this purpose, dogs from veterinary hospitals diagnosed with lymphoma were selected and were further narrowed down to cases of stage IV multicentric lymphoma. Fecal samples from the selected sick and healthy dogs were collected and analyzed using MiSeq sequencing. The gut microbiota in the two groups of dogs was statistically analyzed and compared. The results revealed significant differences in the microbial populations present in sick and healthy dogs. Phylum Actinobacteria and two species (Corynebacterium amycolatum and Streptococcus lutetiensis) were found in high proportions in sick dogs and may be considered as potential biomarkers for canine stage IV multicentric lymphoma. Further investigations need to be conducted to understand the mechanisms they might be involved in.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-04
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080409
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 410: Does Immunocastration Affect
           Behaviour and Body Lesions in Heavy Pigs'

    • Authors: Gaia Pesenti Rossi, Emanuela Dalla Costa, Joel Fernando Soares Filipe, Silvia Michela Mazzola, Ambra Motta, Marzia Borciani, Alessandro Gastaldo, Elisabetta Canali, Federica Pilia, Marco Argenton, Mario Caniatti, Alessandro Pecile, Michela Minero, Sara Barbieri
      First page: 410
      Abstract: Immunocastration has been pointed out as an alternative to surgical castration; though, most of the scientific studies were performed in light pig production. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of immunocastration on animal welfare in heavy pig production through the evaluation of behaviour and body lesions. A total of 188 commercial-hybrid pigs were randomly allocated into two treatment groups: surgical castration (SC) and immunocastration with Improvac® (IC). Data on behaviour, body lesions, and salivary testosterone levels were collected the day before each vaccination at 15, 22, 32, and 36 weeks of age. IC and SC pigs were slaughtered at 40 and 41 weeks of age, respectively; productive and carcass traits data were also collected. Considering productive performance, our results confirmed that IC pigs grew faster and presented a higher weight at slaughter. A critical period for pig welfare was observed before 32 weeks: testosterone concentration and body lesion score were significantly higher in IC pigs compared to SC pigs; active behaviours were significantly more frequent in IC at 15 weeks. Immunocastration may represent a suitable alternative to surgical castration with profitable productive performances, whereas the impairment of welfare during the period before the effective vaccination should be further investigated as a potential critical aspect in heavy pig production.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-05
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080410
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 411: Multimodal Blockade of the
           Renin-Angiotensin System Is Safe and Is a Potential Cancer Treatment for

    • Authors: John S. Munday, Thomas Odom, Keren E. Dittmer, Sarah Wetzel, Katharina Hillmer, Swee T. Tan
      First page: 411
      Abstract: The role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in cancer growth and progression is well recognized in humans. However, studies on RAS inhibition with a single agent have not shown consistent anticancer effects, potentially due to the neoplastic cells utilizing alternative pathways for RAS activation. To achieve more complete RAS inhibition, multimodal therapy with several medications that simultaneously block multiple steps in the RAS has been developed for use in humans. In the present study, the safety of multimodal RAS inhibition using atenolol, benazepril, metformin, curcumin, and meloxicam was assessed in six cats with squamous cell carcinomas. Cats were treated for 8 weeks, with blood pressure measured and blood sampled five times during the treatment period. None of the cats developed hypotension, azotemia, or increased serum liver enzyme concentrations. The packed cell volume of one cat decreased to just below the reference range during treatment. One cat was reported to have increased vomiting, although this occurred infrequently. One cat was withdrawn from the study due to difficulties administering the medications, and another cat died of an unrelated cause. Two cats were euthanatized during the study period due to cancer progression. Two cats completed the 8-week study period. One was subsequently euthanized due to cancer progression while the other cat is still alive 32 weeks after entering the study and is still receiving the multimodal blockade of the RAS. This is the first evaluation of multimodal blockade of the RAS in veterinary species. The study showed that the treatment is safe, with only mild adverse effects observed in two treated cats. Due to the small number of cats, the efficacy of treatment could not be evaluated. However, evidence from human studies suggests that a multimodal blockade of RAS could be a safe and cost-effective treatment option for cancer in cats.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-05
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080411
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 412: Molecular Identification of
           Parasitic Protozoa Sarcocystis in Water Samples

    • Authors: Živilė Strazdaitė-Žielienė, Agnė Baranauskaitė, Dalius Butkauskas, Elena Servienė, Petras Prakas
      First page: 412
      Abstract: Sarcocystis parasites are among the most common parasitic protozoa in farm animals. So far, the diversity of these parasites has been mainly studied in animal carcasses by morphological or molecular methods. Research on parasitic protozoa in environmental samples is scarce due to the lack of an appropriate methodology and low concentrations of parasites. For these reasons, there is a paucity of validated methods for Sarcocystis identification from environmental samples. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate various molecular methods for Sarcocystis parasite identification in water samples. In the present study, the sample volume, sporocysts isolation, and various conventional PCR were evaluated, and species-specific primers for the identification of different Sarcocystis species have been developed. Of the methods studied, based on data the most appropriate method for the identification of analyzed Sarcocystis spp. in water bodies is nested PCR, using species-specific primers targeting the cox1 gene. Sarcocystis DNA was detected in 111 out of 114 (97.4%) samples. This paper represents the first identification of S. bovifelis, S. cruzi, S. hirsuta, S. arieticanis, S. tenella, S. capracanis, S. bertrami, and S. miescheriana by PCR and sequencing in environmental water samples. Our pilot study is useful in developing techniques for the identification of Sarcocystis species from water samples.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-05
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080412
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 413: The Microbiological Quality of
           Concentrates for Horses—A Retrospective Study on Influencing Factors
           and Associations with Clinical Symptoms Reported by Owners or Referring

    • Authors: Sandra Intemann, Bernd Reckels, Dana Carina Schubert, Petra Wolf, Josef Kamphues, Christian Visscher
      First page: 413
      Abstract: Evidence has already been provided that feed-borne mold spores and endotoxins can trigger chronic, non-infectious respiratory disease if inhaled. Furthermore, deficiencies in feed microbiology are suspected to trigger gastrointestinal and liver disorders in horses, but the connection needs further clarification. Most of the previous studies regarding horse feed hygiene focused on forage, whereas research regarding hygienic quality of concentrates is scarce. In the present study, results of reports on hygienic quality of compound feed and cereals for horses were evaluated secondarily. Results included sensory findings, and counts of aerobic bacteria, molds and yeasts determined by cultivation and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) contents. It was found that microbial counts of compound feed exceeded VDLUFA orientation values significantly more frequently than cereals (38.4 vs. 22.6%). However, average counts of bacteria, molds and yeasts were higher in cereals than in compound feeds (p < 0.0001, respectively). Mold counts in grains were significantly higher if dry matter contents were below 86% (p = 0.0201). No relation could be established between the anamnestically reported gastrointestinal disorders or elevated liver enzyme activities and microbiological deviations. Mold counts of concentrates which were suspected to cause coughing in horses were significantly higher than mold counts of control samples (3.29 vs. 2.40 log10 cfu g−1, p = 0.0313). These results indicate that hygienic status of concentrates is relevant for horse health in the respiratory tract.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-05
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080413
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 414: Comparison of Low- and High-Cost
           Infrared Thermal Imaging Devices for the Detection of Lameness in Dairy

    • Authors: Aidan Coe, Nicola Blackie
      First page: 414
      Abstract: Lameness has a high economic cost to the U.K. dairy industry; accurate and early detection of lameness minimises this cost. Infrared thermal imaging (IRT) devices have shown promising results for use as a lameness detection aid in cattle when used in research settings; these devices are typically high-cost, limiting their adoption. This study analysed the effectiveness of low-cost IRT devices (LCDs) as lameness detection aids, by comparing both maximum environmentally adjusted temperature values and hindfeet temperature difference collected by an LCD to the mobility score of the cow; this test was repeated for data collected by a research-specification device. Data collection occurred during routine milking of 83 cattle; each cow’s mobility was scored afterwards. Significant differences were found between lame and sound cows with the LCD, upon analysis of both methods. There was no significant difference between the data captured by differing devices. The maximum sensitivity and specificity values for the LCD were calculated as 66.95 and 64.53, respectively, compared with 70.34 and 70.94, respectively, for the research-specification device; optimum threshold values for these were equivalent for both devices, suggesting IRT lameness identification is not device-dependent. It was concluded that a minimal difference in effectiveness between tested devices suggests that LCDs could be used as a lameness detection aid; consequently, there is potential for widespread adoption as on-farm detection aids.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-06
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080414
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 415: Feeding Thai Native Sheep Molasses
           Either Alone or in Combination with Urea-Fermented Sugarcane Bagasse: The
           Effects on Nutrient Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation, and Hematological

    • Authors: Thaintip Kraiprom, Sitthisak Jantarat, Suphawadee Yaemkong, Anusorn Cherdthong, Tossaporn Incharoen
      First page: 415
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to find out how adding molasses to fermented sugarcane bagasse (FSB) alone or in combination with urea affected sheep’s rumen fermentation, hematological parameters, and ability to digest nutrients. Four Thai native sheep with an initial body weight (BW) of 20.87 ± 1.95 kg and 11 ± 1.0 months old were assigned to a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 4 periods of 14-d adaptation and 7 d of sample collection. Each treatment received a different combination of experimental roughage as follows: FSB without additives (T1), FSB + 10% molasses (T2), FSB + 20% molasses (T3), and FSB + 10% molasses + 3% urea (T4). The concentrate diet was fed twice daily at 2% BW, while roughage sources were provided ad libitum for each treatment. The crude protein (CP) digestibility in the T2 and T3 groups was higher (p < 0.05) than in the FSB group without additions, with the T4 group having the highest (p < 0.05). Although there were no significant differences in blood glucose, packed cell volume, ruminal pH, ammonia–nitrogen (NH3-N), propionic acid, or acetic acid, the plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) at 0 h was highest in the T4 group (p < 0.05) compared with the other groups. However, the proportion of butyric acid tended to be higher in all FSB groups with additives. Thus, the current experiment concluded that the addition of molasses alone or in combination with urea had positive effects on pH and LAB population, and including both together in FSB improved the CP digestibility of sheep. In conclusion, FSB with 10% molasses and 3% urea might be used as an alternate roughage source for ruminants without affecting the animal’s ruminal fermentation or hematological parameters.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-06
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9080415
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 316: Primary Broiler Hepatocytes for
           Establishment of a Steatosis Model

    • Authors: Cai Zhang, Sudan Meng, Chenxu Li, Zijun Yang, Guoyong Wang, Xueying Wang, Yanbo Ma
      First page: 316
      Abstract: Fatty liver hemorrhage syndrome (FLHS) in chickens is characterized by steatosis and bleeding in the liver, which has caused huge losses to the poultry industry. This study aimed to use primary cultured broiler hepatocytes to establish a steatosis model to explore the optimal conditions for inducing steatosis by incubating the cells with a fat emulsion. Primary hepatocytes were isolated from an AA broiler by a modified two-step in situ perfusion method. Hepatocytes were divided into an untreated control group and a fat emulsion group that was incubated with 2.5, 5, 10, or 20% fat emulsion for different times to determine the optimal conditions for inducing steatosis of primary hepatocytes. Incubation of the cells with 10% fat emulsion resulted in cell viability at 48 h of 67%, which was higher than the control group and met the requirements of the model. In the second experiment, steatosis was induced by incubating hepatocytes with 10% fat emulsion for 48 h. In consequence, the apoptosis rate decreased (p > 0.05) and the concentration of ALT (p < 0.001), AST (p < 0.01), and TG (p < 0.05) increased significantly; the expression level of SREBP-1c (p < 0.05) increased, and the expression levels of PPARα (p < 0.001), CPT1 (p < 0.001), and CPT2 (p < 0.05) were lower in the fat emulsion group than in the control group. In conclusion, the induction condition was selected as 10% fat emulsion incubation for 48 h, and we successfully established a fatty liver degeneration model for broilers.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070316
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 317: Methicillin-Resistant
           Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Other Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococci
           and Mammaliicoccus (MRNaS) Associated with Animals and Food Products in
           Arab Countries: A Review

    • Authors: Chahrazed Belhout, Rachid Elgroud, Patrick Butaye
      First page: 317
      Abstract: The prevalence of methicillin resistance in staphylococci has been increasing globally and is currently one of the major public health concerns. In particular, treating infections caused by staphylococci with acquired antimicrobial resistance is problematic, as their treatment is more difficult. The resistance is found both in human and animal staphylococcal strains. Methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) have also been increasingly reported in wildlife. In Arab countries, MRS has been detected in food producing animals and food products; however, the risk this poses is somewhat unclear, and still a significant lack of information on the trend and distribution of these pathogens in these countries, which have a specific ecosystem (desert) and traditions (Muslim culture). In this manuscript, we aim to provide an overview of the prevalence and the major MRS clonal lineages circulating in these specific countries and compare to them other situations with different ecosystems and cultures.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070317
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 318: Seronegative Myasthenia Gravis
           with Concomitant SARS-CoV-2 Infection in a Dog

    • Authors: Musteata, Borcea, Despa, Ștefănescu, Ivănescu, Hrițcu, Baisan, Lăcătuș, Solcan
      First page: 318
      Abstract: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a disorder of neuromuscular transmission affecting the neuromuscular junction. The majority of cases involve an autoimmune attack against AChR, but a limited number of patients are seronegative for AChR antibodies. Viral infection is incriminated as a trigger for MG occurrence, and in a limited number of reports, infection with SARS-CoV-2 was found to be associated with MG expression in humans. In this report, we describe case of seronegative generalized MG in a 2-year-old crossbred female dog associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection due to close exposure to an infected owner.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070318
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 319: Isolation, Molecular
           Characterization, and Antibiotic Resistance of Avian Pathogenic
           Escherichia coli in Eastern China

    • Authors: Dossêh Jean Apôtre Afayibo, Hong Zhu, Beibei Zhang, Lan Yao, Hosny Ahmed Abdelgawad, Mingxing Tian, Jingjing Qi, Yali Liu, Shaohui Wang
      First page: 319
      Abstract: Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) causes colibacillosis in avians, resulting in considerable losses in the poultry industry. APEC showed zoonotic potential initially related to the fact that APEC serves as the reservoir of virulence genes and antibiotic resistance genes for other E. coli. Thus, we determine the serotypes, phylogenetic groups, virulence genes distribution, and antibiotic resistance profiles of APEC isolates in eastern China. A total of 230 APEC were isolated from diseased chicken and duck with typical colibacillosis symptoms. Serotyping identified that O78 (44.78%) was the predominant serotype. The majority of APEC isolates were classified into B2 (29.57%), A (26.96%), D (20.00%), and B1 (18.26%), respectively. Among the 15 virulence genes, a high prevalence of ibeB (99.57%), fimC (91.74%), mat (91.30%), ompA (83.04%), and iss (80.43%) genes was observed. Except for low resistance rates for imipenem (1.7%) and polymyxin B (0.4%), most of the APEC isolates were resistant to erythromycin (98.7%), enrofloxacin (96.1%), tetracycline (95.2%), doxycycline (93.9%), lincomycin (90.0%), and streptomycin (90.0%). Moreover, all APEC exhibit multi-drug resistance. This study indicated that APEC isolates harbor a variety of virulence genes and showed multi-antibiotic resistance profiles, providing proof for understanding the epidemiological background and zoonotic potential of APEC in poultry farms.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070319
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 320: Colonisation Patterns of Nosema
           ceranae in the Azores Archipelago

    • Authors: Ana Rita Lopes, Raquel Martín-Hernández, Mariano Higes, Sara Kafafi Segura, Dora Henriques, Maria Alice Pinto
      First page: 320
      Abstract: Nosema ceranae is a highly prevalent pathogen of Apis mellifera, which is distributed worldwide. However, there may still exist isolated areas that remain free of N. ceranae. Herein, we used molecular tools to survey the Azores to detect N. ceranae and unravel its colonisation patterns. To that end, we sampled 474 colonies from eight islands in 2014/2015 and 91 from four islands in 2020. The findings revealed that N. ceranae was not only present but also the dominant species in the Azores. In 2014/2015, N. apis was rare and N. ceranae prevalence varied between 2.7% in São Jorge and 50.7% in Pico. In 2020, N. ceranae prevalence increased significantly (p < 0.001) in Terceira and São Jorge also showing higher infection levels. The spatiotemporal patterns suggest that N. ceranae colonised the archipelago recently, and it rapidly spread across other islands, where at least two independent introductions might have occurred. Flores and Santa Maria have escaped the N. ceranae invasion, and it is remarkable that Santa Maria is also free of Varroa destructor, which makes it one of the last places in Europe where the honey bee remains naive to these two major biotic stressors.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070320
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 321: Effect of Green Tea on Weight Gain
           and Semen Quality of Rabbit Males

    • Authors: Andrej Baláži, Alexander V. Sirotkin, Pavol Makovický, Ľubica Chrastinová, Alexander Makarevich, Peter Chrenek
      First page: 321
      Abstract: The goal of the current study was to evaluate the action of the green tea plant (Camellia sinensis, L) on male rabbit reproduction and some non-reproductive indexes. Male rabbits were fed either a standard diet (control group) or a diet enriched with green tea powder (experimental groups; E): 5 g (E1) or 20 g (E2) per 100 kg of the milled complete feed mixture. Weight gain, sperm concentration, total and progressive motility, as well as haematological, and biochemical parameters and changes in testicular tissue histomorphology were evaluated. Feeding with green tea, at both tested concentrations, decreased weight gain per week and the total average weight gain compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Furthermore, green tea decreased sperm concentration, motility and progressive motility in the group fed with a lower dose (5 g) of green tea powder (p < 0.05), whilst a higher dose (20 g) was neutral. Some haematological and biochemical indexes, like medium-size cell count (MID), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), platelet percentage (PCT), levels of phosphorus (P) and total proteins (TP) were decreased in one or both experimental groups (p < 0.05), whilst the triglyceride level (TG) was increased in the E2 group (p < 0.05). The thicknesses of the testicular seminiferous tubules and epithelial layer were not affected by any concentration of green tea powder (p > 0.05). These observations suggest that green tea in the diet may have an adverse effect on rabbit growth and sperm quality, but their effect may be potentially dose-dependent.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-26
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070321
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 322: Successful Management of and
           Recovery from Multiple Cranial Nerve Palsies following Surgical Ventral
           Stabilization in a Dog with Atlantoaxial Subluxation

    • Authors: Joong-Hyun Song, Tae-Sung Hwang, Dong-In Jung, Hee-Jun Jeong, Chan Huh
      First page: 322
      Abstract: A 4-year-old spayed female miniature poodle dog presented with a 1-week history of acute tetraparesis. A neurological examination revealed severe neck pain and non-ambulatory tetraparesis. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed hypoplastic dens with moderate compression of the spinal cord at C1–C2. The atlantoaxial subluxation (AAS) was surgically stabilized using ventral pins and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cement. On the second postoperative day, the patient showed significant dyspnea, and aspiration pneumonia was identified on radiography. The patient exhibited dysphagia with abnormal food prehension and an inability to protrude the tongue, with no gag reflex. We tentatively diagnosed the patient with multiple cranial nerve (CN) palsies involving the 9th, 10th, and 12th CNs following surgical ventral stabilization. The protruding cranial part of the implanted PMMA cement, which could mechanically contribute to the corresponding CNs dysfunction, was surgically removed. The symptoms gradually improved, and the patient showed normal tongue movement 1 month after revision surgery. In conclusion, we report herein a canine case of multiple CN palsies following ventral stabilization surgery for AAS. The experience gained from this case suggests an optimized management plan for postoperative neurological complications associated with ventral stabilization.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070322
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 323: Enhanced In Vitro Expression of
           Filaggrin and Antimicrobial Peptides Following Application of
           Glycosaminoglycans and a Sphingomyelin-Rich Lipid Extract

    • Authors: Sergi Segarra, Tanesha Naiken, Julien Garnier, Valérie Hamon, Nathalie Coussay, François-Xavier Bernard
      First page: 323
      Abstract: Filaggrin is an epidermal protein involved in skin barrier formation and hydration, whose expression is altered in canine atopic dermatitis (CAD). CAD patients also present an abnormal immune response with an altered expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), such as β-defensins and cathelicidins. Sphingolipids and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) have been reported to improve the skin barrier in several animal species, including dogs. Our objective was to evaluate the in vitro effects of a sphingomyelin-rich lipid extract (LE), a hyaluronic acid-rich GAG matrix, and their combination, on the expression of filaggrin and human β-defensin 2 (hBD-2). Filaggrin expression was quantified in a reconstructed human epidermis (RHE), and hBD-2 in normal human epidermal keratinocyte (NHEK) cultures. LE and GAGs were tested at 0.02 mg/mL, with or without adding a cytokine mix. A significant increase in mean hBD-2, compared to the control (99 pg/mL) was achieved with LE (138 pg/mL) and LE+GAGs (165 pg/mL). Filaggrin increased with GAGs (202% ± 83) and LE (193% ± 44) vs. the stimulated control, but this difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05) only with LE+GAGs (210% ± 39). In conclusion, the tested GAGs and LE enhance filaggrin and AMP expression in vitro, which might benefit CAD patients if applied in vivo.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070323
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 324: Recovery of Fecal Microbiome and
           Bile Acids in Healthy Dogs after Tylosin Administration with and without
           Fecal Microbiota Transplantation

    • Authors: Margaux Marclay, Elizabeth Dwyer, Jan S. Suchodolski, Jonathan A. Lidbury, Joerg M. Steiner, Frederic P. Gaschen
      First page: 324
      Abstract: Antibiotics cause gut dysbiosis and bile acid dysmetabolism in dogs. The effect of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) on microbiome and metabolome recovery is unknown. This prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study included sixteen healthy purpose-bred dogs. All dogs received tylosin 20 mg/kg PO once daily (days 1–7) and were randomly assigned to either receive one FMT via enema (day 8), daily oral FMT capsules (days 8–21), or daily placebo capsules (days 8–21). Fecal samples were frozen at regular intervals until day 42. Quantitative PCR for 8 bacterial taxa was performed to calculate the fecal dysbiosis index (FDI) and fecal concentrations of unconjugated bile acids (UBA) were measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Tylosin altered the abundance of most evaluated bacteria and induced a significant decrease in secondary bile acid concentrations at day 7 in all dogs. However, most parameters returned to their baseline by day 14 in all dogs. In conclusion, tylosin markedly impacted fecal microbiota and bile acid concentrations, although return to baseline values was quick after the antibiotic was discontinued. Overall, FMT did not accelerate recovery of measured parameters. Further studies are warranted to confirm the value of FMT in accelerating microbiota recovery in antibiotic-associated dysbiosis in dogs.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070324
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 325: Relationship between Ground
           Reaction Forces and Morpho- Metric Measures in Two Different Canine
           Phenotypes Using Regression Analysis

    • Authors: Giovanni Della Valle, Chiara Caterino, Federica Aragosa, Caterina Balestriere, Alfonso Piscitelli, Cristina Di Palma, Maria Pia Pasolini, Gerardo Fatone
      First page: 325
      Abstract: Force plate analysis assesses gait symmetry and limb loading. However, as previously described, individual and breed variability (body size and conformation) is related to breeding, body conformation, and size. This prospective study aimed to evaluate the influence of morphometric measures on the speed (V), peak of vertical force (PVF), vertical impulse (VI), and stance time (ST) in healthy dolichomorph and mesomorph dogs and their combined effect on and interactions with V, PVF, VI, and ST in the same morphological types. Fifty dogs were enrolled in the current study, and specific morphometric measurements were recorded for each dog. A force platform was used to record the ground reaction forces (GFRs), including PVF and VI. Multiple linear regression models were used for the study purposes. According to our results, GFRs are influenced by morphometric measures (body weight, withers height, and speed) not so much as a single contribution, but by the interaction between them. It is not possible to compare GFRs in dogs that do not belong to the same breed. However, the subjective variabilities make this comparison difficult and poorly reliable. According to the author, the comparison should be made between canine morphological types rather than breeds.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070325
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 326: Pro-Inflammatory and Immunological
           Profile of Dogs with Myxomatous Mitral Valve Disease

    • Authors: Diego Piantedosi, Nadia Musco, Anna Teresa Palatucci, Flavia Carriero, Valentina Rubino, Francesco Pizzo, Saad Nasir, Giuseppe Molinaro, Giuseppina Ruggiero, Giuseppe Terrazzano, Pietro Lombardi, Laura Cortese
      First page: 326
      Abstract: Myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) is a very frequently acquired cardiac disease in dog breeds and is responsible for congestive heart failure (CHF). The involvement of the immune system and pro-inflammatory cytokines in dogs with CHF due to mitral valve disease has not yet been extensively investigated. Here, we investigate the role of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the dysfunction of the immune system in dogs with different stages of severity through the blood assessment of CD4+FoxP3+regulatory T cells (Treg) cells, leptin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 pro-inflammatory cytokines, and immunological and echocardiographic parameters. A total of 36 cardiopathic dogs, 14 females and 22 males, with MMVD were included. Mean age and body weight (BW) at the time of enrollment were 10.7 ± 2.77 years and 10.9 ± 6.69 kg, respectively. For the comparison of the pro-inflammatory and immunological parameters, two groups of healthy dogs were also established. Control group 1 consisted of young animals (n. 11; 6 females and 5 males), whose age and mean weight were 4.1 ± 0.82 years and 13.8 ± 4.30 kg, respectively. Control group 2 consisted of elderly dogs (n. 12; 6 females and 6 males), whose age and BW were 9.6 ± 0.98 years and 14.8 ± 6.15 kg, respectively. Of particular interest, an increase in Treg cells was observed in the cohort of MMVD dogs, as compared to the healthy dogs, as Treg cells are involved in the maintenance of peripheral tolerance, and they are involved in etiopathogenetic and pathophysiological mechanisms in the dog. On the other hand, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 significantly increased according to the severity of the disease in MMVD dogs. Furthermore, the positive correlation between IL-6 and the left ventricle diastolic volume suggests that inflammatory activation may be involved in cardiac remodeling associated with the progressive volumetric overload in MMVD.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070326
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 327: Safety and Efficacy of an
           Oncolytic Adenovirus as an Immunotherapy for Canine Cancer Patients

    • Authors: Clara Martín-Carrasco, Pablo Delgado-Bonet, Beatriz Davinia Tomeo-Martín, Josep Pastor, Claudia de la Riva, Paula Palau-Concejo, Noemí del Castillo, Javier García-Castro, Ana Judith Perisé-Barrios
      First page: 327
      Abstract: The use of oncolytic viruses is an innovative approach to lyse tumor cells and induce antitumor immune responses. Eight dogs diagnosed with carcinoma/adenocarcinoma were intratumorally treated with ICOCAV15, an oncolytic canine adenovirus (CAV). To evaluate the treatment’s safety, a blood count, biochemistry, and coagulation test were performed before treatment and during follow-up. Immune populations were analyzed by flow cytometry. Anti-adenovirus antibodies were also determined. The immune infiltration, vascularization, and viral presence in the tumor were determined by CD3, CD4, CD20, CD31 and CAV by immunohistochemistry. All the dogs maintained a good quality of life during follow-up, and some had increased median survival time when compared with dogs treated with chemotherapy. No treatment-related adverse effects were detected. The Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors criteria were also assessed: two patients showed a partial response and the rest showed stable disease at various times during the study. ICOCAV15 was detected inside the tumor during follow-up, and antiviral antibodies were detected in all patients. Furthermore, the tumor-infiltrating immune cells increased after viral administration. Therefore, we suggest that intratumorally administered ICOCAV15 could represent as a new tool for the treatment of canine carcinoma because it is safe, well-tolerated by dogs, and shows promising results.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070327
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 328: Distribution of Corynebacterium
           Species and Comparative Results of Diagnostic Methods for Identifying
           Corynebacterium in Experimental Mice in Korea

    • Authors: Sehee Park, Hijo Shin, Sangwoon Kim, Teakchang Lee, Haejin Lee, Kihoan Nam, Wonkee Yoon, Hyoungchin Kim, Youngwon Seo, Youngsuk Won, Hyojung Kwon
      First page: 328
      Abstract: The genus Corynebacterium, composed of Gram-positive diphtheroid rod-shaped bacteria, induces severe diseases, such as Corynebacterium-associated hyperkeratosis and pseudotuberculosis, in immunodeficient mice. We isolated and identified a total of 165 strains of Corynebacterium species from experimental mice in Korean laboratories, diagnosed using several methods. When identified based on molecular methods, namely, 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequence analysis, the main Corynebacterium species isolated in Korean laboratory mice were C. mastitidis (44.8%, n = 74), C. bovis (25.5%, n = 42), C. lowii (21.2%, n = 35), and C. amycolatum (8.5%, n = 14). Diagnoses were also performed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and biochemical methods. MALDI-TOF MS yielded results that were 77.9% identical to the molecular identification results, whereas biochemical methods showed only 15.5% identical to molecular identification, partly owing to difficulties in distinguishing among C. mastitidis strains. Collectively, our findings indicate that molecular biological methods are better suited for detecting and identifying Corynebacterium species candidates isolated from mice than biochemical methods. Because of limitations associated with the use of MALDI-TOF MS, more precise results will be obtained by complementing this approach with other methods when used for rapid identification testing.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070328
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 329: Differences in Behavior between
           Normal and Atopic Keratinocytes in Culture: Pilot Studies

    • Authors: Rosanna Marsella, Kim Ahrens, Rachel Wilkes
      First page: 329
      Abstract: Skin barrier dysfunction is important in atopic dermatitis and can be secondary to inflammation. Observation of keratinocytes in culture may show intrinsic differences. TransEpithelial Electrical Resistance (TEER) measures epithelial permeability. We cultured normal and atopic keratinocytes and found that TEER of atopic keratinocytes was significantly lower (p < 0.0001) than that of normals. Atopic keratinocytes grew upwards, first creating isolated dome-like structures and later horizontally into a monolayer. At time of confluence (D0), atopic keratinocytes were more differentiated, with higher filaggrin gene expression than normals. No differences existed between groups for TJ proteins (claudin, occludin, and Zonula Occludens-1) on D0 and D6. On D6, claudin and occludin were higher than D0, in normal (p = 0.0296 and p = 0.0011) and atopic keratinocytes (p = 0.0348 and 0.0491). Immunofluorescent staining showed nuclear location of filaggrin on D0 and cytoplasmic on D6. ANOVA showed increased cell size from D0 to D6 in both groups (effect of time, p = 0.0076) but no differences between groups. Significant subject effect (p = 0.0022) was found, indicating that cell size was subject-dependent but not disease-dependent. No difference for continuity for TJ protein existed between groups. These observations suggest that decreased TEER in atopics is not linked to TJ differences but is possibly linked to different growth behavior.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070329
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 330: Pathological Findings in Cattle
           Slaughtered in Northeastern Algeria and Associated Risk Factors

    • Authors: Nora Mimoune, Mourad Hamiroune, Said Boukhechem, Choayb Mecherouk, Khaled Harhoura, Djamel Khelef, Rachid Kaidi
      First page: 330
      Abstract: Meat is a food of animal origin, which can be contaminated by infectious, parasitic and other non-infectious agents responsible for diseases, which threaten the health of consumers. This still poses a public health problem in Algeria and in many countries. In order to assess the epidemiological situation of certain diseases in the Taher region in Jijel and to determine the influence of certain variation factors and to estimate the risk on public health, a study was extended over a period of 14 months on a total of 1756 cattle slaughtered at the Taher slaughterhouse. The results showed that 609 cattle (34.68%) showed lesions. The highest rate of pathological findings was observed on the liver (37.27%) followed by the lungs (30.21%). The lowest rate was recorded on the digestive system (0.33%) followed by the kidneys (1.14%). In addition, the liver and lungs were more contaminated with hydatid cyst compared to other organs (20.69%, 19.05%, respectively). Our data showed that the diseases affected more females (55.82%) than males (44.17%) (p < 0.001). Furthermore, cattle aged between 3 and 5 years were the most affected (43.51%) and local breed cattle showed more lesions (71.59%). These results testify to the real risk represented by the consumption of organs affected by diseases, and the need to recognize the agents of contamination and the mode of transmission and to implement an extension and control program in this region depending on the epidemiological aspect of the lesions.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070330
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 331: Essential and Non-Essential Amino
           Acids in Dogs at Different Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease

    • Authors: Ilaria Lippi, Francesca Perondi, Alessio Pierini, Francesco Bartoli, Eleonora Gori, Chiara Mariti, Veronica Marchetti
      First page: 331
      Abstract: Abnormalities of serum amino acid profile, mostly characterized by a reduction in essential amino acids (EAAs) and an increase in non-essential amino acids (NEAAs), have been documented in human chronic kidney diseases (CKD). Amino acid disorders have been associated with CKD complications, such as metabolic acidosis and malnutrition. The aim of the present study was to evaluate EAAs and NEAAs in dogs affected by CKD at different IRIS stages, with particular reference to calcium–phosphate abnormalities, metabolic acidosis, and protein-energy wasting syndrome (PEW). Serum EAAs (L-histidine, L-isoleucine, L-leucine, L-lysine, methionine, L-phenylalanine, L-threonine, tryptophan, L-valine, and L-arginine) and serum NEAAs (L-alanine, L-aspartic acid, L-cysteine, L-glutamic acid, glycine, proline, L-serine, and L-tyrosine) were analyzed with HPLC in a group of dogs with CKD (n = 62), and in a group of healthy dogs (n = 25). CKD dogs showed significantly lower serum levels of histidine (p < 0.000), isoleucine (p < 0.000), tryptophan (p < 0.000), alanine (p = 0.013), cysteine (p < 0.000), and serine (p = 0.002), and significantly higher levels of proline (p < 0.000), leucine (p = 0.001), lysine (p < 0.000), valine (p < 0.000), arginine (p = 0.002), glutamic acid (p = 0.002), and glycine (p = 0.010) compared to healthy dogs. Dogs with abnormal calcium x phosphate values showed significantly higher levels of cysteine (p = 0.003), and lower levels of tryptophan (p = 0.025) compared to CKD dogs with normal CaxP. Dogs with metabolic acidosis showed significantly higher levels of phenylalanine (p = 0.035) and leucine (p = 0.034) compared to CKD dogs without metabolic acidosis. Dogs with PEW showed significantly lower levels for most of amino acids. In PEW dogs, the median distribution of both EAAs (p = 0.000) and NEAAs (p = 0.001) was significantly lower. The serum pattern of both EAAs and NEAAs was significantly different in CKD dogs compared to healthy dogs, although no association with the progression of the IRIS stage was found.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070331
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 332: Histopathological Findings and
           Metagenomic Analysis of Esophageal Papillary Proliferation Identified in
           Laying Broiler Breeders

    • Authors: Si-Hyeon Kim, Hye-Soon Song, Chung-Hyun Kim, Yong-Kuk Kwon, Choi-Kyu Park, Hye-Ryoung Kim
      First page: 332
      Abstract: White or pale-yellow nodules 2–7 mm in length were observed in the esophageal lumen in a number of laying broiler breeders with reduced laying rates. Metaplasia of the mucosal epithelial layer and mucous gland, as well as lymphocyte infiltration under the esophageal mucous gland and epithelial cell layer, were observed, which we found were caused by vitamin A deficiency. In one chicken, however, the stratified squamous epithelial cells of the esophagus were completely replaced by increased numbers of ducts/ductules, lymphocytes, and connective tissue, resulting in a papillary morphology. The ducts were surrounded by a fibrous stroma. Multiple hyperplasia of the esophageal gland was also observed and the esophageal glands were lined by a single layer of columnar cells, and a large number of lymphocytes were infiltrated into the submucosal layer. Based on the gross findings, this papillary proliferation was considered papilloma, but histopathologically, a mass composed of squamous epithelium was not observed. Therefore, the papillary lesion appeared as adenoma with squamous metaplasia of the esophageal gland and ectasia, or mucosal epithelial papillary hyperplasia, associated with chronic esophagitis. A metagenomic analysis of the esophagus samples from this chicken was performed to determine the infectious etiology. No viral cause was identified; however, a contributing role of Bradyrhizobium sp. could not be excluded. In this study, we report the first histopathological examination of a rare case of esophageal papillary proliferation in a chicken and highlight the importance of histopathological results for a definitive diagnosis of such cases.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070332
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 333: Genetic Diversity and Structure of
           the Main Danubian Horse Paternal Genealogical Lineages Based on
           Microsatellite Genotyping

    • Authors: Georgi Yordanov, Ivan Mehandjyiski, Nadezhda Palova, Nedyalka Atsenova, Boyko Neov, Georgi Radoslavov, Peter Hristov
      First page: 333
      Abstract: The Danubian horse, together with the Pleven and the Eastern Bulgarian horse breeds, is one of the modern breeds in Bulgaria. The objective of this study was to compare the genetic structure and genetic diversity of six paternal genealogical lineages of the Danubian horse breed (Zdravko, NONIUS XVII-30, Torpedo, Lider, Kalifa, and Hrabar). In total, 166 individuals from the six genealogical lines were investigated, based on 15 STR markers (short tandem repeats, also known as microsatellites). In total, 184 alleles were found in the six populations, using 15 microsatellite loci. The mean number of alleles, the effective number of alleles, and the polymorphic information content (PIC) values per locus were 12.28, 9.48, and 0.73, respectively. In a comparison of the allelic diversity among sire lineages, the highest genetic diversity (Na) was observed in Lider and Kalifa (14.60 ± 0.21), while the lowest value of this parameter was observed in the Zdravko lineage 4.20 ± 0.35. The largest genetic diversity was found in loci HMS3 and HMS7, with 13 alleles, and the smallest polymorphism was noted for the locus ASB17, with 10 alleles. The level of observed heterozygosity was in the range of 0.65 ± 0.069 for the Zdravko lineage to 0.93 ± 0.01 for the Torpedo lineage. The expected heterozygosity level range was from 0.57 ± 0.048 to 0.91 ± 0.01 for all horse lineages. Structure analysis revealed three main gene pools in the study population. The first pool included the Zdravko lineage; the second had the NONIUS XVII-30, Torpedo, Lider, and Kalifa lineages; and the third defined the Hrabar lineage, which was significantly differentiated from the other genealogical lineages.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070333
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 334: Trephination versus Minimally
           Invasive Transnasal Approaches for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Sinus
           Disease in Horses

    • Authors: Matthias C. Jehle, Nora M. Biermann, Eva Haltmayer
      First page: 334
      Abstract: This retrospective case series aims to highlight the advantages and disadvantages of different treatment options for sinus disease in horses, with a special focus on surgical approaches. The medical records of 25 horses with sinusitis which presented to the equine hospital, Vetmeduni Vienna, between August 2020 and January 2022 were analysed. In 11 cases, conservative treatment by the transnasal endoscopic lavage of the affected sinuses through the sinonasal channel or through a developed, pre-existing sinonasal fistula was performed. In the remaining 14 cases, openings into the sinus for subsequent lavage were surgically created either via classical trephination/bone flaps (8) or by transnasal endoscopically guided minimally invasive approaches (8). In some cases (2), a combination of classical extra-nasal and minimally invasive transnasal approaches was required. The minimally invasive techniques used were comprised of laser surgery (3), electrosurgery (3) and balloon sinoplasty (2). The sinusitis and underlying diseases were successfully treated in all of the horses until hospital discharge. Long-term follow-up could be obtained only from a small number of patients due to the temporal proximity (the study began two years ago) to their initial discharge from the hospital, but they showed the continuous resolution of clinical signs in all cases in which follow up data were available. The results of this case series indicate that if surgical intervention is required, minimally invasive techniques appear to be a promising and potentially cheaper alternative to classical extra-nasal approaches for the treatment of sinus disease in selected cases. In the future, the use of these techniques should be considered more commonly with the broader availability of improved endoscopes and instruments. Additionally, by using small-diameter endoscopes, the need for any surgical intervention might be significantly reduced in many cases.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070334
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 335: Physiotherapy Improves Dogs’
           Quality of Life Measured with the Milan Pet Quality of Life Scale: Is Pain

    • Authors: Patrizia Piotti, Mariangela Albertini, Elisa Lavesi, Annalisa Ferri, Federica Pirrone
      First page: 335
      Abstract: Quality of life is defined as an individual’s satisfaction with its physical and psychological health, its physical and social environment, and its ability to interact with the environment. Understanding companion dogs’ QOL can help veterinarians and owners know when treatment options have successfully alleviated symptoms of disease in such fields as veterinary physiotherapy. For this study, 20 adult dogs were selected from patients of a physiotherapy referral center with orthopedic, neurological, and/or degenerative conditions. The severity of the medical problem was ranked, and the symptoms, the treatment plan, and demographic data were recorded at the time of the physical examination. In addition, the owner of the dog was asked to fill out a questionnaire on the quality of life of the pet (the Milan Pet Quality of Life scale) at the time of the first consultation as well as the last follow-up after the treatment. The MPQL measures four domains of QOL: physical (signs of medical conditions), psychological (emotional and behavioral well-being), social (quality and extent of social interactions), and environmental (freedom and safety in one’s environment). The results of the study indicated a significant improvement in the psychological QOL domain following physiotherapeutic treatment. The social QOL domain declined with the severity of lameness, while the physical QOL, as reported by the owner, declined with the overall criticality of the medical condition, as ranked by the physiotherapist. The results of the study support the recent evidence of a relationship between pain and canine psychological well-being and highlight the importance of investigating psychological and emotional aspects of dogs’ QOL when treating orthopedic and neurological cases with physiotherapy.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-02
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070335
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 336: Lycopene Reduces the In Vitro
           Aging Phenotypes of Mouse Oocytes by Improving Their Oxidative Status

    • Authors: Shimaa I. Rakha, Mohammed A. Elmetwally, Hossam El-Sheikh Ali, Ahmed Zaky Balboula, Abdelmonem Montaser Mahmoud, Samy M. Zaabel
      First page: 336
      Abstract: Postovulatory aging is a major problem that limits the success of many assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs). Oxidative stress is a leading cause of oocyte aging. This study investigated the effects of lycopene supplementation of in vitro maturation (IVM) medium during the aging of mouse oocytes on the oocytes’ morphology and oxidative stress status. Mouse cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were collected and cultured in the IVM medium either for 17 h, (freshly matured oocytes), or for 48 h, (in vitro-aged oocytes), with or without lycopene. The rate of fragmented and degenerated oocytes and the oocyte levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were estimated and compared. Oocytes aged with 200 nM lycopene revealed significantly less fragmentation and degeneration, lower H2O2 and MDA levels, and higher TAC, GSH and SOD levels than those aged without lycopene. CAT levels were unchanged by lycopene treatment. Taken together, our data showed beneficial effects of lycopene during in vitro aging of mouse oocytes by reducing the oxidative stress damages that lead to their apoptosis. The present study introduces lycopene as a natural supplement to reduce the postovulatory aging-dependent abnormalities of mammalian oocytes.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070336
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 337: Prevalence and Risk Factors for
           Bartonella spp. and Haemoplasma Infections in Cats from Greece

    • Authors: Kassiopi Christina G. Kokkinaki, Manolis N. Saridomichelakis, Vassilis Skampardonis, Antonia Mataragka, John Ikonomopoulos, Leonidas Leontides, Mathios E. Mylonakis, Joerg M. Steiner, Jan S. Suchodolski, Panagiotis G. Xenoulis
      First page: 337
      Abstract: Bartonellosis and haemoplasmosis are vector-borne diseases with global impact on the health of domestic cats and of zoonotic importance. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological aspects of various populations of cats infected with Bartonella spp. or haemoplasma species. The populations evaluated included client-owned cats, stray cats and cats that live in breeding catteries in Greece. A total of 452 cats were prospectively enrolled into the study. A commercially available indirect immunofluorescence antibody testkit was used for the detection of Bartonella henselae IgG antibodies in serum. PCRs for the detection of Bartonella spp. and haemoplasma species DNA in the blood were also performed in a subgroup of 242 of the 452 cats. Risk factors for B. henselae seropositivity and infection with the haemoplasma species were determined using multivariable analysis. Overall, 160 (35.4%) of the 452 cats were seropositive for B. henselae. Seven (2.9%) and 46 (19%) of the 242 cats were PCR-positive for Bartonella spp. and haemoplasma species, respectively. The factors associated with B. henselae seropositivity, based on multivariate analysis, included older age, outdoor access, living region and flea infestation. Non-administration of ectoparasiticides was associated with haemoplasma species infection. This study shows a high prevalence of seropositivity for B. henselae and a relatively high prevalence of infection with haemoplasma species. Therefore, it is necessary to establish optimal strategies for the prevention of Bartonella spp. and haemoplasma species infections, considering the high-risk groups of cats identified in this study.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-03
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070337
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 338: A New Sampling Approach for the
           Detection of Swine Influenza a Virus on European Sow Farms

    • Authors: Kathrin Lillie-Jaschniski, Marina Lisgara, Emanuela Pileri, Agnes Jardin, Eduardo Velazquez, Monika Köchling, Michael Albin, Carlos Casanovas, Vassilis Skampardonis, Julia Stadler
      First page: 338
      Abstract: Swine influenza A virus (swIAV), which plays a major role in the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC), is eliminated from the respiratory tract within 7–9 days after infection. Therefore, diagnosis is complicated in endemically infected swine herds presenting no obvious clinical signs. This study aimed to investigate the right time point for sampling to detect swIAV. A cross-sectional study was performed in 131 farms from 12 European countries. The sampling protocol included suckling piglets, weaners, and nursery pigs. In each age group, 10 nasal swabs were collected and further examined in pools of 5 for swIAV by Matrix rRT-PCR, followed by a multiplex RT-PCR to determine the influenza subtype. SwIAV was detected in 284 (37.9%) of the samples and on 103 (78.6%) farms. Despite the highest number of animals with clinical signs being found in the nursery, the weaners were significantly more often virus-positive compared to nursery pigs (p = 0.048). Overall, the swIAV detection rate did not significantly differ between diseased or non-diseased suckling and nursery piglets, respectively; however, diseased weaners had significantly more positive pools than the non-diseased animals. Interestingly, in 9 farms, different subtypes were detected in different age groups. Our findings indicate that to detect all circulating swIAV subtypes on a farm, different age groups should be sampled. Additionally, the sampling strategy should also aim to include non-diseased animals, especially in the suckling period.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-04
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070338
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 339: Metastatic Uterine Adenocarcinoma
           in a Sable Antelope (Hippotragus niger)

    • Authors: Louise van der Weyden, Anien Bezuidenhout, Erna van Wilpe, Nicolize O’Dell
      First page: 339
      Abstract: A nine-year-old intact female sable antelope (Hippotragus niger) with a six-week history of gradual loss of body condition was found dead by the owner and presented for autopsy. Macroscopic examination revealed an enlarged spleen and liver with the hepatic and splenic parenchyma showing extensive infiltration with firm, white to cream-coloured nodules. The uterus showed a few small, firm, well-demarcated, white-to-cream-coloured nodules in the uterine body. Similar nodules were present in the mediastinum, parietal pleura, heart, and marrow cavity of the femur. Histological analysis of the uterus revealed densely cellular neoplastic proliferations, forming nests, tubules, and acini within an abundant fibrovascular stroma. The samples from the other tissues revealed neoplastic cells with a similar appearance to those seen in the uterus, also forming nests and acini in a fibrovascular stroma. Importantly, multiple neoplastic cells were also seen in the peribronchiolar lymphatic vessels. The neoplastic cells in the uterine sections showed positive immunohistochemical labelling for cytokeratin, as did the neoplastic cells in the sections of liver and parietal pleura, confirming they were of epithelial origin. In addition, transmission electron microscopy of the uterus and liver showed neoplastic cells arranged in groups surrounded by basement membranes and interspersed with collagen fibres. Junctions were present between the cells, and junctional complexes could be seen at some cell surfaces. This confirmed that the neoplastic cells seen in the liver sample were the same as those seen in the uterine sample and were of epithelial origin. Thus, a diagnosis was made of uterine adenocarcinoma with widespread metastasis. This is the first report of uterine adenocarcinoma in a sable antelope.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-04
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070339
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 340: Identification of
           Histopathological Criteria for the Diagnosis of Canine Cutaneous
           Progressive Angiomatosis

    • Authors: Francesca Abramo, Marta Vascellari, Giada Colzi, Luca Pazzini, Francesco Albanese, Lara Olivieri, Claudia Zanardello, Claudia Salvadori, Giancarlo Avallone, Paola Roccabianca
      First page: 340
      Abstract: The term angiomatosis is used to denote a group of well-known to poorly characterized proliferative vascular entities. In animals, cutaneous progressive angiomatosis (CPA) is a disorder with variable prognosis related to the extension and depth of infiltration of the surrounding tissues by vessels. CPA may share some microscopical features with other vascular proliferations such as low-grade well-differentiated capillaritic hemangiosarcoma (HS), making the diagnosis not always straightforward, especially in small biopsies. The aim of this study is to retrospectively assess the most common diagnostic microscopical features of CPA in dogs. In this work, 11 histopathological criteria were analyzed on 31 CPA and 11 primary cutaneous HS in dogs. Features significantly associated with CPA included: lobular growth, interposition of connective tissue and adnexa between the vascular proliferation, presence of nerve fibers, and a mixed vascular proliferative component. Absence of plump/prominent endothelial cells, lack of atypia, and lack of mitoses were also significant factors differentiating CPA from HS. Additional distinctive findings in CPA, although with no statistical association to CPA diagnosis, were vascular shunting, absence of necrosis, and endothelial cell piling up. In conclusion, the combined use of different microscopical clues allowed for the distinction of CPA from HS and was considered useful for the diagnosis of CPA.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-05
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070340
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 341: Microscopical Evaluation of Smears
           of the Leptomeninges to Predict Meningitis in Piglets

    • Authors: Marc Schyns, Dominiek Maes, Wikke Kuller, Erik Weerts
      First page: 341
      Abstract: Meningitis, caused by bacterial infections such as Streptococcus spp., is a frequently observed cause of death in pigs. In order to implement effective treatment and avoid further losses, it is important to establish this diagnosis quickly. However, this is often difficult because macroscopic lesions may not be visible, and additional laboratory testing may take several days. The present study investigated whether microscopical examination of impression smears of the leptomeninges taken during necropsy can help in establishing a presumptive diagnosis of meningitis in pigs more quickly. In total, 54 pigs suffering from neurological signs and/or (acute) mortality were examined. They were 3 to 10 weeks old and originated from 16 farms. From each pig, bacterial culture was performed on one half of the brain using a swab from the leptomeninges. From the other half, paired cytological impression smears of the leptomeninges were stained with a commercial quick stain dye (Hemacolor®) and Gram stain and microscopically evaluated for the abundance of neutrophils and the presence of short-chain coccoid bacteria. Bacterial culture of the leptomeninges was positive in 36/54 cases, in 28 of which Streptococcus spp. were found. The numbers of smears with low, moderate, or high abundance of neutrophils were 19, 17, and 18, respectively. Short-chain coccoid bacteria were detected successfully in 12 pigs in the Gram-stained smear. The positive predictive value of smears with moderate or high abundance of neutrophils for bacterial presence and, therefore, likely meningitis was 89%, whereas the negative predictive value of smears with low abundance of neutrophils was 74%. The positive predictive value of smears with short chains of coccoid bacteria for diagnosis of Streptococcus spp. was 100%, whereas the negative predictive value was 62%. In conclusion, microscopical examination of impression smears of the leptomeninges of piglets with neurological signs and/or (acute) mortality is a feasible procedure that can help swine practitioners in establishing a tentative diagnosis of meningitis more quickly, especially if neutrophils are abundant, and short chains of coccoid bacteria are present.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-05
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070341
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 342: Expression Analysis of Outer
           Membrane Protein HPS_06257 in Different Strains of Glaesserella parasuis
           and Its Potential Role in Protective Immune Response against
           HPS_06257-Expressing Strains via Antibody-Dependent Phagocytosis

    • Authors: Xiaojun Chen, Hanye Shi, Xingyu Cheng, Xiaoxu Wang, Zongjie Li, Donghua Shao, Ke Liu, Jianchao Wei, Beibei Li, Jian Wang, Bin Zhou, Zhiyong Ma, Yafeng Qiu
      First page: 342
      Abstract: HPS_06257 has been identified as an important protective antigen against Glaesserella parasuis infection. However, little is known about the role of HPS_06257 in the protective immune response. A whole-genome data analysis showed that among 18 isolates of Glaesserella parasuis, 11 were positive for the HPS_06257 gene, suggesting that not every strain contains this gene. We used PCR to investigate the presence of the HPS_06257 gene among 13 reference strains and demonstrated that 5 strains contained the gene. A polyclonal antibody against HPS_06257 was generated with a recombinant protein to study the expression of HPS_06257 in those 13 strains. Consistent with the PCR data, five strains expressed HPS_06257, whereas eight strains were HPS_06257 null. We also compared the protective effects of HPS_06257 against an HPS_06257-expressing strain (HPS5) and an HPS_06257-null strain (HPS11). Immunization with HPS_06257 only protected against HPS5 and not HPS11. Moreover, phagocytosis of antibody-opsonized bacteria demonstrates that the antibody against HPS_06257 increased the phagocytosis of the HPS5 strain by macrophages but not the phagocytosis of the HPS11 strain, suggesting that antibody-dependent phagocytosis is responsible for the protective role exerted by HPS_06257 in the immune response to HPS5. Our data also show that the antibody against HPS_06257 increased the phagocytosis of the other HPS_06257-expressing strains by macrophages but not that of HPS_06257-null strains. In summary, our findings demonstrate that antibody-dependent phagocytosis contributes to the protective immune response induced by immunization with HPS_06257 against HPS_06257-expressing strains.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-06
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070342
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 343: Spotted Fever Group Rickettsia
           spp. Diversity in Ticks and the First Report of Rickettsia hoogstraalii in

    • Authors: Talida Ivan, Ioana Adriana Matei, Cristiana Ștefania Novac, Zsuzsa Kalmár, Silvia-Diana Borșan, Luciana-Cătălina Panait, Călin Mircea Gherman, Angela Monica Ionică, Ionel Papuc, Andrei Daniel Mihalca
      First page: 343
      Abstract: Tickborne bacterial pathogens have been described worldwide as risk factors for both animal and human health. Spotted fevers caused by Rickettsiae may cause non-specific symptoms, which make clinical diagnosis difficult. The aim of the current study was to evaluate and review the diversity of SFG Rickettsiae in ticks collected in 41 counties in Romania. A total of 2028 questing and engorged ticks collected in Romania belonging to five species were tested by PCR amplification of Rickettsia spp. gltA and 17-D gene fragments: Ixodes ricinus (n = 1128), Dermacentor marginatus (n = 507), D. reticulatus (n = 165), Rhipicephalus rossicus (n = 128) and Haemaphysalis punctata (n = 100). Five Rickettsia species were identified following DNA sequence analysis: R. helvetica, R. monacensis, R. slovaca, R. raoultii, and R. hoogstraalii. The most common species detected was R. monacensis. Moreover, R. hoogstraalii was detected for the first time in Romania and in R. rossicus ticks. The detection of R. raoultii and R. monacensis in questing larvae of Hae. punctata suggests the possible transovarial transmission of these Rickettsia species in ticks. The detection of R. hoogstraalii for the first time in Romania increases the reported SFG Rickettsia diversity in the country.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-08
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070343
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 344: Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza
           (HPAI H5Nx, Clade in Poultry and Wild Birds in Sweden: Synopsis
           of the 2020–2021 Season

    • Authors: Malin Grant, Caroline Bröjer, Siamak Zohari, Maria Nöremark, Henrik Uhlhorn, Désirée S. Jansson
      First page: 344
      Abstract: Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI, Gs/Gd lineage) was introduced to Europe in 2005 and has since caused numerous outbreaks in birds. The 2020–2021 season was the hitherto most devastating when considering bird numbers and duration in Europe. Surveillance data, virologic results and epidemiologic investigations from the 2020–2021 outbreaks in Sweden were analysed. Subtypes H5N8 and H5N5 were detected on 24 farms with poultry or other captive birds. In wild birds, subtypes H5N8, H5N5, H5N1, H5N4, H5Nx were detected in 130 out of 811 sampled birds. There was a spatiotemporal association between cases in wild birds and poultry. Based on phylogeny and epidemiology, most of the introductions of HPAI to commercial poultry were likely a result of indirect contact with wild birds. A definite route of introduction to poultry could not be established although some biosecurity breaches were observed. No spread between farms was identified but airborne spread between flocks on the same farm was suspected. Our findings exemplify the challenges posed by the continuously changing influenza viruses that seem to adapt to a broader species spectrum. This points to the importance of wild bird surveillance, compliance to biosecurity, and identification of risk factors for introduction on poultry farms.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-08
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070344
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 345: Immunohistochemical Expression of
           Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor β (PDGFR-β) in Canine
           Cutaneous Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors: A Preliminary Study

    • Authors: Catarina Aluai-Cunha, Augusto Matos, Irina Amorim, Fátima Carvalho, Alexandra Rêma, Andreia Santos
      First page: 345
      Abstract: As in humans, the prevalence of tumors in companion animals is increasing dramatically and there is a strong need for research on new pharmacological agents particularly for the treatment of those tumors that are resistant to conventional chemotherapy agents such as soft tissue sarcomas (STS). Because malignant (MPNST) and benign peripheral nerve sheath tumors (BPNST) are relatively common STS in dogs, the aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of PDGFR-β, contributing to its characterization as a potential target for their treatment. A total of 19 samples were included, 9 histologically classified as benign and the other 10 as malignant. The results showed diffuse immunoexpression in the cytoplasm of neoplastic cells. Six (66.7%) BPNST expressed the receptor in less than 25% of neoplastic cells and only three (33.3%) exhibited labelling in more than 25% of neoplastic cells. In contrast, all MPNST expressed PDGFR-β, and in 8 (80%) of these samples, the receptor was expressed in more than 25% of neoplastic cells, and only 2 (20%) cases expressed the receptor in less than 25% of neoplastic cells. PDGFR-β expression was significantly higher in MPNST and larger tumors, suggesting that drugs able to inhibit the activity of this tyrosine kinase receptor, such as toceranib, may be considered in the approach of unresectable tumors and/or in the context of adjuvant or neoadjuvant therapies.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-09
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070345
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 346: Canine Parainfluenza Virus
           Infection in a Dog with Acute Respiratory Disease

    • Authors: Marco Cordisco, Maria Stella Lucente, Alessio Sposato, Roberta Cardone, Francesco Pellegrini, Delia Franchini, Antonio Di Bello, Stefano Ciccarelli
      First page: 346
      Abstract: The canine infectious respiratory disease complex (CIRDC) is an endemic respiratory syndrome caused by different bacterial and viral pathogens. This report describes a case of canine parainfluenza virus infection in a vaccinated household dog with an acute respiratory symptom (dry cough), who underwent clinical and endoscopic investigations for a suspected foreign body. Cytological investigations carried out on the broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) tested negative for the presence of inflammatory or infectious processes and could have been misleading the clinicians. By the molecular analyses (PCR) carried out on the BALF, canine parainfluenza virus was exclusively detected without the simultaneous presence of other respiratory pathogens associated to CIRDC. This case report emphasizes the role of molecular diagnostics in the differential diagnosis of respiratory diseases, in order to avoid underestimating the circulation of the parainfluenza virus in the canine population.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-09
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070346
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 347: Anticoccidial Vaccination Is
           Associated with Improved Intestinal Health in Organic Chickens

    • Authors: Désirée S. Jansson, Johan Höglund, Elisabeth Bagge, Tomas Jinnerot, Magne Kaldhusdal
      First page: 347
      Abstract: Eimeria spp. and Clostridium perfringens (CP) are pathogens associated with coccidiosis and necrotic enteritis (NE) in broiler chickens. In this study we evaluated the effect of anticoccidial vaccination on intestinal health in clinically healthy organic Ross 308 chickens. On each of two farms, one unvaccinated flock (A1 and B1) was compared to one vaccinated flock (A2 and B2) until ten weeks of age (WOA). Faecal oocysts were counted weekly, and species were identified by PCR (ITS-1 gene). Lesion scoring, CP quantification and PCR targeting the CP NetB toxin gene were performed at three, four, and six WOA and chickens were weighed. Necropsies were performed on randomly selected chickens to identify coccidiosis/NE. Oocyst shedding peaked at three WOA in all flocks. Later oocyst shedding (E. tenella/E. maxima) in unvaccinated flocks at 5–7 WOA coincided with coccidiosis/NE. Although results differed somewhat between farms, vaccination was associated with lower intestinal lesion scores, reduced caecal CP counts, lower proportions of netB-positive CP, lower body weight at three–four WOA, and similar or slightly increased body weight at six WOA. In conclusion, the intestinal health of organic broilers can benefit from anticoccidial vaccination when oocyst exposure levels are high.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-09
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070347
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 348: Equine Incisor Lesions: Histologic
           Confirmation of Radiographic, Macroscopic, and Micro-Computed Tomographic

    • Authors: Louisa Albers, Astrid Bienert-Zeit, Carsten Staszyk
      First page: 348
      Abstract: Equine Odontoclastic Tooth Resorption and Hypercementosis (EOTRH) and other incisor lesions are often diagnosed only in advanced stages. The incisors of 20 horses were examined radiographically, macroscopically, and via micro-computed tomography (µCT) to discriminate EORTH-affected teeth. Five categories from healthy to severely affected teeth were formed and teeth from each category were examined histologically to evaluate the opportunity of earlier radiographic diagnosis. Histologically, odontoclastic resorptive lesions, leukocytic infiltrations, and areas of irregular cementum and granulation tissue were observed. The extent and severity of histological findings were correlated to the µCT data. Micro-CT imaging was suitable to detect subtle irregularities in the dental substances which were referred to as resorptive lesions. Although histological examinations confirmed the presence of resorptive lesions, not all of them were classified as pathological conditions. Instead, repaired surface lesions were documented which were regarded as a physiological condition. Nevertheless, incisors which were radiographically regarded as healthy can also feature histological signs of EOTRH. Therefore, due to the possibility of misinterpreting radiographic findings combined with superimpositions on intraoral radiographs, the detection of early resorptive lesions remains challenging.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-11
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070348
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 349: Resistance and Pathogenicity of
           Salmonella Thompson Isolated from Incubation End of a Poultry Farm

    • Authors: Jingju Zhang, Jing Liu, Chen Chen, Yufeng Wang, Xiaojie Chen, Xiubo Li, Fei Xu
      First page: 349
      Abstract: Salmonella Thompson, an important foodborne pathogen, is rarely found to be pathogenic to poultry. Accidentally, S. Thompson was found to be pathogenic to embryos of white feather broiler at a poultry farm in China. Therefore, this study aimed to explore antimicrobial resistance and pathogenicity of clinical S. Thompson isolated from dead poultry embryos. The phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA and seven housekeeping genes showed that the 14 clinical S. Thompson were closely related. The core-genome multilocus sequence typing of 14 clinical S. Thompson based on whole-genome sequencing was cgST-12774, consistent with the only two strains of S. Thompson from humans in China as reported in the NCBI database. The antimicrobial resistance gene analysis demonstrated that all strains carried aac(6′)-Iaa and the polymyxin resistance gene mcr-9. Antimicrobial sensitivity tests for 18 antibiotics showed that S. Thompson isolates displayed resistance against streptomycin (100%), ampicillin (35.7%), and doxycycline (14.3%), but sensitivity to polymyxin B, proving that the mcr-9 gene had not appeared resistance phenotype. Virulence genes Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI) SPI1-5, type I fimbriae gene (fimA), flagellar assembly genes (bcfC, flhD, fliA, fliC, fljB, flgK, and lpfC), and other virulence genes (iroN, pagC, and cigR) were found in each S. Thompson isolate. Additionally, the bacterial inoculation experiment with 1-day-old chicks revealed that clinical S. Thompson was highly pathogenic to newborn chicks after yolk sac inoculation. This study highlighted that the S. Thompson isolated from poultry embryos and the S. Thompson causing human foodborne diarrhea in some parts of China belong to the same cgMLST typology (cgST-12774) and showed the pathogenicity of this clinical S. Thompson to chicks.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-11
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070349
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 350: Feed Space Allowance and Perch
           Design Criteria for Broiler Breeders Determined by Biometric Data

    • Authors: Angela Gabriela Brandes, Birgit Spindler, Mona Franziska Giersberg, Nicole Kemper
      First page: 350
      Abstract: The equipment used in broiler breeder houses is an important factor in allowing the expression of the various behaviours of the animals, and thus realizing high welfare standards. Presently, detailed requirements for the equipment in broiler breeder houses are not specified in Germany, especially feed space and perch design allowance. One reason is that basic biometric data on broiler breeders are lacking. To close this gap, a pilot study was conducted, and birds’ width, weight, and feet were measured. Broiler breeders at 22 weeks of age (50 female and 17 male) were weighed and photographed digitally, and their body widths were calculated from the photographs. Female broiler breeders weighed 2791.80 ± 334.99 g on average and showed a body width of 20.63 ± 1.88 cm. For males, a mean of 3615.88 ± 432.46 g was measured with a body width of 21.94 ± 2.32 cm. Our examinations revealed that a trough side length of 21.00 cm per hen and 22.00 cm per cock must be provided to ensure that all broiler breeders have equal access to feed. The same dimensions should be planned as the perch length for each animal. Measurements of broiler breeders’ feet (506 female and 150 male Cobb 500) were performed at 60 weeks of age. The length of each toe and the width and length of the foot pad of both sexes were photographed and measured digitally. Female broiler breeders’ feet showed an average length of 10.14 cm, and male birds showed a length of 12.05 cm. Based on recommendations for the perch design for laying hens, round and oval perches for broiler breeders should have a circumference of at least 11.30 cm (female) or 13.40 cm (male). For angular perches, the upper contact area should have a width of 2.80 cm (female) or 3.40 cm (male). The obtained biometric data could be a useful basis for the development of legal requirements for broiler breeders.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-11
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070350
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 351: Prevalence of Mycoplasma bovis
           Infection in Calves and Dairy Cows in Western Australia

    • Authors: Jully Gogoi-Tiwari, Harish Kumar Tiwari, Nadeeka K. Wawegama, Chintha Premachandra, Ian Duncan Robertson, Andrew David Fisher, Frank Karanja Waichigio, Pete Irons, Joshua W. Aleri
      First page: 351
      Abstract: Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) can cause a multitude of diseases in cattle, with detrimental effects on the farm economy and the welfare of both adult and young cattle. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of M. bovis in adult cows and calves in the south-west region of Western Australia. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 29 dairy farms with 699 apparently healthy adult lactating cows and 495 young calves during 2019–2020. Nasal swabs and blood samples collected from the animals and bulk tank milk (BTM) samples were assessed for M. bovis-specific proteins and antibodies by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Mycoplasma immunogenic lipase A- Enzyme-Linked Immune Sorbent Assay (MilA ELISA). A seroprevalence of 42.5% (95% CI: 38.9–46.2) and 61% (95% CI: 56.6–65.2) was found in adult lactating cows and calves, respectively. The herd-level seroprevalence of M. bovis ranged from 4% (95% CI: 07–19.5) to 92% (95% CI: 75.0–97.8) in adult lactating cows and 25% (95% CI: 10.2–49.5) to 87% (95% CI: 67.9–95.5) for calves in these farms. None of the BTM and nasal swab samples were positive for M. bovis, indicating an absence of any current active infections on the farms. The female calves and pure Holstein–Friesian animals are twice as likely to be seropositive for M. bovis compared to male calves (OR 2.4; 95% CI: 1.7–3.5) and Holstein–Friesian crossbred calves (OR 2.4; 95% CI: 1.7–3.5). The high seroprevalence in both adult and young cattle in the southwest dairy farms of Western Australia warrants more effective farm biosecurity measures and further evaluation of the current prevention and management measures practiced on the farms.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-11
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070351
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 352: Alterations in Essential Fatty
           Acids, Immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, and IgM), and Enteric Methane Emission
           in Primiparous Sows Fed Hemp Seed Oil and Their Offspring Response

    • Authors: Mihaela Hăbeanu, Nicoleta Aurelia Lefter, Anca Gheorghe, Mariana Ropota, Smaranda Mariana Toma, Gina Cecilia Pistol, Ioan Surdu, Mihaela Dumitru
      First page: 352
      Abstract: This study shows the effects of dietary hemp seed oil on the milk composition, blood immunoglobulins (Ig), and enteric methane (E-CH4) production of primiparous sows, and their offspring’s response at three time points. A bifactorial experiment was conducted for 21 days (d) on 18 primiparous sows (195 ± 3 days old). The sows were fed two diets: (i) a control diet (SO) based on soybean oil (1.6%), with an 18.82 n-6:n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) ratio; (ii) an experimental diet (HO) based on hemp seed oil (1.6%), with a 9.14 n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio. The milk contained an elevated level of linoleic acids (LA), n-3 FA, and especially alpha-linolenic acids (ALA), while the n-6:n-3 ratio declined using hemp oil. The Ig concentration was higher in colostrum than in milk. In the first few hours, the IgG in the plasma of piglets was more than double that of maternal plasma IgG (+2.39 times). A period effect (p < 0.0001) for IgG concentration in the plasma of piglets was recorded (40% at 10 d, respectively 73% lower at 21 d than 12 h after parturition). However, the sow diet did not affect Ig (p > 0.05). The frequency of diarrhoea declined after about 7 d. The value of the rate of diarrhoea was 6.2% lower in the PHO group. We found a 4.5% decline in E-CH4 in the HO group. Applying multiple linear regression, feed intake, n-6:n-3 ratio, ALA, and lean meat were potential indicators in estimating E-CH4. In conclusion, sow dietary hemp seed oil increased lean meat %, milk EFA, and milk IgM. Significant changes in the other dependent variables of interest (body weight, plasma Igs in sows and offspring, E-CH4 production) were not recorded. There was reduced diarrhoea which shows that EFA could play a therapeutic role in the incidence of diarrhoea and in lowering of E-CH4 emission in sows and progeny. All dependent variables were significantly altered at different time points, except for fat concentration in milk and sow plasma IgG.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-11
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070352
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 353: Effects of Housing and Management
           Factors on Selected Indicators of the Welfare Quality® Protocol in
           Loose-Housed Dairy Cows

    • Authors: Daniel Gieseke, Christian Lambertz, Matthias Gauly
      First page: 353
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to examine the effects of housing and management factors on animal welfare indicators in dairy cows using a benchmarking approach. In total, 63 conventional dairy cattle farms with zero-grazing in Northern Germany were assessed using selected animal welfare indicators (body condition score, integument alterations, lameness, milk somatic cell count, and social behaviour) of the Welfare Quality® protocol. Additionally, housing characteristics such as designs of barns, cubicles, and floors were documented during farm visits and farmers were interviewed concerning their common management routines. Farms were categorized into a high welfare or low welfare group by calculating upper and lower tertiles for each of the animal welfare indicators separately. Both groups were compared regarding housing conditions and management practices using univariable and multivariable logistic regressions. Several associations between housing and management factors and animal welfare indicators were demonstrated in univariable analysis (p < 0.20). Significant effects within multivariable logistic regression analysis were determined for lameness (routine use of foot-baths), milk somatic cell count (milking frequency) and social behaviour (cow-to-stall ratio) (p < 0.05). Comparing farms with higher and lower animal welfare status can provide useful information about effective options to improve animal welfare.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-13
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070353
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 354: Comparison of Two Diagnostic
           Techniques for the Apis mellifera Varroatosis: Strengths, Weaknesses and
           Impact on the Honeybee Health

    • Authors: Roberto Bava, Fabio Castagna, Cristina Carresi, Antonio Cardamone, Giovanni Federico, Paola Roncada, Ernesto Palma, Vincenzo Musella, Domenico Britti
      First page: 354
      Abstract: Varroa destructor is the most dangerous pest that poses a threat to honey bee survival. In recent years, increasingly worrying phenomena of drug resistance have occurred to various active ingredients of pharmaceutical formulations used to control this parasitosis. Determining the level of infestation is essential to preventing the inappropriate use and abuse of veterinary medicines, and to choose the most appropriate time for treatment. This comparative study investigates the sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy of two field techniques for diagnosing V. destructor infestations in hives. The EasyCheck device (Véto-pharma) was used in two of its application modes, namely, the sugar roll test and carbon dioxide (CO2) injection. The experiments were conducted on 15 samples of 300 bees each taken from the same frame and checked for the presence of mites using standard and modified field techniques in both uncaged and caged queen hive conditions. The results demonstrate that the sugar roll technique is significantly more effective and safer than CO2 injection, allowing for a higher accuracy in diagnosing a V. destructor infestation. Furthermore, the evaluation of mites present on bees in brood block conditions has proven to be particularly reliable. Considering the number of mites on the filter of the device as an additional step helps to implement the diagnostic accuracy of the CO2 injection technique, however, not achieving the efficacy results of the sugar roll.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-13
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070354
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 355: Chitosan/Calcium-Coated
           Ginsenoside Rb1 Phosphate Flower-like Microparticles as an Adjuvant to
           Enhance Immune Responses

    • Authors: Xinghui Song, Huijuan Li, Liheng Zhang, Xiaozhan Zhang, Li Zhao, Gaiping Zhang, Shengbo Cao, Yunchao Liu
      First page: 355
      Abstract: Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is a highly contagious immunocompromising disorder that caused great economic losses in the poultry industry. The field-level control over IBD is primarily via vaccination. The development of a highly effective IBV vaccine has drawn great attention worldwide. Chitosan/Calcium Phosphate (CS/CaP) nanoparticle was a newly developed effective biological delivery system for drug and antigen. Ginsenoside Rb1 is one of the main bioactive components of ginseng root extract, which has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunological enhancement effects. Until now, the combined effect of CS/CaP and ginsenoside Rb1 on the chicken immune response had remained unknown. In this study, the GRb1 and IL-4 were encapsulated into Calcium phosphate and chitosan core structure nanoparticles microspheres (GRb1/IL-4@CS/CaP), and the effect of a newly developed delivery system on an infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) attenuated vaccine was further evaluated. The results demonstrated that GRb1/IL-4@CS/CaP treatment could induce the activation of chicken dendritic cells (DCs), with the upregulated expression of MHCII and CD80, and the increased production of IL-1β and TNF-α. Importantly, GRb1/IL-4@CS/CaP could trigger a higher level of IBDV-specific IgG and a higher ratio of IgG2a/IgG1 than the traditional adjuvant groups, promoting the production of cytokine, including IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-6, IL-1α, and IL-1β, in chicken serum after 28 d and 42 d post-vaccine. Taken in all, GRb1/IL-4@CS/CaP could elicit prolonged vigorous immune responses for IBDV attenuated vaccine in chicken, which might provide an effective adjuvant system for avian vaccine development.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-13
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070355
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 356: Human-Borne Pathogens: Are They
           Threatening Wild Great Ape Populations'

    • Authors: Pamela C. Köster, Juan Lapuente, Israel Cruz, David Carmena, Francisco Ponce-Gordo
      First page: 356
      Abstract: Climate change and anthropic activities are the two main factors explaining wild great ape habitat reduction and population decline. The extent to which human-borne infectious diseases are contributing to this trend is still poorly understood. This is due to insufficient or fragmented knowledge on the abundance and distribution of current wild great ape populations, the difficulty obtaining optimal biological samples for diagnostic testing, and the scarcity of pathogen typing data of sufficient quality. This review summarises current information on the most clinically relevant pathogens of viral, bacterial, parasitic, and fungal nature for which transmission from humans to wild great apes is suspected. After appraising the robustness of available epidemiological and/or molecular typing evidence, we attempt to categorise each pathogen according to its likelihood of truly being of human origin. We further discuss those agents for which anthroponotic transmission is more likely. These include two viral (Human Metapneumovirus and Respiratory Syncytial Virus), one bacterial (diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli), and two parasitic (Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis) pathogens. Finally, we identify the main drawbacks impairing research on anthroponotic pathogen transmission in wild great apes and propose research lines that may contribute to bridging current knowledge gaps.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-13
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070356
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 357: Reproducibility and Feasibility of
           Classification and National Guidelines for Histological Diagnosis of
           Canine Mammary Gland Tumours: A Multi-Institutional Ring Study

    • Authors: Serenella Papparella, Maria Ines Crescio, Valeria Baldassarre, Barbara Brunetti, Giovanni P. Burrai, Cristiano Cocumelli, Valeria Grieco, Selina Iussich, Lorella Maniscalco, Francesca Mariotti, Francesca Millanta, Orlando Paciello, Roberta Rasotto, Mariarita Romanucci, Alessandra Sfacteria, Valentina Zappulli
      First page: 357
      Abstract: Histological diagnosis of Canine Mammary Tumours (CMTs) provides the basis for proper treatment and follow-up. Nowadays, its accuracy is poorly understood and variable interpretation of histological criteria leads to a lack of standardisation and impossibility to compare studies. This study aimed to quantify the reproducibility of histological diagnosis and grading in CMTs. A blinded ring test on 36 CMTs was performed by 15 veterinary pathologists with different levels of education, after discussion of critical points on the Davis-Thompson Foundation Classification and providing consensus guidelines. Kappa statistics were used to compare the interobserver variability. The overall concordance rate of diagnostic interpretations of WP on identification of hyperplasia-dysplasia/ benign/malignant lesions showed a substantial agreement (average k ranging from 0.66 to 0.82, with a k-combined of 0.76). Instead, outcomes on ICD-O-3.2 morphological code /diagnosis of histotype had only a moderate agreement (average k ranging from 0.44 and 0.64 , with a k-combined of 0.54). The results demonstrated that standardised classification and consensus guidelines can produce moderate to substantial agreement; however, further efforts are needed to increase this agreement in distinguishing benign versus malignant lesions and in histological grading.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-13
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070357
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 358: Genotype, but Not Climate, Affects
           the Resistance of Honey Bees (Apis mellifera) to Viral Infections and to
           the Mite Varroa destructor

    • Authors: Ana K. Ramos-Cuellar, Alvaro De la Mora, Francisca Contreras-Escareño, Nuria Morfin, José M. Tapia-González, José O. Macías-Macías, Tatiana Petukhova, Adriana Correa-Benítez, Ernesto Guzman-Novoa
      First page: 358
      Abstract: This study was conducted to analyze the effect of genotype and climate on the resistance of honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies to parasitic and viral diseases. The prevalence and intensity of parasitism by Varroa destructor, or infection by Nosema spp., and four honey bee viruses were determined in 365 colonies of predominantly European or African ancestry (descendants of A. m. scutellata) in subtropical and temperate regions of Mexico. Varroa destructor was the most prevalent parasite (95%), whilst N. ceranae was the least prevalent parasite (15%). Deformed wing virus (DWV) and black queen cell virus (BQCV) were the only viruses detected, at frequencies of 38% and 66%, respectively. Varroa destructor was significantly more prevalent in colonies of European ancestry (p < 0.05), and the intensity of parasitism by V. destructor or infection by DWV and BQCV was also significantly higher in colonies of European descent than in African descent colonies (p < 0.01), although no genotype–parasite associations were found for N. ceranae. Additionally, significant and positive correlations were found between V. destructor and DWV levels, and the abundance of these pathogens was negatively correlated with the African ancestry of colonies (p < 0.01). However, there were no significant effects of environment on parasitism or infection intensity for the colonies of both genotypes. Therefore, it is concluded that the genotype of honey bee colonies, but not climate, influences their resistance to DWV, BQCV, and V. destructor.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-15
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070358
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 359: Abnormalities of External Jugular
           Veins in Bulldogs with Pulmonary Valve Stenosis

    • Authors: Marta Croce, Tommaso Vezzosi, Federica Marchesotti, Valentina Patata, Martina Bini, Giuseppe Lacava, Luigi Venco, Oriol Domenech
      First page: 359
      Abstract: Two French bulldogs and one English bulldog affected by pulmonary valve stenosis and referred for pulmonary balloon valvuloplasty were diagnosed with different abnormalities of the external jugular veins. The diagnosis included unilateral absence of the right external jugular vein and bilateral hypoplasia of the external jugular veins, associated with persistent left cranial vena cava. Vascular ultrasound and computed tomography were used for the diagnosis. Jugular vein anomalies can affect decision-making regarding the central venous catheterization needed to perform procedures such as pulmonary balloon valvuloplasty or central catheter placement. Based on the results of the present case series, anomalies of external jugular veins should be considered in French and English bulldogs when the external jugular veins cannot be palpated or when echocardiography shows coronary sinus dilation. Vascular ultrasound or computed tomography may help identify jugular venous anomalies and should be considered in the preoperative evaluation of bulldogs that need to undergo interventional procedures requiring transjugular catheterization.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-15
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070359
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 360: Fermented Rubber Seed Kernel with
           Yeast in the Diets of Tropical Lactating Dairy Cows: Effects on Feed
           Intake, Hematology, Microbial Protein Synthesis, Milk Yield and Milk

    • Authors: Thanaporn Ouppamong, Nirawan Gunun, Chayapol Tamkhonburee, Pichad Khejornsart, Chatchai Kaewpila, Piyawit Kesorn, Thachawech Kimprasit, Anusorn Cherdthong, Metha Wanapat, Sineenart Polyorach, Suban Foiklang, Pongsatorn Gunun
      First page: 360
      Abstract: The objective of the present study was to analyze the effects of yeast-fermented rubber seed kernels (YERSEK) on the feed intake, hematology, microbial protein synthesis, milk yield, and milk composition in dairy cows. Six crossbred Holstein Friesian (HF) × Thai lactating dairy cows with 110 ± 10 days in milk were randomly assigned to three different amounts of YERSEK at 0%, 10%, and 20% in a concentrate mixture using a 3 × 3 repeated Latin square design. Cows were fed with concentrate diets at a concentrate-to-milk yield ratio of 1:1.5, with rice straw fed ad libitum. The inclusion of YERSEK did not adversely affect feed intake, nutrient intake, or digestibility (p > 0.05), whereas ether extract intake and digestibility linearly increased in dairy cows receiving YERSEK (p < 0.01). Increasing YERSEK levels did not adversely affect blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels, hematological parameters, or microbial protein synthesis (p > 0.05). Supplementation of YERSEK did not influence milk production, lactose, or protein levels (p > 0.05). However, milk fat and total solids decreased linearly (p < 0.05) with the addition of YERSEK. In conclusion, in a concentrate diet, YERSEK could be used as a protein source without negative effects on feed intake, digestibility, hematology, microbial protein synthesis, or milk yield. However, it reduced the milk fat and total solids of tropical lactating dairy cows.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-15
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070360
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 361: Epineural Neurorrhaphy of a Large
           Nerve Defect Due to IatroGenic Sciatic Nerve Injury in a Maltese Dog

    • Authors: Hanjung Lee, Haebeom Lee, Keyyeon Lee, Yoonho Roh, Seongmok Jeong, Daehyun Kim, Jaemin Jeong
      First page: 361
      Abstract: Epineural neurorrhaphy is a standard nerve repair method, but it is rarely reported in veterinary literature. Epineural neurorrhaphy in canine sciatic nerve injury are described in this report. An 11-month-old, castrated male Maltese dog, presented with an one-month history of non-weight bearing lameness and knuckling of the right pelvic limb. The dog showed absence of superficial and deep pain perception on the dorsal and lateral surfaces below the stifle joint. The dog had undergone femoral head and neck osteotomy in the right pelvic limb one month prior to referral at a local hospital. Based on physical and neurological examinations, peripheral nerve injury of the right pelvic limb was suspected. Radiography showed irregular bony proliferation around the excised femoral neck. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed sciatic nerve injury with inconspicuous continuity at the greater trochanter level. A sciatic nerve neurotmesis was suspected and surgical repair was decided. During surgery, non-viable tissue of the sciatic nerve was debrided, and epineural neurorrhaphy was performed to bridge a large, 20-mm defect. The superficial and deep pain perception was progressively improved and restored at 3 weeks postoperatively, and the dog exhibited a gradual improvement in motor function. At 10 weeks postoperatively, the dog showed no neurological deficit including knuckling but the tarsal joint hyperextension did not improve due to ankylosis. The dog had undergone tarsal arthrodesis and exhibited almost normal limb function without any neurologic sequela until the last follow-up at 2.5 years postoperatively.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-15
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070361
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 362: Effects of Intrauterine Infusion
           of Micronised Purified Flavonoid Fraction (MPFF) in Metritis-Diagnosed
           Dairy Cows Naturally Infected by E. coli during the Early Postpartum

    • Authors: Miguel A. Gutiérrez-Reinoso, José B. Uquilla, Francisco A. Barona, Manuel E. Guano, Gloria N. Chicaiza, Manuel García-Herreros
      First page: 362
      Abstract: The occurrence of metritis during the postpartum period causes serious economic losses in dairy cattle. The Micronised Purified Flavonoid Fraction (MPFF) is a polyphenolic flavonoid compound which is considered to have many health-related properties such as antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, phlebotonic, and several vascular-protecting activities. The aim was to evaluate the effects of a new strategic therapy for metritis based on MPFF intrauterine infusions during the early postpartum in dairy cows naturally infected by Escherichia coli. The clinical effects on reproductive anatomical structures and chronological involution dynamics were monitored until day 24 postpartum by ultrasonography. Moreover, uterine bacteriological and cytological (polymorphonuclear neutrophils; PMNs) profiles were analysed before and after MPFF infusion. The results showed that the success rate (% cure) at day 24 postpartum was improved significantly when using higher MPFF doses (p < 0.05). Moreover, MPFF treatment acutely diminished the size of the cervix and uterus and improved the involution process during the first 24 days (p < 0.05). The prevalence of pathogenic bacteria found in in vitro cultures was significantly variable (p < 0.01), as were the antibiotic sensitivity patterns. Pathogenic bacteria isolates decreased after MPFF applications in a dose–response fashion (p < 0.01), while isolates obtained from controls and low-dose-MPFF-treated animals were stable and similar (p > 0.05). The sensitivity patterns of pathogenic bacteria isolated in in vitro cultures from MPFF-treated animals were variable, although resistance to E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spp., and coliforms was shown irrespective of the MPFF doses used. However, MPFF-treated cows showed a dose–response effect regarding PMN rates (p < 0.05). The calving-first service, calving–conception interval, and conception rate improved significantly from using higher MPFF doses (p < 0.05). In conclusion, this study shows that MPFF treatment differentially affects uterine involution, bacteriological profiles, cytological traits, and reproductive performance in metritis-positive dairy cows naturally infected by E. coli.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-16
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070362
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 363: Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in
           Client-Owned Cats from Portugal

    • Authors: Andreia Oliveira, Maria Aires Pereira, Teresa Letra Mateus, João R. Mesquita, Helena Vala
      First page: 363
      Abstract: The close contact between humans and domestic cats raises concerns about the potential risks of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Thus, this study aims to investigate anti-SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in client-owned cats from Portugal and evaluate the infection risk of cats that maintain contact with human COVID-19 cases. A total of 176 cats, belonging to 94 households, were sampled. Cat owners answered an online questionnaire, and cats were screened for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 using a commercial ELISA. Twenty (21.3%) households reported at least one confirmed human COVID-19 case. Forty cats (22.7%) belonged to a COVID-19-positive and 136 (77.3%) to a COVID-19-negative household. The seroprevalences of cats from COVID-19-positive and -negative households were 5.0% (2/40) and 0.7% (1/136). The two SARS-CoV-2-seropositive cats from COVID-19-positive households had an indoor lifestyle, and their owners stated that they maintained a close and frequent contact with them, even after being diagnosed with COVID-19, pointing towards human-to-cat transmission. The SARS-CoV-2-seropositive cat from the COVID-19-negative household had a mixed indoor/outdoor lifestyle and chronic diseases. Owners of the three SARS-CoV-2-seropositive cats did not notice clinical signs or behavior changes. This study highlights the low risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission from COVID-19-positive human household members to domestic cats, even in a context of close and frequent human–animal contact.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-16
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070363
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 364: Inhibiting Fatty Acid Amide
           Hydrolase Ameliorates Enteropathy in Diabetic Mice: A Cannabinoid 1
           Receptor Mediated Mechanism

    • Authors: Vikram Thakur, Mohammad Bashashati, Josue Enriquez, Munmun Chattopadhyay
      First page: 364
      Abstract: Gastrointestinal (GI) dysmotility in diabetics exhibits fecal incontinence or constipation which affects patients’ quality of life. In this study, we aimed to understand the pattern of GI transit in type 1 diabetic (T1D) mice and whether inhibiting endocannabinoid degradation would exhibit therapeutic effect. Whole gut-transit time and fecal-pellet output were measured at 16 week post-diabetes. T1D mice treated with fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor URB597 showed reduced fecal output as well as improved gut transit time. Cannabinoid 1 receptor antagonist, AM251 blocked the effects of URB597, which may demonstrate that FAAH inhibitor is a potential remedial strategy for GI dysmotility.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-16
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070364
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 365: Equine Suture Exostosis: A Review
           of Cases from a Multicenter Retrospective Study

    • Authors: Denis Verwilghen, Jack Easley, Timo Zwick, Maggy Uhlhorn, Sigrid Grulke, Hubert Simhofer, Neil Townsend, Oliver Liyou, Fabrice Bodeus, Davide Danilo Zani, Lieven Vlaminck, Chris Pearce, Carsten Staszyk, Astrid Bienert-Zeit
      First page: 365
      Abstract: Suture exostosis is an intriguing and not uncommon pathology that has to be included in the differential diagnosis for horses with swelling of the head. Although several singular case reports have been published, no large case series is available. The aim of this study is to report a multicentric retrospective collection of suture exostosis cases. Data concerning horses with suture exostosis in the facial region were collected retrospectively. Information regarding breed, age, gender, history, imaging findings, initiated treatment, response to treatment and follow up was recorded. One hundred and five cases of various breeds were reported. Analysis revealed the cases could be grouped into four entities: 45 developed following sino-nasal surgery, 23 following trauma, seven with underlying sinus pathology and 25 idiopathic. Treatment consisted of sequestra removal, plate fixation, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory drugs or no treatment. Whereas initial localized pain fades within few days or weeks, resolution or reduction of the swelling was obtained in most cases after 3 months to 1.5 years. The etiopathogenesis of suture exostosis seems to consist of different entities. Identification of an underlying cause, particularly the presence of a bone sequester and infection is important to speed up resolution and before concluding an idiopathic case. When performing sinusotomies, it is important to provide as little trauma as possible to the surgical site in order to prevent suture exostosis as a complication.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-17
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070365
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 366: External Ear Canal Evaluation in
           Dogs with Chronic Suppurative Otitis Externa: Comparison of Direct
           Cytology, Bacterial Culture and 16S Amplicon Profiling

    • Authors: Caroline Leonard, Damien Thiry, Bernard Taminiau, Georges Daube, Jacques Fontaine
      First page: 366
      Abstract: A discrepancy between cytology and bacterial culture methods is sometimes observed in canine otitis externa. The objective of this study was to compare results from cytology, bacterial culture and 16S amplicon profiling. Twenty samples from 16 dogs with chronic suppurative otitis externa were collected. A direct cytological evaluation was carried out during the consultations. Aerobic bacterial culture and susceptibility were performed by an external laboratory used in routine practice. For 16S amplicon profiling, DNA was extracted and the hypervariable segment V1–V3 of the 16S rDNA was amplified and then sequenced with a MiSeq Illumina sequence carried out by the Mothur software using the SILVA database. A good correlation between cytology and bacterial culture was observed in 60% of the samples. Some bacterial species revealed by bacterial culture were present with low relative abundance (<10%) in 16S amplicon profiling. Some bacterial species revealed by the 16S amplicon profiling analysis were not identified with culture; most of the time, the offending species was a Corynebacterium. To conclude, a careful interpretation of the results of bacterial culture should be made and always be in agreement with the cytology. The 16S amplicon profiling method appears to be a more sensitive method for detecting strains present in suppurative otitis but does not provide information on bacterial susceptibility.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-18
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070366
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 367: Evaluation of a Probability-Based
           Predictive Tool on Pathologist Agreement Using Urinary Bladder as a Pilot

    • Authors: Emily Jones, Solomon Woldeyohannes, Fernanda Castillo-Alcala, Brandon N. Lillie, Mee-Ja M. Sula, Helen Owen, John Alawneh, Rachel Allavena
      First page: 367
      Abstract: Inter-pathologist variation is widely recognized across human and veterinary pathology and is often compounded by missing animal or clinical information on pathology submission forms. Variation in pathologist threshold levels of resident inflammatory cells in the tissue of interest can further decrease inter-pathologist agreement. This study applied a predictive modeling tool to bladder histology slides that were assessed by four pathologists: first without animal and clinical information, then with this information, and finally using the predictive tool. All three assessments were performed twice, using digital whole-slide images (WSI) and then glass slides. Results showed marked variation in pathologists’ interpretation of bladder slides, with kappa agreement values of 7–37% without any animal or clinical information, 23–37% with animal signalment and history, and 31–42% when our predictive tool was applied, for digital WSI and glass slides. The concurrence of test pathologists to the reference diagnosis was 60% overall. This study provides a starting point for the use of predictive modeling in standardizing pathologist agreement in veterinary pathology. It also highlights the importance of high-quality whole-slide imaging to limit the effect of digitization on inter-pathologist agreement and the benefit of continued standardization of tissue assessment in veterinary pathology.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-18
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070367
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 368: Therapeutic Effect and Immune
           Changes after Treatment of Hymenolepis nana-Infected BALB/c Mice with
           Compounds Isolated from Leucaena leucocephala

    • Authors: Yi-Hsuan Ma, Chung-Yi Chen, Li-Yu Chung, Chuan-Min Yen, Yung-Shun Juan, Rong-Jyh Lin
      First page: 368
      Abstract: Background/Purpose: Hymenolepis nana is globally distributed. Leucaena leucocephala has been studied as a treatment, including the nematodes and protozoa, but no research results are related to cestodes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to target H. nana. Methods: The natural components of L. leucocephala were isolated and added to H. nana, which was cultured in vitro, to observe changes in the mortality, motility, and morphology. BALB/c male mice infected with H. nana were treated with effective components of L. leucocephala for 10 days, and the changes were recorded. After the mice were sacrificed, the spleen weight was measured, and a primary culture was performed for the subsequent cytokine and chemokine testing. Results: The experiment found that 132-hydroxy-(132-S)-pheophytin a and aristophyll-C have clear cestocidal effects in vitro. 132-hydroxy-(132-S)-pheophytin a has been shown to be effective at reducing parasite populations and eliciting host immune responses in vivo. IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17, MCP-1, IFN-γ, TNF-α, MIP-1α, and GM-CSF in 132-hydroxy-(132-S)-pheophytin a were significantly increased after stimulation, while IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-3, IL-12p70, and RANTES were unchanged. Conclusions: The investigation shows that components of L. leucocephala have actual cestocidal activity against H. nana.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-18
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070368
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 369: Cat–Owner Relationship and
           Cat Behaviour: Effects of the COVID-19 Confinement and Implications for
           Feline Management

    • Authors: Giacomo Riggio, Carmen Borrelli, Patrizia Piotti, Anna Grondona, Angelo Gazzano, Francesco P. Di Iacovo, Jaume Fatjó, Jonathan E. Bowen, Daniel Mota-Rojas, Federica Pirrone, Chiara Mariti
      First page: 369
      Abstract: The restrictive measures implemented to stem the spread of COVID-19 abruptly changed the lives of many cats and their owners. This study explored whether the lockdown in Italy affected the cat–owner relationship, as well as cat behaviour and welfare. A survey that included questions on owner and cat’s demographics, living environment, cat behaviour and a modified version of the Cat/Dog Relationship Scale (C/DORS) was distributed online during the lockdown and was completed by 548 cat owners, mainly women (81.6%). With regard to the C/DORS subscales, both emotional closeness and cat–owner interactions increased during confinement, as opposed to a reduction in perceived costs. The effect of the type of job, family role and owner’s age on the C/DORS scores suggests that the relationship improved for those owners that, due to the lockdown, increased the time spent with their cats. For 58.8% of respondents, their cat’s general behaviour did not change, but when changes occurred, they were mostly positive (20.4%). Attention-seeking and demanding behaviours were the most increased during lockdown (25.7%). Cats with pre-existing problematic behaviours tended to either remain stable or improve during confinement. The overall positive effects of lockdown-related environmental changes on a cat’s behaviour suggest that some aspects of commonly implemented cat management practices should be revised to improve cat welfare in normal circumstances.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-18
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070369
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 370: Efficiency of Artificial
           Insemination at Natural Estrus in Organic Churra Ewes

    • Authors: Carlos Palacios, José A. Abecia, Javier Plaza, Cristina Hidalgo, Luis F. de la Fuente
      First page: 370
      Abstract: Hormonal treatments used in the artificial insemination (AI) of sheep can cause several physiological problems that can affect negatively fertility and animal health; however, AI protocols based on the detection of natural estrus offer a more sustainable option and can achieve high fertility. In this study, an AI protocol at natural estrus in organic Churra sheep was performed. In the first phase (AI protocol development), 125 ewes were exocervically inseminated, and their fertility was assessed based on the following factors: number of AI, physiological state, body condition, estrus detection–AI interval, and vaginal fluids in cervix. That protocol was repeated for six consecutive years. In all individuals, fertilities based on the timing of insemination after estrus detection were very high. Lactating ewes produced better results than did dry ewes, which was probably because of the better feeding of the former. In addition, double insemination increased the fertility of ewes whose estrus was detected within 16 h of onset. Body condition and amount of vaginal fluid were correlated with fertility. Exocervical inseminations at natural estrus can produce acceptable fertility and prolificity in Churra ewes.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-18
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070370
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 371: The Dissemination of a Single
           Staphylococcusaureus Strain, Spa-t2873, as the Predominant Cause of Bovine
           Mastitis in Israeli Dairy Farms

    • Authors: Adin Shwimmer, Rama Falk, Tamar K. De-Levie, Michal Lasnoy, Katia Levytskyi, Amos Adler
      First page: 371
      Abstract: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important pathogens causing intramammary infection (IMI) in dairy herds. The goals of this study were (1) to describe the prevalence of S. aureus in Israeli dairy farms; (2) to characterize the spa-based clonal structure of mastitis-related S. aureus isolates; (3) to analyze the transmission network of a large outbreak within a single farm and (4) to characterize the virulence factors of the outbreak strain. The prevalence and the molecular survey were performed on all Israeli IMI-related isolates, 9.2019–8.2020. Molecular methods included spa-typing for the survey and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) for the investigation of the farm ‘A’ outbreak. During the one-year survey, S. aureus was identified in 152 dairy farms, with a total of 440 positive samples. The spa t2873 was found in 284 isolates (64.5%) across 112 farms (73.6%). Other common types included t529 (n = 46), t9303 (n = 34) and the methicillin-resistant S. aureus t011 (n = 11). The highest number of cases (n = 25) was detected in Farm ‘A’, all of which were found to be spa t2873. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that most transmission events occurred within the same milking group, and inter-group transmission was due to the transfer of cows between groups or due to consecutive milking order. The spa t2873 strain contained putative virulence genes, including various intracellular and collagen adhesion proteins. Our study revealed the dissemination of the t2873 strain to the majority of Israeli dairy farms. The possibility of inter-farm transmission should be monitored and prevented.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-19
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070371
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 372: Heparin and Progesterone Exert
           Synergistic Effects to Improve the In-Vitro Fertilization Rate of Bovine
           Sperm Bound to Oviduct Cell Aggregates from the Isthmus

    • Authors: Mohamed M. M. El-Sokary, Seham F. Shehata, Karima G. M. Mahmoud
      First page: 372
      Abstract: After the copulation process, some sperm start the long journey with an ultimate goal of fertilizing the oocyte. Inside the oviduct, sperm are stored, waiting for the ovulated oocyte where they bind to the apical surface of the oviduct cells, which in turn hold sperm to form a sperm nest. The essential functions of the sperm reservoir include attaching spermatozoa to oviduct epithelial cells, selecting intact, good-quality sperm with an end result of extending sperm life expectancy. The current study aimed to evaluate the fertilization ability of sperm that bind to cell aggregates from different parts of the oviduct (infundibulum-ampulla-isthmus), and to assess the effect of heparin and or progesterone (P4) on the in-vitro fertilization ability of sperm co-incubated with cell aggregates from the isthmus. In-vitro fertilization was identified as a cleaved oocyte to two cells or more. The sperm bound to cell aggregates from the isthmus improved the rate of in-vitro fertilization (48.09%) compared to aggregates from the infundibulum (36.90%) and ampulla (37.61%). Moreover, pre-treatment of mature COCs with heparin (40 μg/mL) and P4 (80 nanomolar) play a coactive role that improves the in-vitro fertilization ability of sperm bound to cell aggregates from isthmus (63.33%), compared to 42.61% in the absence of cells aggregates. In conclusion, binding to cell aggregates from isthmus improves the in-vitro fertilization ability of Bovine sperm. Additionally, heparin, together with P4, exerts a synergistic action that improves the in-vitro fertilizing potential of sperm attached to cell aggregates from the isthmus of the bovine oviduct.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-20
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070372
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 373: Molecular Survey on A, B, C and
           New Avian Metapneumovirus (aMPV) Subtypes in Wild Birds of
           Northern-Central Italy

    • Authors: Claudia Maria Tucciarone, Giovanni Franzo, Matteo Legnardi, Daniela Pasotto, Caterina Lupini, Elena Catelli, Giulia Quaglia, Giulia Graziosi, Emanuela Dal Molin, Federica Gobbo, Mattia Cecchinato
      First page: 373
      Abstract: Recent insights into the genetic and antigenic variability of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), including the discovery of two new subtypes, have renewed interest in this virus. aMPV causes a well-known respiratory disease in poultry. Domestic species show different susceptibility to aMPV subtypes, whereas sporadic detections in wild birds have revealed links between epidemiology and migration routes. To explore the epidemiology of aMPV in wild species, a molecular survey was conducted on samples that were collected from wild birds during avian influenza surveillance activity in Italy. The samples were screened in pools by multiplex real time RT-PCR assays in order to detect and differentiate subtypes A, B, C, and those that have been newly identified. All the birds were negative, except for a mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) that was positive for aMPV subtype C (sampled in Padua, in the Veneto region, in 2018). The sequencing of partial M and full G genes placed the strain in an intermediate position between European and Chinese clusters. The absence of subtypes A and B supports the negligible role of wild birds, whereas subtype C detection follows previous serological and molecular identifications in Italy. Subtype C circulation in domestic and wild populations emphasizes the importance of molecular test development and adoption to allow the prompt detection of this likely emerging subtype.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-20
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070373
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 374: The Effect of Arginase on Canine
           T-Lymphocyte Functions and its Modulation by All-Trans Retinoid Acid
           (ATRA) in Canine Monocyte-Derived Macrophages

    • Authors: Aimee M. Soileau, Cally N. Quick, Cambri E. Moeller, Jessica C. Schaumburg, Sita S. Withers
      First page: 374
      Abstract: Immunosuppressive myeloid cells in the tumor microenvironment play a major role in suppressing tumor immunity via the production of arginase, IL-10, and others. The objectives of this study were to determine the ability of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) to decrease the expression of arginase and other soluble mediators by canine monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) and to determine the inhibitory activity of arginase on canine T-lymphocytes. The immunomodulatory ability of ATRA (2 µM) on canine MDMs was evaluated via reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), flow cytometry, arginase activity assay, and enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). Arginase effects on T-lymphocyte phenotype and proliferation were then evaluated by flow cytometry. ATRA consistently decreased MDM expression of IL6, TGFB1, NOS2, ARG1, and CIITA transcripts, by approximately 2–4-fold, although this did not reach statistical significance for ARG1 or CIITA. Furthermore, arginase activity was decreased in ATRA-treated MDMs while the MDM phenotype remained unchanged. Arginase decreased the expression of granzyme B on CD8+ T-lymphocytes and inhibited CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocyte proliferation. These findings suggested that ATRA could inhibit canine MDM production of soluble inflammatory/immunosuppressive mediators. These data also revealed that arginase decreased canine T-lymphocyte proliferation and granzyme B expression. Further studies are needed to determine whether ATRA could reverse the immunosuppressive effects of myeloid cells on canine T-lymphocytes in vivo.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-21
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070374
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 375: Characterization of the Expression
           of Angiogenic Factors in Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Domestic

    • Authors: Erwin Kristobal Gudenschwager-Basso, Valentina Stevenson, Dan Phillip Sponenberg, Thomas E. Cecere, William R. Huckle
      First page: 375
      Abstract: Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) is a common malignant skin cancer with a significant impact on health, and it is important to determine the degree of reliance of CSCC on angiogenesis for growth and metastasis. Major regulators of angiogenesis are the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family and their associated receptors. Alternative pre-mRNA splicing produces multiple isoforms of VEGF-A and PLGF with distinct biological properties. Several studies highlight the function of VEGF-A in CSCC, but there are no studies of the different isoforms of VEGF-A and PLGF for this neoplasm. We characterized the expression of three isoforms of VEGF-A, two isoforms of PLGF, and their receptors in cat CSCC biopsies compared to normal haired skin (NHS). Although our results revealed no significant changes in transcript levels of panVEGF-A or their isoforms, the mRNA levels of PLGF I and the receptors Flt-1 and KDR were downregulated in CSCC compared to NHS. Differences were observed in ligand:receptor mRNA expression ratio, with the expression of VEGF-A relative to its receptor KDR higher in CSCC, which is consistent with our hypothesis and prior human SCC studies. Immunolocalization in tissue showed increased expression of all measured factors and receptors in tumor cells compared to NHS and surrounding vasculature. We conclude that the factors measured may play a pivotal role in CSCC growth, although further studies are needed to clarify the role of angiogenic factors in feline CSCC.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-21
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070375
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 376: Mutational Analysis of c-KIT and
           PDGFRA in Canine Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (GISTs)

    • Authors: Maria Morini, Fabio Gentilini, Maria Elena Turba, Francesca Gobbo, Luciana Mandrioli, Giuliano Bettini
      First page: 376
      Abstract: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the canine gastrointestinal tract and are diagnosed by the immunohistochemical expression of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) KIT. Activating mutations of the proto-oncogenes c-KIT and PDGFRA drive GIST oncogenesis and are used to predict the response to RTK-inhibitors in human oncology. Currently, the frequency and significance of these mutations in canine GIST have not been adequately explored. Therefore, we investigated the mutational status of c-KIT (exons 9, 11 and 13) and PDGFRA (exons 12 and 18) genes by PCR followed by fragment analysis for c-KIT deletions and PCR followed by screening with DHPLC and direct sequencing confirmation for single nucleotide variations in 17 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded canine GISTs confirmed by KIT immunopositivity. c-KIT mutations were detected in 47% of cases, with a mutation detection rate significantly higher (p = 0.0004, Fisher’s exact test) and always involving exon 11. A PDGFRA gene mutation (exon 18) was identified in one case. Even if follow-up data were not available for all cases, four cases with documented abdominal metastases displayed c-KIT mutations. These data confirm that c-KIT exon 11 mutations occur frequently in canine GISTs, and identify the presence of a PDGFRA mutation similar to human GISTs. This study also suggests a potential association of c-KIT mutation with more aggressive biological behavior.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-07-21
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci9070376
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2022)
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