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  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 220 journals)
Showing 1 - 63 of 63 Journals sorted by number of followers
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 187)
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Veterinary Record     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Veterinary Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Australian Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Small Animal Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Equine Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Veterinary Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Veterinary and Comparative Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
New Zealand Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Research in Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Equine Veterinary Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Anthrozoos : A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Trends in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Preventive Veterinary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Clinical Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Topics in Companion Animal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medical Diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Animal Health Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Parasitology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Research Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Medicine International     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Nursing Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Frontiers in Veterinary Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Avian Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Zoonoses and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Human & Veterinary Medicine - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Irish Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Research in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Medical Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Australian Equine Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
VCOT Open     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Veterinary Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Reproduction in Domestic Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Small Ruminant Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Theriogenology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
New Zealand Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Kenya Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Veterinary Medicine and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias (Colombian journal of animal science and veterinary medicine)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Research Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Hellenic Veterinary Medical Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
veterinär spiegel     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Livestock     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Science Development     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Medicine: Research and Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ILAR Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Higiene e Sanidade Animal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Veterinária     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tanzania Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Tropical Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intas Polivet     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu dan Kesehatan Hewan (Veterinary Science and Medicine Journal)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Veteriner     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Wartazoa. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Veteriner Udayana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pet Behaviour Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Abanico Veterinario     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CES Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia     Open Access  
Veterinaria México OA     Open Access  
Compendio de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Veterinary Surgery     Open Access  
Ciencia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Nepalese Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Sri Lanka Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Salud y Tecnología Veterinaria     Open Access  
Veterinary Parasitology : X     Open Access  
Jurnal Medik Veteriner     Open Access  
Tierärztliche Praxis Ausgabe K: Kleintiere / Heimtiere     Hybrid Journal  
Tierärztliche Praxis Ausgabe G: Großtiere / Nutztiere     Hybrid Journal  
Van Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Rassegna di Diritto, Legislazione e Medicina Legale Veterinaria     Open Access  
Veterinaria (Montevideo)     Open Access  
SVU-International Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Matrix Science Medica     Open Access  
Veterinary Journal of Mehmet Akif Ersoy University / Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Analecta Veterinaria     Open Access  
Veterinarski Glasnik     Open Access  
Medicina Veterinária (UFRPE)     Open Access  
Veterinaria     Open Access  
Jurnal Sain Veteriner     Open Access  
International Journal of Tropical Veterinary and Biomedical Research     Open Access  
Revista de Ciência Veterinária e Saúde Pública     Open Access  
Jurnal Medika Veterinaria     Open Access  
Veterinary Parasitology : Regional Studies and Reports     Full-text available via subscription  
Revue Vétérinaire Clinique     Full-text available via subscription  
Folia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Science and Animal Health     Open Access  
FAVE Sección Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Indonesia Medicus Veterinus     Open Access  
Spei Domus     Open Access  
Revista de Educação Continuada em Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Revista Veterinaria     Open Access  
Journal of the Selva Andina Research Society     Open Access  
Bangladesh Veterinarian     Open Access  
Journal of Buffalo Science     Hybrid Journal  
Revista de Ciências Agroveterinárias     Open Access  
Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi / Atatürk University Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Revue Marocaine des Sciences Agronomiques et Vétérinaires     Open Access  
Nigerian Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde     Hybrid Journal  
Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access  
Macedonian Veterinary Review     Open Access  
Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú     Open Access  
Revista Complutense de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Medical Mycology Case Reports     Open Access  
Veterinaria México     Open Access  
Revista de Salud Animal     Open Access  
Revista de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revista MVZ Córdoba     Open Access  
Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
InVet     Open Access  
Zeitschrift für Ganzheitliche Tiermedizin     Hybrid Journal  
team.konkret     Open Access  
pferde spiegel     Hybrid Journal  
kleintier konkret     Hybrid Journal  
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  

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Veterinary Sciences
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2306-7381
Published by MDPI Homepage  [258 journals]
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 588: Study of Dietary Emodin on Immune
           Defense in Megalobrama amblycephala against Aeromonas hydrophila

    • Authors: Yuan-Yuan Zhang, Peng Xu, Xiao-Li Wang, Li-Ping Song, Jun Wu, Bing-Li Wang, Bin Hu, Shu-Quan Mao, Bo Liu, Xian-Ping Ge
      First page: 588
      Abstract: This experiment aimed to investigate the effects of emodin on the total bacterial count and immune response in various tissues of Wuchang bream infected with A. hydrophila. The experimental diets were made by supplementing emodin at 0, 30, 100, and 150 mg kg−1 to basal (control) diet, respectively, and fed to fish with an initial weight of 50.4 ± 2.35 g. All fish were divided into five experimental groups: uninfected fish fed with basal control diet (negative control, NC), infected fish fed with the diet supplemented with 0 (positive control group, PC), 30 (30), 100 (100), and 150 mg/kg (150) of emodin. The fish were reared for 14 days and sampled at different time points. The results showed that the total bacterial count in the kidney, blood, and liver tissues of Wuchang bream infected with A. hydrophila was significantly affected by the supplementation and feeding time of emodin. At the beginning of the experiment, the difference in total bacterial count among the groups was not significant. On day 1, the total bacterial count in all groups was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that in the negative control group. On day 4, the total bacterial count in all the emodin groups was significantly reduced, and the best bactericidal effect was observed in the 100 mg kg−1 group. In addition, emodin had a significant effect on the immune response of Wuchang bream after infection with A. hydrophila (p < 0.05). Compared with the other groups, the respiratory burst activity, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1 (IL-1) content, and white blood cell count (WBC) in the 100 and 150 mg kg−1 groups could be restored to normal levels in the shortest time (p < 0.05). Furthermore, this study also measured the complement alternative pathway activity (ACH50), plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content of the fish. The results showed that supplying 100 mg kg−1 emodin to the diet could significantly (p < 0.05) increase the ACH50 activity of the fish. Compared with the positive control (PC) group, the addition of emodin to the diet can inhibit the decrease in SOD activity and the increase in MDA content in the plasma of infected Wuchang bream. In conclusion, supplying 100 mg kg−1 emodin to the diet can enhance the ability of Wuchang bream to resist A. hydrophila infection by reducing the total bacterial count in tissues, increasing the activity of related immune enzymes, and promoting the secretion of cytokines. This provides a theoretical basis for production practice.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-09-21
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10090588
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 9 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 662: Extracutaneous Melanotic Melanoma
           with Nervous System Involvement in a Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    • Authors: José Diomedes Barbosa, Mariana Correia Oliveira, Carlos Magno Chaves Oliveira, Henrique dos Anjos Bomjardim, Tatiane Teles Albernaz Ferreira, Marcos Dutra Duarte, José Alcides Sarmento da Silveira, Natália da Silva e Silva Silveira, Camila Cordeiro Barbosa, Aluízio Otávio Almeida da Silva, Anibal Armién, Marilene de Farias Brito
      First page: 662
      Abstract: Melanomas are tumors arising from externally uncontrolled melanocytes that produce varying amounts of melanin. In this study, we report a case of melanoma with neurological impairment without evidence of cutaneous neoplastic lesions in an adult buffalo in the state of Pará, Brazil. Clinically, the buffalo exhibited apathy, decreased mandibular tone, and occasionally an open mouth with motor incoordination, and eventually succumbed to the condition. Necropsy revealed multifocal tumor masses in the brain, pituitary gland, trigeminal ganglion, and spinal cord. The neoplastic cells showed strong positive signals for vimentin, Melan-A, PNL-2, and SOX10. The diagnosis was made via necropsy, histopathology, and positive immunostaining for Melan-A and PNL-2, which are specific markers for melanocyte identification.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-11-21
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10120662
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 663: Multidrug-Resistant
           Staphylococcus aureus Strains Thrive in Dairy and Beef Production,
           Processing, and Supply Lines in Five Geographical Areas in Ethiopia

    • Authors: Fikru Gizaw, Tolera Kekeba, Fikadu Teshome, Matewos Kebede, Tekeste Abreham, Halefom Hishe Berhe, Dinka Ayana, Bedaso Mammo Edao, Hika Waktole, Takele Beyene Tufa, Fufa Abunna, Ashenafi Feyisa Beyi, Reta Duguma Abdi
      First page: 663
      Abstract: Livestock, farms, abattoirs, and food supply systems can become the source of foodborne pathogens, including S. aureus, in the absence of monitoring, general hygienic practices, and control. Studies are scarce on reservoirs (hiding places) and routes of entry of S. aureus into the food supply chain in Ethiopia. To fill these gaps, we evaluated the role of cows (milk), meat, equipment, and food handlers on the abundance and AMR of S. aureus in five geographical areas in central Oromia, Ethiopia. We isolated S. aureus from 10 different ecologies per area in 5 areas and tested their sensitivity to 14 antimicrobials of 9 different classes. We ranked the 5 areas and 10 ecologies by computing their multiple AMR index (MARI) at a cut-off value of 0.2 to determine ‘high-risk’ ecologies for AMR. We recorded as MDR if an isolate had resistance to ≥3 antimicrobial classes. We used a circos diagram to analyze if isolates with identical AMR patterns were shared between different ecologies. S. aureus is prevalent in central Oromia (16.1–18.3%), higher in dairy farms than in abattoirs, and varied among 10 ecologies (p < 0.001) but not among 5 areas (p > 0.05). Of the 92 isolates, 94.6% were penicillin-resistant. Their AMR prevalence was above 40% for 9 of 14 antimicrobials. All isolates (100%) had AMR in at least one antimicrobial class (range = 1–9; median = 5), indicating MDR was prevalent. The prevalence of MDR S. aureus varied (p < 0.05) among areas and 10 ecologies; the highest was in slaughter lines. All isolates had a MARI of >0.2, indicating drug overuse, and S. aureus’s AMR burden is high in central Oromia. Dairy farms had higher MARI values (0.44) than abattoirs (0.39). Of 10 ecologies, the highest and lowest MARI values were in the beef supply chain, i.e., slaughter line (0.67) and butcher’s hand (0.25). Of the 68 different AMR patterns by 92 isolates against 14 antimicrobials, 53 patterns (77.9%) were unique to individual isolates, indicating they were phenotypically dissimilar. MDR S. aureus was widespread in central Oromia in dairy and meat supply chains, contaminating milk, meat, equipment, and workers in farm and abattoir settings. In the absence of strict regulations and interventions, MDR S. aureus can be disseminated from these epicenters to the public.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-11-22
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10120663
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 664: Vinorelbine as First-Line
           Treatment in Stage IV Canine Primary Pulmonary Carcinoma

    • Authors: Valentina Rinaldi, Riccardo Finotello, Andrea Boari, Emanuele Cabibbo, Paolo Emidio Crisi
      First page: 664
      Abstract: Vinorelbine (VRL), a semi-synthetic vinca alkaloid commonly used in humans with advanced lung cancer, reaches high concentrations in the lung tissue, has proven antineoplastic activity and a low toxicity profile in dogs. Treatment-naïve, client-owned dogs with a cyto/histological diagnosis of advanced pulmonary carcinoma, selected from a laboratory database and previously subjected to imaging, were enrolled in the study. Vinorelbine (15 mg/m2) was administered weekly for 4 weeks and then fortnightly until progressive disease was documented. Staging work-up was repeated by means of diagnostic imaging after the fourth VRL (i.e., 28 days) and monthly thereafter; response to treatment was evaluated according to the RECIST. Toxicity was graded following the VCOGC group. Ten dogs met the inclusion criteria. Partial response was documented in eight dogs. Median time to progression was 88 days (range: 7–112) and median survival time for all dogs was 100 days (range 7–635). The most common side effect was neutropenia. The main limitations of the study were the absence of histological diagnosis in eight cases and the limited number of treated dogs. VRL is well tolerated with an adequate toxicity profile and may be useful in the management of advanced lung tumours if used as a first-line treatment strategy.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-11-22
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10120664
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 665: The History of Bovine Genital
           Campylobacteriosis in the Face of Political Turmoil and Structural Change
           in Cattle Farming in Germany

    • Authors: Hosny El-Adawy, Helmut Hotzel, Herbert Tomaso, Heinrich Neubauer
      First page: 665
      Abstract: Contagious bovine genital campylobacteriosis (BGC), also known as bovine venereal campylobacteriosis, is a disease relevant to international trade listed by the World Organization for Animal Health (WOAH). It is caused by Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis (Cfv), one of three subspecies of Campylobacter fetus. Bulls are the reservoir but BGC may also be spread by artificial insemination (AI). BGC is characterized by severe reproductive losses such as infertility, early embryonic death and abortion with considerable economic losses. This significant economic impact has prompted several countries to adopt stringent eradication and surveillance measures to contain the disease. While there are commercial and autologous vaccines available, scientific evidence for the effectiveness of vaccination is still lacking. In Germany, BCG was already found to be endemic in the 1920s, shortly after the agent and the disease had been described for the first time. It can be assumed that BCG had already circulated uncontrolled for a long time in the predecessor states of Germany, influenced only by the political situation and trading networks of the time. After WW II, BCG was eradicated in the German Democratic Republic due to industrialized cattle production based on AI but it was still endemic at low levels in the Federal Republic of Germany with its diverse cattle production. There has been a steady decline in BGC incidence in re-unified Germany over the past 28 years. A single genetic Cfv lineage was identified which probably emerged in the 19th century and diversified over time. Interestingly, no recurrent cross-border introduction became evident. This review gives insight into the history of bovine genital campylobacteriosis considering the structural change in cattle farming in Germany and reflecting on the political background of the time.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-11-23
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10120665
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 666: Regenerative Medicine Applied to
           Musculoskeletal Diseases in Equines: A Systematic Review

    • Authors: Andrea Pérez Fraile, Elsa González-Cubero, Susana Martínez-Flórez, Elías R. Olivera, Vega Villar-Suárez
      First page: 666
      Abstract: Musculoskeletal injuries in horses have a great economic impact, predominantly affecting tendons, ligaments, and cartilage, which have limited natural regeneration. Cell therapy, which uses mesenchymal stem cells due to their tissue differentiation properties and anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory effects, aims to restore damaged tissue. In this manuscript, we performed a systematic review using the Parsifal tool, searching the PubMed and Web of Science databases for articles on regenerative medicine for equine musculoskeletal injuries. Our review covers 17 experimental clinical studies categorized by the therapeutic approach used: platelet-rich plasma, conditioned autologous serum, mesenchymal stem cells, and secretome. These therapies reduce healing time, promote regeneration of fibrocartilaginous tissue, improve cellular organization, and improve joint functionality and sustainability. In conclusion, regenerative therapies using platelet-rich plasma, conditioned autologous serum, equine mesenchymal stem cells, and the emerging field of the secretome represent a promising and highly effective approach for the treatment of joint pathologies in horses, implying a valuable advance in equine healthcare.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-11-23
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10120666
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 667: Gastroprotective Effects of Oral
           Glycosaminoglycans with Sodium Alginate in an Indomethacin-Induced Gastric
           Injury Model in Rats

    • Authors: Sara Traserra, Héctor Cuerda, Adriana Vallejo, Sergi Segarra, Roger Sabata, Marcel Jimenez
      First page: 667
      Abstract: The gastrointestinal (GI) mucosal barrier is often exposed to inflammatory and erosive insults, resulting in gastric lesions. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), such as hyaluronic acid (HA), chondroitin sulfate (CS), and N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) have shown potential beneficial effects as GI protectants. This study aimed to evaluate the gastroprotective effects of oral GAGs in rats with indomethacin-induced GI lesions. Forty-five Sprague–Dawley rats (8–9 weeks-old, 228 ± 7 g) were included in the study, divided into five study groups, and given, administered orally, either sucralfate (positive control group; PC), NAG (G group), sodium alginate plus HA and CS (AHC group), sodium alginate plus HA, CS, and NAG (AHCG group), or no treatment (negative control group; NC). Animals were administered 12.5 mg/kg indomethacin orally 15 min after receiving the assigned treatment. After 4 h, stomach samples were obtained and used to perform a macroscopic evaluation of gastric lesions and to allow histological assessment of the gastric wall (via H/E staining) and mucous (via PAS staining). The AHCG group showed significant gastroprotective improvements compared to the NC group, and a similar efficacy to the PC group. This combination of sodium alginate with GAGs might, therefore, become a safe and effective alternative to prescription drugs for gastric lesions, such as sucralfate, and have potential usefulness in companion animals.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-11-23
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10120667
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 668: Hepadnavirus Infection in a Cat
           with Chronic Liver Disease: A Multi-Disciplinary Diagnostic Approach

    • Authors: Paolo Capozza, Francesco Pellegrini, Michele Camero, Georgia Diakoudi, Ahmed Hassan Omar, Anna Salvaggiulo, Nicola Decaro, Gabriella Elia, Leonardo Catucci, Barbara Di Martino, Paola Fruci, Letizia Tomassini, Elvio Lepri, Vito Martella, Gianvito Lanave
      First page: 668
      Abstract: A 3-year-old female stray, shorthair cat, with clinical signs and serum chemistry markers indicative of hepatic disease, was diagnosed with domestic cat hepadnavirus (DCH) infection. Coupling molecular and serological data, the infection was seemingly contextualized into a chronic phase, since IgM anti-core antibodies, a marker of early-stage Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection, were not detected. However, the cat possessed IgG anti-core, a common indicator of chronic HBV infection in human patients and did not show seroconversion to the anti-DCH surface antigen, considered protective during HBV infection and associated with long-term protective immunity. On genome sequencing, the DCH strain showed 98.3% nucleotide identity to strains previously identified in Italy.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-11-24
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10120668
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 669: A Retrospective Cohort Evaluation
           of Left Ventricular Remodeling, Perioperative Complications and Outcome in
           Medium and Large Size Dogs with Patent Ductus Arteriosus after
           Percutaneous Closure

    • Authors: Melissa Papa, Lorenzo Scarpellini, Danitza Pradelli, Anna Maria Zanaboni, Alessia Mattia, Elisabetta Boz, Cecilia Rossi, Stefania Signorelli, Viviana Forti, Martina Longobardi, Beatrice Pasquinelli, Maria Celeste Gendusa, Davide Gamba, Claudio Maria Bussadori
      First page: 669
      Abstract: This retrospective cohort study included one hundred fifty-seven medium and large-size dogs with the aim of evaluating the effect of signalment and echocardiographic features on complications, outcomes and left ventricular modifications before and after patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) closure. The patients were divided in two groups based on the heart remodeling after closure: Group A included dogs that had a reduction in the end-systolic volume index (ESVI) after closure compared to the ESVI measured before; Group B included dogs without a reduction in ESVI after closure. Body weight, minimal ductal diameter (MDD) of PDA, end-diastolic volume index and presence of arrhythmias at presentation were significantly higher in Group B compared to Group A. The shortening fraction and ejection fraction after closure were reduced in both groups, but in Group B there was a major reduction, and the mean values indicated a possible systolic dysfunction. Complications during the procedure and death due to cardiac reasons were greater in Group B compared to Group A. In conclusion, a higher body weight, a larger MDD, a more severe heart enlargement or arrhythmias at presentation increased the risk of developing a worsening structural and functional condition after ductal closure, and this can be associated with perioperative complications and cardiac death.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-11-24
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10120669
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 670: Case–Control Study:
           Endogenous Procalcitonin and Protein Carbonylated Content as a Potential
           Biomarker of Subclinical Mastitis in Dairy Cows

    • Authors: Giulia Sala, Chiara Orsetti, Valentina Meucci, Lucia De Marchi, Micaela Sgorbini, Francesca Bonelli
      First page: 670
      Abstract: Procalcitonin (PCT) and protein carbonylated content (PCC) are promising biomarkers for bacterial infection and inflammation in veterinary medicine. This study examined plasma PCT and PCC levels in healthy cows (H) and cows with subclinical mastitis (SCM). A total of 130 cows (65 H and 65 SCM) were included in this study. Blood samples were collected, and plasma was frozen at −80 °C. PCT levels were determined using a bovine procalcitonin ELISA kit, while PCC was measured following the methodology of Levine et al. Statistical analysis revealed a significant difference in PCT levels between H (75.4 pg/mL) and SCM (107.3 pg/mL) cows (p < 0.001) and significantly lower concentrations of PCC in the SCM group (H: 0.102 nmol/mL/mg, SCM: 0.046 nmol/mL/mg; p < 0.001). The PCT cut-off value for distinguishing healthy and subclinical mastitis animals was >89.8 pg/mL (AUC 0.695), with a sensitivity of 66.2% and specificity of 69.2%. PCT showed potential value as a diagnostic tool to help in decision making for subclinical mastitis cases, while PCC requires further studies to investigate the trend of this biomarker during localized pathology.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-11-24
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10120670
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 671: Evaluation of the Virulence of
           Low Pathogenic H9N2 Avian Influenza Virus Strains in Broiler Chickens

    • Authors: Márta Bóna, József Földi, Lilla Dénes, Andrea Harnos, Bettina Paszerbovics, Míra Mándoki
      First page: 671
      Abstract: Our study aimed to investigate the virulence of three recent H9N2 LPAIV strains belonging to the G1 lineage, isolated from field infections in North Africa and the Middle East. Three-week-old commercial broiler chickens (in total 62) were included and randomly allocated into three infected test groups and one control group. Each test group was inoculated intranasally/intratracheally with one of the three H9N2 isolates at a dose of 108 EID50 virus. The control group received phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) via the same route of application. The pathogenicity was evaluated based on clinical signs and gross pathological and histopathological lesions, the viral antigen load was assessed through immunohistochemistry staining (IHC), and a semi-quantitative detection of the genetic material was conducted via a real-time PCR. Our findings confirmed the obvious respiratory tract tropism of the virus strains with variable renal tropism. In contrast to the highly pathogenic AIVs, the tested H9N2 strains did not show replication in the central nervous system. The virus presence and lesions, mainly in the respiratory tract, were predominant on dpi 5 and significantly reduced or disappeared by dpi 11. A clear difference was demonstrated among the three isolates: the A/chicken/Morocco/2021/2016 strain proved to be significantly more virulent than the Egyptian and Saudi Arabian ones, which showed no remarkable difference.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-11-24
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10120671
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 672: Fetal Programming and Its Effects
           on Meat Quality of Nellore Bulls

    • Authors: Arícia Christofaro Fernandes, Mariane Beline, Guilherme Henrique Gebim Polizel, Roberta Cavalcante Cracco, Evandro Fernando Ferreira Dias, Édison Furlan, Saulo da Luz e Silva, Miguel Henrique de Almeida Santana
      First page: 672
      Abstract: This work aimed to evaluate the effects of prenatal nutritional stimulation at different pregnancy stages on carcass traits and meat quality in bovine progeny. For this purpose, 63 Nellore bulls, born from cows submitted to three nutritional plans, were used: not programmed (NP), which did not receive protein supplementation; partially programmed (PP), which had protein-energy supplementation (0.3% of mean body weight of each batch) only in the final third of pregnancy; and full programming (FP), which received supplementation (0.3% of mean body weight of each batch) throughout pregnancy. The averages of parameters were submitted to the ANOVA, and the supplementation periods, which were different when p value < 0.05, were compared. Carcass weights and rib eye area (REA) did not differ between treatments (p > 0.05), but subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT) showed a tendency (p = 0.08) between groups. For lipids and marbling, no differences were found (p > 0.05). In the analyses of maturation time and shelf life, no difference was observed between treatments. However, there was a tendency between treatments at 14 days of maturation time for cooking loss (CL) (p = 0.08). Treatments did not affect shear force in the progenies (p > 0.05). Fetal programming had no effect on the meat quality of Nellore bulls.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-11-24
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10120672
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 673: Influence of the Anatomical Site
           on Adipose Tissue-Derived Stromal Cells’ Biological Profile and
           Osteogenic Potential in Companion Animals

    • Authors: Carla Ferreira-Baptista, Rita Ferreira, Maria Helena Fernandes, Pedro Sousa Gomes, Bruno Colaço
      First page: 673
      Abstract: Adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) have generated considerable interest in the field of veterinary medicine, particularly for their potential in therapeutic strategies focused on bone regeneration. These cells possess unique biological characteristics, including their regenerative capacity and their ability to produce bioactive molecules. However, it is crucial to recognize that the characteristics of ADSCs can vary depending on the animal species and the site from which they are derived, such as the subcutaneous and visceral regions (SCAT and VAT, respectively). Thus, the present work aimed to comprehensively review the different traits of ADSCs isolated from diverse anatomical sites in companion animals, i.e., dogs, cats, and horses, in terms of immunophenotype, morphology, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation potential. The findings indicate that the immunophenotype, proliferation, and osteogenic potential of ADSCs differ according to tissue origin and species. Generally, the proliferation rate is higher in VAT-derived ADSCs in dogs and horses, whereas in cats, the proliferation rate appears to be similar in both cells isolated from SCAT and VAT regions. In terms of osteogenic differentiation potential, VAT-derived ADSCs demonstrate the highest capability in cats, whereas SCAT-derived ADSCs exhibit superior potential in horses. Interestingly, in dogs, VAT-derived cells appear to have greater potential than those isolated from SCAT. Within the VAT, ADSCs derived from the falciform ligament and omentum show increased osteogenic potential, compared to cells isolated from other anatomical locations. Consequently, considering these disparities, optimizing isolation protocols becomes pivotal, tailoring them to the specific target species and therapeutic aims, and judiciously selecting the anatomical site for ADSC isolation. This approach holds promise to enhance the efficacy of ADSCs-based bone regenerative therapies.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-11-24
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10120673
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 674: Website Investigation of Pet
           Weight Management-Related Information and Services Offered by Ontario
           Veterinary Practices

    • Authors: Shawna Morrow, Kehan Zhang, Sarah K. Abood, Adronie Verbrugghe
      First page: 674
      Abstract: Pet owners rely on information and advice from their veterinary practice to effectively manage their pet’s weight. This study investigated weight management information and services displayed on practice websites in Ontario, Canada. Information collected from the websites of 50 randomly selected small and mixed-animal practices included practice and staff demographics and the type of weight management services, products, and information advertised or displayed. The most frequently advertised weight management service and product were nutritional counselling (34%) and therapeutic diets (25%), respectively. Current bodyweight measurement was advertised on just over half of the websites (54%), while physical therapy counselling was the least-advertised service (16%). Further statistical analyses were performed in an exploratory fashion to determine areas for future research. Binary logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the association between practice demographics and the type of weight management information advertised online. A maximum of two predictor variables were included in each regression model. Exploratory analyses indicated that when controlling for the number of veterinarians in each practice, having a higher number of veterinary technicians was associated with increased odds of a practice website advertising current bodyweight measurement by 80.1% (odds ratio (OR) = 1.80, p = 0.05). Additionally, when controlling the number of veterinary technicians, having a higher number of veterinarians was associated with increased odds of a practice website advertising sales of therapeutic diets by 119.0% (OR = 2.19, p = 0.04). When using corporate practices as reference, independently owned practices had decreased odds of advertising sales of treats and weight management accessories on their practice websites by 78.7% (OR = 0.21, p = 0.03). These preliminary results suggest that advertising weight management information is not prioritized on veterinary practice websites in Ontario, especially those with lower staff numbers. The findings of this study raise awareness on the current state of weight management promotion for pets on veterinary practice websites and highlight ways to improve upon a practice’s online presence.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-11-27
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10120674
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 675: Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma
           gondii, Neospora caninum and Trichinella spp. in Pigs from Cairo, Egypt

    • Authors: Ragab M. Fereig, El-Sayed El-Alfy, Hanan H. Abdelbaky, Nour H. Abdel-Hamid, Amira M. Mazeed, Ahmed M. S. Menshawy, Mohamed A. Kelany, Mohamed El-Diasty, Bader S. Alawfi, Caroline F. Frey
      First page: 675
      Abstract: Pork production is a niche economy in Egypt, and pigs are typically raised as backyard animals with no sanitary control, potentially exposing them to various pathogens. Commercially available ELISAs were used to detect specific antibodies to the food-borne zoonotic parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spp., as well as to Neospora caninum, in serum samples of pigs slaughtered at Egypt’s only licensed pig abattoir, the El-Bassatin abattoir in Cairo. Among the tested sera (n = 332), seroreactivity for T. gondii was 45.8% (95% confidence interval: 40.4–51.3), N. caninum was 28.0% (95% CI: 23.3–33.2), and Trichinella spp. was 1.2% (95% CI: 0.4–3.3). Mixed infection was only detected for T. gondii and N. caninum (18.7%; 95% CI: 14.7–23.4). The seroprevalence of T. gondii was significantly higher (p = 0.0003) in animals collected from southern Cairo (15 May city slum) than in eastern Cairo (Ezbet El Nakhl slum). Seroprevalence for N. caninum was higher in western (Manshiyat Naser slum; p = 0.0003) and southern Cairo (15 May city slum; p = 0.0003) than in that of eastern Cairo (Ezbet El Nakhl slum; p = 0.0003). Moreover, female pigs exhibited a higher rate of N. caninum antibodies than male ones (p < 0.0001). This study provides the first seroprevalence data for N. caninum in pigs in Egypt, and updates the prevalence of the zoonotic parasites Trichinella spp. and T. gondii.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-11-27
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10120675
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 676: A Multifaceted Approach for
           Evaluating Hepatitis E Virus Infectivity In Vitro: Cell Culture and
           Innovative Molecular Methods for Integrity Assessment

    • Authors: Tatjana Locus, Ellen Lambrecht, Sophie Lamoral, Sjarlotte Willems, Steven Van Gucht, Thomas Vanwolleghem, Michael Peeters
      First page: 676
      Abstract: Hepatitis E virus is a prominent cause of viral hepatitis worldwide. In Western countries, most infections are asymptomatic. However, acute self-limiting hepatitis and chronic cases in immunocompromised individuals can occur. Studying HEV is challenging due to its difficulty to grow in cell culture. Consequently, the detection of the virus mainly relies on RT-qPCR, which cannot differentiate between infectious and non-infectious particles. To overcome this problem, methods assessing viral integrity offer a possible solution to differentiate between intact and damaged viruses. This study aims at optimizing existing HEV cell culture models and RT-qPCR-based assays for selectively detecting intact virions to establish a reliable model for assessing HEV infectivity. In conclusion, these newly developed methods hold promise for enhancing food safety by identifying approaches for inactivating HEV in food processing, thereby increasing food safety measures.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-11-27
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10120676
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 677: Modulation of Swine Gut
           Microbiota by Phytogenic Blends and High Concentrations of Casein in a
           Validated Swine Large Intestinal In Vitro Model

    • Authors: Igor V. Popov, Naiana Einhardt Manzke, Mônica Maurer Sost, Jessica Verhoeven, Sanne Verbruggen, Iuliia P. Chebotareva, Alexey M. Ermakov, Koen Venema
      First page: 677
      Abstract: Phytogenic feed additives are gaining popularity in livestock as a replacement for antibiotic growth promotors. Some phytogenic blends (PB) positively affect the production performance, inhibit pathogens within the gut microbiota, and improve the overall health of farm animals. In this study, a swine large intestine in vitro model was used to evaluate the effect of two PBs, alone or in combination with casein, on swine gut microbiota. As a result, the combination of casein with PB1 had the most beneficial effects on swine gut microbiota, as it increased the relative abundance of some commensal bacteria and two genera (Lactobacillus and Oscillospiraceae UCG-002), which are associated with greater production performance in pigs. At the same time, supplementation with PBs did not lead to an increase in opportunistic pathogens, indicating their safety for pigs. Both PBs showed fewer changes in swine gut microbiota compared to interventions with added casein. In contrast, casein supplementation significantly increased beta diversity and the relative abundance of commensal as well as potentially beneficial bacteria. In conclusion, the combination of casein with PBs, in particular PB1, had the most beneficial effects among the studied supplements in vitro, with respect to microbiota modulation and metabolite production, although this data should be proven in further in vivo studies.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-11-27
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10120677
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 678: Effects of Spirulina platensis
           and/or Allium sativum on Antioxidant Status, Immune Response, Gut
           Morphology, and Intestinal Lactobacilli and Coliforms of Heat-Stressed
           Broiler Chicken

    • Authors: Youssef A. Attia, Reda A. Hassan, Nicola Francesco Addeo, Fulvia Bovera, Rashed A. Alhotan, Adel D. Al-qurashi, Hani H. Al-Baadani, Mohamed A. Al-Banoby, Asmaa F. Khafaga, Wolfgang Eisenreich, Awad A. Shehata, Shereen Basiouni
      First page: 678
      Abstract: This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the dietary addition of Spirulina platensis (SP) and/or garlic powder (GP) on heat-stressed broiler chickens. For this purpose, 600 Ross-308 broiler chicks were allocated at 22 days of age into five groups (G1–G5), each comprising six groups of 20 birds each. Chickens kept in G1 (negative control) were fed a basal diet and raised at 26 ± 1 °C. Chickens kept in G2 to G5 were exposed to periodic heat stress (35 ± 1 °C for 9 h/day) from 22 to 35 days old. Chickens in G2 (positive control) were provided a basal diet, while G3, G4, and G5 were fed a basal diet enriched with SP (1 g/kg diet), GP (200 mg/kg diet), or SP/GP (1 g SP/kg + 200 mg GP/kg diet), respectively. The assessment parameters included the chickens’ performance, malondialdehyde and total antioxidant capacity, blood biochemistry, intestinal morphology, and modulation of lactobacilli and total coliforms in the intestinal microbiota. Our findings demonstrated that supplementing heat-stressed chickens with SP and/or GP significantly mitigated the negative effects on the European production efficiency index (EPEF), survival rate, cholesterol profile, and oxidative stress markers. Chickens supplemented with GP and/or SP exhibited significantly better EPEF and survivability rates. Heat stress had a significant impact on both the gut structure and gut microbiota. However, SP and/or GP supplementation improved the gut morphology, significantly increased the intestinal lactobacilli, and reduced the coliform contents. It was also found that the simultaneous feeding of SP and GP led to even higher recovery levels with improved lipid metabolites, immunity, and oxidative status. Overall, supplementing chickens with SP and/or GP can alleviate the negative effects of heat stress.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-11-27
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10120678
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 679: Estimating Microbial Protein
           Synthesis in the Rumen—Can ‘Omics’ Methods Provide New
           Insights into a Long-Standing Question'

    • Authors: Joana Lima, Winfred Ingabire, Rainer Roehe, Richard James Dewhurst
      First page: 679
      Abstract: Rumen microbial protein synthesis (MPS) provides at least half of the amino acids for the synthesis of milk and meat protein in ruminants. As such, it is fundamental to global food protein security. Estimating microbial protein is central to diet formulation, maximising nitrogen (N)-use efficiency and reducing N losses to the environment. Whilst factors influencing MPS are well established in vitro, techniques for in vivo estimates, including older techniques with cannulated animals and the more recent technique based on urinary purine derivative (UPD) excretion, are subject to large experimental errors. Consequently, models of MPS used in protein rationing are imprecise, resulting in wasted feed protein and unnecessary N losses to the environment. Newer ‘omics’ techniques are used to characterise microbial communities, their genes and resultant proteins and metabolites. An analysis of microbial communities and genes has recently been used successfully to model complex rumen-related traits, including feed conversion efficiency and methane emissions. Since microbial proteins are more directly related to microbial genes, we expect a strong relationship between rumen metataxonomics/metagenomics and MPS. The main aims of this review are to gauge the understanding of factors affecting MPS, including the use of the UPD technique, and explore whether omics-focused studies could improve the predictability of MPS, with a focus on beef cattle.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-11-27
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10120679
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 680: Antibiotic Resistance Genes
           Carried by Commensal Escherichia coli from Shelter Cats in Italy

    • Authors: Delia Gambino, Francesco Giuseppe Galluzzo, Luca Cicero, Roberta Cirincione, Erika Mannino, Veronica Fiore, Daniela Proverbio, Eva Spada, Giovanni Cassata, Valeria Gargano
      First page: 680
      Abstract: Antimicrobial resistance is a widespread global health problem. The presence of resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes has been demonstrated not only in humans but also in animals, including pets. Stray cats share the urban environment with people and pets. This may facilitate transmission of resistant bacteria and resistance genes between stray animals, people and domestic animals. Several studies have investigated the role of stray cats as a fecal carrier of ESBL-producing bacteria. However, there are many genes and resistance mechanisms that can be detected in commensal E. coli, which, because of its genetic plasticity, is considered an indicator for monitoring antibiotic resistance. In this study, rectal swabs were collected from stray cats from colonies and shelters in the city of Monza (Monza Brianza, Italy) to isolate commensal E. coli. Phenotypic tests, such as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the double disc test (DDST), and molecular analyses to detect antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) were used to study the resistance of these isolates. The results obtained confirm that stray cats can carry ESBL-producing E. coli (6.7%) and genes conferring resistance to other important antibiotic classes such as tetracyclines and sulfonamides.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-11-28
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10120680
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 681: Identification of Prototheca from
           the Cerebrospinal Fluid of a Cat with Neurological Signs

    • Authors: Gianvito Lanave, Francesco Pellegrini, Giuseppe Palermo, Eric Zini, Edy Mercuriali, Paolo Zagarella, Krisztián Bányai, Michele Camero, Vito Martella
      First page: 681
      Abstract: Prototheca infections are rare in cats, and they are usually associated with cutaneous or subcutaneous infections by P. wickerhamii, with no evidence of neurological signs or systemic disease. In this study, we report the identification of prototheca in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a cat with neurological symptoms. Fourteen CSF samples were gathered from cats presented with neurological disease between 2012 and 2014. The inclusion criteria for the samples were an increase in CSF protein and cell number (pleocytosis), suggestive of an infectious inflammatory status of the central nervous system (CNS). Nine samples fulfilled the inclusion criteria (inflammatory samples), while five samples, used as control, did not (non-inflammatory samples). All the samples were screened molecularly for different pathogens associated with CNS disease in cats, including prototheca. Out of 14 CSF samples, only one inflammatory sample tested positive for prototheca. Upon sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the amplicon, the strain was characterized as P. bovis. This report is the first documented evidence of prototheca in the cerebrospinal fluid of a cat with neurological signs. Prototheca should be considered in the diagnostics procedures on the CNS of cats presented with infectious diseases.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10120681
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 682: Clinical Assessment of
           Thermotherapy Applications during Hepatectomy and Laparotomy in Sturgeon
           (Acipenser ruthenus): Impact on Bioparameter Variations Based on Liver

    • Authors: Gyoungsik Kang, Won-Sik Woo, Kyung-Ho Kim, Ha-Jeong Son, Min-Young Sohn, Hee Jeong Kong, Young-Ok Kim, Dong-Gyun Kim, Eun Mi Kim, Eun Soo Noh, Chan-II Park
      First page: 682
      Abstract: Surgical techniques are gaining attention for treating physical diseases in aquaculture and aquarium fish. Sturgeon is a suitable species for surgical experiments due to its industrial significance. Maintaining homeostasis is crucial during surgical procedures, and the liver plays a major role in immune regulation. High temperature is suggested to improve physiological activity and wound healing. This study investigated differences in hepatectomy sturgeons’ tolerance and histopathological responses of internal organs. Moreover, this study investigated the effects of high temperatures on wound healing and hematopoietic recovery in fish undergoing surgical procedures. The liver condition was found to play a pivotal role in the analysis, and cortisol levels were affected by anesthesia. The results showed that high temperature facilitated hematopoietic recovery and wound healing, but excessive induction of physiological activity caused damage. Managing high temperatures and liver conditions induced a remarkable improvement in wound healing. However, anesthesia itself can be a significant stressor for fish, and wound healing requires a greater amount of energy. Further research is needed to understand the stress factors caused by surgical procedures and anesthesia and to promote animal welfare in fishery products.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-12-01
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10120682
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 683: Ultrasound-Based Technologies for
           the Evaluation of Testicles in the Dog: Keystones and Breakthroughs

    • Authors: Claudia Bracco, Alessia Gloria, Alberto Contri
      First page: 683
      Abstract: Ultrasonography is a valuable diagnostic tool extensively used in the andrology of human and domestic animals, including dogs. This review aims to provide an overview of various technologies based on ultrasound, from the basic B-Mode ultrasonography to the more recent advancements, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) and ultrasound elastography (UEl), all of which are utilized in the evaluation of canine testicles. The review outlines the principles behind each of these technologies and discusses their application in assessing normal and abnormal testicular conditions. B-mode canine testicular ultrasonography primarily focuses on detecting focal lesions but has limitations in terms of objectivity. Other technologies, including Doppler ultrasonography, B-Flow, and CEUS, allow for the characterization of vascular patterns, which could be further measured using specific applications like spectral Doppler or quantitative CEUS. Additionally, ultrasound elastography enables the assessment of parenchyma stiffness both qualitatively and quantitatively. These ultrasound-based technologies play a crucial role in andrology by providing valuable information for evaluating testicular function and integrity, aiding in the identification of pathological conditions that may impact the health and quality of life of male dogs.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-12-01
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10120683
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 684: Biological Control of Hyalomma
           Ticks in Cattle by Fungal Isolates

    • Authors: Mohammad Ahmad Wadaan, Baharullah Khattak, Aneela Riaz, Mubbashir Hussain, Muhammad Jamil Khan, Fozia Fozia, Anisa Iftikhar, Ijaz Ahmad, Muhammad Farooq Khan, Almohannad Baabbad, Ziaullah
      First page: 684
      Abstract: Ticks pose a major threat to cattle health and production in Pakistan because they transmit pathogens of diseases like Babesiosis and Theileriosis. Hyalomma spp., found across Africa, Asia, and Europe, are especially problematic. This study explored biocontrol of Hyalomma spp. using spore-free fungal culture filtrates collected from dairy farm soil in Kohat, Pakistan. Three fungal species of the genera Alternaria, Aspergillus, and Penicillium were isolated, and their filtrates were tested against tick adults and larvae. Filtrate concentrations were prepared at different strengths. Data were taken after the exposure of adults and larvae ticks to various concentrations of the fungal filtrates. Results indicated that at 100% concentration, all fungal filtrates induced 100% mortality in adults and larvae. Decreasing filtrate concentration lowered tick mortality. The lowest concentration caused the least mortality. The effect was time- and dose-dependent. In conclusion, spore-free fungal culture filtrates can provide biocontrol of Hyalomma spp. in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Further research should explore the active compounds causing mortality and optimal application methods. The process outlined here provides a natural biocontrol alternative to chemical pesticides to reduce tick infestations and associated cattle diseases in Pakistan.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-12-01
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10120684
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 685: Comparative Proteomic Analysis of
           Secretory Proteins of Mycoplasma bovis and Mycoplasma mycoides subsp.
           mycoides Investigates Virulence and Discovers Important Diagnostic

    • Authors: Ali Sobhy Dawood, Gang Zhao, Yujia He, Doukun Lu, Shujuan Wang, Hui Zhang, Yingyu Chen, Changmin Hu, Huanchun Chen, Elise Schieck, Aizhen Guo
      First page: 685
      Abstract: The most important pathogenic Mycoplasma species in bovines are Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) and Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm). Mmm causes contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), which is a severe respiratory disease widespread in sub-Saharan Africa but eradicated in several countries, including China. M. bovis is an important cause of the bovine respiratory disease complex (BRD), characterized worldwide by pneumonia, arthritis, and mastitis. Secreted proteins of bacteria are generally considered virulence factors because they can act as toxins, adhesins, and virulent enzymes in infection. Therefore, this study performed a comparative proteomic analysis of the secreted proteins of M. bovis and Mmm in order to find some virulence-related factors as well as discover differential diagnostic biomarkers for these bovine mycoplasmas. The secretome was extracted from both species, and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used, which revealed 55 unique secreted proteins of M. bovis, 44 unique secreted proteins of Mmm, and 4 homologous proteins. In the M. bovis secretome, 19 proteins were predicted to be virulence factors, while 4 putative virulence factors were identified in the Mmm secretome. In addition, five unique secreted proteins of Mmm were expressed and purified, and their antigenicity was confirmed by Western blotting assay and indirect ELISA. Among them, Ts1133 and Ts0085 were verified as potential candidates for distinguishing Mmm infection from M. bovis infection.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-12-01
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10120685
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 686: Clinical Application of Platelet
           Concentrates in Bovine Practice: A Systematic Review

    • Authors: Chiara Caterino, Giovanni Della Valle, Federica Aragosa, Stefano Cavalli, Jacopo Guccione, Francesco Lamagna, Gerardo Fatone
      First page: 686
      Abstract: Platelet concentrates (PCs) have become widely used in veterinary and human medicine. The PCs consist mainly of supraphysiological concentrations of platelets and, therefore, growth factors (GFs) which are stored within platelet α-granules. Among PCs, Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) is characterised by low-density fibrin. Research on the effect of PCs in cattle has surged in recent years; in particular, evidence has shown the positive use of PRP for treating reproductive problems, in vitro production of bovine embryos, sole ulcers and udder diseases. The aim of this report is to critically review, in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines, the available literature reporting clinical application in the bovine practice of PRP. Three bibliographic databases PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus were used for a broad search of “platelet concentrates” OR “PRP” OR “platelet-rich plasma” OR “PRF” OR “platelet-rich fibrin” AND “cows” OR “cattle”. From 1196 papers, only six met the inclusion criteria. Two papers described the use of PRP in mastitis, two papers in uterine dysfunction and two papers in ovarian dysfunction. PRP offered a low-cost, easily obtained therapeutic option and showed positive results for these patients. However, given the different pathologies and definitions involved, further studies are necessary to assess its full clinical potential.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-12-01
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10120686
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 687: Self-Reported Utilization of
           International Guidelines for Staging Dogs with Myxomatous Mitral Valve
           Degeneration: A Survey among Veterinary Practitioners

    • Authors: Marie D. B. van Staveren, Esther Muis, Viktor Szatmári
      First page: 687
      Abstract: Background: ACVIM developed and published guidelines for staging myxomatous mitral valve degeneration in dogs in 2009. An updated version was published in 2019. The present study aimed to investigate whether these guidelines are actually used by the intended public more than a decade after their first publication. Methods: An online survey was distributed among Dutch and Belgian veterinarians through online channels and mailing lists. Results: Of the 524 responses, only 363 complete surveys were analyzed. The ACVIM guidelines are used by 60% of the respondents. Veterinarians find it more difficult to differentiate stage B1 from B2 in asymptomatic dogs compared to diagnosing stage C. Three-quarters of the respondents would recommend echocardiography for an incidentally detected new murmur with an intensity of 3 out of 6 in an adult dog. Two-thirds of the respondents find coughing a convincing finding for stage C disease. Close to half of the respondents associate a horizontal, dull percussion line with pulmonary edema. For confirming cardiogenic pulmonary edema, 98% of the respondents used thoracic radiographs. Conclusions: Veterinary practitioners might not have the expected training and equipment to be able to apply the guidelines in their practices, especially in the differentiation of stage B1 from stage B2.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-12-02
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10120687
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 630: The Impact of Bamboo Consumption
           on the Spread of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Giant Pandas

    • Authors: Zheng Yan, Xin He, James Ayala, Qin Xu, Xiaoqiang Yu, Rong Hou, Ying Yao, He Huang, Hairui Wang
      First page: 630
      Abstract: The spread of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the environment exacerbates the contamination of these genes; therefore, the role plants play in the transmission of resistance genes in the food chain requires further research. Giant pandas consume different bamboo parts at different times, which provides the possibility of investigating how a single food source can affect the variation in the spread of ARGs. In this study, metagenomic analysis and the Comprehensive Antibiotic Resistance Database (CARD) database were used to annotate ARGs and the differences in gut microbiota ARGs during the consumption of bamboo shoots, leaves, and culms by captive giant pandas. These ARGs were then compared to investigate the impact of bamboo part consumption on the spread of ARGs. The results showed that the number of ARGs in the gut microbiota of the subjects was highest during the consumption of bamboo leaves, while the variety of ARGs was highest during the consumption of shoots. Escherichia coli, which poses a higher risk of ARG dissemination, was significantly higher in the leaf group, while Klebsiella, Enterobacter, and Raoultella were significantly higher in the shoot group. The ARG risk brought by bamboo shoots and leaves may originate from soil and environmental pollution. It is recommended to handle the feces of giant pandas properly and regularly monitor the antimicrobial and virulence genes in their gut microbiota to mitigate the threat of antibiotic resistance.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-10-24
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10110630
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 631: Evaluation of a Manual
           Cytocentrifuge versus the Standard Automated Cytocentrifuge in the
           Analysis of Canine Cerebrospinal Fluid: A Case Series of 55 Dogs

    • Authors: Luísa Fonte-Oliveira, André Pereira, Hugo Gregório, João Ribeiro, Carla Correia-Gomes, Ricardo Marcos, Marta Santos
      First page: 631
      Abstract: Cytospins are important for evaluating fluids with very low cellularity such as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The aim of this study was to compare the CSF cytospin preparations obtained from automated and manual cytocentrifugation methods. A prospective case series was performed to analyze canine CSF samples using both centrifugation methods. The cytospins were processed within 30–60 min and prepared simultaneously in a conventional automated cytocentrifuge and in an in-house manual cytocentrifuge, using a fixed volume of CSF fluid. The cellularity, differential cell count and the proportion of cell artifacts (pseudopods and vacuolization) were blindly assessed in the cytospin preparations obtained using the two methods. The agreement and correlation between both methods were analyzed. There were 55 dogs enrolled (48 prospectively and 7 retrospectively) in the study. 38 dogs had normal total nucleated cell counts, while 17 had pleocytosis. Automated and manual cytocentrifugation had similar cell yields, and no significant differences in differential cell counts or the presence of artifacts existed between both methods. In cases with pleocytosis, the cytologic diagnosis obtained using each method was similar. Manual cytocentrifugation of CSF is a reliable and economic method designed for routine clinical practice. Its use reduces the specimen deterioration related to processing and analysis delays when samples are transported to external laboratories for evaluation.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-10-24
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10110631
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 632: Bevacizumab Efficiently Inhibits
           VEGF-Associated Cellular Processes in Equine Umbilical Vein Endothelial
           Cells: An In Vitro Characterization

    • Authors: Ulrike Lessiak, Barbara Pratscher, Alexander Tichy, Barbara Nell
      First page: 632
      Abstract: Anti-VEGF agents were found to have clinical implications for the successful treatment of vascular-driven diseases in humans. In this study, a detailed biological characterization of bevacizumab in a variety of in vitro assays was carried out to determine the effect of bevacizumab on equine umbilical vein endothelial cells (EqUVEC). EqUVECs were harvested from umbilical cords of clinically healthy horses and exposed to different concentrations (1, 2, 4, 6, 8 mg/mL) of bevacizumab (Avastin®). Assays concerning the drug’s safety (cell viability and proliferation assay) and efficacy (cell tube formation assay, cell migration assay, and Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression) were carried out reflecting multiple cellular processes. Bevacizumab significantly decreased VEGF expression at all concentrations over a 72 h period. No cytotoxic effect of bevacizumab on EqUVECs was observed at concentrations of 4 mg/mL bevacizumab or lower. Incubated endothelial cells showed delayed tube formation and bevacizumab efficiently inhibited cell migration in a dose-dependent manner. Bevacizumab potently inhibits VEGF-induced cellular processes and could be a promising therapeutic approach in vascular-driven diseases in horses.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-10-26
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10110632
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 633: The First Identification of
           Cryptosporidium parvum Virus-1 (CSpV1) in Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae)
           Calves in Korea

    • Authors: Jeong-Byoung Chae, Seung-Uk Shin, Serim Kim, Young-Mi Jo, Hyunsoo Roh, Hansong Chae, Won-Gyeong Kim, Joon-Seok Chae, Hyuk Song, Jung-Won Kang
      First page: 633
      Abstract: Cryptosporidium is an obligate coccidian parasite that causes enteric diseases in bovine species. A double-stranded RNA virus associated with C. parvum oocysts, Cryptosporidium parvum virus-1 (CSpV1), has been characterized. However, the relationship between the abovementioned coccidian parasite and the virus has not been studied in the context of the known clinical outcomes. This study aimed to characterize the prevalence and molecular traits of CSpV1 in diarrheal feces of Hanwoo (Korean indigenous cattle) calves. Of the 140 fecal samples previously tested for C. parvum, which were obtained from Hanwoo calves aged 60 days, 70 tested positive and 70 tested negative. These samples were included in this study. By using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis targeting the RdRp gene of CSpV1, we detected CSpV1 in 28 samples (20.0%), with infection rates of 31.4% (22/70) in C. parvum-positive and 8.6% (6/70) in C. parvum-negative samples. CSpV1 samples detected in the same farm were clustered together. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report the prevalence and molecular characteristics of CSpV1 in Hanwoo calves in the Republic of Korea, providing important insights into the relationship between C. parvum and CSpV1 in bovine hosts.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-10-26
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10110633
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 634: Cardiovascular and Respiratory
           Effects of Increased Intra-Abdominal Pressure with and without
           Dexmedetomidine in Anesthetized Dogs

    • Authors: Dongseok Kim, Minjun Seo, Geonho Choi, Sang-Kwon Lee, Sungin Lee, Won-Jae Lee, Sung-Ho Yun, Young-Sam Kwon, Min Jang
      First page: 634
      Abstract: Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) elevation during capnoperitoneum can cause adverse cardiovascular and respiratory effects. This study aimed to determine if a sequentially increased IAP affects cardiovascular and respiratory variables in anesthetized dogs and evaluate the effects of the constant-rate infusion of dexmedetomidine (Dex) on cardiovascular and respiratory variables with increased IAP. Five dogs were anesthetized and instrumented, and a Veress needle was equipped to adjust the IAP using a carbon dioxide insufflator. Stabilization was conducted for 1 h, and physiological variables were measured at IAPs of 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 mmHg and after desufflation. After the washout period, the dogs underwent similar procedures along with a constant-rate infusion of dexmedetomidine. The cardiovascular effects of increased IAP up to 20 mmHg were not significant in healthy beagle dogs and those administered with dexmedetomidine. When comparing the control and dexmedetomidine groups, the overall significant effects of dexmedetomidine were noted on heart rate, cardiac output, and systemic vascular resistance during the experiment. Respiratory effects were not observed during abdominal insufflation when compared between different IAPs and between the two groups. Overall, an increased IAP of up to 20 mmHg did not significantly affect cardiovascular and respiratory variables in both the control and dexmedetomidine groups. This study suggests that the administration of a dexmedetomidine infusion is applicable in laparoscopic procedures in healthy dogs.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-10-27
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10110634
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 635: Antimicrobial Susceptibility
           Profiles of Acinetobacter baumannii Strains, Isolated from Clinical Cases
           of Companion Animals in Greece

    • Authors: Marios Lysitsas, Eleutherios Triantafillou, Irene Chatzipanagiotidou, Konstantina Antoniou, George Valiakos
      First page: 635
      Abstract: Acinetobacter baumannii–calcoaceticus (Abc) Complex bacteria are troublesome nosocomial pathogens in human medicine, especially during the last 30 years. Recent research in veterinary medicine also supports its emergence as an animal pathogen. However, relevant data are limited. In this study, we obtained 41 A. baumannii isolates from clinical samples of canine and feline origin collected in veterinary clinics in Greece between 2020 and 2023. Biochemical identification, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, molecular identification and statistical analysis were performed. Most of the samples were of soft tissue and urine origin, while polymicrobial infections were recorded in 29 cases. Minocycline was the most effective in vitro antibiotic, whereas high resistance rates were detected for almost all the agents tested. Notably, 20 isolates were carbapenem resistant and 19 extensively drug resistant (XDR). This is the first report of canine and feline infections caused by Abc in Greece. The results create concerns regarding the capability of the respective bacteria to cause difficult-to-treat infections in pets and persist in veterinary facilities through hospitalized animals, contaminated equipment, and surfaces. Moreover, the prevalence of highly resistant strains in companion animals constitutes a public health issue since they could act as a reservoir, contributing to the spread of epidemic clones in a community.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-10-29
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10110635
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 636: Molecular Survey of Rickettsia
           raoultii in Ticks Infesting Livestock from Pakistan with Notes on Pathogen
           Distribution in Palearctic and Oriental Regions

    • Authors: Shehla Shehla, Mashal M. Almutairi, Abdulaziz Alouffi, Tetsuya Tanaka, Shun-Chung Chang, Chien-Chin Chen, Abid Ali
      First page: 636
      Abstract: Ticks are hematophagous ectoparasites that transmit different pathogens such as Rickettsia spp. to domestic and wild animals as well as humans. Genetic characterizations of Rickettsia spp. from different regions of Pakistan are mostly based on one or two genetic markers and are confined to small sampling areas and limited host ranges. Therefore, this study aimed to molecularly screen and genetically characterize Rickettsia spp. in various tick species infesting camels, sheep, and goats. All the collected tick specimens were morphologically identified, and randomly selected tick species (148) were screened molecularly for the detection of Rickettsia spp. by amplifying three rickettsial DNA fragments, namely, the citrate-synthase gene (gltA), outer-membrane protein A (ompA), and outer-membrane protein B (ompB). After examining 261 hosts, 161 (61.7%) hosts were found infested by 564 ticks, including 287 (50.9%) nymphs, 171 (30.3%) females, and 106 (18.8%) males in five districts (Kohat, Dera Ismail Khan, Lower Dir, Bajaur, and Mansehra). The highest occurrence was noted for Hyalomma dromedarii (number = 72, 12.8%), followed by Haemaphysalis sulcata (n = 70, 12.4%), Rhipicephalus turanicus (n = 64, 11.3%), Rhipicephalus microplus (n = 55, 9.7%), Haemaphysalis cornupunctata (n = 49, 8.7%), Hyalomma turanicum (n = 48, 8.5%), Hyalomma isaaci (n = 45, 8.0%), Haemaphysalis montgomeryi (n = 44, 7.8%), Hyalomma anatolicum (n = 42, 7.5%), Haemaphysalis bispinosa (n = 38, 6.7%), and Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides (n = 37, 6.6%). A subset of 148 ticks were tested, in which eight (5.4%) ticks, including four Hy. turanicum, two Ha. cornupunctata, one Ha. montgomeryi, and one Ha. bispinosa, were found positive for Rickettsia sp. The gltA, ompA, and ompB sequences revealed 100% identity and were phylogenetically clustered with Rickettsia raoultii reported in China, Russia, USA, Turkey, Denmark, Austria, Italy, and France. Additionally, various reports on R. raoultii from Palearctic and Oriental regions were summarized in this study. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report regarding genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of R. raoultii from Pakistan. Further studies to investigate the association between Rickettsia spp. and ticks should be encouraged to apprise effective management of zoonotic consequences.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-10-29
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10110636
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 637: Long Non-Coding RNA as a
           Potential Biomarker for Canine Tumors

    • Authors: Yan Zhang, Meijin Wu, Jiahao Zhou, Hongxiu Diao
      First page: 637
      Abstract: Cancer is the leading cause of death in both humans and companion animals. Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) plays a crucial role in the progression of various types of cancers in humans, involving tumor proliferation, metastasis, angiogenesis, and signaling pathways, and acts as a potential biomarker for diagnosis and targeted treatment. However, research on lncRNAs related to canine tumors is in an early stage. Dogs have long been considered a promising natural model for human disease. This article summarizes the molecular function of lncRNAs as novel biomarkers in various types of canine tumors, providing new insights into canine tumor diagnosis and treatment. Further research on the function and mechanism of lncRNAs is needed, which will benefit both human and veterinary medicine.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-10-30
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10110637
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 638: Theileria orientalis Ikeda in
           Cattle, Alabama, USA

    • Authors: Nneka Iduu, Subarna Barua, Shollie Falkenberg, Chance Armstrong, Jenna Workman Stockler, Annie Moye, Paul H. Walz, Chengming Wang
      First page: 638
      Abstract: Theileria orientalis Ikeda genotype, a parasite causing a disease in cattle that leads to significant economic challenges in Asia, New Zealand, and Australia, has been identified in seven U.S. States since 2017. Two previously validated PCR tests for Theileria followed by DNA sequencing were performed to test blood samples collected from 219 cattle in Alabama, USA, during the period of 2022–2023. Bidirectional Sanger sequencing revealed that the MPSP gene sequences (639–660 bp) from two cattle in Lee and Mobile Counties of Alabama exhibited a 100% match with those of recognized T. orientalis Ikeda strains, and showed similarities ranging from 76% to 88% with ten other T. orientalis genotypes. A high copy number of T. orientalis Ikeda was detected in the blood of infected cattle (ALP-1: 1.7 × 105 and 1.3 × 106/mL whole blood, six months apart; ALP-2: 7.1 × 106/mL whole blood). Although the confirmed competent vector for T. orientalis Ikeda, Haemaphysalis longicornis tick, has not yet been identified in Alabama, the persistent nature of T. orientalis Ikeda infection and the detection of a high pathogen burden in seemingly healthy cattle in this study suggest that other tick species, as well as shared needles and dehorning procedures, could facilitate pathogen transmission within the herd. Continued investigations are necessary for the surveillance of T. orientalis Ikeda and Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks in Alabama and other U.S. states, along with assessing the pathogenicity of T. orientalis Ikeda infections in cattle.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-10-30
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10110638
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 639: Preliminary Evaluation of
           Cortical and Medullary Echogenicity in Normal Canine Fetal Kidneys during
           the Last 10 Days of Pregnancy

    • Authors: Giulia Siena, Francesca di Nardo, Barbara Contiero, Tommaso Banzato, Chiara Milani
      First page: 639
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to assess changes in the echogenicity of the cortex and medulla of canine fetal kidneys in relation to days before parturition (dbp), maternal size and litter size. Monitoring of 10 healthy pregnant bitches (2–8 years old, 8.8–40.3 kg bw) was conducted from −10 to 0 dbp using ultrasound. A single renal sonogram was obtained by scanning in a longitudinal section the three most caudal fetuses. The mean gray level (MGL) and SD of a manually drawn region of interest (ROI) in the renal cortex and medulla were measured using the Fiji Image J software (Image J 1.51h, Java 1.6 0_24 64 bit). A linear mixed model taking into account the maternal size as a fixed effect, dbp and litter size as covariates and the bitch as a random and repeated effect was used. The regression coefficients (b) were estimated. Cortical SD (C-SD) and cortico-medullary SD (C/M-SD) were influenced by dbp, with a significant decrease at the approaching day of parturition (b = 0.23 ± 0.06, p < 0.001 and b = 0.5 ± 0.02, p = 0.038, respectively). Maternal size had a significant impact on C/M-MGL with differences observed in large-sized (1.95 ± 0.13) compared to small- (1.41 ± 0.10, p = 0.027) and medium-sized bitches (1.51 ± 0.09, p = 0.016). The C/M-MGL was influenced by litter size, showing a decrease as the number of pups increased (b = −0.08 ± 0.03, p = 0.018). C-SD and C/M-SD were exclusively affected by dbp, and not by maternal and litter size. This suggests their potential as valuable parameters, warranting further investigations in future studies.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-10-31
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10110639
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 640: Molecular Survey of Hepatozoon
           canis Infection in Domestic Dogs from Sardinia, Italy

    • Authors: Valentina Chisu, Laura Giua, Piera Bianco, Giovanna Masala, Sara Sechi, Raffaella Cocco, Ivana Piredda
      First page: 640
      Abstract: Tick-borne protozoans of the genus Hepatozoon have been associated with infections of domestic and wild animals over the world. The occurrence of these apicomplexan agents in Sardinia has been poorly explored so far. In this study, the occurrence of Hepatozoon spp. has been investigated in domestic dogs from nine cities of Sardinia, Italy. Blood samples from each dog were collected and tested molecularly for the presence of Hepatozoon and Babesia/Theileria DNAs. Out of fifty-one dogs, nine were positive for Hepatozoon species based on the molecular detection of the parasite in blood samples. The phylogenetic relationships of strains detected here were also established. The PCR for amplification of the 18S rRNA fragment gene of Babesia/Theileria spp. did not give amplicons in any of the analyzed samples. Our results report the first molecular confirmation of Hepatozoon canis in Sardinian pet dogs and contribute to better understand the presence of these protozoans on the island. This study highlights the importance of recognizing and predicting the risk levels for the canine population, thus increasing the development of specific control measures. Also, since the distribution of hepatozoonosis is closely related to that of the definitive tick host, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, more accurate studies on Rhipicephalus ticks will be needed due to increasing the epidemiological knowledge of Hepatozoon species on the island.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-10-31
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10110640
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 641: Influence of Sex and a High-Fiber
           Diet on the Gut Microbiome of Alentejano Pigs Raised to Heavy Weights

    • Authors: André Albuquerque, Nicolás Garrido, Rui Charneca, Conceição Egas, Luísa Martin, Amélia Ramos, Filipa Costa, Carla Marmelo, José Manuel Martins
      First page: 641
      Abstract: This study investigates the influence of sex and a dietary transition on the gut microbiota of a local Portuguese pig breed. Three groups of male Alentejano pigs (n = 10 each) were raised between ~40 and 160 kg LW. Group C included pigs that were surgically castrated, while the I group included intact ones; both were fed with commercial diets. The third group, IExp, included intact pigs that were fed commercial diets until ~130 kg, then replaced by an experimental diet based on legumes and agro-industrial by-products between ~130 and 160 kg. Fecal samples were collected two weeks before slaughter. The total DNA was extracted and used for 16S metabarcoding on a MiSeq® System. The dietary transition from a commercial diet to the experimental diet substantially increased and shifted the diversity observed. Complex carbohydrate fermenting bacteria, such as Ruminococcus spp. and Sphaerochaeta spp., were significantly more abundant in IExp (q < 0.05). On the other hand, castrated pigs presented a significantly lower abundance of the potential probiotic, Roseburia spp. and Lachnospiraceae NK4A136 group (q < 0.01), bacteria commonly associated with better gut health and lower body fat composition. Understanding the role of gut microbiota is paramount to ensure a low skatole deposition and consumers’ acceptance of pork products from non-castrated male pigs.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-11-02
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10110641
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 642: The Bacteriophages Therapy of
           Interdigital Pyoderma Complicated by Cellulitis with Antibiotic-Resistant
           Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a Dog—Case Report

    • Authors: Mariana Grecu, Mădălina-Elena Henea, Cristina Mihaela Rîmbu, Cătălina Simion, Eusebiu-Viorel Şindilar, Gheorghe Solcan
      First page: 642
      Abstract: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a highly pathogenic bacterium with high pathogenicity, that can cause serious infections in all species and especially in dogs. Treatment of the infection induced by this bacterium can be a challenge considering that some strains have developed resistance to most classes of antimicrobials. The use of bacteriophages to alleviate infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa has demonstrated their potential for both internal and external applications. This study aimed to illustrate the treatment with bacteriophages in bacterially complicated skin lesions that do not respond to antimicrobial therapy.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-11-05
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10110642
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 643: Unveiling Oxidative
           Stress-Induced Genotoxicity and Its Alleviation through Selenium and
           Vitamin E Therapy in Naturally Infected Cattle with Lumpy Skin Disease

    • Authors: Waqas Ahmad, Adeel Sattar, Mehmood Ahmad, Muhammad Waqar Aziz, Asif Iqbal, Muhammad Yasin Tipu, Rana Muhammad Zahid Mushtaq, Naeem Rasool, Hafiz Saleet Ahmed, Muhammad Ahmad
      First page: 643
      Abstract: Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a contagious infection of cattle caused by a virus of the Poxviridae family, genus Capripoxvirus. In Pakistan, recent outbreaks have resulted in significant nationwide mortality and economic losses. A 20-day prospective cohort study was performed on sixty infected cattle with the aim to evaluate LSD-induced oxidative stress’s genotoxic role and to determine the ameliorative effect of antioxidant therapy using principal component analysis (PCA) and a multivariable ordinal logistic regression model. LSDV was identified from scab samples and nodular lesions using RPO30-specific gene primers. The infected cattle were divided into control and treated groups. The animals were observed initially and finally on day 20 to evaluate the homeostatic, oxidative, and genotoxic changes. The animals in the treated group were administered a combination of selenium (Se) and vitamin E at the standard dose rate for five consecutive days. A substantial (p < 0.05) improvement in the hematological indices was observed in the treated group. The treated group also showed a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in levels of serum nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) post-therapy. The PCA at the final sampling data of the treated group showed that Principal Component (PC1 eigenvalue 1.429) was influenced by superoxide dismutase (SOD; 0.3632), catalase (CAT; 0.2906), and glutathione (GSH; 0.0816) and PC2 (eigenvalue 1.200) was influenced by CAT (0.4362), MDA (0.2056), and NO (0.0693). A significant correlation between serum NO (76%) and MDA levels (80%) was observed with genetic damage index (GDI) scores. The ordinal logistic regression model regarding the use of antioxidant therapy revealed 73.95-times (95%CI; 17.36–314.96) improvement in the GDI in treated animals. The multivariable ordinal logistic regression showed that each unit increase in NO and MDA resulted in a 13% increase in genotoxicity in infected individuals. In conclusion, our study revealed that LSD-induced oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation product causes genotoxicity in affected animals. Furthermore, the combined Se and vitamin E therapy significantly alleviated oxidative stress and genotoxicity in LSD-affected cattle.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-11-07
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10110643
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 644: Effect of Sampling Method on
           Detection of the Equine Uterine Microbiome during Estrus

    • Authors: B. A. Heil, M. van Heule, S. K. Thompson, T. A. Kearns, E. L. Oberhaus, G. King, P. Daels, P. Dini, J. L. Sones
      First page: 644
      Abstract: Bacterial endometritis is among the most common causes of subfertility in mares. It has a major economic impact on the equine breeding industry. The sensitivity of detecting uterine microbes using culture-based methods, irrespective of the sample collection method, double-guarded endometrial swab, endometrial biopsy, or uterine low-volume lavage (LVL), is low. Therefore, equine bacterial endometritis often goes undiagnosed. Sixteen individual mares were enrolled, and an endometrial sample was obtained using each method from all mares. After trimming, quality control and decontamination, 3824 amplicon sequence variants were detected in the dataset. We found using 16S rRNA sequencing that the equine uterus harbors a distinct resident microbiome during estrus. All three sampling methods used yielded similar results in composition as well as relative abundance at phyla (Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidota) and genus (Klebsiella, Mycoplasma, and Aeromonas) levels. A significant difference was found in alpha diversity (Chao1) between LVL and endometrial biopsy, suggesting that LVL is superior at detecting the low-abundant (rare) taxa. These new data could pave the way for innovative treatment methods for endometrial disease and subfertility in mares. This, in turn, could lead to more judicious antimicrobial use in the equine breeding industry.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-11-08
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10110644
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 645: Economic Aspects of Bovine
           Ephemeral Fever (BEF) Outbreaks in Dairy Cattle Herds

    • Authors: Yaniv Lavon, Ephraim Ezra, Orly Friedgut, Adi Behar
      First page: 645
      Abstract: Bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) transmitted by blood-feeding insects (mosquitoes and Culicoides biting midges). While the dispersal of arboviral diseases such as bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) into naive areas is often the result of globalization and animal movement, the endemization and local outbreaks of these diseases are mainly influenced by environmental changes. Climate change affects the activity, distribution, dynamics, and life cycles of these vectors (arthropods), the replication of viruses within their vectors, and weakens animal’s immune systems. Although BEF does not currently occur in the Americas and Europe (other than in the western regions of Turkey), the risk of BEFV emergence, spread, and endemization in Europe is real. Over the past two decades, arboviruses such as the bluetongue virus (BTV) and Schmallenberg virus (SBV) have emerged in Europe without warning and caused significant losses to the dairy and meat industries. Since the European cattle population has never been exposed to BEFV, the economic losses to dairy and beef production in this continent due to the reduction in milk production, loss of valuable cows, and abortion, should BEF emerge, would probably be considerable. Moreover, arboviruses can also cause substantial financial damage due to restrictions on animal trade and transportation, like the current EHDV-8 outbreak in the Mediterranean basin. In this study, we used national data stored in the Israeli herd book to examine the economic aspects of BEF outbreaks in affected dairy cattle farms countrywide. Our results demonstrate that BEF outbreaks can have immediate and delayed effects, causing severe economic losses due to culling (loss of valuable cows) and a reduction in milk production that affects dairy farm income for months after clinical diagnosis. To our knowledge, this is the first extensive study on the impact of a BEF outbreak at a population level, enabling to conduct accurate risk assessments in future cases of BEFV emergence and re-emergence.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-11-08
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10110645
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 646: Osteopontin Concentration in
           Prostates Fractions: A Novel Marker of Sperm Quality in Dogs

    • Authors: Koray Tekin, Efe Kurtdede, Berrin Salmanoğlu, Ongun Uysal, Calogero Stelletta
      First page: 646
      Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the sperm quality and the osteopontin (OPN) concentration in the prostates of Malakli shepherd dogs. Ejaculates were collected once by digital manipulation from 39 male dogs aged between 2 and 4 years and older. The first and third fractions of the ejaculate were centrifuged at 5000× g for 30 min, and supernatants were stored at −80 °C for further analysis of OPN using a double-antibody sandwich method (SEA899CA, Cloude-Clone Corp, Houston, TX, USA). Meanwhile, the second fractions were evaluated for sperm motility, concentration, viability, and rate of abnormal spermatozoa (head, acrosome, midpiece and tail abnormalities). The average concentration of OPN was 8.7 ± 5.2 ng/mL, and it differed significantly between the 1st 10.4 ± 5.3 ng/mL and 3rd 7.4 ± 5 ng/mL fractions. According to ROC (receiver operating characteristic curve) analysis, the OPN concentration had a better diagnostic ability for sperm motility (p < 0.001) than for the rate of abnormal spermatozoa (p < 0.05). Additionally, the OPN concentration was negatively correlated with poor sperm morphology and motility. In conclusion, the OPN concentration in prostate-derived secretions may be a possible marker of sperm quality in dogs. Further research could explore the involvement of OPN in sperm motility during cryopreservation and in vivo fertility.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-11-08
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10110646
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 647: A Rotation Alar Fold Flap for
           Cosmetic Nasal Plane Reconstruction: Description of the Technique and
           Outcome in Three Dogs

    • Authors: Rosario Vallefuoco, Kadi Ritson, Frances Taylor, Caroline Fina, Alba Maria Bello
      First page: 647
      Abstract: Nasal planum reconstruction is a surgical challenge, and several surgical techniques have been described. The objective of this study was to describe the rotation alar fold flap technique and to report clinical outcomes in a short case series. The feasibility of the technique was first assessed in a canine cadaveric model. The rotation alar fold flap was obtained by a single sharp horizontal incision of the dorsolateral nasal cartilage, preserving the caudal mucosal attachment to the ventral nasal concha. The flap was then rotated ventro-medially for the reconstruction of the ventral aspect of the nasal planum unilaterally or bilaterally. The rotation alar fold flap technique was used following a subtotal or partial planectomy for excision of a squamous cell carcinoma or mast cell tumors in three dogs. No intraoperative complications were recorded. Superficial surgical site infection was reported in two cases and minor dehiscence was reported in one case. However, survival of the flap was not affected. The cosmetic and functional outcomes were considered very satisfactory in all cases. The rotation alar fold flap technique offers a safe, valuable, feasible, functional and aesthetically satisfactory alternative surgical option for selected cases of localized tumor involving the central and ventral planum.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-11-09
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10110647
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 648: In Vitro and In Silico
           Evaluations of the Antileishmanial Activities of New
           Benzimidazole-Triazole Derivatives

    • Authors: Mustafa Eser, İbrahim Çavuş
      First page: 648
      Abstract: Benzimidazole and triazole rings are important pharmacophores, known to exhibit various pharmacological activities in drug discovery. In this study, it was purposed to synthesize new benzimidazole-triazole derivatives and evaluate their antileishmanial activities. The targeted compounds (5a–5h) were obtained after five chemical reaction steps. The structures of the compounds were confirmed by spectral data. The possible in vitro antileishmanial activities of the synthesized compounds were evaluated against the Leishmania tropica strain. Further, molecular docking and dynamics were performed to identify the probable mechanism of activity of the test compounds. The findings revealed that compounds 5a, 5d, 5e, 5f, and 5h inhibited the growth of Leishmania tropica to various extents and had significant anti-leishmanial activities, even if some orders were higher than the reference drug Amphotericin B. On the other hand, compounds 5b, 5c, and 5g were found to be ineffective. Additionally, the results of in silico studies have presented the existence of some interactions between the compounds and the active site of sterol 14-alpha-demethylase, a biosynthetic enzyme that plays a critical role in the growth of the parasite. Therefore, it can be suggested that if the results obtained from this study are confirmed with in vivo findings, it may be possible to obtain some new anti-leishmanial drug candidates.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-11-09
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10110648
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 649: Environmental Cadmium Exposure
           Perturbs Gut Microbial Dysbiosis in Ducks

    • Authors: Xuefei Wang, Junxian Mi, Kun Yang, Lian Wang
      First page: 649
      Abstract: Ore extraction, chemical production, and agricultural fertilizers may release significant amounts of heavy metals, which may eventually accumulate widely in the environment and organisms over time, causing global ecological and health problems. As a recognized environmental contaminant, cadmium has been demonstrated to cause osteoporosis and renal injury, but research regarding the effects of cadmium on gut microbiota in ducks remains scarce. Herein, we aimed to characterize the adverse effects of cadmium on gut microbiota in ducks. Results indicated that cadmium exposure dramatically decreased gut microbial alpha diversity and caused significant changes in the main component of gut microbiota. Moreover, we also observed significant changes in the gut microbial composition in ducks exposed to cadmium. A microbial taxonomic investigation showed that Firmicutes, Bacteroidota, and Proteobacteria were the most preponderant phyla in ducks regardless of treatment, but the compositions and abundances of dominant genera were different. Meanwhile, a Metastats analysis indicated that cadmium exposure also caused a distinct increase in the levels of 1 phylum and 22 genera, as well as a significant reduction in the levels of 1 phylum and 36 genera. In summary, this investigation demonstrated that cadmium exposure could disturb gut microbial homeostasis by decreasing microbial diversity and altering microbial composition. Additionally, under the background of the rising environmental pollution caused by heavy metals, this investigation provides a crucial message for the assessment of environmental risks associated with cadmium exposure.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-11-09
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10110649
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 650: The Effects of Dietary Manganese
           and Selenium on Growth and the Fecal Microbiota of Nursery Piglets

    • Authors: Clint E. Edmunds, Christina B. Welch, Jeferson M. Lourenco, Todd R. Callaway, T. Dean Pringle, C. Robert Dove
      First page: 650
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the impact of varying dietary manganese and selenium concentrations, antioxidant cofactors, on the growth performance and fecal microbial populations of nursery pigs. The piglets (N = 120) were blocked by weight (5.22 ± 0.7 kg) and sex. The pens (n = 5/treatment) within a block were randomly assigned to diets in a 2 × 3 factorial design to examine the effects of Se (0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg added Se) and Mn (0, 12, and 24 mg/kg added Mn) and were fed in three phases (P1 = d 1–7, P2 = d 8–21, P3 = d 22–35). The pigs and orts were weighed weekly. Fecal samples were collected d 0 and 35 for 16S rRNA bacterial gene sequencing and VFA analysis. The data were analyzed as factorial via GLM in SAS. There was a linear response (p < 0.05) in overall ADG across dietary Mn. Supplementing 24 mg/kg Mn tended to decrease (p < 0.10) the relative abundance of many bacteria possessing pathogenic traits relative to Mn controls. Meanwhile, increasing Mn concentration tended to foster the growth of bacteria correlated with gut health and improved growth (p < 0.10). The data from this study provide preliminary evidence on the positive effects of manganese on growth and gut health of nursery pigs.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-11-10
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10110650
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 651: Animal Welfare in Radiation
           Research: The Importance of Animal Monitoring System

    • Authors: Monique Ribeiro de Lima, Daiani Cotrim de Paiva Campbell, Mariana Rietmann da Cunha-Madeira, Barbara Cristina Marcollino Bomfim, Jackline de Paula Ayres-Silva
      First page: 651
      Abstract: Long-term research into radiation exposure significantly expanded following World War II, driven by the increasing number of individuals falling ill after the detonation of two atomic bombs in Japan. Consequently, researchers intensified their efforts to investigate radiation’s effects using animal models and to study disease models that emerged post-catastrophe. As a result, several parameters have been established as essential in these models, encompassing radiation doses, regimens involving single or multiple irradiations, the injection site for transplantation, and the quantity of cells to be injected. Nonetheless, researchers have observed numerous side effects in irradiated animals, prompting the development of scoring systems to monitor these animals’ well-being. The aim of this review is to delve into the historical context of using animals in radiation research and explore the ethical considerations related to animal welfare, which has become an increasingly relevant topic in recent years. These concerns have prompted research groups to adopt measures aimed at reducing animal suffering. Consequently, for animal welfare, the implementation of a scoring system for clinical and behavioral monitoring is essential. This represents one of the primary challenges and hurdles in radiation studies. It is concluded that implementing standardized criteria across all institutions is aimed at ensuring result reproducibility and fostering collaboration within the scientific community.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-11-10
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10110651
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 652: The Link between the Perception
           of Animal Welfare and the Emotional Response to Pictures of Farm Animals
           Kept in Intensive and Extensive Husbandry Systems: An Italian Survey

    • Authors: Giacomo Riggio, Elisabetta Angori, Laura Menchetti, Silvana Diverio
      First page: 652
      Abstract: As livestock production grows to satisfy the global demand for animal products, understanding public attitudes towards different husbandry systems becomes essential for both animal welfare and socio-economic reasons. This study aimed to investigate people’s emotional responses toward pictures of farm animals kept in intensive and extensive husbandry systems, their perception of animal welfare, and their choices as animal product consumers. A questionnaire that included demographic questions and photos of cows, pigs, chickens, and rabbits in both intensive and extensive systems was distributed electronically and physically and completed by 835 respondents. Photos of animals in intensive systems elicited more negative emotions, especially for pigs and rabbits (p < 0.05), as opposed to extensive systems, which elicited more positive emotions, especially for chickens (p < 0.001). Higher welfare levels were perceived for extensively farmed animals (p < 0.001) and for cattle compared to all other species, regardless of the husbandry system (p < 0.001). The quality of the emotional response was positively associated with welfare perception (p < 0.001) and negatively associated with the importance given to welfare when purchasing animal products (p < 0.001). Finally, the emotional response was found to be affected by gender, education, household composition, living area, pet ownership, and eating habits. The implications and limitations of these findings are discussed.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-11-13
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10110652
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 653: The Relationship between Mastitis
           and Antimicrobial Peptide S100A7 Expression in Dairy Goats

    • Authors: Yutong Yan, Kunyuan Zhu, Haokun Liu, Mingzhen Fan, Xiaoe Zhao, Menghao Pan, Baohua Ma, Qiang Wei
      First page: 653
      Abstract: S100A7 is an inflammation-related protein and plays an essential role in host defenses, yet there is little research about the relationship between mastitis and S100A7 expression in dairy goats. Here, according to the clinical diagnosis of udders, SCC, and bacteriological culture (BC) of milk, 84 dairy goats were grouped into healthy goats (n = 25), subclinical mastitis goats (n = 36), and clinical mastitis goats (n = 23). The S100A7 concentration in subclinical mastitis goats was significantly upregulated than in healthy dairy goats (p = 0.0056) and had a limited change with clinical mastitis dairy goats (p = 0.8222). The relationship between log10 SCC and S100A7 concentration in milk was positive and R = 0.05249; the regression equation was Y = 0.1446 × X + 12.54. According to the three groups, the log10 SCC and S100A7 were analyzed using the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve; in subclinical mastitis goats, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of log10 SCC was 0.9222 and p < 0.0001, and the AUC of S100A7 concentration was 0.7317 and p = 0.0022, respectively; in clinical mastitis goats, the AUC of log10 SCC was 0.9678 and p < 0.0001, and the AUC of S100A7 concentration was 0.5487 and p = 0.5634, respectively. In healthy goats, S100A7 was expressed weakly in the alveolus of the mammary gland of healthy goats while expressed densely in the collapsed alveolus of mastitis goats. Moreover, S100A7 expression increased significantly in mastitis goats than in healthy dairy goats. In this research, results showed the effects of mastitis on the S100A7 expression in the mammary gland and S100A7 concentration in milk and the limited relationship between SCC and mastitis, which provided a new insight into S100A7’s role in the host defenses of dairy goats.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-11-14
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10110653
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 654: Doxorubicin as a Potential
           Treatment Option in Canine Mammary Tumors

    • Authors: Madalina Luciana Gherman, Oana Zanoaga, Liviuta Budisan, Lajos Raduly, Ioana Berindan-Neagoe
      First page: 654
      Abstract: Canine mammary tumors represent one of the leading malignant pathologies in female dogs, displaying the importance of efficient therapeutic findings, besides the golden-standard surgery, able to limit the development of the disease. Studies in human cancers demonstrated that Doxorubicin presents a good effect in different biological processes like apoptosis, autophagy, the cell cycle, cell invasion, and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. This study followed the effects of Doxorubicin on two canine mammary cancer cell lines P114 and CMT-U27. Doxorubicin treatment in both cell lines shows an inhibitory effect in cell proliferation and an alteration in expression of the EMT-related genes. The obtained results provide valuable information for revealing the link between Doxorubicin, phenotypic changes, and proliferation dynamics in canine mammary tumor models.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-11-14
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10110654
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 655: Effects of Low Protein Diet on
           Production Performance and Intestinal Microbial Composition in Pigs

    • Authors: Dong Wang, Guoshun Chen, Wenzhong Li, Mingjie Chai, Hua Zhang, Yingyu Su
      First page: 655
      Abstract: In order to study the effects of a low protein diet on the production performance and intestinal microbiota composition of Hexi pigs, twenty-seven Hexi pigs with an initial body weight of 60.50 ± 2.50 kg were randomly divided into three groups (control group (CG), group 1 (G1), and group 2 (G2)) and participated in a 60-day finishing trial. The CG was fed a normal protein level diet with a protein level of 16.0%, and G1 and G2 were fed a low protein level diet with protein levels of 14.0% and 12.0%, respectively. The results showed that the low protein level diet had no significant effect on the production performance of Hexi pigs, compared with the CG, the slaughter rate of G1 and G2 increased by 2.49% (p > 0.05) and 6.18% (p > 0.05), the shear force decreased by 2.43% (p > 0.05) and 15.57% (p > 0.05), the cooking loss decreased by 24.02% (p < 0.05) and 21.09% (p > 0.05), and the cooking percentage increased by 13.20% (p > 0.05) and 11.59% (p > 0.05). From 45 min to 24 h and 48 h after slaughter, each group of pH decreased by 1.02, 0.66, and 0.42. For muscle flesh color, the lightness (L) increased by 13.31% (p > 0.05) and 18.01% (p > 0.05) in G1 and G2 and the yellowness (b) increased by 7.72% (p > 0.05) and 13.06% (p > 0.05). A low protein level diet can improve the intestinal flora richness and diversity of growing and finishing pigs. In the jejunum, the ACE index (899.95), Simpson index (0.90), and Shannon (4.75) index were higher in G1 than in the other groups, but the Chao1 index (949.92) was higher in G2 than in the remaining two groups. Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Euryarchaeota, and Verrucomicrobia were significantly higher in G1 than in the CG. The relative abundances of Lactobacillus, Terrisporobacter, and Megasphaera in G1 was significantly higher than in the CG (p < 0.05). In the cecum, the ACE index (900.93), Chao1 index (879.10), Simpson index (0.94), and Shannon (5.70) index were higher in G1 than in the remaining groups. The Spirochaetes in G2 were significantly higher than in the other groups, but the Verrucomicrobia was significantly lower than in the other groups. The relative abundances of Lactobacillus were higher in G1 and G2 than in the CG (p > 0.05). The relative abundances of unidentified_Clostridiales and Terrisporobacter in G2 were significantly lower than in the CG (p < 0.05). The relative abundance of Turicibacter in G1 was significantly lower than in the CG (p < 0.05). The relative abundances of other bacterial genera in G1 and G2 were increased by 30.81% (p > 0.05) and 17.98% (p > 0.05).
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-11-14
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10110655
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 656: Retrospective Assessment of
           Thirty-Two Cases of Pelvic Fractures Stabilized by External Fixation in
           Dogs and Classification Proposal

    • Authors: Jose Antonio Flores, Gian Luca Rovesti, Lucia Gimenez-Ortiz, Jesus Rodriguez-Quiros
      First page: 656
      Abstract: The goals of this study were to evaluate the outcomes of bone healing, patient comfort during the treatment, functional results, and complications in pelvic fractures treated with external fixation, as well as to propose a classification system for the applied external frames. A total of thirty-two canine patients with pelvic fractures of different origins were treated. To provide a better reference for the frames used, an alphanumeric classification system was developed, detailing the frame structure and the number and location of the pins used. In this study, eighty-six fractures were treated in the 32 patients of this work, with an average fixation time of 9.88 ± 4.15 weeks. No major complications were detected in this case cohort, and the outcomes were rated at 9.46 based on a visual assessment scale for the patient’s comfort during treatment. Outcomes graded as excellent and good were 96%. The use of external fixation for stabilization of pelvic fractures should be considered as a technical option, especially for minimally invasive stabilization of complex fractures, either as a primary or secondary stabilization.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-11-15
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10110656
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 657: Intestine Health and Barrier
           Function in Fattening Rabbits Fed Bovine Colostrum

    • Authors: Lucia Aidos, Margherita Pallaoro, Giorgio Mirra, Valentina Serra, Marta Castrica, Stella Agradi, Giulio Curone, Daniele Vigo, Federica Riva, Claudia Maria Balzaretti, Roberta De Bellis, Grazia Pastorelli, Gabriele Brecchia, Silvia Clotilde Modina, Alessia Di Giancamillo
      First page: 657
      Abstract: The permeability of the immature intestine is higher in newborns than in adults; a damaged gut barrier in young animals increases the susceptibility to digestive and infectious diseases later in life. It is therefore of major importance to avoid impairment of the intestinal barrier, specifically in a delicate phase of development, such as weaning. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of bovine colostrum supplementation on the intestinal barrier, such as the intestinal morphology and proliferation level and tight junctions expression (zonulin) and enteric nervous system (ENS) inflammation status (through the expression of PGP9.5 and GFAP) in fattening rabbits. Rabbits of 35 days of age were randomly divided into three groups (n = 13) based on the dietary administration: commercial feed (control group, CTR) and commercial feed supplemented with 2.5% and 5% bovine colostrum (BC1 and BC2 groups, respectively). Rabbits receiving the BC1 diet showed a tendency to have better duodenum morphology and higher proliferation rates (p < 0.001) than the control group. An evaluation of the zonulin expression showed that it was higher in the BC2 group, suggesting increased permeability, which was partially confirmed by the expression of GFAP. Our results suggest that adding 2.5% BC into the diet could be a good compromise between intestinal morphology and permeability, since rabbits fed the highest inclusion level of BC showed signs of higher intestinal permeability.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-11-15
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10110657
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 658: Cutaneous and Respiratory Lesions
           in Bushfire-Affected Koalas

    • Authors: Chloe Baek, Lucy Woolford, Oliver Funnell, Jennifer McLelland, Stuart Eddy, Tamsyn Stephenson, Natasha Speight
      First page: 658
      Abstract: In the wake of increasingly frequent bushfires emerging as a threat to wildlife worldwide, koalas have notably been the most rescued species in Australia. However, our understanding of burns and their severity in koalas is limited; hence, this study investigated the histopathological features and depth of burns in koala skin, as well as the presence of smoke-induced respiratory tract damage. In four bushfire-affected koalas that had been euthanised on welfare grounds, skin burns in various body regions were scored based on clinical appearance as superficial, partial thickness, or full thickness. Histological sections of affected regions of skin were assessed as Grades I–IV and showed that furred regions on the ear margins and dorsum were histologically more severe, at Grade III, compared with the clinical score. There was a similar finding for footpad burns, which were the most common body region affected. In the respiratory tract, pulmonary oedema and congestion were evident in all koalas. Overall, the results highlight that cutaneous burn lesions on furred and palmar/plantar surfaces can have higher severity based on the burn depth than is clinically apparent. Therefore, there is a need to consider this when developing treatment plans and establishing prognosis for burnt koalas at triage, as well as that a high likelihood of pulmonary oedema exists.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-11-16
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10110658
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 659: Primary Prevention of Canine
           Atopic Dermatitis: Breaking the Cycle—A Narrative Review

    • Authors: Beatriz Fernandes, Susana Alves, Vanessa Schmidt, Ana Filipa Bizarro, Marta Pinto, Hugo Pereira, Joana Marto, Ana Mafalda Lourenço
      First page: 659
      Abstract: Canine atopic dermatitis (cAD) is a common and distressing skin condition in dogs, affecting up to 30% of the canine population. It not only impacts their quality of life but also that of their owners. Like human atopic dermatitis (hAD), cAD has a complex pathogenesis, including genetic and environmental factors. Current treatments focus on managing clinical signs, but they can be costly and have limitations. This article emphasizes the importance of preventing cAD from developing in the first place. Understanding the role of the skin’s protective barrier is crucial, as its dysfunction plays a vital role in both hAD and cAD. hAD prevention studies have shown promising results in enhancing the skin barrier, but more research is needed to support more robust conclusions. While hAD primary prevention is currently a focal point of intensive investigation in human medicine, research on cAD primary prevention remains under-researched and almost non-existent. Pioneering effective prevention strategies for cAD holds immense potential to enhance the quality of life for both dogs and their owners. Additionally, it bears the promise of a translational impact on human research. Hence, further exploration of this crucial topic is not only relevant but also timely and imperative, warranting support and encouragement.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-11-16
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10110659
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 660: Adipose Stem Cell-Seeded
           Decellularized Porcine Pericardium: A Promising Functional Biomaterial to
           Synergistically Restore the Cardiac Functions Post-Myocardial Infarction

    • Authors: Hussein M. El-Husseiny, Eman A. Mady, Tatsuya Usui, Yusuke Ishihara, Toshinori Yoshida, Mio Kobayashi, Kenta Sasaki, Danfu Ma, Akira Yairo, Ahmed S. Mandour, Hanan Hendawy, Ahmed S. Doghish, Osama A. Mohammed, Ken Takahashi, Ryou Tanaka
      First page: 660
      Abstract: Myocardial infarction (MI) is a serious cardiovascular disease as the leading cause of death globally. Hence, reconstruction of the cardiac tissue comes at the forefront of strategies adopted to restore heart functions following MI. In this investigation, we studied the capacity of rat adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (r-AdMSCs) and decellularized porcine pericardium (DPP) to restore heart functions in MI animals. MI was induced in four different groups, three of which were treated either using DPP (MI-DPP group), stem cells (MI-SC group), or both (MI-SC/DPP group). Cardiac functions of these groups and the Sham group were evaluated using echocardiography, the intraventricular pressure gradient (IVPG) on weeks 2 and 4, and intraventricular hemodynamics on week 4. On day 31, the animals were euthanized for histological analysis. Echocardiographic, IVPG and hemodynamic findings indicated that the three treatment strategies shared effectively in the regeneration process. However, the MI-SC/DPP group had a unique synergistic ability to restore heart functions superior to the other treatment protocols. Histology showed that the MI-SC/DPP group presented the lowest (p < 0.05) degeneration score and fibrosis % compared to the other groups. Conclusively, stem cell-seeded DPP is a promising platform for the delivery of stem cells and restoration of heart functions post-MI.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-11-17
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10110660
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 661: Indication of West Nile Virus
           (WNV) Lineage 2 Overwintering among Wild Birds in the Regions of
           Peloponnese and Western Greece

    • Authors: Zoi Athanasakopoulou, Marina Sofia, Vassilis Skampardonis, Alexios Giannakopoulos, Periklis Birtsas, Konstantinos Tsolakos, Vassiliki Spyrou, Dimitris C. Chatzopoulos, Maria Satra, Vassilis Diamantopoulos, Spyridoula Mpellou, Dimitrios Galamatis, Vasileios G. Papatsiros, Charalambos Billinis
      First page: 661
      Abstract: West Nile virus (WNV), a zoonotic mosquito-borne virus, has recently caused human outbreaks in Europe, including Greece. Its transmission cycle in nature includes wild birds as amplifying hosts and ornithophilic mosquito vectors. The aim of this study was to assess WNV circulation among wild birds from two regions of Greece, Peloponnese and Western Greece, during 2022. To this end, a total of 511 birds belonging to 37 different species were sampled and molecularly screened. WNV RNA was detected from February to November in a total of 71 wild birds of nine species originating from both investigated regions. The first eight positive samples were sequenced on a part of NS3 and, according to the phylogenetic analysis, they belonged to evolutionary lineage 2 and presented similarity to previous outbreak-causing Greek strains (Argolis 2017, Macedonia 2010 and 2012). It was more likely to identify a PCR positive bird as the population density and the distance from water sources decreased. The present report provides evidence of WNV occurrence in both Peloponnese and Western Greece during 2022 and underlines its possible overwintering, highlighting the need for avian species surveillance to be conducted annually and throughout the year. Magpies are proposed as sentinels for WNV monitoring.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-11-18
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10110661
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 589: Advances in Non-Chemical Tools to
           Control Poultry Hematophagous Mites

    • Authors: Geralda Gabriele da Silva, Maykelin Fuentes Zaldívar, Lucilene Aparecida Resende Oliveira, Reysla Maria da Silveira Mariano, Daniel Ferreira Lair, Renata Antunes de Souza, Alexsandro Sobreira Galdino, Miguel Angel Chávez-Fumagalli, Denise da Silveira-Lemos, Walderez Ornelas Dutra, Ricardo Nascimento Araújo, Lorena Lopes Ferreira, Rodolfo Cordeiro Giunchetti
      First page: 589
      Abstract: The blood-sucking mites Dermanyssus gallinae (“red mite”), Ornithonyssus sylviarum (“northern fowl mite”), and Ornithonyssus bursa (”tropical fowl mite”) stand out for causing infestations in commercial poultry farms worldwide, resulting in significant economic damage for producers. In addition to changes in production systems that include new concerns for animal welfare, global climate change in recent years has become a major challenge in the spread of ectoparasites around the world. This review includes information regarding the main form of controlling poultry mites through the use of commercially available chemicals. In addition, non-chemical measures against blood-sucking mites were discussed such as extracts and oils from plants and seeds, entomopathogenic fungi, semiochemicals, powder such as diatomaceous earth and silica-based products, and vaccine candidates. The control of poultry mites using chemical methods that are currently used to control or eliminate them are proving to be less effective as mites develop resistance. In contrast, the products based on plant oils and extracts, powders of plant origin, fungi, and new antigens aimed at developing transmission-blocking vaccines against poultry mites provide some encouraging options for the rational control of these ectoparasites.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-09-22
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10100589
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 590: Seroprevalence of Equine
           Leptospirosis in the State of Goiás, Brazil

    • Authors: Tatiana Nunes de Azevedo Romanowski, Ricardo Augusto Dias, Marcos Bryan Heinemann, Stephani Félix Carvalho, Tamires Ataides Silva, Andressa da Silva Martins, Geovanna Domingues da Cunha Caetano, Álvaro Ferreira Júnior, Jandra Pacheco dos Santos, Ana Carolina Borsanelli
      First page: 590
      Abstract: Leptospirosis, caused by Leptospira, is a zoonotic disease that, in horses, is linked to abortions, uveitis, and sporadic occurrences of liver and kidney disease, often resulting in significant economic losses for farmers. Research on the prevalence of leptospirosis in horses in the central-west region of Brazil has been relatively scarce. Thus, the present study aimed to determine the prevalence of leptospirosis in equine herds in the state of Goiás (Central Brazil). Blood samples were collected from 894 equids at 294 randomly selected farms divided into three different strata according to their herd characteristics. The microscopic agglutination test for the detection of anti-Leptospira agglutinins was carried out and the results showed that among the 294 sampled farms, 213 (72.9%; CI 95% 71.7–78.9) had one or more animals positive for leptospirosis, and of the 894 horses sampled, 513 (61.6%; CI 95% 54.3–69.0) were seropositive for leptospirosis. Djasiman, Icterohaemorrhagiae, and Australis were the most prevalent serogroups. The results showed a high prevalence of seropositive animals and a widespread distribution of positive farms in the state of Goiás. Thus, environmental sanitation measures and health education to prevent and control equine leptospirosis in the state are required.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-09-25
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10100590
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 591: Appropriate Genetic Approaches
           for Heat Tolerance and Maintaining Good Productivity in Tropical Poultry
           Production: A Review

    • Authors: Jiraporn Juiputta, Vibuntita Chankitisakul, Wuttigrai Boonkum
      First page: 591
      Abstract: Heat stress is a major environmental threat to poultry production systems, especially in tropical areas. The effects of heat stress have been discovered in several areas, including reduced growth rate, reduced egg production, low feed efficiency, impaired immunological responses, changes in intestinal microflora, metabolic changes, and deterioration of meat quality. Although several methods have been used to address the heat stress problem, it persists. The answer to this problem can be remedied sustainably if genetic improvement approaches are available. Therefore, the purpose of this review article was to present the application of different approaches to genetic improvement in poultry in the hope that users will find suitable solutions for their poultry population and be able to plan future poultry breeding programs.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-09-25
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10100591
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 592: European Inter-Laboratory
           Proficiency Test for Dourine Antibody Detection Using the Complement
           Fixation Test

    • Authors: Laurent Hébert, Delphine Froger, Anthony Madeline, Fanny Lecouturier, Charlène Lemans, Stephan Zientara
      First page: 592
      Abstract: Dourine is a sexually transmitted parasitic disease affecting equids. Its causative agent is referred to as Trypanosoma equiperdum and the prescribed serodiagnosis method is the complement fixation test (CFT). In the context of our European Reference Laboratory mandate for equine diseases (excluding African horse sickness), we organised dourine CFT inter-laboratory proficiency tests (ILPTs) in 2015, 2018 and 2022 to evaluate the performance of the European Union network of National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) for dourine. ILPT panels were composed of horse sera with or without antibodies against Trypanosoma spp. originating from non-infected, immunised or experimentally infected horses. Twenty-two NRLs participated in at least one of the three sessions. In 2015, 2018 and 2022, the percentage of laboratories obtaining 100% of the expected results was 57, 90 and 80, respectively. These dourine CFT ILPTs showed the benefits of standardising the method’s detection limit and underlined the constant need to evaluate NRLs to improve the network’s performance. These results also argue in favour of the need for a representative bio-bank to improve the representativeness of ILPT samples and to allow the adoption of alternative serological methods for international surveillance of dourine.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-09-26
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10100592
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 593: Postoperative Computed
           Tomographic Assessment of the Complete Resection of an Infiltrative Lipoma
           Compressing the Spinal Cord in a Dog

    • Authors: Junyoung Kim, Kitae Kim, Dayoung Oh, Hyunwook Myung, Jihye Choi, Junghee Yoon
      First page: 593
      Abstract: Infiltrative lipomas, which are locally invasive tumors composed of well-differentiated adipocytes, are histologically identical to lipomas but have a tendency to infiltrate adjacent muscle and fibrous tissue without metastasis, such as muscle; connective tissue; bone; and, in rare cases, peripheral nerves and the spinal cord. They differ from liposarcomas yet also exhibit neoplastic cell infiltration and often recur despite surgical removal. A 10-year-old spayed Maltese female dog presented with hindlimb paresis and back pain for two months. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed an extensive fatty mass impinging on the vertebral canal, compressing the spinal cord, and extending into the surrounding muscle layers and thoracic cavity. The mass was surgically removed, and subsequent postoperative computed tomography confirmed complete removal of the mass using Vitrea® advanced visualization fat measurement. Histopathological analysis confirmed that the mass was an infiltrative lipoma. The patient’s symptoms completely resolved after surgery, with no recurrence reported at the 2-year follow-up. This case highlights the benefits of using postoperative computed tomography combined with the automated fat measurement technique to determine whether reoperation is necessary or to predict patient prognosis by identifying potential residual lipoma post-surgery.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-09-26
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10100593
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 594: Impacts of Solid-State Fermented
           Barley with Fibrolytic Exogenous Enzymes on Feed Utilization, and
           Antioxidant Status of Broiler Chickens

    • Authors: Doaa Ibrahim, Hassainen I. El-sayed, Elsabbagh R. Mahmoud, Ghada I. Abd El-Rahman, Shefaa M. Bazeed, Abdelwahab A. Abdelwarith, Aya Elgamal, Samah S. Khalil, Elsayed M. Younis, Asmaa T. Y. Kishawy, Simon J. Davies, Abdallah E. Metwally
      First page: 594
      Abstract: The present and future high demand of common cereals as corn and wheat encourage the development of feed processing technology that allows for the dietary inclusion of other cereals of low nutritional value in poultry feeding. Barley grains contain anti-nutritional factors that limit their dietary inclusion in the poultry industry. The treatment of barley with solid-state fermentation and exogenous enzymes (FBEs) provides a good alternative to common cereals. In this study, barley grains were subjected to solid-state microbial fermentation using Lactobacillus plantarum, Bacillus subtilis and exogenous fibrolytic enzymes. This study aimed to assess the impact of FBEs on growth, feed utilization efficiency, immune modulation, antioxidant status and the expression of intestinal barrier and nutrient transporter-related genes. One-day-old broiler chicks (Ross 308, n = 400) comprised four representative groups with ten replicates (10 chicks/replicate) and were fed corn-soybean meal basal diets with inclusions of FBEs at 0, 5, 10 and 15% for 38 days. Solid-state fermentation of barley grains with fibrolytic enzymes increased protein content, lowered crude fiber and reduced sugars compared to non-fermented barley gains. In consequence, the group fed FBEs10% had the superior feed utilization efficiency and body weight gain (increased by 4.7%) with higher levels of nutrient metabolizability, pancreatic digestive enzyme activities and low digesta viscosity. Notably, the group fed FBEs10% showed an increased villi height and a decreased crypt depth with a remarkable hyperactivity of duodenal glands. In addition, higher inclusion levels of FBEs boosted serum immune-related parameters and intestinal and breast muscle antioxidants status. Intestinal nutrient transporters encoding genes (GLUT-1, CAAT-1, LAT1 and PepT-1) and intestinal barriers encoding genes (MUC-2, JAM-2, occludin, claudins-1 and β-defensin 1) were upregulated with higher dietary FBEs levels. In conclusion, feeding on FBEs10% positively enhanced broiler chickens’ performance, feed efficiency and antioxidant status, and boosted intestinal barrier nutrient transporters encoding genes.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-09-27
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10100594
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 595: The Synergic Role of Emerging and
           Endemic Swine Virus in the Porcine Respiratory Disease Complex:
           Pathological and Biomolecular Analysis

    • Authors: Giovanni Pietro Burrai, Salwa Hawko, Silvia Dei Giudici, Marta Polinas, Pier Paolo Angioi, Lorena Mura, Alberto Alberti, Chadi Hosri, Georges Hassoun, Annalisa Oggiano, Elisabetta Antuofermo
      First page: 595
      Abstract: Porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) represents a significant threat to the swine industry, causing economic losses in pigs worldwide. Recently, beyond the endemic viruses PRRSV and PCV2, emerging viruses such as TTSuV, PCV3, and PPV2, have been associated with PRDC, but their role remains unclear. This study investigates the presence of PCV2 and PRRSV and emerging viruses (PCV3, TTSuV, and PPV2) in the lungs of swine belonging to different age groups by histopathology and real-time PCR. The prevalent lung lesion was interstitial pneumonia with increased severity in post-weaning pigs. PRRSV was detected in 33% of piglets’ lungs and in 20% of adults and post-weaning pigs with high Ct, while PCV2 was found in 100% of adult pigs, 33% of post-weaning pigs, and 22% of piglets, with low Ct in post-weaning pigs. PCV3 was present in all categories and coexisted with other viruses. TTSuV was detected in all swine in combination with other viruses, possibly influencing the disease dynamics, while PPV2 was detected in 100% of adults’ and 90% of piglets’ lungs. The detection of TTSuV, PCV3, and PPV2 in affected pigs prioritizes the need for comprehensive approaches in implementing appropriate control measures and minimizing economic losses associated with PRDC.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-09-27
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10100595
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 596: Integrative Transcriptomics and
           Proteomics Analysis Reveals Immune Response Process in Bovine Viral
           Diarrhea Virus-1-Infected Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    • Authors: Kang Zhang, Jingyan Zhang, Lei Wang, Qiang Liang, Yuhui Niu, Linlin Gu, Yanming We, Jianxi Li
      First page: 596
      Abstract: Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) causes bovine viral diarrhea-mucosal disease, inflicting substantial economic losses upon the global cattle industry. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are the central hub for immune responses during host-virus infection and have been recognized as crucial targets for BVDV infection. In order to elucidate the dynamics of host-BVDV-1 interaction, this study harnessed RNA-seq and iTRAQ methods to acquire an extensive dataset of transcriptomics and proteomics data from samples of BVDV-1-infected PBMCs at the 12-h post-infection mark. When compared to mock-infected PBMCs, we identified 344 differentially expressed genes (DEGs: a total of 234 genes with downregulated expression and 110 genes with upregulated expression) and 446 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs: a total of 224 proteins with downregulated expression and 222 proteins with upregulated expression). Selected DEGs and DEPs were validated through quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and parallel reaction monitoring. Gene ontology annotation and KEGG enrichment analysis underscored the significant enrichment of DEGs and DEPs in various immunity-related signaling pathways, including antigen processing and presentation, complement and coagulation cascades, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, and the NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, among others. Further analysis unveiled that those DEGs and DEPs with downregulated expression were predominantly associated with pathways such as complement and coagulation cascades, the interleukin-17 signaling pathway, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, the tumor necrosis factor signaling pathway, and the NOD-like receptor signaling pathway. Conversely, upregulated DEGs and DEPs were chiefly linked to metabolic pathways, oxidative phosphorylation, complement and coagulation cascades, and the RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathway. These altered genes and proteins shed light on the intense host-virus conflict within the immune realm. Our transcriptomics and proteomics data constitute a significant foundation for delving further into the interaction mechanism between BVDV and its host.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-09-28
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10100596
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 597: Novel Prion Protein Gene
           Polymorphisms in Awassi Sheep in Three Regions of the Fertile Crescent

    • Authors: Faisal S. Rashaydeh, Mehmet A. Yildiz, Abdulrahman S. Alharthi, Hani H. Al-Baadani, Ibrahim A. Alhidary, Hasan Meydan
      First page: 597
      Abstract: Scrapie is a fatal, neurodegenerative disease that affects sheep and goats, and genetic susceptibility to scrapie in sheep is associated with polymorphisms in the prion protein (PRNP) gene. The aim of this study is to identify PRNP polymorphism in Awassi sheep from Türkiye, the Palestinian Authority, and Saudi Arabia. A total of 150 healthy sheep were genotyped for PRNP, using Sanger sequencing. There were seven alleles and eleven genotypes observed based on codons 136, 154, and 171 of PRNP. The ARQ allele was predominant in all populations. The most resistant allele to scrapie, ARR, was present in all three regions. The VRQ allele, associated with the highest susceptibility to scrapie, was detected only in Türkiye at a low frequency. In this study, twenty-seven amino acid substitutions were found. Eight of them (R40Q, G65E, H88L, S98T, A118P, S138T, V192F and L250I) have not been previously reported. These data indicate that sheep breeds close to the sheep domestication center have maintained high genetic diversity in the PRNP region. Our findings on PRNP will provide valuable insights for sheep breeding programs, aiding in the selection of genotypes resistant to scrapie in Türkiye, the Palestinian Authority, and Saudi Arabia.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-09-29
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10100597
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 598: Genetic Diversity of Kazakhstani
           Equus caballus (Linnaeus, 1758) Horse Breeds Inferred from Microsatellite

    • Authors: Zarina Orazymbetova, Daniya Ualiyeva, Kairat Dossybayev, Aibyn Torekhanov, Dauren Sydykov, Aizhan Mussayeva, Gabiden Baktybayev
      First page: 598
      Abstract: Understanding the genetic diversity and structure of domesticated horse (Equus caballus) populations is critical for long-term herd management and breeding programs. This study examines 435 horses from Kazakhstan, covering seven groups in three geographic areas using 11 STR markers. Identified are 136 alleles, with the mean number of alleles per locus ranging from 9 to 19. VHL20 is the most variable locus across groups, while loci HTG4, AHT4, AHT5, HTG7, and HMS3 are variable in most populations. The locus AHT5 in the Emba population shows the highest frequency of rare alleles, while the lowest frequency, 0.005, is observed in the Kulandy population. All loci were highly informative for the Kazakhstani populations of E. caballus, with PIC values higher than 0.5. Pairwise variations in Wright’s FST distances show that the examined varieties have little genetic differentiation (0.05%), indicating a high degree of admixture and a continuing lineage sorting process. Phylogenetic and population structure analyses reveal three major clusters of Kazakh horses, representing (I) the Uralsk population of the Kushum breed and the monophyly of two groups: (II) the Kozhamberdy population of the Mugalzhar breed, and (III) the Mugalzhar–Kushum breed populations. Kazakhstani horse populations, while being regionally isolated, were recently in contact with each other.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-09-30
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10100598
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 599: Seroprevalence of Swine Influenza
           A Virus (swIAV) Infections in Commercial Farrow-to-Finish Pig Farms in

    • Authors: Vasileios G. Papatsiros, Georgios I. Papakonstantinou, Eleftherios Meletis, Konstantinos Koutoulis, Zoi Athanasakopoulou, Georgios Maragkakis, Georgia Labronikou, Ilias Terzidis, Polychronis Kostoulas, Charalambos Billinis
      First page: 599
      Abstract: Swine influenza is a highly contagious respiratory disease caused by influenza A virus infection. Pigs play an important role in the overall epidemiology of influenza because of their ability to transmit influenza viruses of avian and human origin, which plays a potential role in the emergence of zoonotic strains with pandemic potential. The aim of our study was to assess the seroprevalence of Swine Influenza Viruses (swIAVs) in commercial pig farms in Greece. A total of 1416 blood samples were collected from breeding animals (gilts and sows) and pigs aged 3 weeks to market age from 40 different swIAV vaccinated and unvaccinated commercial farrow-to-finish pig farms. For the detection of anti-SIV antibodies, sera were analyzed using an indirect ELISA kit CIVTEST SUIS INFLUENZA®, Hipra (Amer, Spain). Of the total 1416 animals tested, 498 were seropositive, indicating that the virus circulates in both vaccinated (54% seroprevalence) and unvaccinated Greek pig farms (23% seroprevalence). In addition, maternally derived antibody (MDA) levels were lower in pigs at 4 and 7 weeks of age in unvaccinated farms than in vaccinated farms. In conclusion, our results underscore the importance of vaccination as an effective tool for the prevention of swIAV infections in commercial farrow-to-finish pig farms.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-09-30
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10100599
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 600: Effect of Immunocastration on
           Culled Sows—A Preliminary Study on Reproductive Tract, Carcass
           Traits, and Meat Quality

    • Authors: Sofia Botelho-Fontela, Gustavo Paixão, Ricardo Pereira-Pinto, Manuela Vaz-Velho, Maria dos Anjos Pires, Rita Payan-Carreira, Luís Patarata, José Lorenzo, António Silva, Alexandra Esteves
      First page: 600
      Abstract: The Bísaro pig is a Portuguese autochthonous breed greatly appreciated for its meat quality and is mainly reared outdoors. Immunocastration could be a solution to avoid undesirable pregnancies and boar taint in cull sows. The present study tested three immunocastration protocols (with Improvac®) according to their reproductive cycle. The first inoculation was performed two weeks after farrowing (IM1, n = 5), at the beginning of estrus (IM2, n = 5), and one week after the end of estrus (IM3, n = 5), followed by a second administration four weeks apart. A control group (C, n = 5) was also included in the same housing conditions. The sample collection included the reproductive tract for morphometric evaluation, neck fat for the quantification of boar taint compounds, and a portion of the Longissimus thoracis et lumborum for meat quality trait assessment. The reproductive tracts from intact sows (C) were significantly heavier compared to the immunocastrated groups (p < 0.05) (1.403 kg C to 0.508 kg IM1, 0.590 kg IM2, and 0.599 kg IM3), suggesting the regression of the reproductive tract to nonstimulated conditions due to immunization against GnRH. The IM1 group exhibited significantly smaller reproductive tract measurements compared to group C for most of the evaluated segments (p < 0.05). No marked differences were observed in the meat quality traits. Therefore, immunocastration can be used in culling sows to avoid ovarian activity, and it is not detrimental to pork quality traits.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-10-02
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10100600
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 601: Retrospective Analysis of the
           Detection of Pathogens Associated with the Porcine Respiratory Disease
           Complex in Routine Diagnostic Samples from Austrian Swine Stocks

    • Authors: René Renzhammer, Angelika Auer, Igor Loncaric, Annabell Entenfellner, Katharina Dimmel, Karin Walk, Till Rümenapf, Joachim Spergser, Andrea Ladinig
      First page: 601
      Abstract: The diagnostic workup of respiratory disease in pigs is complex due to coinfections and non-infectious causes. The detection of pathogens associated with respiratory disease is a pivotal part of the diagnostic workup for respiratory disease. We aimed to report how frequently certain viruses and bacteria were detected in samples from pigs with respiratory symptoms in the course of routine diagnostic procedures. Altogether, 1975 routine diagnostic samples from pigs in Austrian swine stocks between 2016 and 2021 were analysed. PCR was performed to detect various pathogens, including porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) (n = 921), influenza A virus (n = 479), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) (n = 518), Mycoplasma (M.) hyopneumoniae (n = 713), Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (n = 198), Glaesserella (G.) parasuis (n = 165) and M. hyorhinis (n = 180). M. hyorhinis (55.1%) had the highest detection rate, followed by PCV2 (38.0%) and Streptococcus (S.) suis (30.6%). PRRSV was detected most frequently in a pool of lung, tonsil and tracheobronchial lymph node (36.2%). G. parasuis was isolated more frequently from samples taken after euthanasia compared to field samples. PRRSV-positive samples were more likely to be positive for PCV2 (p = 0.001), M. hyopneumoniae (p = 0.032) and Pasteurella multocida (p < 0.001). M. hyopneumoniae-positive samples were more likely to be positive for P. multocida (p < 0.001) and S. suis (p = 0.046), but less likely for M. hyorhinis (p = 0.004). In conclusion, our data provide evidence that lung samples that were positive for a primary pathogenic agent were more likely to be positive for a secondary pathogenic agent.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-10-02
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10100601
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 602: Comparison of the Trachea in
           Normocephalic versus Brachycephalic Cats on the Basis of CT-Derived

    • Authors: Anna Brunner, Julius Underberg, Jeannette Zimmermann, Simona Vincenti
      First page: 602
      Abstract: Tracheal hypoplasia is a major concern in brachycephalic dogs, but there is no consensus for the trachea in brachycephalic cats. We aimed to compare tracheal length and diameter between normo- and brachycephalic cats using computed tomography (CT) image measurements and evaluate their usefulness in tracheostomy planning. A total of 15 normocephalic and 14 brachycephalic cats were included in the study. Tracheas of normocephalic cats were significantly longer compared with brachycephalic cats. No difference was detected in tracheal diameter between normocephalic and brachycephalic cats. Both groups had a lateral diameter significantly larger than the dorsoventral diameter at the level of the cranial end of the manubrium sterni and at the level of the second rib. Normocephalic and brachycephalic cats’ tracheas have the same dorsoventral flattening at the level of the cranial end of the manubrium sterni and at the level of the second rib. The location between the 4th and 5th cervical vertebrae seems the best place to perform a tracheostomy in cats due to its round shape and easily accessible anatomical location. No sign of tracheal hypoplasia in brachycephalic cats was detected. Finally, 7 mm appears to be an adequate diameter for the tracheal tubes used to perform feline tracheostomies.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-10-03
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10100602
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 603: First Molecular Identification of
           Calicophoron daubneyi (Dinnik, 1962) and Paramphistomum leydeni (Nasmark,
           1937) in Wild Ruminants from Romania

    • Authors: Sorin Morariu, Cătălin Bogdan Sîrbu, Adrienn Gréta Tóth, Gheorghe Dărăbuș, Ion Oprescu, Narcisa Mederle, Marius Stelian Ilie, Mirela Imre, Beatrice Ana-Maria Sîrbu, Norbert Solymosi, Tiana Florea, Kalman Imre
      First page: 603
      Abstract: Rumen flukes are geographically widespread trematodes affecting wild and domestic ruminants. The juvenile forms, which are found in the small intestine, are more pathogenic compared to the adults. Severe diarrhoea and weight loss are the major clinical signs, and the disease might be fatal in severely infested individuals. In the last decade, paramphistomosis has been described as an emerging parasitic disease in Europe. This study aimed to identify the rumen fluke species in wild ruminants from western Romania. Fifty-two pre-stomachs obtained from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) that were hunted on 14 hunting grounds from Timiș and Arad counties were examined for the presence of paramphistomes. Three (9.09%) out of 33 samples were positive in Timiș County, and one (5.26%) out of 19 samples was positive in Arad County. Subsequent PCR testing revealed that three samples were positive for Calicophoron daubneyi and one for Paramphistomum leydeni. The presence of C. daubneyi and P. leydeni in roe deer has not been previously reported in Romania. Two Paramphistomum species—C. daubneyi and P. leydeni—were revealed as the main species of rumen flukes in roe deer from forests in Romania.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-10-03
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10100603
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 604: Nutritional Strategies to Promote
           Bovine Oocyte Quality for In Vitro Embryo Production: Do They Really Work'

    • Authors: Miguel A. Velazquez
      First page: 604
      Abstract: The ability of bovine oocytes to reach the blastocyst stage (i.e., embryo with around 150 cells in cattle) in vitro can be affected by technical (e.g., culture medium used) and physiological factors in oocyte donors (e.g., age, breed). As such, the nutritional status of oocyte donors plays a significant role in the efficiency of in vitro embryo production (IVEP), and several nutritional strategies have been investigated in cattle subjected to ovum pick-up (OPU). However, there is no clear consensus on the reliability of nutritional schemes to improve IVEP in cattle. Available evidence suggests that a moderate body condition score (i.e., 3 in a 1–5 scale) in cattle is compatible with a metabolic microenvironment in ovarian follicles that will promote embryo formation in vitro. The usefulness of fatty acid and micronutrient supplementation to improve IVEP in cattle is debatable with the current information available. Overall, the supply of maintenance nutritional requirements according to developmental and productive stage seems to be enough to provide bovine oocyte donors with a good chance of producing embryos in vitro. Future nutrition research in cattle using OPU-IVEP models needs to consider animal well-being aspects (i.e., stress caused by handling and sampling), which could affect the results.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-10-04
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10100604
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 605: Molecular Detection of Rickettsia
           hoogstraalii in Hyalomma anatolicum and Haemaphysalis sulcata: Updated
           Knowledge on the Epidemiology of Tick-Borne Rickettsia hoogstraalii

    • Authors: Aneela Aneela, Mashal M. Almutairi, Abdulaziz Alouffi, Haroon Ahmed, Tetsuya Tanaka, Itabajara da Silva Vaz, Shun-Chung Chang, Chien-Chin Chen, Abid Ali
      First page: 605
      Abstract: Ticks are hematophagous ectoparasites that transmit pathogens to animals and humans. Updated knowledge regarding the global epidemiology of tick-borne Rickettsia hoogstraalii is dispersed, and its molecular detection and genetic characterization are missing in Pakistan. The current study objectives were to molecularly detect and genetically characterize Rickettsia species, especially R. hoogstraalii, in hard ticks infesting livestock in Pakistan, and to provide updated knowledge regarding their global epidemiology. Ticks were collected from livestock, including goats, sheep, and cattle, in six districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) Pakistan. Overall, 183 hosts were examined, of which 134 (73.2%), including goats (number = 39/54, 72.2%), sheep (23/40, 57.5%), and cattle (71/89, 80%) were infested by 823 ticks. The most prevalent tick species was Rhipicephalus microplus (number = 283, 34.3%), followed by Hyalomma anatolicum (223, 27.0%), Rhipicephalus turanicus (122, 14.8%), Haemaphysalis sulcata (104, 12.6%), Haemaphysalis montgomeryi (66, 8.0%), and Haemaphysalis bispinosa (25, 3.03%). A subset of 210 ticks was selected and screened for Rickettsia spp. using PCR-based amplification and subsequent sequencing of rickettsial gltA and ompB fragments. The overall occurrence rate of R. hoogstraalii was 4.3% (number = 9/210). The DNA of Rickettsia was detected in Hy. anatolicum (3/35, 8.5%) and Ha. sulcata (6/49, 12.2%). However, no rickettsial DNA was detected in Rh. microplus (35), Rh. turanicus (35), Ha. montgomeryi (42), and Ha. bispinosa (14). The gltA and ompB fragments showed 99–100% identity with R. hoogstraalii and clustered phylogenetically with the corresponding species from Pakistan, Italy, Georgia, and China. R. hoogstraalii was genetically characterized for the first time in Pakistan and Hy. anatolicum globally. Further studies should be encouraged to determine the role of ticks in the maintenance and transmission of R. hoogstraalii in different hosts.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-10-04
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10100605
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 606: Pet Owners’ Attitudes and
           Opinions towards Cat and Dog Care Practices in Aotearoa New Zealand

    • Authors: Rachel Forrest, Maria Pearson, Leena Awawdeh
      First page: 606
      Abstract: This research aimed to explore cat and dog owners’ attitudes and opinions towards various pet care practices in Aotearoa New Zealand (NZ), and determine what factors were associated with them. An online survey composed of both closed and open-ended questions was administered from January to March 2019. A total of 2358 respondents answered the questions on pet care practices. Of these, 37.5 percent (n = 885) were both dog and cat owners, 28.0 percent (n = 652) were cat owners, and 26.0 percent (n = 609) were dog owners, while 9% (n = 212) of respondents did not own a cat or dog at the time of taking the survey. The study revealed that most respondents (>90%) acknowledge the importance of providing adequate housing, regular worming and flea treatments, microchipping, and vaccinations for their pets. Notably, demographic factors such as gender, ethnicity, age range, having children, having a rural upbringing, and place of residence influenced owners’ attitudes, with those towards cat care practices varying more than those for dogs. The study highlights the need for responsible pet ownership interventions considering these demographic factors. The study identifies a knowledge gap among pet owners concerning the importance of regular veterinary visits and the impact of breeding for certain looks on animal welfare. The use of shock collar devices provoked varying opinions on their usage for training and behavior modification. The study suggests that enhancing pet owners’ knowledge is pivotal for responsible pet ownership. Overall, the findings emphasize the need for tailored interventions that account for demographic variations for promoting responsible pet ownership and animal welfare. The findings underscore the importance of improving access to veterinary health care teams, especially in rural areas, and of providing culturally appropriate education resources for both pet owners and veterinary health care teams.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-10-04
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10100606
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 607: Identifying the Risk Factors for
           Malignant Mammary Tumors in Dogs: A Retrospective Study

    • Authors: Elis Maressa Gonçalves da Silva, Thaisa Reis dos Santos, Marcelo José Barbosa Silva
      First page: 607
      Abstract: Mammary cancer is one of the main causes of death in female dogs worldwide, considering that many risk factors are involved in its development. This study aimed to elucidate the relationship between epidemiological and clinical risk factors with the histopathological diagnosis of malignant mammary tumors in dogs treated at the Veterinary Hospital of the Federal University of Uberlândia, which has one of the first veterinary oncology services in Brazil. A retrospective matched case-control study was conducted to identify risk factors for the development of malignant mammary tumors in dogs. The variables analyzed were size dog, breed, housing, type of diet, and body score. Potential risk factors were selected by univariate analysis (p < 0.25) before multivariate forward binary logistic regression. The most frequent benign tumor was the benign mixed tumor (35.2%), and the most frequent malignant tumor was the mixed carcinoma (27.4%). Size dog, breed, housing, and overweight are predictors of malignant mammary tumors in dogs. The highest risk of developing malignant mammary tumors is associated with large female dogs, Yorkshire or Poodle breeds, living outside the home, or being overweight.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-10-05
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10100607
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 608: Diagnostic Potential for the
           Detection of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis of an ELISA Assay Based on the
           Q5 Recombinant Protein: A Large-Scale and Comparative Evaluation Using
           Canine Sera with a Positive Diagnosis from the Dual-Path-Platform (DPP)

    • Authors: Larissa Ferreira de Araújo Paz, Adalúcia da Silva, Hemilly Rayanne Ferreira da Silva, Milena Paiva Cavalcanti, Valeria Marçal Felix de Lima, Maria Rosário Oliveira da Cunha Beltrão, Maria Beatriz Araújo Silva, Osvaldo Pompílio de Melo Neto, Zulma Maria Medeiros, Wagner José Tenório dos Santos
      First page: 608
      Abstract: Dogs are considered the major domestic reservoir for human visceral leishmaniasis, a serious disease caused by the Leishmania infantum parasite. Diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is critical for disease control, with several methods currently available. Among the serological tests, the DPP rapid test and the EIE-LVC, more commonly used in Brazil, are associated with variable sensitivity and specificity. Research with novel recombinant proteins such as the ELISA with the recombinant chimeric protein Q5 may therefore improve the CVL diagnosis. This study aimed to evaluate the true diagnostic potential of Q5 in an ELISA assay using a large number of CVL-suspected sera (406) with a previous positive diagnosis based on the rapid DPP test. Sera from the DPP-positive dogs, also assessed with the EIE-LVC test, were compared with sera from healthy dogs (n = 46) and used for ELISA tests using the recombinant Q5. The resulting data as well as the correlation with the clinical signs and the environmental characteristics of the animals were analyzed using Medal and GraphPad Prism 8.0. Overall, similar levels of lower sensitivity (67–68%) were seen for both the commercial EIE-LVC test and the Q5 ELISA when all assessed sera were considered, but a much greater sensitivity (92%) was seen for those samples from symptomatic dogs only. In contrast, many negative results were observed for the DPP-positive sera from asymptomatic dogs or those with no clinical information available. A selection of those sera were tested yet again in new ELISA assays using a second batch of the recombinant Q5, purified under milder denaturing conditions, as well as using another recombinant protein (Lci13). The results reveal a higher-than-expected incidence of likely false-positive results for DPP, reinforcing the need for other recombinant proteins, such as the chimeric Q5, to be investigated as possible alternatives to the currently used CVL diagnostic methods.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-10-07
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10100608
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 609: Emergent Molecular Techniques
           Applied to the Detection of Porcine Viruses

    • Authors: Elda A. Flores-Contreras, Jorge Alberto Carrasco-González, Daniel C. L. Linhares, Cesar A. Corzo, J. Israel Campos-Villalobos, Alexandra Henao-Díaz, Elda M. Melchor-Martínez, Hafiz M. N. Iqbal, Reyna Berenice González-González, Roberto Parra-Saldívar, Everardo González-González
      First page: 609
      Abstract: Molecular diagnostic tests have evolved very rapidly in the field of human health, especially with the arrival of the recent pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. However, the animal sector is constantly neglected, even though accurate detection by molecular tools could represent economic advantages by preventing the spread of viruses. In this regard, the swine industry is of great interest. The main viruses that affect the swine industry are described in this review, including African swine fever virus (ASFV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), and porcine circovirus (PCV), which have been effectively detected by different molecular tools in recent times. Here, we describe the rationale of molecular techniques such as multiplex PCR, isothermal methods (LAMP, NASBA, RPA, and PSR) and novel methods such as CRISPR-Cas and microfluidics platforms. Successful molecular diagnostic developments are presented by highlighting their most important findings. Finally, we describe the barriers that hinder the large-scale development of affordable, accessible, rapid, and easy-to-use molecular diagnostic tests. The evolution of diagnostic techniques is critical to prevent the spread of viruses and the development of viral reservoirs in the swine industry that impact the possible development of future pandemics and the world economy.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-10-07
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10100609
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 610: Relative Abundance of
           Spermadhesin-1 in the Seminal Plasma of Young Nellore Bulls Is in
           Agreement with Reproductive Parameters

    • Authors: Camilo José Ramírez-López, Edvaldo Barros, Pedro Marcus Pereira Vidigal, Denise Silva Okano, Juliana Nascimento Duarte Rodrigues, Lidiany Lopes Gomes, José Carlos Montes-Vergara, Victor Gerardo Petro Hernandez, Maria Cristina Baracat-Pereira, Simone Eliza Facioni Guimarães, José Domingos Guimarães
      First page: 610
      Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the proteomic profile of seminal plasma from young Nellore bulls. We used 20 bulls aged between 19.8 and 22.7 months, divided into two groups according to the results of the Breeding Soundness Evaluation (BSE): approved (FIT n = 10) and not approved (UNFIT n = 10). The scrotal perimeter was measured and a semen collection was performed through electroejaculation. The percentage of sperm motility, mass motility, and sperm vigor were calculated using conventional microscopy, and the percentage of sperm abnormalities was calculated using phase-contrast microscopy of all ejaculates. Seminal plasma was separated from spermatozoa using centrifugation and processed for proteomic analysis by LC-MS/MS. Seminal plasma proteins were identified using MASCOT Daemon software v.2.4.0 and label-free quantification analysis was carried out by SCAFFOLD Q+ software v.4.0 using the Exponentially Modified Protein Abundance Index (emPAI) method. Functional classification of proteins was performed based on their genetic ontology terms using KOG. Functional cluster analysis was performed on DAVID. There were no differences in scrotal perimeter and physical semen characteristics between FIT and UNFIT groups of bulls. The percentage of sperm abnormalities was higher (p < 0.05) in the UNFIT group of bulls. A total of 297 proteins were identified for the two groups. There were a total of 11 differentially abundant proteins (p < 0.05), two of them more abundant in FIT bulls (Spermadhesin-1 and Ig gamma-1 chain C region) and nine in UNFIT bulls (Vasoactive intestinal peptide, Metalloproteinase inhibitor 2, Ig lambda-1 chain C regions, Protein FAM3C, Hemoglobin beta, Seminal ribonuclease, Spermadhesin 2, Seminal plasma protein BSP-30kDa, and Spermadhesin Z13). Spermadhesin-1 was the protein with the highest relative abundance (36.7%) in the seminal plasma among all bulls, corresponding to 47.7% for the FIT bulls and 25,7% for the UNFIT bulls. Posttranslational modification, protein turnover, and chaperones were the functional categories with the highest number of classified proteins. Protein functional annotation clusters were related to Phospholipid efflux, ATP binding, and chaperonin-containing T-complex. The differentially abundant proteins in the group of FIT bulls were related to sperm capacitation and protection against reactive species of oxygen. In contrast, differentially expressed proteins in the group of UNFIT bulls were related to motility inhibition, intramembrane cholesterol removal and oxidative stress. In conclusion, the proteomic profile of the seminal plasma of FIT bulls presents proteins with participation in several biological processes favorable to fertilization, while the proteins of the seminal plasma of UNFIT bulls indicate a series of alterations that can compromise the fertilizing capacity of the spermatozoa. In addition, the relative abundance of spermadhesin-1 found in the seminal plasma of young Nellore bulls could be studied as a reproductive parameter for selection.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-10-07
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10100610
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 611: A Post-Operative Follow-Up of an
           Endangered Saltwater Fish Lensectomy for Cataract Management in a Public
           Aquarium: A Case Series

    • Authors: Julie Pujol, Benjamin Lamglait, Maria Vanore, Catherine Rousseau, Claire Vergneau-Grosset
      First page: 611
      Abstract: Mature cataracts can be a life-threatening condition in fish as it may result in anorexia. Lens extraction has been previously described in fish, but the long-term outcome of this procedure has not been evaluated. Eleven captive-bred adult fish housed in a public aquarium presented with unilateral (n = 3/11) or bilateral (n = 8/11) mature cataracts. All cases belonged to three endangered fish populations: striped bass (Morone saxatilis) originating from the Saint Lawrence River and Atlantic and spotted wolffish (Anarhichas lupus and Anarhichas minor). Pre-operatively, fish presented with anorexia, dark discoloration, abnormal position in the water column, skin abrasions, and/or decreased body condition scores. A lensectomy was performed in eleven fish, including a bilateral procedure in four fish, corresponding to fifteen eyes. Follow-up examinations were performed one to two weeks and one year post surgery. The main complication was self-resolving: corneal edema was present in 67% of eyes, persistent after a week in 47% of eyes, and resolved thereafter. Post-operatively, 73% of fish resumed feeding and regained a good body condition score. Persistent visual impairment post-surgery associated with anorexia required euthanasia in three out of eleven cases. The median time of death was 336 days post surgery (range: 27–1439 days) and three cases were still alive 1334 to 1425 days after the lensectomy. This was considered a favorable outcome for these older individuals with concurrent diseases.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-10-08
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10100611
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 612: Bioactive Lipid Compounds as
           Eco-Friendly Agents in the Diets of Broiler Chicks for Sustainable
           Production and Health Status

    • Authors: Ahmed A. A. Abdel-Wareth, Jayant Lohakare
      First page: 612
      Abstract: Phytogenic compounds can improve feed efficiency, meat quality, and the health status of chickens under hot climatic conditions. The current study investigated the impact of the bioactive lipid compounds of oregano and peppermint and their combination on the sustainability of meat production and the health of broiler chicks in hot climatic conditions. Two hundred and fifty-six one-day-old broiler chicks were distributed into four treatment groups. The birds were fed a control diet, bioactive lipid compounds of oregano (BLCO, 150 mg/kg), bioactive lipid compounds of peppermint (BLCP, 150 mg/kg), or a combination of BLCO and BLCP at 150 mg/kg each for 35 days. Each treatment included 8 replicates, each with 8 birds. The results showed that adding BLCO and BLCP separately or in combination to broiler diets improved body weight, body weight gain, and feed conversion ratio. BLCO, BLCP, or their combination increased the percentages of the dressing and gizzard and lowered the percentage of abdominal fat as compared to the control. Supplementation of BLCO, BLCP, or their combination decreased serum cholesterol, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transaminase, creatinine, and urea compared to control. BLCO, BLCP, or their combination reduced cook and drip loss in the meat of broilers. In conclusion, birds fed diets containing BLCO and BLCP, either independently or in combination, showed improvements in performance, blood biochemistry, and meat quality in hot climatic conditions.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-10-09
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10100612
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 613: Efficacy and Safety of
           Subcutaneous Allergen-Specific Immuno-Therapy in Horses with Allergic
           Cutaneous and Respiratory Diseases—A Systematic Review

    • Authors: Ina Herrmann, Adrianna Jordan Sanchez
      First page: 613
      Abstract: Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) is the only current intervention that has the ability to modify the immune response toward a tolerogenic state. This study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of AIT in horses with allergic diseases in a systematic manner. Three databases were searched to identify articles reporting clinical outcomes and adverse events associated with AIT. The articles were evaluated for beneficial responses to AIT, defined as a ≥50% reduction in clinical signs, and clinical remission. Horses with respiratory diseases, urticaria, and pruritic dermatitis receiving insect monotherapy or multi-allergen AIT were included. All adverse events were graded, and analytical and confounding biases were assessed. The results showed that multi-allergen AIT had a beneficial response in 75% of horses with respiratory diseases, 88% with urticaria, and 56% with pruritic dermatitis. However, horses treated solely with insect AIT for pruritic dermatitis had a lower response rate (36%). Self-limiting local reactions were the most common adverse events, with systemic reactions grade II accounting for 11% of reported events. Analytical and confounding biases were identified as major limitations in the available studies. Further research is needed to address these biases and provide stronger evidence on the efficacy and safety of AIT in horses with allergic diseases.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-10-10
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10100613
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 614: Establishment of the Maximum
           Residual Limit in the Milk of Dairy Cows Injected Intramuscularly with

    • Authors: Seung Shik Rha, Ye Jin Yang, Woo Hyun Kim, Yeung Bae Jin, Kwang Il Park, Hu-Jang Lee
      First page: 614
      Abstract: We measured the levels of prednisolone (PSL) residues in milk of intramuscularly dosed dairy cows and established a withdrawal time (WT) of PSL in milk. Eight healthy Holstein cows were injected with 10 (PSL-1) or 20 (PSL-2) mL of 10 mg/mL of PSL, and then, their milk was sampled at 12 h intervals for five days. PSL residue concentrations in milk were determined using LC-MS/MS. The correlation coefficient of the calibration curve was 0.9976. The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.2 µg/kg and 0.6 μg/kg, respectively. Recoveries ranged from 96.5% to 110.0%, and the coefficient of variation was <5.64%. At 24 h after administration, PSL levels in PSL-1 and PSL-2 were below the LOQ in all milk samples. Although this study had a smaller sample size than the European Medicines Agency’s recommendations (n = 20), it was based on the Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency guidelines of the Republic of Korea (n = 8) for the determination of withdrawal periods in milk. We established the withdrawal period for both PSL-1 and PSL-2 in milk at 12 h. In conclusion, we developed an analytical method that is sensitive and can reliably detect PSL in milk, and our estimated WT of PSL in bovine milk is shorter than the current 3-day withdrawal period of PSL in commercial PSL products.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-10-10
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10100614
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 615: Acute and 28-Day Repeated-Dose
           Oral Toxicity of the Herbal Formula Guixiong Yimu San in Mice and
           Sprague–Dawley Rats

    • Authors: Ling Wang, Jiongjie He, Lianghong Wu, Xueqin Wu, Baocheng Hao, Shengyi Wang, Dongan Cui
      First page: 615
      Abstract: To evaluate the acute and chronic 28-day repeated-dose oral toxicity of Guixiong Yimu San (GYS) in mice and rats, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine the stachydrine hydrochloride in GYS as the quality control. In the acute toxicity trial, the mice were administered orally at a dose rate of 30.0 g GYS/kg body weight (BW) three times a day. The general behavior, side effects, and death rate were noticed for 14 days following treatment. In the subacute toxicity trial, the rats were administered orally at a dose rates of30.0, 15.0, and 7.5 g GYS/kg BW once a day for 28 days. The rats were monitored every day for clinical signs and deaths; changes in body weight and relative organ weights (ROW) were recorded every week, hematological, biochemical, and pathological parameters were also examined at the end of treatment. The results showed that the level of stachydrine hydrochloride in GYS was 2.272 mg/g. In the acute toxicity trial, the maximum-tolerated dose of GYS was more than 90.0 g/kg BW, and no adverse effects or mortalities were noticed during the 14 days in the mice. At the given dose, there were no death or toxicity signs all through the 28-day subacute toxicity trial.The oral administration of GYS at a dose rate of 30.0 g/kg/day BW had no substantial effects on BW, ROW, blood hematology, gross pathology, histopathology, and biochemistry (except glucose), so 30.0 g/kg BW/day was determined as the no-observed-adverse-effect dosage.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-10-10
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10100615
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 616: Characterisation of Milk
           Microbiota from Subclinical Mastitis and Apparently Healthy Dairy Cattle
           in Free State Province, South Africa

    • Authors: N. G. Khasapane, Z. T. H. Khumalo, S. Kwenda, S. J. Nkhebenyane, O. Thekisoe
      First page: 616
      Abstract: Bovine mastitis is an inflammation of the udder tissue of the mammary gland brought on by microbial infections or physical damage. It is characterised by physical, chemical, and biological changes in the udder and milk. While several different bacterial species have been identified as causative agents of mastitis, many subclinical mastitis (SCM) cases remain culture-negative. The aim of this study was to characterise milk microbiota from SCM and apparently healthy dairy cows (non-SCM) by 16S rRNA sequencing. Alpha-diversity metrics showed significant differences between SCM cows and non-SCM counterparts. The beta-diversity metrics in the principal coordinate analysis significantly clustered samples by type (PERMANOVA test, p < 0.05), while non-metric dimensional scaling did not (PERMANOVA test, p = 0.07). The overall analysis indicated a total of 95 phyla, 33 classes, 82 orders, 124 families, 202 genera, and 119 bacterial species. Four phyla, namely Actinobacteriota, Bacteroidota, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria collectively accounted for more than 97% of all sequencing reads from SCM and non-SCM cow samples. The most abundant bacterial classes were Actinobacteria, Bacilli, Bacteroidia, Clostridia, and Gammaproteobacteria in non-SCM cow samples, whilst SCM cow samples were mainly composed of Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Bacilli, Clostridia, and Gammaproteobacteria. Dominant bacterial species in non-SCM cow samples were Anthropi spp., Pseudomonas azotoformans, P. fragi, Acinetobacter guillouiae, Enterococcus italicus, Lactococcus lactis, whilst P. azotoformans, Mycobacterium bovis, P. fragi, Acinetobacter guillouiae, and P. koreensis were dominant in the SCM cow samples. The current study found differences in bacterial species between SCM and non-SCM cow milk; hence, the need for detailed epidemiological studies.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-10-11
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10100616
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 617: The Use of Additives to Prevent
           Urolithiasis in Lambs Fed Diets with a High Proportion of Concentrate

    • Authors: Vicente Luiz Macêdo Buarque, Helena Viel Alves Bezerra, Guilherme Pegoraro Rissi, Regner Ítalo Gonçalves de Oliveira, Natália Marques da Silva, Nara Regina Brandão Cônsolo, Germán Darío Ramírez-Zamudio, Ricardo de Francisco Strefezzi, Sarita Bonagurio Gallo, Saulo Luz Silva, Paulo Roberto Leme
      First page: 617
      Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of different additives in preventing urolithiasis in lambs fed a diet rich in concentrate and their impact on performance and blood and urinary parameters. Thirty-two noncastrated male lambs, crossbred Dorper × Santa Inês, with initial body weights (BWs) of 23 ± 0.1 kg and ages of 50 ± 5 days, were kept in individual pens and fed a diet composed of 6% Cynodon ssp. hay and 94% concentrate and subjected to four treatments: CON without inclusion of additives, addition of ACL 5 g/kg of dry matter (DM), addition of CCL 6.3 g/kg of DM, and addition of BZA 5 g/kg of DM. There was no effect of treatment or interaction with time on blood parameters (p > 0.050), and performance characteristics, morphometry of ruminal papillae, and scores of cecum and rumen lesions were not affected by the addition of additives to the diet (p > 0.050). Greater urinary acidification was observed in animals from CCL and ACL treatments (p = 0.033). Calcium chloride acidified the urinary pH and can be used instead of ammonium chloride at a concentration of 0.63% based on DM, when this is the objective.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-10-11
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10100617
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 618: The Effects of Milk Replacer
           Supplemented with Ascophyllum nodosum as a Novel Ingredient to Prevent
           Neonatal Diarrhea in Dairy Calves and Improve Their Health Status

    • Authors: Elena Scaglia, Serena Reggi, Benedetta Canala, Sara Frazzini, Matteo Dell’Anno, Monika Hejna, Luciana Rossi
      First page: 618
      Abstract: Nutrition and health during pre-weaning affect the calves’ future fertility, calving age, production, and carrier length. Calves are highly susceptible to neonatal calf diarrhea (NCD), which can be fatal. NCD is due to hypovolemia and acidosis, which may involve anorexia and ataxia. The One Health principle calls for a drastic reduction in antimicrobial use. One approach is to improve animal health and reduce the use of antibiotics and functional ingredients that have beneficial effects due to bioactive compounds. Several functional ingredients and additives can be considered, and, in particular for this study, Ascophyllum nodosum was considered. The present study aimed to evaluate the role of A. nodosum as a functional ingredient implemented into the milk replacer in neonatal calves. Twelve pre-weaned Holstein Frisian calves, housed in twelve individual pens in the same environmental conditions, were divided into two groups of six animals: a control group (CTRL, n = 6) fed with a milk replacer, and a treatment group receiving milk enriched with 10 g of A. nodosum in their diet (TRT, n = 6) for 42 days. The fecal score was evaluated daily (3–0 scale) to monitor the incidence of diarrhea in the two groups. The body weight was evaluated weekly, and every two weeks feces were collected for microbiological evaluation using a selective medium for plate counting of total, lactic acid, and coliform bacteria. To verify the presence of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Escherichia coli, real-time qPCR was used. At the beginning and at the end of the trial, blood samples were obtained for serum metabolite analysis. The growth performance did not differ in either of the two groups, but significant differences were observed in the incidence of moderate diarrhea (p-value < 0.0113), where the TRT group showed a lower incidence of cases during the 42-day period. Serum analysis highlighted higher contents of albumin, calcium, phosphorus, and total cholesterol in the TRT group compared to CTRL (p-value < 0.05). In conclusion, implementation of A. nodosum in the diet of calves can lead to better animal welfare and may reduce the use of antibiotics.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-10-13
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10100618
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 619: Evaluation of Presumptive Normal
           Feline Tonsils with Low-Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Preliminary
           Retrospective Study

    • Authors: Martina Rosto, Francesca Del Signore, Nicola Bernabò, Andrea De Bonis, Sara Canal, Andrea Paolini, Roberto Tamburro, Amanda Bianchi, Massimo Vignoli
      First page: 619
      Abstract: Palatine tonsils are lymphoid organs, whose anatomic localization gives them a role against antigens entering the body during feeding and breathing. In human medicine, MRI is used to investigate tonsillar diseases. In veterinary medicine, a recent study on healthy dogs described the MRI appearance of canine palatine tonsils, with no available reports about feline ones. Due to the similarities between animals and humans, and based on the study on canine tonsils, the authors aimed to evaluate the feasibility of low-field MRI to detect and describe presumed normal features of feline palatine tonsils, assessing the finding’s reproducibility. Low-field MRI of the heads of 14 cats was reviewed, and qualitative findings (visualization, shape, margins, signal intensity, and pattern) and size of each tonsil were recorded. Each observer recorded 71% of the expected tonsils. Most of them were classified as oval, ill-defined, and hyperintense structures with both homogeneous and heterogeneous signal patterns; the overall agreement was considered good. Low-field MRI is potentially a useful imaging modality to visualize palatine tonsils in cats, and their normal appearance has been described for the first time. The authors recommend the evaluation of tonsils in the transverse plane and consider the most accurate estimation of the short axis.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-10-14
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10100619
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 620: High-Dose Hydrocortisone
           Treatment Does Not Affect Serum C-Reactive Protein (CRP) Concentrations in
           Healthy Dogs

    • Authors: Romy M. Heilmann, Niels Grützner, Peter H. Kook, Stefan Schellenberg, Jan S. Suchodolski, Joerg M. Steiner
      First page: 620
      Abstract: Measuring C-reactive protein (CRP) in serum is a useful surrogate marker for assessing disease progression and treatment response in dogs with autoinflammatory diseases. Affected dogs often receive high-dose glucocorticoid treatment, but the effect of such treatment alone on serum CRP concentrations is unknown. We evaluated serum CRP concentrations via immunoassay (sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and particle-enhanced turbidimetric immunoassay) in 12 healthy beagle dogs administered high-dose hydrocortisone (8 mg/kg q12 h) per os vs. placebo over 28 days (days 0, 1, 5, and 28) in a randomized parallel study design. Serum CRP concentrations slightly decreased during treatment or placebo but without a significant association with hydrocortisone administration (p = 0.761). Compared to baseline, serum CRP concentrations were decreased by >2.7-fold (minimum critical difference) in three hydrocortisone-treated dogs and two dogs in the placebo group on day 28, whereas an increase to >2.7-fold was seen in one dog receiving placebo. These results suggest a lack of confounding effects of high-dose hydrocortisone administration on serum CRP concentrations in healthy dogs. This might also hold in dogs with autoinflammatory conditions and/or administration of other high-dose corticosteroids, suggesting that CRP presents a suitable biomarker to monitor inflammatory disease processes. However, this needs confirmation by further studies evaluating corticosteroid-induced cellular (e.g., hepatic) transcriptome and proteome changes.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-10-15
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10100620
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 621: Biological Variation in
           Biochemistry Analytes in Laboratory Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus)

    • Authors: Gabriele Rossi, Kwei-Farn Liu, Helen Kershaw, Dayna Riddell, Timothy H. Hyndman, Deborah Monks, Gabrielle C. Musk
      First page: 621
      Abstract: Biological variation (BV) describes the physiological random fluctuation around a homeostatic set point, which is a characteristic of all blood measurands (analytes). That variation may impact the clinical relevance of the changes that are observed in the serial results for an individual. Biological variation is represented mathematically by the coefficient of variation (CV) and occurs within each individual (CVI) and between individuals in a population (CVG). Biological variation data can be used to assess whether population-based reference or subject-based reference intervals should be used for the interpretation of laboratory results through the calculation of the index of individuality (IoI). This study aimed to determine the biological variations, calculate the IoI and reference change values (RCV) of clinical chemistry analytes in an outbred strain colony of Hartley guinea pigs (GPs), and set the quality specifications for clinical chemistry analytes. Blood was collected from 16 healthy adult laboratory colony GPs via jugular venipuncture at weekly intervals over six weeks. All the samples were frozen and analyzed in a single run. Analytical, CVI, and CVG biological variations, together with the IoI and RCV, were calculated for each measurand. Based on the estimated BV, the calculated IoI was low for glucose, so individual reference intervals (RCV) should be used. The majority of the measurands should be interpreted using both population-based and subject-based reference intervals as the IoIs were intermediate.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-10-17
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10100621
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 622: Pregnancy Complications and
           Feto-Maternal Monitoring in Rabbits

    • Authors: Patrícia Pinto-Pinho, Maria de Lurdes Pinto, José Monteiro, Margarida Fardilha, Rosário Pinto-Leite, Bruno Colaço
      First page: 622
      Abstract: Rabbit production holds significant relevance in modern agriculture due to its potential as a sustainable source of high-quality protein and efficient feed conversion, contributing to food security and economic diversification. Nevertheless, studies incorporating feto-maternal monitoring in this species are uncommon. This review gathers research on the monitoring and evaluation of factors affecting rabbit gestation, providing a better understanding of the causes of prenatal development abnormalities. These include studies regarding how chronic maternal hypertension, gestational diabetes, maternal stress, ectopic gestation, maternal uterine ischemia and fetal hypoxia, intrauterine growth restriction, superfetation, maternal age, maternal nutritional status, maternal physical condition, maternal and embryonic genotype, and the intrauterine location of rabbit fetuses can potentially impact rabbits’ reproduction and maternal and fetal health. Among other monitoring techniques, ultrasonography, considered one of the best tools for diagnosing pregnancy and conducting follow-up, is also reviewed. Details on measurable fetal-development parameters in rabbits and precautions to be considered before and during the examination are also provided. Additional studies are required to understand why some events occur and their consequences throughout gestation, allowing the determination of new biomarkers or cut-offs that can be helpful for early diagnosis and improve reproductive efficiency.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-10-17
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10100622
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 623: Analytical Validation of Two
           Assays for Equine Ceruloplasmin Ferroxidase Activity Assessment

    • Authors: Stefano Cecchini Gualandi, Tommaso Di Palma, Raffaele Boni
      First page: 623
      Abstract: Ceruloplasmin (Cp) assessment in biological samples exploits the oxidase activity of this enzyme against several substrates, such as p-phenylenediamine (p-P), o-dianisidine (o-D) and, most recently, ammonium iron(II) sulfate (AIS). Once developed in humans, these assays are often used in veterinary medicine without appropriately optimizing in the animal species of interest. In this study, two assays using AIS and o-D as substrates have been compared and validated for Cp oxidase activity assessment in horse’s plasma. The optimization of the assays was performed mainly by varying the buffer pH as well as the buffer and the substrate molar concentration. Under the best analytical conditions obtained, the horse blood serum samples were treated with sodium azide, a potent Cp inhibitor. In the o-D assay, 500 µM sodium azide treatment completely inhibits the enzymatic activity of Cp, whereas, using the AIS assay, a residual analytical signal was still present even at the highest (2000 µM) sodium azide concentration. Even though the analytical values obtained from these methods are well correlated, the enzymatic activity values significantly differ when expressed in Units L−1. A disagreement between these assays has also been detected with the Bland–Altman plot, showing a progressive discrepancy between methods with increasing analytical values.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10100623
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 624: Ovarian Dynamics and Changes in
           Estradiol-17β and Progesterone Relationship with Standing Estrus,
           Preovulatory Follicles, and Ovulation Using Single Prostaglandin F2α
           Injection in Barbari Goats

    • Authors: Tariq Sohail, Muhammad Farhab, Liuming Zhang, Yan Kang, Xiaomei Sun, Dejun Ji, Yongjun Li
      First page: 624
      Abstract: The purpose of the present research was to define ovarian follicular dynamics and plasma endocrine profiles in response to a single PGF2α injection, administered indiscriminately during the breeding season of Barbari goats. Ovarian dynamics were observed at every 12 h interval by using B mode ultrasonography, blood samples for hormonal analysis such as estradiol 17β and progesterone were collected at every 12 h interval, and bucks with aprons were used to identify standing estrus at every 6 h interval. Relative to PGF2α, the start of standing estrus and ovulation differ (p < 0.05) between early- (n = 7), intermediate- (n = 6), and late-responding (n = 6) goats. The highest plasma level of estradiol 17β was detected 12 h prior to ovulation. The average diameter of the ovulatory follicle and length of standing estrus were comparable (p > 0.05) between the goats. The corpus luteum degenerated more quickly (p < 0.05) in early- than intermediate- and late-responding goats. Dominant follicle diameter and estradiol 17β concentration also differ (p < 0.05) among groups. Although the plasma level of progesterone did not vary (p = 0.065), the variation in progesterone concentration with time differed (p < 0.05) amongst the goats. As a result, this research indirectly reveals that the beginning of standing estrus, end of estrus, and ovulation after PGF2α might fluctuate in Barbari goats because of follicular and hormonal dynamics during the luteal phase.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-10-19
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10100624
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 625: A Real-Time Recombinase
           Polymerase Amplification Assay for Specific Detection of Lumpy Skin
           Disease Virus

    • Authors: Qi Zhai, Xia Zhou, Liyin Du, Nan Yang, Yakun Lou, Jianying Liu, Shaolun Zhai
      First page: 625
      Abstract: Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) infection, accompanied by loss of hide quality, poor reproductive efficiency, consistent degenerative emaciation, and milk yield reduction of animals, causes severe economic implications in endemic zones. The heterologous attenuated goat pox (GTPV) vaccine (AV41 strain) was used in China to prevent LSDV infection. Only a few LSDV detection methods that distinguish LSDV from GTPV vaccine strains have been reported before. For simple, rapid, and specific detection of LSDV, the real-time recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) method was established with the specific primers and probes designed according to the conserved regions of ORF132 gene sequences. The assay could be finished within 20 min at a constant temperature (39 °C). This method had a limit of detection (LOD) of 15 copies/μL for LSDV and no cross-reaction with the nucleic acids of goat pox virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, Pasteurella multocida, and bovine healthy tissue. Furthermore, 43 clinical samples were detected by this method and the real-time PCR recommended by the World Organisation for Animal Health (WOAH), with a kappa value, was 0.94. These results demonstrated that the real-time RPA method for detecting LSDV developed in this study was characterized by high sensitivity and specificity, which has wide application value in the clinical diagnosis and detection of LSDV in China.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-10-19
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10100625
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 626: Multiple Hepatic Lipoma: A Case
           Report of Captive Hill Mynah with Iron Storage Disease

    • Authors: Seoungw-Woo Lee, Soong-Hee Youn, Jin-Kyu Park
      First page: 626
      Abstract: The present case describes multiple hepatic lipomas in a common hill mynah (Gracula religiosa). A 21-year-old female captive common hill mynah died without any notable clinical symptoms. An autopsy and histopathological examinations were conducted to determine the exact cause of death. On gross observation, the liver demonstrated a yellowish white surface color and multiple nodules indicating neoplastic lesions. Histopathological assessment found that the nodules purely comprised mature adipocytes. Furthermore, the liver exhibited an excessive accumulation of iron in hepatocytes and Kupffer cells and the infiltration of chronic inflammatory cells, suggesting iron storage disease (ISD). Based on the results, the present case was diagnosed as multiple hepatic lipomas with ISD. To the authors’ best knowledge, multiple hepatic lipomas accompanying ISD lesions have not been reported previously. Hence, the present case is the first case report of hepatic multiple lipomas with ISD in veterinary medicine.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-10-19
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10100626
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 627: Euthanasia of Cats by Australian
           Veterinarians: A Survey of Current Practices

    • Authors: Hedia Chan, Brianne Marlene Pepper, Michael P. Ward, Anne Quain
      First page: 627
      Abstract: We sought to document the contemporary feline euthanasia practices among Australian veterinarians and determine the factors associated with the administration of a premedication or sedation prior to euthanasia. Australian veterinarians who had euthanised at least one cat during the previous 12 months were invited to participate in an anonymous online survey. From 615 valid responses, 585 respondents (95.1%) had euthanised at least one cat in the last 12 months, of which 462 respondents (75.1%) had performed an emergency euthanasia. Intravenous (IV) injection (n = 536, 91.6%) of pentobarbitone sodium (n = 584, 99.8%) was the predominant primary method. Premedication or sedation was administered to cats by 415/585 (71.0%) and 242/462 (52.4%) of respondents in non-emergency and emergency euthanasia, respectively. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, for non-emergency euthanasia, being female and working in a metropolitan area were significant predictors for administering a premedication or sedation (p < 0.001 and p = 0.037, respectively). For emergency euthanasia, working in an ‘other’ type of practice was a significant predictor for administering a premedication or sedation (p < 0.001). Australian veterinarians vary in their approach to feline euthanasia. There is scope for refinement of euthanasia techniques to maximise the welfare of cats, their owners or guardians, and veterinary team members.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-10-19
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10100627
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 628: Argas persicus and Carios
           vespertilionis Ticks Infesting Ducks, Domestic Fowls and Bats in Pakistan:
           First Report on Molecular Survey and Phylogenetic Position of Borrelia

    • Authors: Hafsa Zahid, Abdulaziz Alouffi, Mashal M. Almutairi, Muhammad Ateeq, Tetsuya Tanaka, Shun-Chung Chang, Chien-Chin Chen, Abid Ali
      First page: 628
      Abstract: Argasid ticks have the vectorial potential for transmitting disease-causing pathogens to avian hosts, resulting in economic losses that may not be fully estimated. Borrelia species are the responsible agents of borreliosis in poultry, animals and humans. Our previous studies have reported a high prevalence of Argas persicus infesting domestic fowls in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan. However, molecular screening and genetic characterization of Borrelia spp. in A. persicus have been neglected in Pakistan. In this study, we focused on the molecular epidemiology and genetic characterization of Borrelia spp. associated with A. persicus ticks infesting domestic fowls and ducks, and Carios vespertilionis infesting bats in selected districts of KP. Overall, 1818 ticks, including females (415; 23%), males (345; 19%), nymphs (475; 26%) and larvae (583; 32%), were collected from 27 locations in nine districts (Peshawar, Mardan, Swabi, Charsadda, Chitral, Lakki Marwat, Bannu, Bajaur and Hangu) from domestic fowls, ducks and their shelters, and bats. A subset of 197 ticks was selected for DNA extraction and PCR to amplify fragments of the cytochrome c oxidase (cox) gene for ticks and flagellin B (flaB) for the detection and genetic characterization of associated Borrelia spp. Among these, only Borrelia anserina DNA was detected in 40 ticks (27.2%) of different life stages, where highest prevalence was found in female ticks (18; 45%), followed by nymphs (12; 30%), larvae (7; 17.5%) and males (3; 7.5%). Tick infestation in shelters (1081; 77%) was higher than on hosts (323; 23%). The resultant cox amplicons of A. persicus showed 100% identity with the same species reported from Pakistan, China, Iran, Kenya, Kazakhstan, Algeria and Egypt and C. vespertilionis show 100% identity with the species reported from Pakistan, China, Japan, Kenya, Vietnam, Spain, Netherlands, the United Kingdom and Hungry, and clustered with the aforementioned species in the phylogenetic tree. The obtained Borrelia sequences showed 100% identity with B. anserina and revealed a close resemblance to the relapsing fever group and clustered in a monophyletic clade with B. anserina from India, Iran and Brazil in a phylogenetic tree. These results establish the first molecular characterization of B. anserina in A. persicus infesting domestic fowls and ducks in the region, as well as their shelters. To effectively control zoonotic consequences, country-wide surveillance research should be encouraged to screen soft ticks infesting various birds for associated pathogens.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-10-20
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10100628
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2023)
  • Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 10, Pages 629: Management Practices of Bovine
           Mastitis and Milk Quality on Egyptian Dairies

    • Authors: Heba S. Farag, Sharif S. Aly, Karima M. Fahim, Adel A. Fayed, Essam M. Abdelfattah, Samah M. El-Sayed, Yamen M. Hegazy, Wagdy R. ElAshmawy
      First page: 629
      Abstract: Milk production continues to be the main source of income for dairy producers, and mastitis continues to be the major health challenge for dairy cows worldwide. The objective of the current study was to describe the different management practices implemented in Egyptian dairies, which may influence mastitis and improve milk quality. An in-person survey was completed with herd managers and owners of 20 Egyptian dairies selected using a stratified random sample from four of Egypt’s milk sheds. The questionnaire included 80 questions that inquired about herd demographics, mastitis status and control, milking practices, and management practices of the study dairies. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics, multiple factor analysis (MFA), and hierarchical clustering to identify the important principal components and different dairy clusters. Of the surveyed herds, 69.50% had less than 500 lactating cows, with Holstein as the main cow breed. The reported average milk production on the study herds was 31.1 (SE ± 1.10) Kg/cow/day. Housing of lactating, dry, and close-up cows was in open lots. The majority of the dairies milked cows were three times per day (90.63%), the remaining milked cows four (5.00%) or a mix of four and three times per day. Furthermore, herringbone parlor design was the most common parlor design (66.79%) in the study dairies. The most common disinfectants used for both pre- and post-milking teat dip were iodine-based, 90.0% and 95.0%, respectively, while 52.16% of the dairies reported that their milkers wore gloves during milking. The reported mean annual percentage of mastitis was 52.3%, as a percent of the milking herd. The study dairies reported the inspection of udder health through either visual inspection (95.00%), udder hygiene score (86.88%), teat end score (71.88%), and/or using CMT (54.91%). Contagious mastitis pathogens were reported in 45.2% of the study herds. More than 50% of the study herds relied on importing pregnant cows or pregnant heifers as replacements. Multiple factor analysis identified 20 questions and represented 5 components of variability related to mastitis on dairies. The current survey of Egyptian dairies described the herd demographics and different management practices related to mastitis control and prevention. All the study dairies relied on the blanket intramammary antimicrobial drugs at dry off when current research elsewhere has identified selective dry cow therapy as an integral component of antimicrobial stewardship on dairies. Further research is required to identify the association between different management factors and the occurrence of mastitis.
      Citation: Veterinary Sciences
      PubDate: 2023-10-21
      DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10100629
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2023)
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