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Ethiopian Veterinary Journal
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2221-5034
Published by African Journals Online Homepage  [261 journals]
  • Effects of supplementation of different indigenous species of browses to
           Arsi-Bale yearling goats on feed intake, growth performance, and
           helminthes loads

    • Authors: Amsalu Sisay, Tegene Negesse, Ajebu Nurfeta
      Pages: 1 - 17
      Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of browse tree leaves meals on growth performance and parasite load of naturally parasitized yearling goats. Thirty-six Arsi-Bale yearling bucks which were naturally parasitized with helminths were randomly allocated to one of the following feeding treatments; T1 = Chloris gayana grass hay ad lib + 100g concentrate, T2 = T1 + dried 100g of Acacia tortilis leaves, T3 = T1 + dried 100g of Acacia seyal leaves, T4 = T1 + dried 100g of Acacia senegal leaves, T5 = T1 + dried 100g of Millettia ferruginea leaves and T6 = T1 + dried 100g of Vernonia amygadalina leaves. Goats were fed on corresponding diets for 70 days. Fecal egg count and body weight changes were recorded every 14 days. Higher feed conversion efficiency was observed in goats supplemented with dried browse tree leaves of Acacia seyal (T3), Millettia ferruginea (T5), and Vernonia amygadalina (T6). All supplemented goats had significantly (p<0.05) lower fecal egg count (FEC) at day 70 and grew significantly (p<0.05) faster than the control group. Goats supplemented with dried browse tree leaves of Acacia seyal, Millettia ferruginea, and Vernonia amygadalina grew faster than goats supplemented with other dried browse tree leaves. A rapid and significant reduction of FEC was observed in goats supplemented with Millettia ferruginea starting from day 14 and the lowest (p<0.05) value was attained at day 70 after treatment. Similarly, goats supplemented with Vernonia amygadalina showed an accelerated reduction of FEC starting from day 28 and attained the lowest (p<0.05) value at day 70 after treatment. Goats supplemented with Millettia ferruginea (T5) and Vernonia amygadalina (T6) had the lowest (p<0.05) FEC at all times after supplementation and grew faster than the other groups. The rapid and accelerated reduction of FECs and fastest growth rate observed in goats supplemented with Millettia ferruginea and Vernonia amygadalina indicated that these browse tree leaves could be effective to control helminths parasite and improve the growth performance of parasitized goats.
      PubDate: 2022-08-29
      DOI: 10.4314/evj.v26i2.1
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Antimicrobial resistance status of selected bacteria isolated from animal
           source foods and feed in Ethiopia

    • Authors: Belachew Tefera, Tamiru Tilki, Nardos Tefera, Zerihun Bayene, Sileshi Belew, Rigbe Haftu, Fediko Tolasa, Yosef Nuguse, Sinke Ararso, Daniel Getachew, Befikadu Soyum, Tenaw Andualem
      Pages: 18 - 37
      Abstract: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of major food-borne pathogens has become an increasing public health problem worldwide. A cross-sectional study was conducted from August 2019 to July 2021 in high-potential meat and dairy products and commercial animal feed supply chain areas of Ethiopia. The objectives of the study was assessing AMR profile of target bacterial pathogens isolated from animal sources foods (ASFs) and feed. A total of 642 ASFs and feed samples collected from selected sampling sites were examined at the microbiology laboratory of animal products, veterinary drugs, and feed quality assessment center. Bacterial identification and antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST) were conducted using an automated Vitek 2 XL compact system. Out of 642 investigated samples, 24 different genera and 59 species of bacteria were identified. A total of 185 samples were positive for target bacteria of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella Species. The AST results showed AMR of target bacteria isolates against some of the tested antimicrobials. Of these, 83%, 55%, and 92% isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella Species, showed high level of AMR to Benzylpenicillin, Tetracycline, and Cefalexin/Gentamicin, respectively. The target bacteria isolated from ASFs and feed demonstrated multidrug resistance against some of the tested antimicrobials having public and veterinary importance. This reflects that ASFs and feed could serve as one of the sources for the spread and transmission of antimicrobial-resistant bacterial pathogens. Hence, there is a need for improving hygiene and sanitation practices along the ASFs and feed supply chains. Besides raising community awareness about the risks of AMR, emphasis on the rational use of antimicrobials in animal health practice and further investigations on AMR are recommended.
      PubDate: 2022-08-29
      DOI: 10.4314/evj.v26i2.2
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Prevalence and economic connotation of bovine and caprine hydatidosis at
           Abergele International Export Slaughterhouse, Mekele, Tigray Region

    • Authors: Abebayehu Tadesse, Nebyat Negash
      Pages: 38 - 56
      Abstract: A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2017 to April 2018 to investigate the prevalence and economic significance of bovine and caprine hydatidosis at Abergelle international export slaughterhouse, Mekele, Tigray region. This study has been carried out based on antemortem and postmortem examinations. Among the 940 cattle and goats examined, 104 (11.06%) were found to be positive for hydatid cyst. Whereas, from 520 slaughtered cattle and 420 goats, 86 (16.54%) and18 (4.29%) were positive for hydatid cyst, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference (p<0.05) in the prevalence of hydatidosis in cattle with different body condition scores (55.34% in poor and 6.25% in good body condition). The same holds true for goats (14.28% in poor body condition and 0.97% in good body condition score). But the variation was not significant concerning the age and origin of the animals. From examined organs, 55 (10.57%) of the lung, and 31 (5.96%) of the liver of cattle were positive. However, in goats, 13 (3.09%) lungs and 5 (1.19%) livers were positive for the cyst. The cyst viability and fertility test indicated that 28 (32.56%) cysts were fertile in cattle while 53 (61.28%) were infertile and 5 (5.81%) were calcified. Of these 28 fertile cysts in cattle, 8 (28.57%) were viable and 20 (71.43%) were non-viable. In goats, 13 (72.2%) were fertile, 4 (22.2%) were infertile and 1 (5.6%) was calcified. Of these 13 fertile cysts in goats, 8(61.54%) were viable and 5(38.5%) were non-viable. The annual economic loss estimated for bovine and caprine hydatidosis was 2,101,540.2 and 65,897.9 ETB, respectively. The annual financial loss recorded altogether by hydatidosis of cattle and goats at Abergelle International Export Slaughterhouse was estimated to be 2,167,438.1 ETB. In conclusion, hydatidosis is a major cause of organ and carcass condemnation and financial loss at the Abergelle export slaughterhouse. The prevalence of hydatidosis was high in cattle compared to goats and in both species; the lung was the most frequently affected organ by hydatid cyst followed by the liver.
      PubDate: 2022-08-29
      DOI: 10.4314/evj.v26i2.3
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Epidemiology of camel contagious ecthyma and molecular detection of the
           pathogen in Arero district, Ethiopia

    • Authors: Bareda Diba, Benti Deresa Gelalcha, Birhanu Ayele, Bedane Adane
      Pages: 57 - 71
      Abstract: Even though camels (Camelus dromedarius) were traditionally believed to be resistant to most livestock diseases, research has demonstrated that they are susceptible to a large number of infectious agents. Based on the clinical appearance of typical lesions, camel contagious ecthyma (CCE), caused by a Parapoxvirus (PPV), is thought to be one of the most common viral diseases of camels in Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2013 to April 2014 in the Arero district of Borena Zone, Oromia Regional State of Ethiopia to investigate the epidemiological aspect of CCE and molecularly identify the causative agent. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on B2L gene-specific primers of PPV was used for the confirmatory diagnosis of the CCE virus from the skin lesion of camels showing suspected clinical signs of CCE infection. Eighty-seven percent (87.0%) of camel owners reported the occurrence of CCE outbreaks in their herds in the past year (a year preceding the start of the study). The overall morbidity and mortality rates attributed to CCE were 20% (95% CI: 11– 36%) and 6.3% (95 % CI: 5.2 –7.6%), respectively. Younger camels had higher odds of becoming affected by CCE than adults [OR=3.44 (95 % CI: 2.29 –4.09)] and the difference was statistically significant. Confirmatory diagnosis of the suspected cases using conventional PCR generated the expected amplification product size of 1200bp for one of the samples. Therefore, the study confirms the presence and importance of CCE in Ethiopia and establishes the basis for further investigation.
      PubDate: 2022-08-29
      DOI: 10.4314/evj.v26i2.4
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • A comprehensive study on the cattle production situation owned by refugees
           and hosting communities in the Gambella region, southwestern Ethiopia

    • Authors: Jemberu Alemu Megenas, Misganu Amanuel Taera
      Pages: 72 - 92
      Abstract: This study was designed to assess the state of cattle production and the contributions that cattle production makes to enhance the livelihoods, food security, and nutrition of refugees and the host community in the Gambella region in southwest Ethiopia. Two hundred fifty-five cattle owners were purposefully chosen for the study, and information was gathered through questionnaires, focus group discussions, and key informant interviews. The average number of animals per household (sd; +0.002 range: 1 to 490) was 32.37. The study observed a total of 8,258 cattle of which 8,146 belonged to the Nuer breed and 112 to the Felata breed. The reason for maintaining cattle varies statistically across the host community, re-settlers, and refugee communities (x2=50.358; p-value =0.000). According to the current study, 92.5% (236/255) of cattle owners used a free-grazing system, and the mean daily milk yield per cow during the dry and rainy seasons, respectively, was 1.35L and 2.09L. All respondents (100%) agree that there exist cattle diseases in the research area, and 79.6% of cattle owners employed traditional medicine to prevent and treat cattle diseases. Some of the potentials for cattle production in the study areas were cultural value, the existence of disease-tolerant breeds, the availability of manpower, and local expertise. Therefore, it is highly advised that a thorough analysis of the various agro-ecologies in the area be necessary to understand the reproductive and productive performance of cattle.
      PubDate: 2022-08-29
      DOI: 10.4314/evj.v26i2.5
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Participatory epidemiological study on the burden of rabies in animals and
           humans in three districts of Buno Bedele Zone, West Ethiopia

    • Authors: Moti Wakgari, Gari Getachew , Gijs Van’t Klooster, Nega Tewolde, Fredrick Kivaria, Charles Bebay
      Pages: 93 - 106
      Abstract: Rabies is one of the priority zoonotic diseases and a major public health challenge in Ethiopia. Dog plays an important role in the transmission of the disease to humans. With this point in mind, this study was conducted in selected districts of Buno Bedele Zone namely Bedele, Gechi, and Dabo Hana districts, Western Oromia regional state from December 2019 to April 2020. The objective of the study was to know the status and burden of rabies in the community using the participatory approach and retrospective record assessment from animal and human health facilities. Twelve interview meetings were conducted in 12 Kebeles, which involved 156 informants. In this survey authors learned that dogs were the species most affected by rabies followed by cattle, human, cat, equine, and shoats. Accordingly, rabies in dog had an average score of 64 out of 100 with a range of 50-80. Besides, rabies outbreak was frequently noted between June to October in the study areas. Slaughter and sharing of the meat for household consumption was the most common practice taken to salvage bitten cattle. As per the available record in the study area, the estimated rabies cases incidence was 1.75 bovines, 18 dogs, 2.37 equines, 2.28 cats, and 0.37 shoats per 10,000 animals annually. The annual average post-exposure rabies vaccinations records were 75, 39, and 63 in Bedele, Dabo Hana, and Gechi districts, respectively. On the other hand, the average annual rabies death in humans was 2.2, 1.4, and 1.8 in Bedele, Dabo Hana, and Gechi districts, respectively. In general, this study shows that rabies is a disease that worth serious attention in the study areas.
      PubDate: 2022-08-29
      DOI: 10.4314/evj.v26i2.6
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • One Health – A holistic solution for sustainable management of
           globalization-driven public health challenges

    • Authors: Fufa Abunna, Gezahegne Mamo, Bekele Megersa
      Pages: 107 - 131
      Abstract: Globalization is an inevitable and extremely complex phenomenon that involves transnational integration of culture, economy, environment, politics, and other social interest. Globally, we are witnessing multitude changes such as a rapid population growth, urbanization, international trade and commerce, agricultural intensification, and encroachment into the natural ecosystem. Further mismatching of food demand and supply, growth disparities, increasing food prices, and over utilization of natural resources are among the challenges to the economic status of a nation and its health sector. The health impacts of globalization can be both positive and negative; of course, its impacts vary based on factors such as geographical location, gender, age, literacy, and socioeconomic status. Globalization has played pivotal role in health improvements via dissemination of new medical knowledge, low-cost health technologies, fast transactions of medical supply and improvement of human rights. Thus it has shown potential positive impacts by minimizing the gaps in health inequalities between rich and poor people in the global South and North and improved the idea of healthcare for all. On the other hand, there are also shortcomings of globalization to global health, such as the spread of infectious diseases due to rapid mobility, which is emerging as the greatest threat to all. The interconnectedness of globalization and One Health is complex. Whereas, globalization is one of the main challenges to ensure global health security. One Health is a remedy to manage the negative health consequences of globalization, especially in least developed world. It is undeniable that the connection between humans, animals, and the environment calls for the attention of multi-sectorial institutes to collaborate to closely monitor and reduce the risks and consequences on health and wellbeing. One Health approach is increasingly recognized and streamlined into national and international plans and strategies for effective management of zoonotic diseases, food safety, antimicrobial resistance, and climate change. Human practices such as, changes in land use and how food is produced are driving ecological and evolutionary conditions that facilitate disease spillover events and contribute to antimicrobial resistance. These changes are occurring rapidly on a large scale, both locally and globally. The pursuit of understanding human, veterinary and environmental health issues separately leads to an incomplete understanding of disease dynamics and, therefore, missed synergy for a joint mitigation of the problems. One Health actions support the primary prevention of such problems, enabling more timely and effective containment and response to public health threats at the human-animal-environment interface. In short, systematic and sustained One Health approach becomes more important than ever in order to promote and ensure health security and avert the negative impacts of globalization. Therefore, there is a need to focus on the creation of socially and environmentally sustainable forms of globalization that provide the greatest benefits and least costs, shared more equitably than the status queue.
      PubDate: 2022-08-29
      DOI: 10.4314/evj.v26i2.7
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Distribution of E. coli biotypes shed by dairy calves in selected dairy
           farms in Bishoftu, Ethiopia

    • Authors: Aragaw Ebabu Akane, Tesfaye Sisay Tessema, Destaw Asfaw Ali
      Pages: 132 - 142
      Abstract: A longitudinal study was undertaken to investigate E. coli using standard biochemical and sugar fermentation tests. Faecal samples were taken from calves purposively from three selected dairy farms in Bishoftu Ethiopia. Four different sampling times were used to observe the detection rate of E. coli. The overall detection of E. coli was 84/104 (80.70%). The detection of E. coli isolates in different sampling points ranged from 16.34% to 25.00% in which the occurrence of E.coli has a significant association. All E. coli isolated showed different sugar fermentation patterns. E. coli was biotyped into 14 biotypes and variation occurred for samples taken during the first to fourth sampling points, the pattern ranging from 20.20% to 31.00%. Among 14 biotypes, biotypes VI and III dominate with 55.95% and 16.67% respectively. E. coli biotype (predominantly group VI) distribution concerning sampling time points have a significant association (p=0.039).Diverse natures and variations of E. coli were observed in calves with different sampling points as the main determinant. Farm management practice could reduce the occurrence of the pathogen in farm animals, particularly neonatal calves.
      PubDate: 2022-08-29
      DOI: 10.4314/evj.v26i2.8
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • A One Health approach to investigate bats as a potential source of
           zoonotic mycoses in selected areas of Mpumalanga province, the Republic of
           South Africa

    • Authors: Tilaye Shibbiru Mengistu, Ilana van Wyk, Marinda Oosthuizen, Lientjie Cohen, Jeanette Wentzel
      Pages: 143 - 157
      Abstract: A One Health approach pilot study was carried out in selected villages within the Mnisi Traditional Authority’s area, Manyeleti Game Reserve, and Hans Hoheisen Wildlife Research Station in Mpumalanga Province, the Republic of South Africa from July to December 2018. The study’s main objectives were to identify positive and negative human-bat-environment interactions and microbiological screening of bats’ faecal samples for zoonotic fungi. Thirty-three purposively selected participants were asked to complete a structured questionnaire with multiple-choice and open-ended questions, and a total of 55 faecal samples were collected, 25 from identified bat roosting sites and 30 from captured bats. Ninety seven percent of respondents were aware of the presence or absence of bats in their immediate surroundings. However, the majority of them (87.9%) were uneasy about the presence of bats in their buildings, and nearly half (48.5%) were unsure whether bats play a positive or negative role in the environment. Some respondents (15.2%) stated that bats play beneficial roles in the environment, such as pollinating plants, spreading seeds of indigenous plants, catching harmful insects, and so on. More than half of the respondents (66.7%) stated that bats can be a nuisance; 18.2% of those polled reported contracting fungal diseases as a result of cleaning bat droppings without adequate protection. The analysis of faecal samples revealed that bats can harbour pathogenic fungi such as Aspergillus fumigatus, and A.flavus. We concluded that bats can harbour fungal pathogens that cause human diseases. Further research should be conducted to compile a complete list of fungi pathogens in bats in the study area.
      PubDate: 2022-08-29
      DOI: 10.4314/evj.v26i2.9
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 2 (2022)
       
 
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