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  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 225 journals)
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Tanzania Veterinary Journal
Number of Followers: 1  
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0856-1451
Published by African Journals Online Homepage  [261 journals]
  • Quantification of antibiotic resistance genes in wildlife ungulates in
           Ngorongoro Conservation area and Mikumi National Park, Tanzania

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      Authors: A.A.S. Katakweba, J.E. Olsen
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Wild-animals can act as reservoirs for resistant bacteria and transfer of resistance genes in the environment. These genes can spread to livestock and human either directly by transmission of shared resistant bacteria, or by horizontal gene-transfer to environmental bacteria. To ascertain at what extent wild-animals carry resistance genes, eight faecal samples from buffalo, zebra and wildebeest from Ngorongoro Conservation Area (NCA) and Mikumi National Park (MNP), and four control samples from local zebu cattle grazing together with wildlife in NCA. The qPCR was carried on 14 antimicrobial resistance genes including tetracycline (tet(A), tet(B), 93 tet(C), tet(M), tet(O), tet(W), macrolide, lincosamide, streptogramin B (ermB, ermF), sulphonamide (sulI, sulII), beta-lactam (blaCTX-M-1 group, blaCMY-2, blaSHV) and glycopeptide (vanA).  Samples from NCA, both wildlife and cattle were positive for 8 out of 14 resistance genes. The most prevalent genes were tet(W) and blaCMY-2 with the latter being of concern in encoding ESBL-type resistance. Three samples from Buffalo not interacting with cattle in MNP, were positive for tet(W) and blaCMY-2, and in addition for sulI. This suggests that wild ungulates on savannah, irrespective of contact with cattle, may constitute a reservoir for antimicrobial resistance determinants. Further studies are indicated to determine resistance gene-pool among wildlife animals
      PubDate: 2022-02-11
      DOI: 10.4314/tvj.v36i2.1
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 2 (2022)
  • Comparative Evaluation of Growth Performance and Feed Utilization of
           Improved Nigerian Indigenous Broiler and Different Crossbreds

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      Authors: O.J. Ogunpaimo, H.T. Ojoawo, O.R. Ogunpaimo, M.Y. Wheto, A.O. Adebambo, O.A. Adebambo
      Pages: 11 - 23
      Abstract: The study was carried out as part of efforts to improve the performance of the Nigerian indigenous chicken and improve potentials of indigenous broiler strains to provide higher quality of meat at a reduced cost. The study compared the growth and feeding traits of three different chicken crossbreds with the generated lines of Improved Nigerian indigenous broiler (FUNAAB-Alpha) using the Arbor Acre broiler as the experimental control. Males of three broiler breeds types (Kuroiler, Sasso and Arbo Acre) were mated with a total of 120 improved Nigerian indigenous pullets (FUNAAB-Alpha) to generate 360 crossbred broilers. 120 each of Arbor Acre and FUNAAB-Alpha improved line were also reared in a separate pen for comparison. Growth performance, feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion efficiency of all the chicken breeds were recorded for 8 weeks and compared. Two way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for the analysis with consideration of the effect of breeds, sex and its interaction. The results revealed a significant (P < 0.05) influence of the breeds on the traits across all ages. FUNAAB-Alpha broiler consumed the least quantity of feed/bird/day followed by the Sasso-FUNAAB-Alpha crossbred throughout the period of the experiment. However, Sasso-FUNAAB-Alpha chicken had the highest mean value for body weight and other linear body parameters among the crossbreds. Despite of the improvements achieved in FUNAAB-Alpha crosses, there is a need for further analysis and research in order to achieve the maximum potential of the improved broiler strain
      PubDate: 2022-02-11
      DOI: 10.4314/tvj.v36i2.2
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 2 (2022)
  • Comparison of Fixed-time Artificial Insemination and Natural Mating on
           Pregnancy rates in Mpwapwa Breed Cattle

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      Authors: K.T. Kabuni, D.F. Masao, R. Laven, T.J. Parkinson
      Pages: 24 - 34
      Abstract: The goal of this study was to assess if a designed prostaglandin (PGF2α)-protocol when used against natural mating (NM) in well-managed Mpwapwa cattle would improve pregnancy rates during the breeding season. Of the PGF2α oestrus synchronization protocols, a standard 14-day PGF2α protocol accompanied with fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) was tested against NM.  Totals of 39 and 49 cows became pregnant in the FTAI and NM groups respectively following completion of the study of 100 cows for each group. Statistically, the difference between the two groups was not significant (P=0.21), even though there was a lower risk of pregnancy in the FTAI group compared to the NM group (unadjusted relative risk: 0.8, 95%CI: 0.58-1.09). The results from this study suggest that PGF2α–based synchronization protocol and FTAI, especially when combined with NM in Mpwapwa breed cattle, can yield better reproductive performance and enhance greater genetic improvement compared to being naturally serviced. Few cows (only 10/100 cows) displayed behavioural oestrus signs after receiving the first PGF2α injection. The poor oestrus response might be due to either ineffective detection of oestrus or cows lacked a responsive corpus luteum (CL) at the time of synchronisation. Therefore, this might reflect a large number of cows to have been in anoestrus. Further investigation on the reproductive status and performance of Mpwapwa cows is needed to identify the effects of anoestrus
      PubDate: 2022-02-11
      DOI: 10.4314/tvj.v36i2.3
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 2 (2022)
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