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Nigerian Veterinary Journal
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0331-3026
Published by African Journals Online Homepage  [261 journals]
  • Seroprevalence of African swine fever in free range pigs In Taraba State,
           Nigeria

    • Authors: Y.S. Wungak, S. Danbirni, P.D. Luka, Y.M. Lekko, H.G. Ularamu
      Pages: 266 - 272
      Abstract: A cross-sectional survey was carried out in two Local Government Areas of Taraba State between the months of March to June, 2007, to asses the serological evidence of African Swine fever (ASF) virus antibodies in free range pig population. Extensive herds of pigs were targeted for this study, and a convenient sampling technique was employed based on the availability of pigs population as well as farmer’s willingness to allow their animals to be bled. A total of 304 blood samples were collected from apparently healthy pigs. Sera were tested using Blocking Enzyme linked Immuno Assay (B-ELISA).There was an overall seroprevalence of 48.7% (95% CI: 43.09- 54.3). Seroprevalence based on different locations showed a significantly (p<0.05) higher prevalence of ASF 61% (95% CI: 54.9-66.9) in Wukari LGA than 26% (95% CI: 15.3-39.4) in Karin Lamido LGA. Seropositivity based on sex revealed a higher seroprevalence in females 50.4% (95 %:( CI 44.3-56.5), than in males 40% (95%: CI 27.2-54.0). This study has shown that ASF is enzootic in free-range pig population in Taraba State which entails a potential danger to pig production with its attendance negative impact on food security and means of livelihood. We recommend an ASFV ecological study to unravel the factors responsible for continues circulation and maintenance of the virus in Nigerian pig population.
      PubDate: 2022-11-14
      DOI: 10.4314/nvj.v42i4.1
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • A suspected case of digitalis toxicity secondary to therapeutic management
           of congestive heart failure in a Boerboel dog

    • Authors: S. Ajibola, O. Adebayo, S. Abakpa, J. Oyewusi, A. Adeleye, F. Makinde, O. Hassan
      Pages: 273 - 277
      Abstract: A 15 months old male Boerboel, weighing 25kg presented to Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Abeokuta, Nigeria, with complaint of abdominal distention, emaciation and anorexia was diagnosed of congestive heart failure (CHF) of unknown etiology. At presentation, prominent S- wave voltages in lead II, III electrocardiogram, a positive R-wave in lead AVR and a mean electrical axis of -900 suggestive of right ventricular enlargement were evident. A right atrial enlargement was also suspected due to the presence of a tented P-wave on the electrocardiogram. Digoxin was administered at 0.01 mg/kg orally, once daily to increase cardiac contractility and reduce heart rate; Enalapril given at 0.5 mg/kg orally once daily was to blunt the renin angiotensin aldosterone response, Furosemide at 2mg/kg orally, once daily was administered to increase natriuresis and diuresis. After 2 weeks of medication the dogs exhibited signs of digitalis toxicity such as ventricular premature contraction, ventricular tachycardia. This case is a rare occurrence and has not been reported in our veterinary clinics. The management of CHF with standard dose regime of digitalis requires therapeutic drug monitoring as it could result in breed specific toxicity.
      PubDate: 2022-11-14
      DOI: 10.4314/nvj.v42i4.2
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Effects of four different methods of skeletal processing on the guinea
           fowl (Numida meleagridis).

    • Authors: K.T. Onwuama, T.A. Ojodare, E.S. Kigir, A.Z. Jaji, S.O. Salami
      Pages: 278 - 285
      Abstract: The process of skeletal processing which involves soft tissues removal, bone cleaning, articulation and labelling is a fundamental step in achieving gross anatomical and archeological studies in museum display of skeletal specimens. It also helps to further highlight the functional anatomy of bones. Several methods of bone preparation have been practiced so as to achieve desired quality bone specimens in the shortest possible time with limited resources. To this end, this study was carried out on 16 (8 males and 8 females) helmeted guinea fowl (Numida meleagridis) a representative of the avian species using four different bone preparation methods (Burial, cold maceration, chemical and insect larvae) at 31ºc to determine the most suitable in this species. Dissection to remove feathers, skin and internal organs was performed prior to each method. Burial in soil took 14 days for complete bone recovery, turned the bones uniformly light brown while producing an indelible putrefying smell with no evidence of cracks on the bones. Cold maceration also took 14 days for complete bone recovery, however, the bones turned whitish, producing a strong putrid smell with no cracks on the bones observed. Chemical method using 3 concentrations of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) (2%, 3% and 5%) took approximately 10 hours, 8 hours and 4 hours respectively for complete cream coloured bone recovery with no odour but cracks were conspicuous on the bones with increasing concentration of sodium hydroxide. Use of insect larvae took approximately 4 months to produce non-uniform brown-coloured bones articulated via the ligaments having an unpleasant odour with no cracks. Considering the pros and cons of the effects associated with each method, this study concludes that the use of insect larvae was most suitable for a non-urgent bone recovery while the use of NaOH at 3% concentration was suitable for urgent bone recovery of the helmeted guinea fowl.
      PubDate: 2022-11-14
      DOI: 10.4314/nvj.v42i4.3
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Pathological changes in an Alsatian dog following Amitraz and Sniper
           (dichlorvos) exposure

    • Authors: S.E. Abalaka, O.A. Ajagbe, P.P. Mshelbwala
      Pages: 286 - 291
      Abstract: Amitraz and Sniper (dichlorvos) are known ectoparasiticides of dogs in Nigeria. Although reports of their toxicosis exist, information on the pathological presentations of their combined toxicosis is scanty hence the present case report. Two dogs both had Amitraz bath with simultaneous fumigation of their immediate environment with Sniper (diclorvos). Excessive salivation, staggering gait, and respiratory distress were observed shortly thereafter with the prompt administration of atropine sulphate which ameliorated it, but a particular dog progressively became weak, inactive and off feed. A vomitus, dark watery stool and blood spots were observed within its kennel before death. The post-mortem examination revealed emaciated, dehydrated and tick infested carcass with pale ocular and oral mucous membranes. There was also ileocolic intestinal intussusception characterized by anal intussusceptum protrusion, congested liver and pulmonary peribronchial haemorrhage with inter-alveoli cellular infiltration including haemorrhagic enteritis. Death might have been due to hypovolemic shock following the observed dehydration, pallor, haematochezia, peritoneal fluid exudation, hepatic congestion, pneumonia characterized by peribronchial haemorrhages, and haemorrhagic enteritis. The observed intussusception was a rare occurrence in a dog following Amitraz and Sniper poisoning in Abuja, Nigeria, which highlighted the need for their cautious and professional use.
      PubDate: 2022-11-14
      DOI: 10.4314/nvj.v42i4.4
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Epidemiological and pathological screening of suspected cases of
           contagious bovine pleuropneumonia in Yola Modern Abattoir, Adamawa State
           Nigeria

    • Authors: I. F. Markus, J. Adamu, L. Allam, C.N. Kwanashie, M.A. Raji, B. Mohammed
      Pages: 292 - 300
      Abstract: Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia is an important infectious disease of cattle caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides and a major constraint to cattle production in sub-Saharan Africa. This study was aimed to identify pathological and histopathological lesions identified in cattle tentatively diagnosed with CBPP at Yola Modern Abattoir, Adamawa State. A total of 9,750 cattle were examined at post-mortem for a period of six months, 110 (1.13%) had lesions suggestive of CBPP out of which seventeen (17) were randomly selected and processed for histopathology based on standard laboratory protocols. Based on sex, CBPP lesion was observed more in female 63 (1.06%) than in the male 47 (1.24%). Whereas, CBPP lesions was observed highest in White Fulani breed 68 (1.14%) followed by Cross breeds 23 (91.16%) and Sokoto Gudali 19 (1.74%) and lowest in Red Bororo 10 (1.36%). There was insignificant statistical association (P>0.05) between CBPP lesions and sex and breed of cattle sampled. Age distribution of CBPP lesion was observed higher in cattle between ages of 4-7 years 79 (1.16%), followed by cattle of 1-3 years 28 (1.15%) and least in cattle less than 1 year 3 (0.60%) with significant statistical difference (P<0.05) between the age groups. Histopathology lesions observed include severe congestion of pulmonary blood vessel in all the lung tissues and fibrin exudation into inter-alveolar spaces with almost all the alveoli collapsed. The bronchiolar epithelium was observed to be thickened, hyperplastic and folded, with a considerable quantity of edematous fluid and numerous inflammatory cells seen in the lumen. In conclusion, this study had demonstrated the presence of CBPP lesions in cattle in the study area. Therefore, serological screening of all cattle, stamping out policies and aggressive annual vaccination campaigns are thus recommended in the study area.
      PubDate: 2022-11-14
      DOI: 10.4314/nvj.v42i4.5
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Gross and histopathological diagnosis of intra-luminal vaginal leiomyoma
           in an 8-year-old Caucasian bitch: case report

    • Authors: G.Y. Gurumyen, T.O. Omadevuaye, T.N. Polycarp, E.V. Tizhe, L.A. Adekunle, A.A. Usman, A.J. Jubril, R.E. Antia, V.O. Taiwo
      Pages: 301 - 307
      Abstract: Vaginal leiomyomas are uncommon tumours and they may originate from vaginal smooth muscles, local arterial musculature, bladder or urethral smooth muscles. An 8-year-old Caucasian bitch was presented with a round pendulous smooth solid mass of about 5cm in diameter at the junction between the vestibule and vagina. Two other similar smaller masses were seen on the vaginal wall (0.4-0.6cm in diameter). Histopathologically, abundant densely packed spindle cells of uniform size, indistinct cellular borders, eosinophilic cytoplasm, and elongate, blunt-ended (cigar shaped) nuclei were seen. The cells appeared grouped in broad interlacing fibres at angles of 90 degree in a herringbone pattern, typical of smooth muscle tissue. In-depth examination of the reproductive tract should be carried out to avoid missing valuable diagnostic information that could help in proper intervention.
      PubDate: 2022-11-14
      DOI: 10.4314/nvj.v42i4.6
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Serum cardiac troponin i and lactate as prognostic markers of Canine
           African Trypanosomiasis

    • Authors: S. Ajibola, J. Oyewale, B. Oke
      Pages: 308 - 315
      Abstract: The study was aimed at understanding the nature and pattern of serum lactate, cardiac troponin I changes associated with acute Trypanosoma brucei infection of dogs. It also seeks to investigate the usefulness of these biomarkers in monitoring disease progression and predicting mortality. Twenty healthy adult dogs of both sexes were used for the study. All the dogs were intra-peritoneally inoculated with 1ml of phosphate buffered saline diluted blood containing 1x106 of Lafenwa strain of T. brucei. The serum lactate, cardiac troponin I, potassium, sodium, chloride and bicarbonate were monitored before and at 16 and 24 days after infection. There was a progressive increase in serum values of lactate, cardiac troponin I and potassium at various days after infection. A significant association was found between lactate and heart rate, chloride and heart rate, potassium and cardiac troponin I. This result has shown that there could be myocardial damage due to hypoxia of anemia and hypo-perfusion in canine African trypanosomiasis. The progressive increase in serum lactate and cardiac troponin I could help in predicting severity and outcome of Canine African Trypanosomiasis. The Lactic acidosis may increase ventilation drive and consequently the heart rates of infected dogs.
      PubDate: 2022-11-14
      DOI: 10.4314/nvj.v42i4.7
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • In vitro antioxidant assay of aqueous extract of Cynodon dactylon and its
           effect on haematological parameters of rat.

    • Authors: D. Akachukwu, C. Opara, I.C. Ubiom, C. Ibenne
      Pages: 316 - 325
      Abstract: Many medicinal plants possess antioxidant properties. Antioxidant potentials of Cynodon dactylon and its haematological effects on Wistar rats was evaluated. In vitro radical scavenging activity was assessed using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Sixteen male Wistar rats were grouped into four groups of four rats each. Control group was fed normal rat feed and water, group 1 received 100 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) extract, group 2 received 200 mg/kg b. w. extract while group 3 received 400 mg/kg b. w. extract respectively for 21 days. Results showed that C. dactylon produced its optimum antioxidant activity against DPPH radical at a concentration of 400 mg/ml. At 100 mg/ml, optimum antioxidant activity was produced using FRAP. There was no significant (p> 0.05) difference in haemoglobin, red blood cell, platelet, white blood cell, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils concentration when compared to the control group. Antioxidant activity of the plant was low compared to that of the ascorbic acid. The observed antioxidant activity of the plant could be as a result of certain antioxidant compounds present in the plant. The extract showed minimal toxicity to haematological parameters at the doses administered.
      PubDate: 2022-11-14
      DOI: 10.4314/nvj.v42i4.8
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 4 (2022)
       
 
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