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Ethiopian Veterinary Journal
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2221-5034
Published by African Journals Online Homepage  [260 journals]
  • Knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) of University students regarding
           antimicrobial use (AMU) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Ethiopia

    • Authors: Fufa Abunna, Girma Gebresenbet, Bekele Megersa
      Pages: 1 - 22
      Abstract: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study on 1252 University students was conducted in Ethiopia to assess their knowledge, attitude,  and practices (KAP) towards antimicrobial usage (AMU) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Verbal consent was obtained from randomly  selected students to participate in this study. A logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between the socio- demographic profiles of the students against their knowledge, attitude, and practices toward antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial  usage. The Kruskal-Wallis and chi-square tests were used to examine how the median scores in each of the knowledge, attitude, and  practice categories varied across study participants. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. The overall median AMR and  AMU knowledge score was 13 (IQR=11, 14). The median AMR and AMU attitude score was 15 (IQR: 13, 15). The median score of AMU and  AMR practice was 10 (IQR: 10, 11). Logistic regression analysis revealed that the students’ birthplace was found to be a significant factor  (p <0.01) regarding the knowledge of students. The analysis further revealed that students’ birthplace, field of studies, and good  knowledge were significant factors (p<0.01) affecting their attitudes. Students with good knowledge had 3.9 times more positive attitudes  than those with poor knowledge (OR = 3.9, CI = 3.0 -5.2, p < 0.01). Students from VM had 1.6 times better attitudes than  students from HS and NHS (OR = 1.6, CI=1.2- 2.1, p = 0.002). Finally, students in the field of veterinary medicine and those having good  knowledge had 1.4 and 0.5 times better practice than their counterparts (OR=1.4; CI=1.2, 2.1, p<0.01 and OR= 0.5, CI=0.4, 0.6, p<0.01,  respectively). In conclusion, there were critical gaps in knowledge, attitudes, and practices among University students regarding  antimicrobial usage and antimicrobial resistance. Hence, students are encouraged to exhaustively utilize the digital era to advance their  knowledge. Interventions to raise awareness should also target students majoring in fields other than health sciences. 
      PubDate: 2023-08-08
      DOI: 10.4314/evj.v27i2.1
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2023)
  • Staphylococcus aureus isolates from cow’s milk in dairy farms at
           Shinshicho town, Kembata Tembaro Zone, Southern Ethiopia: Prevalence, risk
           factors, and antimicrobial susceptibility profile

    • Authors: Abriham Markos, Feyissa Begna, Yeshihareg Afera, Tadele Tolosa
      Pages: 23 - 44
      Abstract: Bovine mastitis is an economically important and highly prevalent infectious disease in dairy herds worldwide. Staphylococcus aureus is a  common microorganism causing infectious mastitis. A cross-sectional study was conducted between December 2018 and September  2019 in Shinshicho town, Kembata Tembaro Zone, Southern Ethiopia, to estimate the prevalence, and assess associated risk factors and  antimicrobial susceptibility profile of S. aureus isolates from cow’s milk in dairy farms at Shinshicho town. Lactating dairy cows were  screened for mastitis based on clinical examinations and the California mastitis test (CMT) followed by laboratory identification of S.  aureus. All the S. aureus isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility tests using a disk diffusion test. Multivariable logistic  regression analysis of the effect of different risk factors on the prevalence of mastitis was performed. From a total of 384 lactating cows  examined and tested, 41.7 % ( n=160) were found positive for mastitis. Out of the occurrences of mastitis, 5% (n=19) and 36.7% (n=141) were clinical and subclinical respectively. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from 36.84% (n=7) and 39.01% (n=55) of the clinical and  subclinical mastitis respectively with a total isolation frequency of 38.75 % (n=62). According to the results of this study, greater herd sizes  (OR=2.91, 95% CI: 1.62-5.21), higher parity cows (OR=3.91, 95% CI: 1.73-8.82), late lactation stage (OR=3.36, 95% CI: 1.27-8.91), and  muddy floor (OR=2.37, 95% CL: 1.31-4.27) are risk variables linked to the occurrence of S. aureus mastitis. In addition, S. aureus has total  resistance to ampicillin, amoxicillin, penicillin-G, and Polymyxin. Similarly, 53.2% of the isolates proved resistant to three or more of the  antibiotics used. Therefore, regular antimicrobial susceptibility testing should be performed to select potent modified antibiotics, and the  effects and dynamics of genetic determinants of antibiotics should also be studied using molecular methods. 
      PubDate: 2023-08-08
      DOI: 10.4314/evj.v27i2.2
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2023)
  • Assessment of dairy farm’s hygienic practice and knowledge of farm
           workers on milk-borne zoonoses in three selected towns of the Wolaita
           Zone, Southern Ethiopia

    • Authors: Mirtayhu Estifanos Ergano, Teshita Edaso Beriso, Tilaye Shibbiru Mengistu
      Pages: 45 - 66
      Abstract: Consumption of unhygienic milk is the most common source of milk-borne zoonotic diseases. These zoonoses have public health  importance and are a major obstacle to trade in livestock and livestock products. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was  conducted from December 2021 to June 2022 to assess milk-borne zoonotic diseases, the habit of milk consumption, and the hygienic  practices of dairy farm workers in three purposefully selected towns in the Wolaita zone, southern Ethiopia. Dairy farms and farm  workers were selected by a simple random sampling technique. A total of 100 respondents, one per farm, were selected and participated  in the interview. The result indicated that 41% of farms used individual towels and 21% used common towels to dry their cows’ udders;  however, the remaining 38% of farms did not use any towels at all. The majority (59%) of farms clean the floor once a day and around 92% remove dung manually. Of total farm workers, 43% had no formal education, 28% had primary-level education, 5% had secondary- level education, 2% were college diploma holders, and 22% were first-degree and above graduate workers. Concerning milk consumption  habits, 64% of respondents used raw milk, 29% used raw and boiled milk, 3% of interviewees consumed all types of milk  (raw, boiled, refrigerated, and processed milk), and 4% didn’t drink milk at all. Furthermore, 50% of respondents were aware of disease  transmission through the consumption of raw milk. Regarding respondents’ knowledge of milk-borne zoonoses, 51% of interviewees  didn’t know about zoonotic diseases, while the remaining 4% knew about tuberculosis, 32% were aware of salmonellosis, 5% knew about  both tuberculosis and salmonellosis, and 8% were aware of tuberculosis, anthrax, mastitis, salmonellosis, and brucellosis. Concerning the  knowledge of respondents on disease transmission, 73% of respondents didn’t know that zoonotic diseases can transmit from humans to  animals and vice versa. Furthermore, when compared to other educational levels, participants with a degree or higher (86.7%) had  better awareness of disease transmission from raw milk consumption, and there was a statistically significant difference (p-value < 0.05).  The farms had poor awareness of dairy farm hygienic standards and milk-borne zoonoses. To lessen the animal and public health  concerns associated with milk-borne zoonoses, it is critical to create awareness, provide extension services, and provide training  programs. 
      PubDate: 2023-08-08
      DOI: 10.4314/evj.v27i2.3
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2023)
  • Review on performance responses of dairy cattle against thermal stress

    • Authors: Tassew Mohammed
      Pages: 67 - 87
      Abstract: This manuscript is aimed at reviewing the performance responses of dairy cattle against thermal stress resulting from climate change.  Climate change is the major factor that largely affects the dairy industry. Thermal stress (TS) is the perceived discomfort and  physiological strains associated with exposure to excessive ambient temperature. Temperature and Humidity Index (THI) have been  adopted to describe thermal conditions that drive thermal stress in dairy cattle. The effects of TS are devastating in the dairy industry if  not managed well. The thermo-neutral zone for dairy cattle and calves in the tropics is THI <72. Milk yield reductions of up to 50% have  been reported for Holstein cows due to thermal stress under summer climate conditions. Moreover, thermal stress is associated with  alterations in milk composition. TS reduces the length and intensity of estrus manifestation. Moreover, 80% of estrus may be unnoticeable during the summer season in temperate regions, which further reduces fertility. Conception rates of dairy cows may drop  up to 20–27% in the summer season. Climate-induced thermal stress resulted in a decrease of 3.5 kg and 25 kg in the birth weight and  weaning weight of Fogera calves, respectively. Dry matter feed intake was reduced by 9.6%. Commonly used thermal stress reduction  strategies included modification of the physical environment, breeding for heat-tolerant dairy cattle, and nutritional management. The  productive and reproductive traits are susceptible to the negative impacts of thermal stress with an increase in THI above 68.0 for  Holstein Frisian cattle and their crosses and 72 for tropical cattle under an open shed system. Mitigations of thermal stress by breeding  heat-tolerant animals, using a loose house system, and season-based feeding should be considered an integral component of the dairy  cattle management system. 
      PubDate: 2023-08-08
      DOI: 10.4314/evj.v27i2.4
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2023)
  • Bovine mastitis: Prevalence, causes and associated risk factors in Silte
           Zone, Ethiopia

    • Authors: Yared Tesfay, Sultan Abda, Desie Sheferaw
      Pages: 88 - 103
      Abstract: Mastitis is an important disease of dairy cows, and it causes huge economic losses to dairy farm owners due to a decrease in milk  production, and reduction in milk quality, and an increase in the cost of cow treatment. A crosssectional study was conducted in Southern  Ethiopia’s Silte zone from October 2020 to June 2021 aimed to estimate mastitis prevalence, assess related risk factors, and  identify prevalent bacterial causes. Three hundred eighty-four lactating cows were examined for abnormalities in udder quarters and  teats. Milk samples were tested for subclinical mastitis via the California mastitis test (CMT) and cultured for causative agents from  clinical mastitic and CMT-positive cows. The overall prevalence of mastitis was 54.9% (95% CI=49.9-59.9), of which 52.1% (95%  CI=47.1-57.1) was subclinical and 2.9% (95% CI=1.6 -5.1) clinical mastitis. From a total of 1536 quarters examined 41 (2.7%) quarters were  found blind and 427 (27.7%) quarters were affected by mastitis. Overall, more hind quarters, 236 (55.5%) were affected than the front  quarters, 189 (44.5%) of udder. The prevalence of mastitis was significantly higher during early lactation, ≤4 months (p< 0.05); and it was  increased with increasing parity (p< 0.05) and age (p< 0.05). Cows with no bedding were more affected than those with bedding (p< 0.05).  Multivariable logistic regression showed that cows with round and flat teat ends were 2.84 and 11.85 times more likely to contract  mastitis. Also, cows with pendulous udder, producing more than 10 liters per day milk and during the early 4 months of lactation were  1.87, 6.81, and 2.14 more likely affected by mastitis than normal udder, producing less than 10 liters of milk per day and lactation after  five months, respectively. Milk samples collected from 211 mastitis-positive cows were cultured using standard bacteriological technique,  and the isolated bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus (29.5%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (14.2%), Staphylococcus intermedius (11.6%),  Staphylococcus hyicus (11.1%), Streptococcus agalactiae (8.9%), Streptococcus disgalactiae (6.3%), E. coli (5.8%), Streptococcus uberis
      (5.3%), Klebsiella spp. (1.6%) and Enterococcus spp. (1.1%). Owners should givepro per udder care and are advised to apply dry cow therapy. Extension workers should raise awareness.

      PubDate: 2023-08-08
      DOI: 10.4314/evj.v27i2.5
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2023)
  • Knowledge, attitude, and practice of goat farmers towards contagious
           caprine pleuropneumonia in Amhara region, Ethiopia

    • Authors: Asres Zegeye, Wudu Temesgen, Tsegaw Fentie, Sefinew Alemu Mekonnen, Adugna Berju, Seleshe Nigatu, Ambaye Kenubih, Belete Haile, Wassie Molla
      Pages: 105 - 124
      Abstract: Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) is known for its high mortality, morbidity, and economic losses. A cross-sectional study using a multistage cluster sampling technique was conducted in Amhara Regional State from January to June 2019 to assess the  knowledge, attitude, and practices of goat farmers towards CCPP in the region. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect  information from the goat farmers found in 12 districts. A total of 386 goat producer respondents participated in the questionnaire  survey. Out of all the households of goat farmers interviewed, 370 (95.8%) were headed by males, while 16 (4.2%) were headed by  females. Of all the respondents, 73.58% did not know the disease. The remaining 26.42% were familiar with the CCPP and had seen the  disease in their goats or nearby goat flocks, and from this 4%, they experienced CCPP with their goats. Half of the participants who  experienced the disease in their flock reported that mixing with neighboring flocks was the major source of CCPP infection. The goat  farmers who are familiar with the disease had a high-risk perception of CCPP with a mean score of 4 out of 5 for the seriousness of the  disease and 4.12 out of 5 for the risk of infection. These farmers showed a good perception of the effectiveness of prevention practices  with a mean score of 4 out of 5 for the usefulness of vaccinations and reporting disease outbreaks to veterinary authorities. This  collective understanding demonstrates their awareness of the disease and the proactive measures they are willing to take to mitigate its  impact on their flocks. They have a good practice of vaccinating and treating their goats. Most of the farmers use veterinary clinic services  to control CCPP occurrence in their herds. Although the farmers familiar with the disease have a good understanding of the risk  of the disease and a positive attitude towards control measures, most farmers are not aware of the disease and hence better animal  extension about the disease is needed in the study area.
      PubDate: 2023-08-08
      DOI: 10.4314/evj.v27i2.6
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2023)
  • Seroprevalence of Brucella infection in cattle and small ruminants in
           South Omo zone, southern Ethiopia

    • Authors: Senait Getachew, Bersissa Kumsa, Yitbarek Getachew, Getachew Kinfu, Balako Gumi, Tesfaye Rufaele, Bekele Megersa
      Pages: 125 - 144
      Abstract: A cross-sectional study was conducted in selected districts of the South Omo Zone to estimate the seroprevalence of brucellosis and its  associated risk factors. Additionally, the knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) of livestock keepers about the disease were also  assessed. A total of 1349 sera samples were collected from 450 cattle and 899 small ruminants (450 goats and 449 sheep) kept under an  extensive production system. Rose Bengal Plate Test was used for screening and ELISA as a confirmatory test for the detection of antibodies against Brucella species. Based on confirmatory tests, the overall seroprevalence of brucellosis was 2.2 % (95% CI: 1.1 – 4.1%)  in cattle, 2.0% (95% CI: 0.9, 3.8%) in goats and 1.3% (95% CI: 0.5, 2.9%) in sheep with higher seropositivity in cattle compared to small  ruminants. Seropositivity did not vary significantly (p> 0.05) with agroecology, age, and sex groups in cattle. However, a higher  seroprevalence of 2.7% was detected in male cattle compared to 1.6% for females. Seroprevalence was higher in small ruminants from the lowland agroecology (3.0%) than those from the midlands (0.8%). Study respondents had a low level of knowledge on brucellosis with  only 43% of them having some information about the disease. Most of the respondents have routinely engaged in practices that can  expose them to infections such as assisted delivery (65%), contact with after-birth materials (50%), and handling aborted materials  (15%) without any protection. High consumption of unpasteurized dairy products (93%) such as raw whole milk and traditionally  fermented dairy product is also common. This study provides information on the occurrence f brucellosis in major livestock species kept  at cross-border marginal areas with limited disease information. The existence of various exposure practices implies the need for  creating awareness among livestock keepers on general disease transmission and its zoonotic role.  
      PubDate: 2023-08-08
      DOI: 10.4314/evj.v27i2.7
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2023)
  • Contributing factors to repeat breeding and postpartum anestrus and
           pregnancy rate subsequent to hormonal intervention in crossbred dairy cows

    • Authors: Kirubel Befekadu, Tewodros Eshete, Tilaye Demissie, Tefera Yilma
      Pages: 144 - 160
      Abstract: A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to July 2021 to determine the prevalence and contributing factors to repeat breeding  (RB) and postpartum anestrus (PPA) in crossbred dairy cattle in the central highland of Ethiopia. Furthermore; a retrospective study was  used to collect data on the occurrence of RB and PPA and the associated risk factors. The pregnancy rate was determined by rectal  palpation on day 60 after hormonal therapy using double PGF2α and GnRH in combination with PGF2α. (Ovsynch). The prevalence of RB and PPA was 33.85% and 30.73%, respectively. Body condition score, parity, milk yield, herd size, abortion, and mastitis all revealed a  statistically significant association (p < 0.05) with the prevalence of RB and PPA. Cows with a previous history of abortion were 2.58 times  at risk of repeat breeding than those without. Similarly, cows with a previous history of mastitis were 2.63 times more at risk of RB than  cows that didn’t encounter the disease. Previously aborted and older cows with greater parity numbers were 2.89 and 1.23 times more  affected by PPA, respectively. Moreover, endometritis and retained fetal membrane showed significant association (p<0.05) with  postpartum anestrus. The pregnancy rates in cows treated with double PGF2α and GnRH + PGF2α (Ovsynch) were 41.46% and 29.17%,  respectively. It is concluded that the occurrence of RB and PPA in the research area was influenced by parity, body condition, and daily  milk yield of the cow. Reproductive health problems including abortion retained fetal membranes, endometritis, and mastitis affected the  prevalence of RB and PPA. Although the use of double PGF2α or in combination with GnRH has resumed cyclicity in RB and PPA dairy  cows, the pregnancy rates are yet low. Hence, a study that utilizes detailed hormonal assay profiles and reproductive-related blood  metabolites should be done.  
      PubDate: 2023-08-08
      DOI: 10.4314/evj.v27i2.8
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2023)
  • Comparison of quantitative real-time PCR targeting nuc gene and
           culture-based plate count methods for quantification of Staphylococcus
           aureus in raw cow milk

    • Authors: Enquebaher K. Tarekgne
      Pages: 161 - 177
      Abstract: Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) is caused by ingestion of enterotoxins produced by enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus when the  cell population exceeds 5 Log CFU per gram/ml of food. The Objectives of this study were to evaluate the performance of SYBR Green  1-based quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) targeting the nuc gene for the quantification of S. aureus in milk and to compare the  assay with the plate count method. The qPCR and the plate count were applied for the quantification of S. aureus in 92 naturally  contaminated and artificially spiked bulk milk samples. Optimized standard curves were generated as the qPCR employed the absolute  quantification method. The qPCR assay discriminates S. aureus from other Staphylococcus species with a large difference in  quantification cycle (Cq) (Mean S. aureus Cq = 13.83± 0.93; other staphylococci Cq= 30.34 ± 2.65). The standard curve showed 91 %  amplification efficiency and 0.98 coefficients of correlation (R2 ). The detection and quantification limit of the assay was 18 copies of the  nuc gene. The precision of the assay as expressed by standard deviation was 0.12 – 0.3 for intra-assay and 0.29 – 0.5 for inter-assay  variability. In artificially contaminated milk, the R2 between CFU ml-1 and S. aureus cell equivalent (SCE) ml-1 was 0.95, which implies, the  estimation of CFU ml-1 in raw milk by qPCR is possible. A statistically significant (p< 0.05) difference in S. aureus count was documented  between qPCR and plate count. The average SCE (5.59 ±1.55 Log SCE ml-1) estimated by qPCR was one Log higher than CFU (4.46 ± 1.06  Log CFU ml-1) estimated by plate count. Furthermore, 28% of the samples with < 5 Log ml-1 S. aureus by plate count had > 5 Log ml-1 by  qPCR. Hence, the qPCR is recommended for routine and research work for its advantage of rapid, sensitivity, and reliability. Further study  on validation of the qPCR protocol in different food matrixes for quantification of foodborne pathogens and cost-benefit analysis of the  assay is required. 
      PubDate: 2023-08-08
      DOI: 10.4314/evj.v27i2.9
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2023)
  • Case Reports: Clinical features and postmorteum findings of
           sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever in a 2-years old bull

    • Authors: Gishu Bariso, Bethel Befekadu, Abdi Feyisa
      Pages: 178 - 186
      Abstract: Malignant Catarrhal Fever (MCF) is a fatal lymphoproliferative disease of cattle and other ungulates caused by alcelaphine herpesvirus 1  (AlHV-1) and ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), the main causative agents of wildebeest-associated MCF (WA-MCF) and sheep-associated MCF  (SA-MCF), respectively. The virus is mainly spread by aerosols from pregnant or newborn sheep, goats, and wildebeest to  susceptible animals. This case report presents the clinical features and post-mortem findings of an unusual case of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) in a two-year-old bull brought to the Professor Feseha Gebreab Memorial Veterinary Teaching Hospital in Bishoftu, Ethiopia.  The bull was semi-intensively managed, co-housed, and fed with sheep and other domestic animals. The animal was shivering upon  arrival, with naso-ocular discharge and clouding of the eyes. The bull was febrile, with a rectal body temperature of 41.4 oC and a  respiratory and heart rate of 40 and 48 beats per minute, respectively. On physical examination, the bull was emaciated, with bilateral yellowish mucopurulent naso-ocular discharge, frequent blinking, bilateral corneal opacity, salivation, a foamy mouth, head pressing, and  enlargement of superficial lymph nodes. Malignant catarrhal fever was suspected based on the history and clinical signs, and  empiric therapy with 10% oxytetracycline, diclofenac, and IV fluid was initiated. The bull died after receiving the third day of treatment. At  necropsy, hemorrhages were found in the esophagus, trachea, and small and large intestines. In the kidney, white foci, enlargement, and  fatty degeneration were observed. An ulcerated lesion was seen on the abomasum. In the gall bladder, enlargement and  vascularization were also noted. The current case report confirms the rare case of clinical SA-MCF based on the history, exhibited clinical  pictures, post-mortem findings, and PCR results. Separation of cattle and sheep is strongly advised to prevent SA-MCF, as no vaccine has  yet been developed.  
      PubDate: 2023-08-08
      DOI: 10.4314/evj.v27i2.10
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2023)
  • Caseous lymphadenitis: A case of sheep and its management in Ethiopia

    • Authors: Dessalew Habte
      Pages: 187 - 195
      Abstract: Caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) is a contagious and chronic bacterial disease of animals that affects the lymphatic system with the  formation of abscesses. This case report documents a sheep diagnosed with CLA that was brought to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of  Addis Ababa University College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture (AAU-CVMA), Bishoftu on March 06/2022. The primary complaint  was weakness, anorexia, and a slight, fluctuating, sickleshaped, enlarged swelling in the neck region between the ear and jaws, which developed due to a laceration by a wire on the fence. Physical and clinical examination revealed increased body temperature (40.7oC)  and respiratory rate (44 breaths/min) and mildly fluctuating swelling on lymph nodes. Anorexia, coughing, general ill thrift, exercise  intolerance, and enlargement of subcutaneous tissues and lymph nodes around the neck region were observed. Aspiration of the  swelling revealed thick, pale greenish-cheesy pus. Using the Ethiopian Differential Diagnosis and Information Environment App-based diagnosis and bacterial culture of the pus revealed the case as CLA. It was managed by surgical removal of the pus, topical wound spray,  and systemic administration of fortified procaine penicillin for five days intramuscular and once topically on the site, respectively. The  sheep recovered after a month. In conclusion, CLA is a challenging suppurative disease of sheep and goats that can be successfully  treated by topical wound management and systemic penicillin therapy. 
      PubDate: 2023-08-08
      DOI: 10.4314/evj.v27i2.11
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2023)
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