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Acta Veterinaria
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.287
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0567-8315 - ISSN (Online) 1820-7448
Published by Sciendo Homepage  [370 journals]
  • Diet Supplementation Helps Honey Bee Colonies in Combat Infections by
           Enhancing their Hygienic Behaviour

    • Abstract: The hygienic behavior in honey bees is a complex polygenic trait that serves as a natural defense mechanism against bacterial and fungal brood diseases and Varroa destructor mites infesting brood cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a dietary amino acids and vitamins supplement “BEEWELL AminoPlus” on hygienic behavior of Apis mellifera colonies combating microsporidial and viral infections. The experiment was performed during a one-year period on 40 colonies alloted to five groups: one supplemented and infected with Nosema ceranae and four viruses (Deformed wing virus - DWV, Acute bee paralysis virus - ABPV, Chronic bee paralysis virus - CBPV and Sacbrood virus – SBV), three not supplemented, but infected with N. ceranae and/ or viruses, and one negative control group. Beside the l isted pathogens, honey bee trypanosomatids were also monitored in all groups.The supplement “BEEWELL AminoPlus” induced a significant and consistent increase of the hygienic behavior in spite of the negative effects of N. ceranae and viral infections. N. ceranae and viruses significantly and consistently decreased hygienic behavior, but also threatened the survival of bee colonies. The tested supplement showed anti-Nosema effect, since the N. ceranae infection level significantly and consistently declined only in the supplemented group. Among infected groups, only the supplemented one remained Lotmaria passim-free throughout the study. In conclusion, diet supplementation enhances hygienic behavior of honey bee colonies and helps them fight the most common infections of honey bees.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Effects of Diazepam on Hematological and Histological Parameters in Rats /
           and Unbiased Stereological Investigation

    • Abstract: Diazepam-based drugs are widely used today in human treatment. Diazepam may be a primary drug aimed at treating neurological diseases or an associated drug in the treatment of other diseases in the purpose of symptomatic therapy. The sedative effect of diazepam characterizes it as a drug that people usually use on their own and without a doctor’s supervision. Directly, but also through influencing the nervous system, diazepam disrupts proper functioning of all body organs. The purpose of this paper was to examine the effects of diazepam on blood and cytohistological parameters of rats in an in vivo experiment. Mallory-Azan and immunochistochemical staining methods BLX-CX and Survivin tissues of liver, kidney and spleen of rats were used to achieve the set goal. Cytometric analysis of rats detected cells in apoptosis and measurements of stereological parameters were made using a system according to Cavalier’s principle. Results of analysis of hematological and histological parameters indicate a detrimental effect of diazepam on blood parameters, as well as on structure and functioning of the liver, kidneys and spleen of rats. This paper is a foundation for further detailed scientific research with the aim of elucidating all harmful effects that diazepam has on all organs in the body of rats. This data could serve as a starting point for future studies in clinical pharmacology on therapeutic protocols for usage of diazepam-based sedatives.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Multiple Myeloma with Skin and Renal Involvement and Co-Infection in a Dog

    • Abstract: An 11-year-old male Cocker Spaniel was presented with acute onset of apathy, polyuria and polydipsia. Blood examination showed hypoalbuminemia and hyperglobulinemia, while electrophoresis revealed monoclonal gammopathy. Subsequent tests showed glycosuria, proteinuria, a positive serology test for Anaplasma spp. and ultrasonographical changes of the liver and spleen. Urine electrophoresis confirmed the presence of Bence-Jones protein. The dog’s condition deteriorated, and the dog had developed skin lesions on the neck and body. The owner decided to euthanize the dog and agreed to bone marrow and skin biopsy. Bone marrow cytology revealed an increased number of plasma cells and several cellular atypia. Histopathology of the skin lesions showed a round cell tumor of lymphoid or plasmacytoid origin. Subsequent immunohistology supported the diagnosis of multiple myeloma cutaneous involvement.This case report describes unusual features observed in a dog with multiple myeloma.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Differences in the Functional Activity and Redox Homeostasis Between the
           Left and Right Adrenal Gland of Rats Exposed to Chronic Isolation Stress

    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to examine whether there are differences in adrenomedullary function in respect to the left and right sides in chronic stress conditions. We investigated how chronic stress isolation (CSI 12 weeks) affected the protein levels of key enzymes involved in adrenaline (A) synthesis (phenyl ethanolamine N-methyltransferase -PNMT), storage (vesicular monoamine transporters 2 - VMAT2) and degradation (catechol-O-methyltransferase - COMT), as well as the concentrations of A as an index for adrenomedullary function in the left and right adrenal medulla. Also, we examined the concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA), protein levels of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), and activity of catalase (CAT) in the left and right adrenal medulla. The investigated parameters were quantified by Western blot analysis, assay of enzymatic activity, and CAT Research ELISA kits. We found that CSI pro duced significantly increased levels of PNMT protein, and VMAT2 protein, as well as increased concentrations of A in the right adrenal medulla. However, we recorded that CSI increased protein levels of COMT and NF-κB, as well as the concentrations of MDA in the left adrenal medulla. Also, CSI decreased the activity of CAT only in the left adrenal medulla. Based on these results, it may be concluded that adrenomedullary function is different in respect to the left and right sides in chronic stress conditions.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Reduction in Glomerular and Renal Tubular Damage in Kidneys of Diabetic
           Rats Supplemented with Alpha-Lipoic Acid

    • Abstract: Chronic hyperglycemia caused by diabetes results in systemic damage to the body, and the kidney ends up being the target of tissue damage. The use of antioxidants such as alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) has been shown to improve clinical and biochemical parameters in diabetic patients as they help in the prevention of oxidative stress. The present study aimed to undertake a comparative evaluation of the renal morphology of normal and diabetes-induced Wistar rats supplemented with ALA. The experiment had 4 experimental groups (n=7): a control group and a diabetic group that were fed commercial food; an alpha-lipoic group and an alpha-lipoic diabetic group that received the ALA supplement. Diabetes was induced with a single intraperitoneal injection of alloxane monohydrate administered after fasting. After 60 days of the experiment, the kidneys were excised to study the histomorphometric and stereological parameters of the glomeruli and renal tubules and the immunohistochemical parameters with a podocyte count. In the evaluation, the ALA promoted improvement in all of the relevant parameters of the glomerular areas and attenuation of tubular lesions of diabetic animals (p<0.001). Supplementation with ALA also showed beneficial effects in diabetic animals, such as reducing hyperglycemia and the damage promoted by oxidative stress alongside promoting a protective effect on the renal parenchyma. The reduction of glomerular and tubular damage delayed the advance of diabetic nephropathy and its complications, preventing renal failure in diabetic groups.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Pilot Study of Invasive Mosquito Species Control in Selected Slovenian

    • Abstract: To reduce the population of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894) (Diptera: Culicidae), a mosquito control campaign was organized by five Slovenian municipalities in 2020. The campaign focused on the application of Aquatain AMFTM in public water containers. The main objective of our study was to test the efficacy of the agent by directly testing the water drains for mosquito larvae and monitoring the density of the mosquito population. The drains were inspected before and after the application of the product from May to September. A water sample was taken from the drains using a dipper. For mosquito monitoring, the number of mosquito eggs and adult mosquitoes was counted from June to October.Up to two weeks after the application of the product, we observed the lethal effect of Aquatain on mosquito larvae, pupae and adult mosquitoes. After rainfall, the product was washed away and the live mosquitoes were sampled in the inspected water drains. The average number of eggs collected per site was twice as high in the area without mosquito control as in the threated locations. Nevertheless, we assessed the mosquito control campaign as partially successful, as mosquito abundance was still high in the locations with mosquito control. However, we believe that this is a good starting point and that mosquito control should be continued in the future together with the citizen education campaign.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Seasonality and Dynamics of Gastrointestinal Helminths in Grazing Horses

    • Abstract: The prevalence of helminths in horses may vary, depending on climatic factors and host susceptibility. The objective of this study was to evaluate the seasonal dynamics of helminth infection in grazing horses, from October 2015 to September 2016. In total, 104 crossbred horses of different age groups, males and females in a single herd, participated in this study. Individual fecal samples were collected every 28 days for counting of eggs per gram of feces (EPG) and fecal cultures. The horses were evaluated individually for weight, body condition score (BCS) and clinical status. Climatic information relating to the farm was also collected. The categories most affected by helminths were foals and senior horses, with EPG averages of 1271.9 and 1186.5, respectively. The EPG averages for all animal categories together, in the four seasons were: 1042.1 spring; 1508.9 summer; 817.8 autumn; and 571.1 winter. Through the body condition evaluation, it was seen that senior animals presented the lowest BCS in all seasons. It was concluded that the season in which these animals were most affected by helminth infections was the summer and that the most susceptible categories were foals and senior horses.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Evaluation of Apoptosis and Autophagy Activities in the Brain of Dogs
           Naturally Infected with Canine Distemper Virus Based on Changes in
           Apoptotic and Autophagic Markers

    • Abstract: This study investig ated the activation of apoptosis and autophagy in CDV infected brain tissues of dogs with acute neurological signs, by determining Cas-3, Cas-8, Cas-9, Bax, Bcl-2, LC3B, and Beclin-1 expression with real-time PCR. The expression levels of Beclin-1 and LC3B, autophagy markers, were significantly up-regulated in comparison with the control group (p < 0.001). The expression levels of apoptotic markers Cas-3, Cas-8, Cas-9 and Bax were slightly up-regulated, but Bcl-2 was slightly down-regulated in contrast to the control group (p < 0.05). Therefore, the autophagy markers were more activated than apoptotic markers in dogs with acute neurological signs. In conclusion, autophagy takes part in the pathogenesis of demyelination in canine distemper. Knowing this may be helpful to create new therapeutic strategies, such as new effective antiviral medicines.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • A Rare Case of Osseous Metaplasia in Canine Leiomyoma and Plasticity of
           Smooth Muscle Cell

    • Abstract: Metaplasia is a transformation of one mature cell type to other kinds of mature cells. Metaplasia is hardly detected in benign tumors, whereas it is frequently observed in malignant tumors. In this study, we report the first case of osseous metaplasia in canine leiomyoma. The region of osseous metaplasia was highly eosinophilic and had various sizes of distinct lacunae. The osseoid material was confirmed by Von Kossa staining. Except for the osseous metaplasia, the mass presented typical features of leiomyoma without any histopathological features of malignancy. The characteristics of malignant tumors, including pleomorphism, mitotic figures, and lymphatic metastasis were not identified and the mass was proven to be a benign tumor. The osseous metaplasia in leiomyoma without dysplastic changes might be due to plasticity which is a unique feature of smooth muscle cells, whether the tumor is malignant or not. This case suggests the possible occurrence of osseous metaplasia in leiomyoma, which has been overlooked due to the lack of reports. Also, it is recommended to pay attention to making a diagnosis of smooth muscle tumor with metaplasia so as not to be confused with leiomyosarcoma and leiomyoma variants.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Application of Canine-Derived DSM 32820 in Dogs with Acute Idiopathic

    • Abstract: Modulation of the intestinal microbiota through the application of probiotic bacteria is currently one possible way to improve gastrointestinal health in dogs. Knowledge on the efficacy of lactic acid bacteria in a diarrhoeic disorder of dogs is still spreading; however, the used or commercialized strains are often not of canine origin. In this study, E. faecium DSM 32820 strain (a canine isolate selected in our laboratory based on safety and probiotic criteria) was fed to nine dogs suffering from acute non-haemorrhagic diarrhoea at a dose of 1×109 CFU/ml for 7 days. Samples of feces and blood were taken on day 0 and 7. Evaluation of the CIBDAI (Canine Intestinal Bowel Disease activity index) score showed significantly lower vomiting frequency, stool frequency, stool consistency and weight loss at day 7 compared to day 0 (P<0.05). The 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed Firmicutes as the predominant phylum on both sampling days (72.0% vs. 67.9%, day 0 and 7) followed by Proteobacteria (13.4% vs. 6.0%), Actinobacteria (10.0% vs 13.5%), Fusobacteria (4.2% vs. 2.3%) and Bacteroidetes (0.4% vs. 10.4%). The abundance of family Erysipelotrichiaceae was higher on day 7 compared to the initial levels (P<0.05). Among 19 detected fecal enzymatic activities, five (α-chymotrypsin, β-glucuronidase, α-fucosidase, β-galactosidase, N-acetyl-glucosaminidase) were changed (P<0.05). After the application of the DSM 32820 strain, mean fecal dry matter was significantly higher on day 7 compared to baseline (P< 0.05). Although hematological and biochemical parameters in the blood were not significantly different on average, individual values of certain parameters in several dogs were improved.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • in Wild Boars : Characterization and Epidemiology

    • Abstract: The large study on Salmonella spp. in the population of wild boars from twelve hunting estates in the South-West Vojvodina, Serbia was conducted with the aim to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in wild boars and to trace Salmonella sources. The hunting estates had similar epidemiological characteristics, i.e. lowland regions with an intensive management system of wild boars. The prevalence of Salmonella in wild boars was determined and the examination of molecular similarities of strains isolated from wild boars and domestic animals (pigs and poultry from nearby farms) was performed. The total number of 425 wild boars (25.3% of total population), shot on official hunts, were sampled (425 feces and 425 mesenteric lymph nodes samples) and examined by standard ISO protocols. Subtyping of the isolates was performed and compared by Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The Salmonella prevalence in the fecal samples was 3.1% and in the lymph nodes was 0.2%. Salmonella Enteritidis was the most dominant serotype. A high molecular similarity was found between Salmonella isolates from wild boars and domestic animals. The proximity of communities and domestic animals, as well as improper removal of animal waste were identified as important epidemiological factors which significantly affect the epidemiology of Salmonella in wild boars from lowlands.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Environmental Contamination by Parasites in Public Parks in Belgrade in
           the Context of One Health Approach

    • Abstract: This paper studies the presence of developmental forms of gastrointestinal parasites in soil and sand samples, as well as in dog feces collected from public green spaces in Belgrade. The paper incorporates the spread analysis of contamination over different segments of parks. Four public green spaces in Belgrade were chosen, all containing an open-spaced children’s playground and a fenced dog park. Sample analysis of soil/sand was examined using qualitative methods without concentration (native slide) and with concentration (passive sedimentation and gravitational centrifugal flotation). In total, 106 samples have been collected out of which 60 samples of soil, 36 of dog faeces and ten samples of sand. Seven different agents have been detected, out of which five nematodes - Ancylostoma/Uncinaria spp., Trichuris spp., Capillaria spp., Toxocara spp., Toxascaris leonina and two protozoa - Isospora spp. and Giardia intestinalis. The overall prevalence of contamination of soil samples was 31.67% and a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of ancylostoma eggs was found between different locations. The most common agent detected in the dog’s faeces was Isospora spp., with a prevalence of 5.56%, followed by Giardia intestinalis and ancylostomatids with a prevalence of 2.78% each. The sand samples had no parasitic elements found. The contamination by parasites and by dogs’ faeces was equally dispersed in all segments of the examined locations.There is a great need to raise public awareness on the issue, and by the joint action of veterinarians, medical doctors, pet owners and people using public parks for recreation - a precondition is created for the sustainability of the “One Health” concept which implies the preservation of the environment and human and animal health.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Purulent Renal Papillitis Due to in a Horse

    • Abstract: A 6-year-old, male Arabian crossbred horse was necropsied after a 10 day history of loss of appetite, debility and weight loss. Gross and histologic examination was consistent with purulent papillitis due to Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius. The isolate was sensitive to all the antibiotics tested.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Comparison of Mosquito Larvicidal Formulations of Diflubenzuron on
           Mosquitoes in Belgrade, Serbia

    • Abstract: Culex mosquitos are important infectious diseases vectors in temperate and tropical regions of the World, affecting nearly 350 million people in both developed and developing countries. Our approach was to “recycle” the well-established larvicide, and by studying the tablets, pellets and granules as floating or sinking formulations, we found a method to optimise the use of diflubenzuron against Culex pipiens mosquitoes in field conditions.A standard WHO procedure was used to test the larvicide efficacy. The combined efficacy of all floating formulations was 10.7% higher than sinking preparations (p-value =0.002) and that maximised throughout the experiment on days 14 and 21, (p-values 0.012 and 0.008, respectively). All floating formulations kept their efficacies above 70% until day 21 of the experiment, while the mortality of sinking designs dropped significantly after day 14. The lowest efficacy was observed when sinking granules were used and the highest when floating tablets were applied in the canals. Only the floating tablets showed no significant changes in efficacy from day 1 to 21, but then that efficacy drops sharp until day 35.Since the larvae spend most of their time on the surface of the slow-moving waters to breathe, and floating pellets and tablets are made of materials that can serve as food sources, we conclude that these formulations have a higher efficacy, at least in conditions of non- or slow-moving waters. This study shows the importance of a systematic approach to reformulation of old, already proven and environmentally safe larvicides which can control the mosquito populations and their spreading of various pathogens.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Moxidectin: A Viable Alternative for the Control of Ivermectin-Resistant
           Gastrointestinal Nematodes in Beef Cattle

    • Abstract: The increasing prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in cattle especially for avermectins, is a challenge for controlling parasites in some herds. Thus, field studies demonstrating the increase in productivity by the use of anthelmintic formulations, even when a suboptimal treatment (efficacy below 95%), can contribute to the development of gastrointestinal nematodes control programs in beef cattle. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the anthelmintic efficacy and productive performance in pasture-raised beef calves, treated with macrocyclic lactones. A Split plot in time randomized block design was used to assess weight gain and reduction in fecal egg count (FECs) of treatments: 1% moxidectin (1% MOX), ivermectin (IVM) and abamectin (ABM) (2.25% IVM+1.25% ABM), 4% IVM, 3.15% IVM and placebo. For the evaluation of FECs and weight gain of the animals, individual samples were collected seven days before treatment and, +14, +30, +56, +91 and +118 days post-treatment (DPT). The efficacies in the 14th DPT were: 72.3% (1% MOX), 22.1% (4% IVM), 22% (2.25% IVM + 1.25% ABM) and 0% (3.15% ivermectin). 1% MOX was the only treatment that resulted in a significant increase in weight gain of the animals compared to the placebo group after 118 days of treatment, with a difference of 7.6 kg. Therefore, MOX remains a viable alternative for the control of helminths resistant to avermectins and still capable of resulting in significant productive gains, even with an efficacy below 95%.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Orthosis in the Conservative Treatment of Cranial Cruciate Ligament
           Rupture in Dogs – Clinical Observations

    • Abstract: Orthoses are increasingly frequently applied orthopedic devices in veterinary medicine. Injury to the knee joint with a rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament is one of the main indications for the use of orthoses in dogs. This study aimed to present the results of treatment of 30 dogs with injured cranial cruciate ligaments using a knee orthosis and describe the reasons for the conservative treatment of cranial cruciate ligament deficiency. The study was conducted between 2017 and 2019 and involved 30 dogs of various breeds aged 7 to 15, weighing from 2.5 kg to 45 kg, diagnosed with cranial cruciate ligament rupture. In the study, a stifle knee orthosis by the Polish manufacturer Admirał (Pl) was used in 29 dogs and, in one case, an orthosis by Balto (USA) was applied. In each case, the orthosis was selected individually, based on the measurements taken. In the twelfth week of treatment using orthoses, the owners of 25 dogs were satisfied with the results of conservative treatment with the application of orthoses. The caretakers of four dogs observed difficulties in the form of slight lameness at rest after prolonged exertion on the previous day. Running difficulty was observed in one dog. In the conducted study, the knee orthosis demonstrated good therapeutic effects in dogs up to 25 kg. In the majority of dogs, a slight increase in the flexion angle of the treated knee joints was observed, X-ray examinations did not show the degenerative disease progress during the studied period.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Improvement of Hygiene Practices and Milk Hygiene Due to Systematic
           Implementation of Preventive and Corrective Measures

    • Abstract: The Total Bacterial Count (TBC) and the Somatic Cells Count (SCC) in the milk are important indicators of its hygiene and quality. Hygienic conditions in barns, milking procedures, udder hygiene before, during and after milking, milking machine hygiene, as well as milk cooling procedures immediately after milking, have direct or indirect influences on milk hygiene indicators. Poor results of milk hygiene quality, when it comes to SCC and TBC, which are often seen in dairy cattle farms in our country, indicate numerous omissions before and during milking. To determine the possibility of improving milk hygiene quality, training of extension service professionals and farmers was conducted, corrective and preventive measures were determined and the achieved state was monitored on 128 dairy farms where SCC and TBC were observed at regular monthly intervals for 6 months. The results showed a continuous statistically very significant improvement in hygienic conditions in barns, milking procedures, udder hygiene before, during and after milking, milking machine hygiene, as well as milk cooling procedures. This has contributed to a statistically very significant improvement in the hygienic quality of milk, both in SCC and TBC indicators, continuously from month to month, with a visible improvement at the end related to the beginning of the study period. At the begining and the end of survey 19.7% and 50.0% of milk samples belong to 1st class of milk quality, respectively, indicating a significant improvement after implementation of corrective measurements.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Development and Validation of an Improved HPLC-UV Method for the
           Determination of Tildipirosin in Horse Plasma

    • Abstract: A simple, rapid, low-cost, and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed to determine tildipirosin in horse plasma. Plasma samples were extracted with diethyl ether, and after evaporation, tildipirosin was determined by reverse-phase chromatography with an ultraviolet detector set at a wavelength of 289 nm. Tildipirosin was separated on a Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C18 column, 150 x 3.0 mm, 5 μm with gradient chromatographic elution. The retention times were 3.0 min and 6.4 min for tildipirosin and tylosin tartrate, respectively. The total run time was 9 minutes in this method.Calibration curves ranged from 0.1 to 3 μg/mL. The lower limit of detection for plasma was0.035μg/mL, and the lower limit of quantitation was 0.1 μg/mL. Both accuracy and precision were always < 12% exce pt for LLOQ < 20%. Mean recovery was 99.5 %. This procedure can be applied to determine tildipirosin concentrations in plasma and be useful to perform pharmacokinetic studies.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • The Effects of Long-Term Exposure to Moderate Heat on Rat Pituitary ACTH
           Cells: Histological and Hormonal Study

    • Abstract: Global warming causes an increased ambient temperature and prolonged heatwaves during the summer, which represent stressogenic factors affecting the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis in mammals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of long-term (7-60 days) exposure to moderately elevated ambient temperature (35 ± 1°C) on the histological aspect and secretory ability of pituitary adrenocorticotropic (ACTH) cells, as well as on the corticosterone output, in adult rats. Stereological parameters of ACTH cells were estimated upon immunohistochemistry. The blood concentrations of ACTH and corticosterone were determined by immunoassays. The volume of ACTH cells in rats exposed to moderately high temperature for 7, 14, 21, 30 and 60 days decreased (p<0.05) by 18.1%, 14.5%, 13.5%, 8.6% and 14.2% respectively, compared to the same parameter in the controls. The volume density of ACTH cells in the groups exposed to elevated temperature for 7, 14, 21, 30 and 60 days decreased (p<0.05) by 40.0%, 33.3%, 26.7%, 13.3% and 26.7% respectively, in comparison with control rats. The plasma concentration of ACTH varied differently (p<0.05) with the duration of exposure to the elevated temperature. The serum concentration of corticosterone was decreased (p<0.05) by 54.9%, 24.4%, 29.9%, 21.1% and 24.4% in groups subjected to moderately high temperature for 7, 14, 21, 30 and 60 days respectively, all compared to the control value. Despite some signs of functional recovery of ACTH cells during the treatment, the impression is that the long-term character of this stressor overcomes the capacity of the HPA axis for resistance.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Evaluation of Serum Iron and Ferritin Levels as Inflammatory Markers in
           Calves with Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex

    • Abstract: Iron and ferritin have been used in human medicine for years to reveal the presence of inflammation. However, studies evaluating these parameters, especially in respiratory system diseases, are quite rare in veterinary medicine. We aimed to test the usability of serum Fe and Fe-related parameters [total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), unsaturated iron-binding capacity (UIBC) and transferrin saturation (TS) levels] as inflammatory and diagnostic biomarkers in calves with bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC). To mark inflammation, some selected acute-phase proteins including serum ferritin and transferrin levels were measured because of their close relationship with iron metabolism. The material of this study consisted of 15 calves, aged 1-3 months with BRDC (Group I) and 10 healthy calves aged 1-3 months (Group II) based on the presence of respiratory clinical findings. Serum Fe, TIBC and TS levels were low and ferritin levels were high in Group I (P ≤ 0.001). The BRDC group was separated into two subgroups based on PCR results, namely Virus+ (n=9) and Virus- (n=6). The calves in the Virus+ group had significantly lower levels of Fe (P=0.001) and significantly higher values of ferritin (P=0.002), compared to the healthy group. On the basis of inter-group comparison and ROC analysis, we concluded that Fe (primarily), ferritin, TIBC and TS levels can be used as inflammatory biomarkers and possible diagnostic markers in the BRDC as useful, practical, inexpensive substitutes. As a suggestion, these parameters which are believed to play a role in the pathogenesis of the disease, can be used as potential prognostic biomarkers in studies involving treatment.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
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