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Nigerian Veterinary Journal
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0331-3026
Published by African Journals Online Homepage  [261 journals]
  • Risk Factors Responsible for Canine Rabies in Zamfara State, Nigeria

    • Authors: S.I. Ijoma, I. Ahmad, I.A. Waziri, SM.B. Bolajoko
      Pages: 181 - 188
      Abstract: The global community aims to eliminate human deaths from dog mediated Rabies by 2030. For Nigeria, a rabies endemic country to join the list of countries that have successfully eliminated rabies, there is need for more risk factor studies that addresses her peculiar environment. This study identifies risk factors responsible for rabies cases in Zamfara, Nigeria. A cross-sectional descriptive survey was carried out among dog owners in Zamfara State by administering questionnaires. Seventy questionnaires were administered directly to dog owners across fourteen Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Zamfara state to identify the possible risk factors and IBM SPSS 21 was used to determine the relative risk of Canine Rabies incidence across the state when exposed to each of the identified risk factors. The knowledge of rabies is very poor (17%) among the dog owners, with only 9% of the total respondents that were able to describe the clinical signs and symptoms of the disease in dogs. Only 5% of the respondents have record of previous vaccination of their dogs against Rabies. Extensive system of management increased the risk of the disease among dogs of the state by 80% and caused its spread from infected to un-infected dogs. Risk factors identified could be likely hindrances to eradicating Canine Rabies in the State. It is hoped that results of this study will encourage other States to carry out similar investigation to aid understanding the sustenance dynamics of the disease.
      PubDate: 2022-07-10
      DOI: 10.4314/nvj.v42i3.1
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 3 (2022)
  • Evaluating Three Histochemical Stains (Solochrome Azurine Stain (Asa),
           Walton Stain, and Modified Hematoxylin) used in Tissue Aluminium

    • Authors: O.T. Iji, J. Myburgh, P.M. Mokonoto, L.J. McGaw
      Pages: 189 - 196
      Abstract: Aluminium in recent times has been considered a possible risk factor in some diseases in humans, animals and plants, and exposure to aluminium may pose a health hazard. Studies have pointed to the fact that increasing acidification of the environment has made aluminium more bio-available and therefore, able to cause disturbances in the function of human and animal organisms. More importantly also, is the use of aluminium as based adjuvants in human vaccinations, and its fate being unclear. Our study aimed to evaluate histochemical stains currently used to detect Al in tissue samples for their sensitivity using agar blocks as a preliminary study to validate the Walton histological stain use in detecting aluminium toxicity in fish. Visual estimation (colour change and staining intensity) of aluminium-stained sections using the Solochrome Azurine stain (ASA), Walton stain, and the modified haematoxylin were carried out. All three stains indicated the presence or absence of aluminium through colour changes, but the ASA gave more distinct dose- response intensity in staining.
      PubDate: 2022-07-10
      DOI: 10.4314/nvj.v42i3.2
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 3 (2022)
  • Prepartum and Postpartum Evaluation of Internal Genitalia of Red Sokoto
           Goat Does Using Digital Rectal Palpation Technique

    • Authors: A.A. Bello, Jr.A.A. Voh, D. Ogwu, J.O. Ayo
      Pages: 197 - 210
      Abstract: Study was aimed at determining prepartum and postpartum transrectal palpability of segments of internal genitalia of Red Sokoto Goat (RSG) does using digital rectal palpation technique. Weekly transrectal palpation of 50 does was performed prepartum for nine weeks using digital rectal palpation (DRP) technique with index finger to determine prepartum transrectal palpability. Transrectal measurement of width and length of genital segments was carried out on 26 does using DRP technique with index finger that had predetermined width and length. Twenty eight does that were cycling and with normal reproductive tract were selected and divided into artificial insemination (n = 14) and natural service (n = 14) groups indicating the method of breeding used. Body condition score (BCS) was measured. Determination of postpartum transrectal palpability and measurement of width and length of genital segments was performed on 26 does that kidded using DRP technique with index finger that had predetermined width and length. Evaluation was carried out on day 7, 14, 21 and 28 postpartum to palpate, measure genital segments and assess uterine involution. Length of index finger was 9.0 cm. Prepartum palpability of vagina, cervix, uterus, oviduct and ovary was 449 (100%), 433 (96.4%), 401 (89.3%), 0 (0.0%) and 207 (46.2%), respectively. Detection of uterus and ovary decreased with increasing BCS with P < 0.05 association. Mean values for width and length of uterus was 2.67 ± 0.25 cm and 5.22 ± 0.49 cm, respectively. Postpartum palpability of vagina, cervix and uterus was 104 (100%) day 7, 14, 21 and 28. Width and length of uterus on day 28 postpartum was 2.70 ± 0.08 cm and 6.21 ± 0.60 cm, respectively. Conclusion: vagina, cervix, uterus and ovary were transrectally palpable prepartum and postpartum using DRP technique with index finger; postpartum width and length of uterus on day 28 indicate completion of postpartum uterine involution in RSG does.
      PubDate: 2022-07-10
      DOI: 10.4314/nvj.v42i3.3
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 3 (2022)
  • Application of Bruce-Ladder Multiplex PCR for Identification of Brucella
           abortus Isolated from Cattle in Kachia Grazing Reserve and Jos Plateau

    • Authors: W.J. Bertu, R.A. Ocholi, J.K.P. Kwaga, J. Kabir, A.M. Gusi, S.S. Ngulukun, E. Mwankon, M. Hassan, M.A. Nanven, M.J. Ducrotoy, S. Andrés-Barranco, I. Moriyon
      Pages: 211 - 226
      Abstract: A study was carried out to isolate Brucella strains from cattle in Kachia Grazing Reserve (KGR) and some communities on Jos Plateau and to carry out phenotypic and molecular characterization of the isolates along with other isolates obtained from field submissions and those in the archive of National Veterinary Research Institute (NVRI), Vom. A total of 63 vaginal swabs, 36 milk samples, and 2 hygroma fluids were collected from KGR while 70 vaginal swabs, 50 milk samples and 2 hygroma fluids were collected on the Jos Plateau for Brucella isolation. They were cultured for Brucella isolation according to standard Brucella isolation protocol. Three Brucella abortus strains were isolated from KGR while 4 Brucella abortus strains were isolated from the Jos Plateau respectively. Eight isolates from field submissions and 5 from the archive were collected and resuscitated. Comprehensive characterization of the isolates in this study revealed that they were all Brucella abortus. Similarly, characterization of archived isolates and those from field submissions showed that they were Brucella abortus. The classical biotyping of all the isolates revealed that they were Brucella abortus biotype 3. Molecular characterization of all the isolates by Bruce-ladder multiplex Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) showed bands consistent with Brucella abortus. This is the first molecular characterization of Brucella isolates from Nigeria using the Bruce-ladder multiplex PCR and the first study that established that Brucella abortus biotype 3 is the predominant Brucella strain in Nigeria. The study established the endemicity of brucellosis due to Brucella abortus, in the two study areas. These findings have great veterinary and public health implications. There is therefore an urgent need for the institution and implementation of brucellosis control measures in these areas.
      PubDate: 2022-07-10
      DOI: 10.4314/nvj.v42i3.4
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 3 (2022)
  • Detection of Verocytotoxin-Producing Escherichia Coli in Raw and Fermented
           (Nono) Milk in Sokoto Metropolis, Sokoto State, Nigeria.

    • Authors: A.S.I. Shagari, M. Bello, M.K. Lawan
      Pages: 227 - 237
      Abstract: Verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) also called Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC), are food borne organisms which cause fatal disease in human. The bacteria are frequently found in cattle gastrointestinal tract with high potential of contaminating animal products such as milk, meat, and cheese. A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of VTEC and to detect the presence of stx1, stx2, and eaeA genes in raw and fermented milk sold within sokoto metropolis.Milk samples were analysed using bacterial culture, biochemical test and PCR for molecular identification. Bacteriological culture and biochemical characterization produced Escherichia coli with detection rate 0f 16.0% (38/238). Molecular identification of isolates by Polymerase chain reaction revealed 47.4% (18/38) detection rate of VTEC. The total prevalence of VTEC in the study was 7.6% (18/238), with proportion of raw and fermented milk were 12.5% (13/104) and 3.7% (5/134). There was no association (P≥ 0.05) between VTEC and different milk types. Amplification of isolate by mPCR using specific primers stx1, stx2, and eaeA gene confirmed that (94.4% (17) harboured stx2 and 1 (5.6%) harboured stx1 and eaeA genes.The study established prevalence of VTEC in raw and fermented milk consumed within sokoto metropolis, and presence of stx1, stx2 and eaeA gene. These findings indicate potential faecal contamination of the milk with VTEC in raw and fermented milk. Veterinary services in the state should educate farmers on the importance of farm hygiene and enlighten the Hausa/Fulani nomad and public on the danger associated with the consumption of contaminated milk.
      PubDate: 2022-07-10
      DOI: 10.4314/nvj.v42i3.5
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 3 (2022)
  • A Survey of Neonatal Piglet Mortality in Commercial Pig Farms in Lagos
           State, Southwest Nigeria

    • Authors: A.N. Eleazar, A.O. Sonibare, O.E. Ojo, O.J. Awoyomi, E.B. Otesile
      Pages: 238 - 251
      Abstract: Neonatal piglet mortality (NPM) up to seven days of life causes major pig production losses worldwide. A structured questionnaire survey was administered on 151 pig farmers in Lagos State, Nigeria, for information on NPM on their farms. Subsequently, Focus Group Discussions and In-depth interviews were carried out to clarify the points that appeared not to have been sufficiently addressed by questionnaire respondents. Accruing data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multiple regressions. Of all the151 respondent farmers, 66.9% were males and 76.8% were above 45years of age, herd sizes were 1-100 pigs (50.3%), 101-200 pigs (32.5%), over 200 pigs (17.2%) representing small, medium, and large scale producers respectively. General management practices of the farmers were rated as good (42.5%) or poor (57.5%).The overall NPM was40.2%.Of this, 90.1% occurred during the rainy season months with the highest rate (62.9%) being recorded in the month with the lowest mean ambient temperature. Farmers’ identified the causes of NPM as diarrhoea (42.4%), starvation (27.2%), crushing (23.8%), congenital abnormalities (3.3%) and unknown cause (3.3%).The major clinical signs that farmers observed in neonatal piglets were diarrhoea (92.1%), respiratory distress (7.3%) and failure to suckle (9.4%). Care of new born (CNB) was rated as poor in 70.9%and good in 29.1% of the farms, while management of pregnant pigs (MPP) was adjudged poor on 66.2% and good on 33.8% of the farms. Significantly, CNB (p<0.001), MPP (p<0.001), feeding and watering (p<0.001) and production practice (p<0.007) were negatively correlated with NPM while Farmer’s experience (p<0.009) was positively correlated with NPM. The study highlighted the need for the institution of improved protocols for MPP, farrowing and CNB in order to minimise NPM on the farms.
      PubDate: 2022-07-10
      DOI: 10.4314/nvj.v42i3.6
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 3 (2022)
  • Puerperal Septic Fever and Helminthosis in a 5-Year-Old German Shepherd

    • Authors: B. Hassan, K.H. Taunak, K.A. Mada, S.M. Umar, T.M. Saidu, G.M. Aminu
      Pages: 252 - 257
      Abstract: Puerperium is a period post-partum characterized by physiological changes whereby the upper and lower reproductive tracts of the female genital system progressively tries to histologically and endocrinologically return to its pre-gravid state and the period is accompanied by adequate uterine tone for lochia elimination and epithelial regeneration (Voorwald and Tiosso, 2015). Normally, during puerperium the bitch exhibit initially greenish discharge (due to marginal haematoma), then serosanguinous vaginal discharge for 1–6 weeks being the time considered, as the time of normal uterine involution (Feldman and Nelson, 1986). In the first three weeks brownish, non-odorous lochia will be discharged from the vulva, gradually decreasing in volume after the first week (Von Heimendahl et al., 2009). In bitches, the normal uterine involution requires more and adequate time compared to other species due to its nature of the endothelial placentation and deep uterine wounds created at placentation sites after detachment (Al-Bassam et al., 1981). The duration of the puerperium/periparturient period in the bitch has been defined to be 12 weeks (Al-Bassam et al., 1981, Orfanou et al., 2009) or 15 weeks (Yeager et al., 1990). The Bitch, being a monoestrous, polytococcus, non-seasonal animal has a physiological anestrous stage that lasts between 15 to 30 weeks following either parturition (whelping) or diestrous which is characterized by normal quiescence of the gonads and the tubular reproductive tracts. The peripaturient period that occurs during the anaestrous stage of the reproductive/oestrous cycle of the bitch is very delicate and animals are usually susceptible to varying pathological conditions owing to stress and increased demands from the environment and the newborns. For this reason, follow-up of uterine involution is essential to ensure future reproductive capacity/fertility, since failure to complete reproductive organs regression can lead to endometritis, metritis and placental retention (Hirt et al., 2000; Magata et al., 2013). Many assumptions were raised due to lots of biological activities such as nursing of the puppies, uterine involution, milk production and hormonal changes that take place during postpartum period. Thus, bitches are supposed to be more susceptible to pathologic conditions and therefore, it is important to monitor vital functions, appetite and behaviour of postpartum bitches on a daily basis to enable early detection of illness (Grundy and Davidson, 2004). Increase demand in lactation/milk production may predispose the bitch to hypocalcaemia (puerperal tetany) during this period and also a few days post whelping the cervix is physiologically open, paving ways for ascending uterine infection by pyogenic microbes which may lead to septicemia. Thus, a good health surveillance by both the owners and veterinarians is of paramount significance.
      Infestation of the gastro-intestinal tract and other organs of the animal body by both the adult and immature stages of endo-parasitic helminths is well documented in dogs, especially in newly whelped or neonates and it constitute one of the main causes of pathologies of the intestinal tract in dogs (Blagburn et al., 1996). The life cycle of the many occurring canine helminth species usually involved a vertical transmission from the dam to her offspring. The route of vertical transmission can be: prenatal (e.g Toxocara canis), lactogenic (e.g Ancylostoma caninum, Strongyloides stercoralis) or via coprophagy (Echinococcus multilocularis, Filaroides hirthi, Oslems osleri). Hypobiosis or developmental arrest allows for certain and specific life-cycle stages of the helminthic parasites (mostly L3) to be temporary in-activated in the somatic tissues of the host until the condition for survival is conducive. Such occurs mostly during pregnancy or when the immunity of the host is severely compromised (Shoop, 1999). The L3 re-activates during gestation and is transmitted to the offspring or neonates via milk during puerperal period, the parasites then infest the intestinal tract of the neonates and cause pathologies such as protein loss, diarrhea, obstruction of lumen, iron-deficiency anaemia (especially hook worms) and mortality in unattended condition (Cromptom, 1989).
      PubDate: 2022-07-10
      DOI: 10.4314/nvj.v42i3.7
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 3 (2022)
  • Evaluation of Total Coliform Counts in Non-Fermented and Fermented Cow

    • Authors: L.L. Chagwa, J.K.P. Kwaga, P.H. Mamman
      Pages: 258 - 265
      Abstract: Testing for coliforms has a long history in dairy production, and has helped to identify the unsanitary condition of unpasteurized and pasteurized milk products. The study was performed to evaluate the level of coliform bacterial contamination in raw cow milk and milk products (kindirmo, mai-shanu, and nono). A total of 426 samples comprising 106 raw milk, 106 kindirmo, 106 mai-shanu and 108 nono were obtained from four selected Fulani herds (Damari, Marwa, Tudun-Muntsira, and Wuciciri) and four milk markets (Kasuwan-Mata, Kwangila, Samaru and Tudun-Wada) in Zaria Metropolis, all samples were tested using the bacteriological method. Coliform counts were analyzed using the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) using Tukey package and recorded as mean coliform counts (CFU/ML). The overall mean coliform counts for the milk products (raw milk, kindirmo, mai-shanu, and nono) were 98.88 ± 7.68 x 108 CFU/ML, 60.19 ± 5.49 x 108 CFU/ML, 60.36 ± 5.50 x 108 CFU/ML and 73.5 ± 7.09 x 108 CFU/ML respectively. The mean coliform counts for raw milk were significantly different (p ≤ 0.05) from the three products (kindirmo, mai-shanu and nono). The study revealed heavy coliform bacterial load, ranging between 60.19 ± 5.49 x 108 CFU/ML and 98.88 ± 7.68 x 108 CFU/ML. This study calls for educating farmers and milk retailers at different levels level of production on the hygienic way of handling milk along the value chain to minimize unnecessary contamination of milk and milk products which can be of public health significance.
      PubDate: 2022-07-10
      DOI: 10.4314/nvj.v42i3.8
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 3 (2022)
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