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  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 225 journals)
Showing 1 - 63 of 63 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abanico Veterinario     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria     Open Access  
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Research in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Small Animal Care     Full-text available via subscription  
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Agrivet : Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Pertanian dan Peternakan / Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Veteriner)     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences     Open Access  
American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Analecta Veterinaria     Open Access  
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal - Science Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 144)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Animal Health Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Anthrozoos : A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Applied Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archiva Zootehnica     Open Access  
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi / Atatürk University Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Austral Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Equine Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Avian Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access  
Bangladesh Veterinarian     Open Access  
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Veteriner Udayana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
CES Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia     Open Access  
Chilean Journal of Agricultural & Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Ciencia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access  
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Compendio de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Equine Veterinary Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Equine Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
EUREKA : Health Sciences     Open Access  
FAVE Sección Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Folia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Frontiers in Veterinary Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human & Veterinary Medicine - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ILAR Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Indonesia Medicus Veterinus     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intas Polivet     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Tropical Veterinary and Biomedical Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
InVet     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Iranian Journal of Veterinary Surgery     Open Access  
Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Irish Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Buffalo Science     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Parasite Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Small Animal Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of the Hellenic Veterinary Medical Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Selva Andina Research Society     Open Access  
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Veterinary Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Veterinary Forensic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medical Diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medicine     Open Access  
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu dan Kesehatan Hewan (Veterinary Science and Medicine Journal)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Medik Veteriner     Open Access  
Jurnal Medika Veterinaria     Open Access  
Jurnal Sain Veteriner     Open Access  
Jurnal Veteriner     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Kenya Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
kleintier konkret     Hybrid Journal  
Livestock     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Macedonian Veterinary Review     Open Access  
Matrix Science Medica     Open Access  
Medical Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Medical Mycology Case Reports     Open Access  
Medicina Veterinária (UFRPE)     Open Access  
Nepalese Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
New Zealand Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
New Zealand Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nigerian Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pet Behaviour Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
pferde spiegel     Hybrid Journal  
Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Preventive Veterinary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Rassegna di Diritto, Legislazione e Medicina Legale Veterinaria     Open Access  
Reproduction in Domestic Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Research in Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Research Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Veterinária     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Higiene e Sanidade Animal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencia Animal     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias (Colombian journal of animal science and veterinary medicine)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Complutense de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista de Ciência Veterinária e Saúde Pública     Open Access  
Revista de Ciências Agroveterinárias     Open Access  
Revista de Educação Continuada em Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú     Open Access  
Revista de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revista de Salud Animal     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista MVZ Córdoba     Open Access  
Revista Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revue Marocaine des Sciences Agronomiques et Vétérinaires     Open Access  
Revue Vétérinaire Clinique     Full-text available via subscription  
Salud y Tecnología Veterinaria     Open Access  
Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde     Hybrid Journal  
Science and Animal Health     Open Access  
Small Ruminant Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Spei Domus     Open Access  
Sri Lanka Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
SVU-International Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Tanzania Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
team.konkret     Open Access  
Theoretical and Applied Veterinary Medicine     Open Access  
Theriogenology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Tierärztliche Praxis Ausgabe G: Großtiere / Nutztiere     Hybrid Journal  
Tierärztliche Praxis Ausgabe K: Kleintiere / Heimtiere     Hybrid Journal  
Topics in Companion Animal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Trends in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tropical Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Turkish Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access  
UK Vet Equine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Ukrainian Journal of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences     Open Access  
Van Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
VCOT Open     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
veterinär spiegel     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Veterinaria     Open Access  
Veterinaria (Montevideo)     Open Access  
Veterinaria México     Open Access  
Veterinaria México OA     Open Access  
Veterinarski Glasnik     Open Access  
Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Veterinary and Animal Science     Open Access  
Veterinary and Comparative Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Clinical Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Veterinary Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Veterinary Journal of Mehmet Akif Ersoy University / Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Veterinary Medicine and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Veterinary Medicine International     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Medicine: Research and Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)

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Acta Scientiae Veterinariae
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1678-0345 - ISSN (Online) 1679-9216
This journal is no longer being updated because:
    Archived because its RSS was removed by publisher
  • Myxomatous Degeneration of Atrioventricular Valves in a Crab-eating fox
           (Cerdocyon thous) - Echodopplercardiography Diagnosis

    • Authors: Juliana Godoy Santos, Ellen Ronara de Jesus Franco, Eduarda Bagini Fliegner, Jullia de Pinho Borba, Marlon Ribeiro, Edson Moleta Colodel, Thais Oliveira Morgado, Pedro Eduardo Brandini Néspoli
      Abstract: Background: The myxomatosis degeneration is a degenerative cardiac valve disease, with a higher incidence in male and senile canids. The diagnosis is made by a doppler echocardiography exam. Although there are few reports on the occurrence of cardiopathies in wild dogs (Cerdocyon thous), some studies on their cardiological parameters can be found. Considering this, and knowing that the cardiopathies in wild canids are common post mortem findings, the objective of this study is to describe the echocardiography diagnosis of a case of myxomatous degeneration of the atrioventricular valves in 1 wild dog (Cerdocyon thous) living in captivity.Case: It was treated at the Diagnostic Imaging Department of the Veterinary Hospital of the Federal University of Mato Grosso (HOVET-UFMT), 1 wild dog (C. thous), male, living in captivity with approximately 10-year-old, directed by the Center of Medicine and Research in Wild Animals of Cuiabá, to perform echocardiography exam. The patient was submitted to anesthesia for proper examination, which was used Esaote® machine model MyLabFive VET with sector scan transducer (4.0 -7.5 MHz). The longitudinal, transverse and apical scan planes were obtained through left and right parasternal windows. The evaluation of M mode exposed ejection fraction and shortening increased, of 81% and 47%, respectively, however it showed no increase in systolic and diastolic values of left ventricle, nor in right cavities on subjective evaluation. The relation between the left atrium (LA) and the aorta (Ao) remained normal, at 1.2 mm, with dimensions of 13.4 mm from the AO and 16.3 mm from LA, compatible with species parameters or domestic canines. The atrioventricular valves showed thickening and irregularities in their cusps, with great intensity in the left atrioventricular valve (LAV). The Doppler mode analysis revealed a turbulent systolic flow into the left atrium and right atrium, constituting transvalvular LAV and right atrioventricular valve- (RAV) regurgitation, both observed through the blood flow in colored Doppler and measured through the reflux velocity of 4.02 m/s of LAV and 2.17 m/s of RAV by the continuous Doppler, showing insufficiency of intense degree of LAV and moderate degree of RAV, no evidence of pulmonary hypertension. On the other hand, the relation between wave E and wave A (E/A) was 1.0, with increased transvalvular velocities and values of 0.95 m/s for wave E and A. The isovolumetric mitral relaxation time was approximately 76 m/s. The value of the pressure derivative (dp) in relation to time (dt) dp/dt measured from the LAV reflux was 1257 mmHg, within the limit considered normal for canines. Four months after the diagnosis, the patient died due to complications of chronic renal failure.Discussion: Despite being a commonly diagnosed pathology in domestic canids, the myxomatous degeneration of atrioventricular valves is still little reported in wild canids. The evaluation of the results showed that although there was severe LAV regurgitation, there was no hypertrophy or compensatory dilation of the left cavities. However, there was a compensatory increase in the shortening fraction together with the ventricular relaxation deficit. The diagnosis of this condition in Cerdocyon thous demonstrates that the pathology can affect animals of advanced age and that its incidence needs to be determined in these captive species, in order to understand the real impact of this disease in these populations. Keywords: cardiopathies, cardiac valve disease, degenerative disease, cardiological parameters, wild dog. Título: Degeneração mixomatosa das válvulas atrioventriculares em cachorro-do-mato (Cerdocyon thous) - diagnóstico ecocardiográfico Descritores: cardiopatias, doença valvular cardíaca, doença degenerativa, parâmetros cardiológicos, canídeo selvagem.

      PubDate: 2022-03-11
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.114524
      Issue No: Vol. 50 (2022)
       
  • Enostosis-Like Lesion in Thoroughbred Horse

    • Authors: Bruna Patrícia Siqueira Raimundo, Carlos Eduardo Martins de Oliveira Veiga, Grasiela De Bastiani, Tainã Kuwer Jacobsen
      Abstract: Background: Enostosis like lesions are characterized by areas of intramedullary sclerosis affecting the long bones and their presence in any cases may be not associated with lameness. It has a migratory characteristic and, therefore there is the occurrence of lameness at different sites from the initial lesion. Its etiology is speculative and has been attributed to intraosseous increased pressure, of Havers’ canals compression, stimulation of unmyelinated fibers and circulating platelet aggregates. Diagnosis is made through nuclear scintigraphy and associated with radiographic examination. This paper aims to report a clinical case on the use of scintigraphy for the reference diagnosis of enostosis-type injury and treatment through surgical bone decompression.Case: A 2-year-old thoroughbred mare, weighing 483 kg, with a history of acute lameness of the left pelvic limb associated with the no previous signs of trauma and no noteworthy changes in radiographic and ultrasound images, was referred to the Horse Center Veterinary Clinic. In the examination of the locomotor system, the animal presented a 2/5 degree lameness in a straight line, with accentuated exacerbation of the same after flexion of the left femoro-tibio-patellar joint. In addition, presented a reduction in the caudal phase of the stride and croup asymmetry associated with mild myopenia. The findings of the scintigraphic exam characterized by intense focal area of hyperconcentration of medullary radiopharmaceutical in the proximal third of the right third metatarsal, and multiple areas of hyperconcentration in the aspect proximal to the distal third of the left tibia. In the radiographic images, multifocal radiopaque regions that coincided with the areas of radiopharmaceutical hyperconcentration were observed. The initial treatment was based on rest, use of non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs and acetylsalicylic acid. In the 60 days’ later evaluation of the first exam, the patient returned to the clinic presenting 4/5 degree lameness and with an unsatisfactory evolution. Therefore, surgical bone decompression was performed on the left radius through intramedullary perforations with a 3.5 mm drill in the lesion sites. Approximately 30 days after the surgical procedure, the animal returned to the clinic complaining of acute 2/5 degree lameness of the left pelvic limb. The patient was removed from his race career and destined for amateur jumping events where he is currently doing the same without presenting a clinical complaint of persistent lameness.Discussion: The presence of focal areas of radiopharmaceutical hyperconcentration in several bones of a limb, not just in the same lame limb, makes it even more difficult to understand this pathology. The intensity of radiopharmaceutical uptake evident in scintigraphy exams is related to the degree of lameness. Severe lameness is associated with intense radiopharmaceutical concentration indicating an acute stage of the disease, as well as a decrease in radiopharmaceutical concentration in follow-up exams, demonstrating an improvement in the degree of lameness. In the present clinical case described, there was a decrease in the radiopharmaceutical concentration in the right radius, but in the left radius, the limb in which spinal cord decompression was performed, it was still possible to observe radiopharmaceutical hyperconcentration. This was possibly due to an inflammatory bone process caused by surgical decompression. The literature suggests a favorable prognosis for the return to athletic function, with clinical resolution after following a period of rest and administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The patient in the described clinical case returned to sports activities with a reduced athletic performance requirement, replacing running events with basic and amateur jumping events. Keywords: lameness, intramedullary sclerosis, bone, equine.Título: Enostose múltipla em equino puro sangue de corridaDescritores: claudicação, esclerose intramedular, osso, equino.
      PubDate: 2022-03-09
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.119777
      Issue No: Vol. 50 (2022)
       
  • Cystic Endometrial Hyperplasia in a Domestic Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus
           domesticus)

    • Authors: Bruna Zafalon da Silva, Aline Moure, Victória Regina de Queiroz Schmidt, Gabriela Capriolli, Laura Borowsky Bandeira, Marilia Avila Valandro, Rochelle Gorczak
      Abstract: Background: Cystic endometrial hyperplasia is a hormone-dependent disease induced by systemic increase in progesterone that can occur in several domestic species, such as the rabbit. This disease may be associated with sex steroid hormones, especially progesterone, and may be asymptomatic, and it is diagnosed using complementary imaging tests such as total abdominal ultrasound. However, surgical excisional biopsy with histopathological tissue analysis is the gold standard. This study reports a case of asymptomatic cystic endometrial hyperplasia in a female Miniature Lion Lop rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus domesticus) treated with therapeutic ovariohysterectomy.Case: A domestic, adult, female Miniature Lion Lop rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus domesticus), aged approximately 5 years and weighing 3.2 kg, was referred to specialized care to undergo ovariohysterectomy, an elective procedure. The tutor only reported the occurrence of a single episode of vulvar secretion more than 2 years ago, treated with antibiotics, with remission of clinical signs. In the intraoperative period after celiotomy, the uterine horn and uterine body showed a significant increase in volume, with abnormal color changes and tissue consistency; however, both changes were clinically asymptomatic. Subsequently, biopsy was performed during the ovariohysterectomy procedure. The excised uterus and ovaries were placed in 10% formalin and histopathologically analyzed. The macroscopic histopathological examination of the sectioned tissue revealed a slight amount of brownish fluid inside the uterine horns, in addition to multiple cystic areas in the uterine mucosa. Microscopic examination revealed marked hyperplasia of well-differentiated endometrial epithelial cells, occasionally forming cystic structures of different sizes. Moderate congestion, mild multifocal hemorrhage, and mild multifocal inflammatory infiltrate in the lamina comprising lymphocytes and plasma cells were also observed. Therefore, a diagnosis of cystic endometrial hyperplasia with mild lymphoplasmacytic endometritis was made. Observation of the patient was recommended without therapeutic indication.Discussion: Although the pathogenesis of cystic endometrial hyperplasia remains unknown, it is suggested that it is associated with the presence of sex steroids. Hence, this is a common disease in female rabbits, as they have non-seasonal polyestrous cycles and induced ovulation. Cystic endometrial hyperplasia may be asymptomatic or subclinical, without any significant clinical signs. Conversely, when associated with an infection such as pyometritis, the clinical signs include intermittent hematuria, anemia, lethargy, anorexia, and tenderness in the uterus on palpation. Although diagnosis can be made using total abdominal ultrasound and radiography, it can only be confirmed by the histopathological evaluation of the biopsied uterine tissue. Histopathological features of this disease include endometrial thickening with irregular glandular cystic elevations and hyperplasia of the pseudostratified cylindrical ciliated cells of the uterine glands. Furthermore, lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate is found in the uterine tissue, demonstrating an inflammatory reaction or bacterial infection concomitant with endometrial hyperplasia. In this case, the treatment of choice was therapeutic ovariohysterectomy, which is considered curative in this disease. Thus, ovariohysterectomy can resolve cystic endometrial hyperplasia in a domestic female Miniature Lion Lop rabbit.Keywords: surgery, ovariohysterectomy, rabbits, wildlife.Título: Hiperplasia endometrial cística em coelho-doméstico (Oryctolagus cuniculus domesticus)Descritores: cirurgia, ovariosalpingohisterectomia, coelhos, animais selvagens.

      PubDate: 2022-03-06
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.119718
      Issue No: Vol. 50 (2022)
       
  • Pituitary Carcinoma in a Bitch: Clinical, Tomographic, Histopathological
           and Immunohistochemistry Findings

    • Authors: Flávia Tavares, Gustavo Carvalho Cobucci, Denner Santos Dos Anjos, Carlos Eduardo Fonseca-Alves, Thais Ferreira Guimarães, Simone Neves De Campos
      Abstract: Background: Primary pituitary carcinoma is rarely reported in dogs and only few reports describe its malignancy. In veterinary literature, primary pituitary carcinomas correspond up to 2.4% to 3.4% of intracranial neoplasms found in dogs and information regarding its biological behavior is quite limited.  In humans, primary pituitary carcinomas represent less than 1.0% of all tumors found in the pituitary gland. The proposed classification for pituitary carcinoma in humans and dogs determines that the tumor must have its origin in adenohypophyseal region and disseminated metastasis by cerebrospinal fluid or systemically to other organs must be observed. In dogs, a few reports have described primary pituitary carcinoma. The goal of this report was to describe clinical, tomographic, histopathological and immunohistochemistry features of a dog with primary pituitary carcinoma with adjacent invasion. Case: A 7-year-old female spayed Golden Retriever dog was assessed by general practice due progressive weight loss, muscular atrophy, lethargy, blindness, head pressing, and hyporexia for 21 days. Computed tomography (CT) showed a cerebral parenchyma with expansive extra-axial base formation, originating from sella turcica topography, measuring about 2.0 centimeter dorsally, displacing the third ventricle, suggesting the diagnosis of pituitary neoplasia. The hormones thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and total thyroxine (T4) as well as stimulation ACTH test were unremarkable. After 7 days, neurological clinical signs progressed and unfortunately the patient died ten days later after hospitalization. A necropsy exam revealed pituitary gland with increased dimensions (2.5 x 2.0 cm). Histopathological findings revealed tumor proliferation in pituitary gland. The neoplasm showed invasion to the nervous parenchyma and metastatic foci between the brain lobes. Immunohistochemistry was positive for keratin and neuron-specific enolase and negative for epithelial membrane antigen, S-100 protein, glial fibrillary acidic protein, estrogen receptor, CD34, chromogranin, somatostatin, and ACTH. The clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemistry findings supported the diagnosis of primary pituitary carcinoma. Discussion: There is lack information regarding pituitary carcinoma prevalence in dogs, and little is known about its pathological and clinical features. The patient showed a shorter survival time (30 days after the onset of clinical signs) for a non-hormonally functional tumor that presented with acute onset of neurological signs due to local effect of an expanding mass, also described in others pituitary carcinoma reports. It was observed a metastatic focus of pituitary neoplasia between cerebral hemispheres, leading us to conclude to be a pituitary carcinoma. Adjacent infiltration was noticed by the presence of neoplasm invasion to the synoptic nervous parenchyma and metastatic foci between the brain lobes as well as the presence of a non-delimited nodular area of neoplastic implantation between the cerebral hemispheres, and optic nerve compromised by neoplasm cells. The data reported here showed that a negative ACTH receptor in neoplasm with 10% Ki-67 proliferation index with no history of clinical signs of pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH). Pituitary adenocarcinomas are thought to be more often non-secretors. CT findings reveled a pituitary mass of 2.5 cm in vertical height suggesting a pituitary macrotumor although there is lack of description for pituitary carcinomas in veterinary literature. The animal had a fast deterioration of his clinical condition and quickly came to death, suggesting poor biological behavior of the tumor. Keywords: adrenocorticotropic hormone, case report, dog, pituitary tumors.
      PubDate: 2022-03-02
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.116892
      Issue No: Vol. 50 (2022)
       
  • Correction of Flexural Deformity of the Metacarpophalangeal Joint in a
           Calf

    • Authors: Isabelle Smaniotto Compagnoni, Anny Raissa Carolini Gomes, Ana Paula Brenner Busch Becker, Ana Paula Rossa, Lucimara Strugava, Juliana Sperotto Brum, Juan Carlos Duque Moreno, Peterson Triches Dornbusch
      Abstract: Background: The congenital flexural deformity is common in cattle, often affecting the metacarpophalangeal joint of the thoracic limbs. The deformity may be mild, moderate, or severe, and the therapy depends on the limb's degree of flexion and the affected joint. In severe deformities, tenotomy of the flexor tendons and desmotomy of the suspensor ligament is recommended. However, this surgical technique may not be sufficient to promote limb extension, and other interventions may be necessary. Thus, the purpose of this report is to describe a technique to correct severe flexural deformities of the metacarpophalangeal joint in calves.Case: A three-month-old, female, Dutch-bred calf weighing 46 kg was referred for treatment of congenital flexural deformity. On attendance, the patient presented severe deformity in the right thoracic limb and mild in the left thoracic limb both at the height of the metacarpophalangeal joints. During palpation it was possible to notice that the flexor tendons were contracted in both limbs. Radiographic exams were performed to rule out the presence of other diseases, confirming the diagnosis of flexural deformity. The patient was referred to surgery to correct the anatomical anomaly. The animal was submitted to general anesthesia and placed in right lateral decubitus. In the left thoracic limb, an incision was made in the medial region of the metacarpal bone, the tissues were divulsioned until the superficial digital and deep digital flexor tendons were exposed; these structures were sectioned with a scalpel, and the limb was extended, returning to the standard anatomical position. In the right thoracic limb, the same procedure was performed, but during the limb extension test, we observed that the limb remained flexed, we then followed with a second incision and section of the deep digital flexor tendon in the palmar region at the middle phalanx of the lateral and medial digits, with this procedure, the limb extended further. Nevertheless, the procedure was not enough to solve the problem in the right thoracic limb, and the patient needed a second surgical intervention, in which we performed again tenotomy of the flexor tendons and desmotomy of the digital annular, crossed sesamoid, and interdigital phalangiosamoid ligaments, associated to the capsule opening of the capsule from the affected right metacarpophalangeal joint. After this surgery, the patient recovered to the normal anatomical position of the right thoracic limb. The procedures were efficient in achieving the normality of both affected limbs, and the patient recovered without postoperative complications.Discussion: In severe flexural deformities of the metacarpophalangeal joint in bovines, the fetlock's flexor tendons and suspensory ligament are implicated in the limb contracture. For these cases the chosen treatment is surgery with sequential sectioning of the flexor tendons and the suspensory ligament until the extension of the flexed limb occurs. Although there are reports that confirm the efficacy of this technique, there are cases in which other anatomic structures are involved in the limb contracture. In addition, the desmotomy and tenotomy techniques are not enough to achieve the normality of the affected joint, with the limb remaining flexed, leading to euthanasia of the patient in some cases. In cattle, few reports demonstrate possible techniques for severe contractures of the metacarpophalangeal joint, requiring further studies and new techniques to achieve recovery of these patients. Keywords: bovine, congenital, anatomical anomaly, contracture, tendon, fetlock.Descritores: bovinos, congênita, anomalia anatômica, contratura, tendão, boleto.Título: Correção de deformidade flexural da articulação metacarpofalangeana em  uma bezerra
      PubDate: 2022-02-28
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.118033
      Issue No: Vol. 50 (2022)
       
  • Pneumothorax secondary to a Pulmonary Bullae in a dog

    • Authors: Julia Perinotto Picelli, Simone Scarpin de Sá, Isabel Rodrigues Rosado, Ananda Neves Teodoro, Ana Julia de Souza Lima, Barbara Monteiro Kiellander, Rogéria Serakides, EndrigoGabellini Leonel Alves
      Abstract: Background: Pulmonary bullae are thin-walled cavitary lesions within the subpleural parenchyma. They are a result of the destruction, dilatation and coalescence of bordering alveoli and their rupture is the most common cause of pneumothorax in dogs. Radiographic and CT imaging are excellent tools for identifying and quantifying pneumothorax. Surgical treatment is considered standard for treatment of pneumothorax consequential to pulmonary bullae. The aim of this report was to describe a case of pneumothorax secondary to pulmonary bullae in a dog.Case: A 5-year-old male crossbreed dog, weighing 11.5 kg, was presented to the Uberaba’s Veterinary Hospital due to becoming easily tired in the previous 3 weeks, and its worsening in the last 2 days by presenting panting. The dog’s guardian did not witness any traumas, but informed that the animal resided with other 14 dogs and also that it frequently collided the thorax against the door when it came down from the bed. Physical examination showed diaphragmatic breathing, inspiratory dyspnea and stridor lung sound. Thoracocentesis revealed presence of air in the pleural cavity and pneumothorax. Radiographic images confirmed this condition. The dog stayed in the hospital and chest drains were placed. Since the amount of sucked air did not reduce with time and due to the emergence of subcutaneous emphysema, the dog went through exploratory thoracotomy that revealed impairment of the right caudal lung lobe, proceeding to lobectomy. The dog stayed in the hospital with chest drains until the contents of the suctions reduced significantly. With the removal of the drains, the dog was sent home and had a full recovery. Histopathology of the impaired lung revealed pulmonary bullae.Discussion: The dog from this report presented clinical signs consistent with pneumothorax, such as dyspnea, diaphragmatic breathing and exercise intolerance. Radiography of the chest region revealed images consistent with this condition, as it is an excellent tool for identifying it. This dog’s guardian was unable to confirm if there was occurrence of trauma due to the large number of cohabitants. In dogs, spontaneous pneumothorax commonly results from the rupture of pulmonary bullae, and these bullae may result from trauma, infectious diseases, thrombosis, obstructive, neoplastic, congenital or idiopathic conditions. Except from trauma, there were no evidence to support any of the other causes of pulmonary bullae in this case.  Traumatic injuries are very common in veterinary medicine, and blunt thoracic traumas with consequential pneumothorax are especially common. The emerging of subcutaneous emphysema, as happened with this dog, is frequently associated with pneumomediastine, and rarely has pathophysiologic impairments. The patient stayed in the hospital for support therapy and thoracocentesis, corroborating with literature; but since there was no improvement, it went through exploratory lobectomy, which revealed impairment of the right caudal lung lobe, proceeding to its exeresis. Surgical intervention is standard procedure in these cases. Histopathology of the impaired lung suggested the presence of pulmonary bullae. In literature, histopathological definitions for this condition are inconsistent, but usually locate the bullae within the pulmonary parenchyma, having walls less than 1 mm thick. Through radiology, unlike with cysts, identifying pulmonary bullae is challenging. In conclusion, this report showed that pulmonary bullae should be considered as a differential diagnose in patients showing pneumothorax considering it is hard to identify through imaging, and that it is important to adopt early therapy and surgical intervention for better outcomes.Keywords: dyspnea, panting, pulmonary lobectomy, thoracotomy, chest drain.Titulo:  Pneumotórax secundário a bolha pulmonar em cão.Descritores: dispneia, ofegante, lobectomia pulmonar, toracotomia, dreno torácico.
      PubDate: 2022-02-27
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.119749
      Issue No: Vol. 50 (2022)
       
  • Atypical Transmissible Venereal Tumor in Dogs

    • Authors: Julia Das Graças Gritzenco, Adilson Paulo Marchioni Cabral, Ana Paula Lourenção Albuquerque, Juliana Das Chagas Goulart, Felipe Jacques Sanches, Natalie Bertelis Merlini, Beatriz Gasser, Paulo Fernandes Marcusso
      Abstract: Background: The Transmissible Venereal Tumor (TVT), classified as a round cell tumor, is considered one of the oldest existing tumors. It affects dogs all over the world and has a contagious characteristic. Despite the good response to clinical treatment in most cases, it can sometimes have non-classical presentations and even different behavior. Thus, the present study aims to report 3 cases of atypical TVT treated at the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital of the State University of Maringá (UEM) in Umuarama, Paraná, aiming to describe the epidemiology and clinical-pathological aspects, focusing on the diagnostic method used, the treatment of choice and the clinical follow-up of each case.Cases: Case records of 3 intact male mongrel dogs with atypical Transmissible Venereal Tumor (case 1: intranasal; case 2: intra-abdominal and case 3: cutaneous with lymph node metastasis) were reviewed regarding history, clinical signs, duration of clinical signs, examination findings, results and findings of complementary exams (hematological, biochemical, radiographic, ultrasonographic and cytological), treatment, follow-up and final result. Case 1: had an ulcerated mass in the nasal plane causing significant airway obstruction and respiratory difficulty. Case 2: had a lesion in a typical location (penile mucosa in the glans area) but with a large intra-abdominal mass in the lumbar paravertebral region, causing compression of important structures. Case 3: on the other hand, had cutaneous TVT with several ulcerated plaque lesions all over the skin, in addition to popliteal lymph node enlargement due to metastasis later confirmed by microscopy. All dogs reported were mixed breed, intact males with free access to the street. Despite the fact that each patient had their own anatomical tumor characteristics, they were all diagnosed through cytological examination and all classified as lymphocytic TVT. The standard treatment for this neoplasm was instituted; the chosen chemotherapy was vincristine sulfate at a dose of 0.75 mg/m2 intravenously every 7 days for 5-7 weeks. In addition, all 3 animals needed supportive treatment due to anorexia, bacterial contamination secondary to injuries, dehydration and pain.Discussion: Usually, TVT is not considered malignant, not causing metastasis, however it is now known that its behavior has changed a lot and more and more cases of metastatic or highly infiltrative TVT have been reported. The 3 cases presented in this report had epidemiological characteristics as mentioned in the literature, but the location, macroscopic and radiographic characteristics are uncommon for this neoplasm, that is, with an atypical tumor presentation. This demonstrates the importance of a good clinical evaluation and, especially, of the cytological exam, which was essential for the definitive diagnosis for the three cases presented. It is speculated that more “aggressive” cases of TVT may be correlated with the plasmacytic cytological type, however none of the patients described here had this cytological presentation. Thus, the clinician must be aware of the risk factors associated with this neoplasia, because even in non-classical presentations, the lymphocytic cell morphological characteristic was present and the patients responded well to the classic treatment, not requiring a change in chemotherapy protocols, however a special attention must be paid to the particularities involved in each presentation of the same tumor in different patients. Keywords: TVT, canine, neoplasm, metastasis, cytology.
      PubDate: 2022-02-25
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.117341
      Issue No: Vol. 50 (2022)
       
  • Intrastromal Fluconazole - Effectiveness in the Surgery of Stromal Abscess
           in a Horse

    • Authors: Carlos Otávio Eggres Krebs, Giulia Brambila Girondi, Fernanda Iensen Farencena, Luís Felipe Dutra Corrêa, Guilherme Rech Cassanego, Carolina Cauduro da Rosa, Fabiano da Silva Flores, Anita Marchionatti Pigatto
      Abstract: Background: Due to its ocular microflora, the equine species is predisposed to develop mycotic ulcers which, when not properly treated, can lead to the formation of a stromal abscess. A stromal abscess occurs through the introduction of microorganisms into the corneal stroma. During re-epithelialization, the foreign body is encapsulated, thus creating a barrier that protects bacteria or fungi from treatment with antimicrobial medication. This framework can end up resulting in blindness due to chronic iridocyclitis, putting the animal's vision at risk. The current work aims to report a case of corrective surgery for stromal abscess in a mare with the administration of intraoperative intrastromal fluconazole, in order to corroborate the effectiveness of the technique.  Case: A 9-year-old mare was evaluated, with the complaint that her right eye was closed and “yellowish” and that she had already been treated with intramuscular injectable anti-inflammatory drugs based on flunexin meglumine (Banamine® - 50 mg) for 15 days, referring to a possible ulcer in the right eye.  Ophthalmic screening resulted in a negative direct reflex and no threat response in the right eye. Examination of the conjunctiva showed congestion and chemosis. Examination of the cornea of the right eye was negative for Fluorescein and Green Lissamine tests, and opacity and corneal neovascularization were noted. The final diagnosis was a corneal abscess of probable fungal origin secondary to a keratomycosis. After the consultation, complementary blood and biochemical tests were performed, which showed normal results for the species in question, and treatment was started with eye drops based on atropine 1% (Fagra® - 20 mL), ciprofloxacin antimicrobial eye drops (Ciprovet Colirio® - 5 mL), and antifungal eye drops based on ketoconazole 1% (manipulated), in addition to an intramuscular injectable anti-inflammatory based on flunexin meglumine (Banamine® - 50 mg - 1.1 mg/kg SID) and an intramuscular injectable analgesic based on sodium dipyrone (Febrax® - 0.5 g - 15 mL/animal SID) until the day of surgery, which was booked for 3 days later. The surgical intervention was then instituted by the technique of anterior lamellar keratectomy followed by intrastromal hydration with fluconazole and the forming of a bipedicled flap, in order to remove the necrotic tissue and antigenic stimulation factors, while the conjunctival flap aimed to improve blood supply and protect the injured area, thus favoring local healing. For better postoperative quality for the animal, continuation of the same treatment as prior to surgery was prescribed for a period of 15 days. The return of the animal for the removal of the flap was scheduled for 45 days after surgery, however, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, there was a delay of 135 days. When the animal returned the flap was still stable. A second surgery was instituted for the removal of the flap, during which it was possible to affirm that the cornea had recovered total integrity and partial transparency with only a leukoma in the previous location of the abscess.Discussion: The technique of anterior lamellar keratectomy together with the use of a conjunctiva flap for the treatment of stromal abscess in horses is a known technique that is used routinely, although some cases report the formation of a second infection in the same space. However, there are few reports on the use of intrastromal hydration with antifungal medication adjuvant to the surgical technique, which, as shown in this report, proved to be effective since even with the issue of a delay in removing the conjunctival flap, the eye remained whole and there was no second infection. The use of this technique can therefore be indicated for the treatment of stromal abscess in horses, given the safety that the application of intrastromal antifungal provides.Keywords: azole, abscess, stromal, keratectomy, ophthalmology, equine, mare.Descritores: azol, abscesso, estroma, ceratectomia, oftalmologia, equino, égua. 
      PubDate: 2022-02-23
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.116824
      Issue No: Vol. 50 (2022)
       
  • Unilateral Atrial Ectopic Rhythm in a Golden Retriever

    • Authors: Mário dos Santos Filho, Bruna Pereira Gonçalves, Jaíne da Silva, Eduarda de Oliveira Silva Lima Machado, Nathália Marques de Oliveira Lemos, Bruno Ricardo Soares Alberigi, Alexandre Jose Rodrigues Bendas, Paulo de Tarso Landgraf Botteon
      Abstract: Background: Atrial ectopic rhythm is a type of supraventricular arrhythmia, originating in two distinct points in the atrial region. In the electrocardiographic (ECG) tracing, it is represented by independent depolarizations of sinus P waves and ectopic P waves. The occurrence of this disorder is rare, and the diagnosis criteria are the presence of the described waves within the basal rhythm. In humans, there have been reports related to severe heart failure with an unfavorable prognosis. The present report aimed to describe the clinical case of a dog with unilateral atrial ectopic rhythm without any underlying cardiac disorder.Case: A 8-year-old male golden retriever was brought to a veterinary clinic for a preoperative evaluation for lipoma removal in the right forelimb. On clinical examination, the owner stated that the patient was active, with no signs of easy fatigue or cough. The canine displayed normophagy, normodipsia, normoquezia, and normouria. On physical examination, he demonstrated a lymphatic temperament with tachypnea. The temperature and capillary filling time were within the normal range, with a normokinetic pulse. Cardiac auscultation revealed a mild grade I/VI murmur in mitral focus and an 80-bpm heart rate. Respiratory auscultation revealed the presence of harshy lung sounds. The cough reflex was positive; the Piparote test, negative. The blood test showed no noticeable changes in blood count and serum biochemistry. Systemic systolic blood pressure was 120 mmHg. On radiographic examination, no evidence of heart or lung abnormalities were identified. After the clinical evaluation, an ECG examination was performed; a unilateral atrial ectopic rhythm was observed with different frequencies between atrial and ventricular rhythm and with P (164°) and P waves (80°). On echocardiographic examination, no morphological abnormalities were seen, though trivial mitral insufficiency was identified in a color Doppler study. Blood was collected to measure electrolytes to check for possible electrolytic abnormalities; the results were within the normal range. The patient was released for and remained stable throughout the procedure, maintaining the rhythm detected during the transoperatory time. Upon reassessment in a new ECG examination, the arrhythmia persisted, suggesting that a primary lesion in the atrial tissue was present.Discussion: An atrial ectopic rhythm diagnosis requires a detailed study with the aim of ruling out heart diseases that may affect the propagation of the cardiac stimulus. However, no morphological or functional abnormalities of note that justified triggering stimuli for the ectopic rhythm were observed. In addition, based on the echocardiographic evaluation, myocardial function was preserved, supporting the canine’s release for the procedure. The suspicion of hydroelectrolytic alteration and hypoxia was present after discarding structural causes, though it was discarded due to normal laboratory results. The presence of ectopic P waves was due to the non-interference in the sinus P’ waves; consequently, they were found in the sinus heart rhythm. Upon assessing the ectopic P wave frequency, the atrial rhythm frequency was higher than the heart rate, juxtaposing the different irregular intervals within the atrial cycle. The rhythm alone may explain that its severity can be linked to the physical findings. This indicated that they did not influence the presentation of ectopia since the cardiac output, controlled by the sinus rhythm part, was responsible for maintaining the rhythm and the demand of the organism; the electrical conduction system, responsible for atrial systole, represents 15-25% of the blood ejection for the ventricular filling. Patients with rhythm disorders as described need guidance and follow-up for the early detection of clinical signs resulting from the destabilization of the condition.Keywords: atrial dissociation, supraventricular arrhythmia, electrocardiogram, dogs.
      PubDate: 2022-02-21
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.118570
      Issue No: Vol. 50 (2022)
       
  • Corneal Ulcer in a Sheep - Treatment with Third Eyelid Flap

    • Authors: Jaine Mendes Lopes, Lucas Dourado Brito, Danilo Rocha de Melo, Ana Karoline Rodrigues da Costa, Jessica Fontes Veloso, Renata Santiago Alberto Carlos, Deusdete Conceição Gomes Junior
      Abstract: Background: Corneal ulcers are frequently reported in the literature in several species, however, the treatment of traumatic lesions on the corneal surface of ruminants is still poorly described.  The use of the third eyelid flap is questioned when applied to deep ulcers, since the technique prevents the evolutionary follow-up of corneal healing and compromises care. However, several authors report its successful use for the treatment of superficial and deep corneal ulcers. This technique protects the ocular surface and prevents the occurrence of new lesions or their aggravation. The aim of this study was to report the treatment of corneal ulcers in sheep through the third eyelid flap associated with the use of topical antibiotics.Case: A 2-year-old Dorper sheep, with ocular discomfort, conjunctival hyperemia and mucopurulent secretion in the left eye, was assisted in a private rural property in the West region of Bahia, Brazil. The owner reported that before seeking veterinary help he used a spray based on oxytetracycline and hydrocortisone, which worsened the animal's condition. Upon inspection, it was observed eyelid asymmetry, slight lateralization of the head to the left, periorbital alopecia on the left face, intense blepharospasm in the left eye, with projection of the third eyelid occurring at times. The ophthalmic examination was performed after application of anesthetic eye drops based on proxymetacaine to reduce eye discomfort. A corneal stromal lesion, edema and fibrovascular tissue in the left eye were identified, but the cause of the lesion was not defined, with lagophthalmia, entropion, dystychiasis or ectopic cilia being ruled out. So, it was suggested that the lesion had occurred by a foreign body, such as dust or feed fiber.  The contralateral eye showed no changes, Schirmer 15 mm, no changes in sensory and sensory reflexes and negative fluorescein. No signal clinical disease. Due to the severity of the lesion, it was performed a third eyelid flap associated with drug treatment with ciprofloxacin eye drops, every 8 h for 21 days. The animal was placed in the right lateral decubitus position and palpebral akinesia was achieved with the application of 2 mL lidocaine without vasoconstrictor in the region of the auriculopalpebral nerve. This was followed by the routine performance of the third eyelid flap.Discussion: The delay in seeking veterinary care and the application of spray based on oxytetracycline and hydrocortisone aggravated the lesion, since the corticosteroid delays corneal healing and favors the aggravation of the lesion. After desensitization of the cornea, the animal allowed eye manipulation and it was possible to observe the lesion and choose the best treatment, with option for the third eyelid flap because it is a simple and fast technique, does not require special equipment or materials, ideal for performed in the field and is widely used in the treatment of injuries involving the cornea and, besides that, helps to contain corneal perforation and protect the ocular surface. Corneal debridement was also performed to remove necrotic debris and improve drug action, in addition to using broad-spectrum antibiotic eye drops until complete regeneration of the lesion. Twenty-one days after the surgical procedure, the patient had no ocular discomfort, the flap was removed and no changes in the corneal surface were observed. The treatment was considered satisfactory for the healing of the corneal ulcer, guaranteed the esthetics and visual function of the sheep.Keywords: keratitis, surgery, ciprofloxacin, ocular, ruminant.
      PubDate: 2022-02-18
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.118589
      Issue No: Vol. 50 (2022)
       
  • Outbreak of Type C Botulism in Backyard Poultry in Santa Catarina, Brazil

    • Authors: Lucas de Souza Quevedo, Sara Elis Schmitt, Jéssica Aline Withoeft, Thierry Grima de Cristo, Camila Aparecida Figueiredo, Jordana Almeida Santana, Rodrigo Otávio Silveira Silva, Renata Assis Casagrande
      Abstract: Background: Botulism is a disease caused by the ingestion of neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum, characterized by flaccid paralysis, which can lead to high mortality. They have seven types of neurotoxins (A, B, C, D, E, F, and G) and, in birds, most cases are attributed to type C. They are considered sources of botulinum toxins where the decomposition of organic matter occurs, like stagnant water and rotting food. The main feature of the disease in birds is ascending symmetric flaccid paralysis. The present study aims to describe an outbreak of type C botulism in backyard poultry in the state of Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil.Case: A visit was made to the property with 160 backyard poultry with a history of high mortality in the municipality of Agrolândia, Santa Catarina. Clinical signs were characterized by paralysis of the pelvic limbs, neck and pendular wings, which progressed to death within 48 h. There was a mortality rate of 37.5% (60/160) between March and May 2019. These birds were kept in an overcrowded environment, with different species (chickens, ducks, teals, and turkeys) fed irregularly. The water supplied was provided from kitchen exhaust, accumulating in puddles on the floor that contained organic matter residues such as animal feces, food waste and bone fragments. The disposal of the carcasses of birds that died was in the same enclosure, buried superficially, facilitating the access of other birds to dig them up and consume them. Necropsy was performed on 2 chickens and one duck, no macroscopic or histopathological lesions were observed. Blood, liver, and gastrointestinal content samples were sent for research and identification of botulinum toxin through the serum neutralization test in mice. The presence of type C botulinum toxin was confirmed in the liver chicken of one sampled animals.Discussion: The identification of type C botulism toxin enabled the characterization of the outbreak, which is the toxin most associated with episodes of botulism in birds. It is not always possible to identify the origin of the infection, as intoxication can occur by ingestion of water contaminated with organic waste, however, in this outbreak, as sources of poisoning in birds, it was specified and occurred due to the ingestion of water with organic matter that was stagnant in the floor of the enclosure, and also by ingesting contaminated carcasses present in the area. In subsistence farming, botulism outbreaks are reported with greater frequency in the Northeast and Southeast of Brazil generally, cases in which sanitary conditions and incorrect carcass disposal favor the occurrence of the disease. As noted in the present study, high mortality is a common feature of botulism. The evaluated signs and developed evolution were similar to previous studies, which ranged from 14 to 72 h. The absence of macroscopic and histopathological changes is commonly reported in cases of botulism in domestic animals, since botulinum toxin only causes functional changes, with no tissue damage. The association of clinical signs, epidemiology, post mortem evaluation and detection of type C botulinum toxin concludes the diagnosis of botulism. Avian influenza and Newcastle disease are important diseases that have neurological conditions and high mortality that should be distinguished from botulism. This report confirms the need to associate history, clinical signs, absence of lesions with laboratory research for the diagnosis of botulism in birds. In addition, it reinforces the importance of disclosing basic management measures to prevent the occurrence of outbreaks such as presented in this report.Keywords: Clostridium botulinum, neurotoxin, bird disease, paralysis.Descritores: Clostridium botulinum, neurotoxina, doença de ave, paralisia.
      PubDate: 2022-02-15
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.118874
      Issue No: Vol. 50 (2022)
       
  • Feline Aortic Thromboembolism Diagnosed by Thermography

    • Authors: Diego Matos da Silva, Silvana Marques Caramalac, Simone Marques Caramalac, Amanda Gimelli, Mariana Isa Poci Palumbo
      Abstract: Background: In cats, arterial thromboembolism is one of the most devastating diseases, with an acute presentation, and is often caused by undiagnosed cardiomyopathy. Defined as the obstruction of one or more arterial lumens by emboli, the arterial thromboembolism is responsible for hypoperfusion signs. As the temperature of the skin surface is directly related to tissue perfusion,thermography can be promising for the early diagnosis of thromboembolism. Therefore, this study reports the importance of thermography as a complementary examination for the diagnosis of thromboembolism in the abdominal aorta of a domestic cat.Case: A 4-year-old mixed-breed cat weighing 2.95 kg was presented with a history of sudden onset paraplegia, apathy, and pain when handled, with greater intensity in the sacro-coccidian region. During physical exam, it was noted that the femoral artery pulse was undetectable bilaterally during manual pulse measurement. Superficial and deep sensitivity in the pelvic limbs and proprioception were also absent and the plantar cushions and nail beds of the posterior limbs were pale to cyanotic. Thermographic images revealed that the temperature of both hind limbs was lower than that of forelimbs, with difference of 3.2ºC and 2.9ºC between the left and right limbs, respectively. Doppler ultrasonography revealed the absence of pulse and flow in the femoral arteries bilaterally. Electrocardiography revealed sinus tachycardia, with a heart rate of 250 bpm. Echocardiography revealed dilation of the left atrium and concentric cardiac hypertrophy. After 24 h, due to the worsening of the clinical condition and unfavorable prognosis, the animal was euthanized and sent for necropsy. Necropsy revealed that the arterial lumen of the caudal abdominal aorta and bifurcation of the iliac arteries were obliterated, with a 0.6 cm saddle thrombus adhered to the arterial wall. In addition, left ventricular thickening indicative pf hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was observed. In the left atrium, a thrombus was observed that filled the entire chamber.Discussion: Thermography is a fast and non-invasive method, and therefore, it is a tool of great relevance in emergencies. Previous study showed that a minimum temperature difference of 2.4°C between the affected and unaffected limbs has excellent specificity and high sensitivity for the diagnosis of feline aortic thromboembolism. In this report, the temperature differences between the affected and unaffected limbs on the left and right sides were found to be 3.2°C and 2.9°C, respectively, corroborated this finding. Cats with cardiomyopathies are predisposed to the development of thrombi, and rarely manifest heart disease. Here, the cat was diagnosed with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy during the diagnostic investigation for arterial thromboembolism, which is consistent with the usual findings because feline hypertrophic cardiomyopathy progresses silently with few clinical manifestations in the early stages. Clinical diagnosis of arterial thromboembolism can be made based on the presence of some physical examination findings, such as pain and paralysis of the affected limbs, absence of a femoral pulse, cold extremities, and pale or cyanotic cushions. In this report, thermography proved to be an accurate, quick, and non-invasive method for the assessment of vascular alterations that affected the pelvic limbs of the cat. Complementary examinations confirmed the presence of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and necropsy revealed the presence of thrombus.Keywords: cyanosis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, ischemia, temperature.
      PubDate: 2022-02-13
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.116992
      Issue No: Vol. 50 (2022)
       
  • Primary Kidney Lymphoma in a Dog

    • Authors: Samara Tereza Moraes Batista, Rosileide Santos Carneiro, Erick Platini Ferreira Souto, Artéfio Martins de Oliveira, Antônio Flávio Medeiros Dantas, Almir Pereira de Souza, Gabriela Noronha de Toledo
      Abstract: Background: Lymphoma is a malignant lymphoid tumor originating in the lymph nodes or other solid organs and comprises 90% of all hematopoietic tumors in dogs. However, primary renal lymphoma is rare and is associated with nonspecific clinical signs. Tumor invasion in both kidneys can cause severe clinical signs due to renal failure, complicating the patient's treatment and prognosis. The aim of this case was to report the case of a dog affected by bilateral primary renal lymphoma. In addition, to characterize the clinical and histopathological presentation due to the intense morphological changes. Case:  A 5-year-old male Poodle canine was admitted showing apathy and emesis for 5 days. On physical examination, the dog showed 10% of dehydration, reddish oral mucous membranes, poor body condition (score 1/5), uremic breath, and pain in the kidney area. Complementary tests revealed severe low white blood cells count, high BUN levels, high levels of potassium, calcium, and phosphorus (serum biochemistry). Abdominal ultrasound showed bilateral kidney enlargement. Fine needle aspiration of the mass (guided by ultrasound) revealed round cell tumor. Radiographs showed no alterations. The dog died due to his poor condition and necropsy was performed. On post-mortem examination, the kidneys were both enlarged, pale, and with an irregular subcapsular surface. The histopathological diagnostic was primary renal lymphoma. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that neoplastic cells were strongly positive for anti CD20 and PAX5, while negative for CD3, supporting the diagnosis of B-cell lymphoma.
      PubDate: 2022-02-12
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.112603
      Issue No: Vol. 50 (2022)
       
  • Aerossacolitis and Pneumonia in an Indian Peafowl Caused by Lactobacillus
           agilis

    • Authors: Larissa Caló Zitelli, Mônica Slaviero, Bruno Albuquerque de Almeida, Silvia de Carli, Emanoelly Machado Sousa da Silva, Fabiana Caroline Zempulski Volpato, Afonso Luis Barth, Saulo Petinatti Pavarini, Franciele Maboni Siqueira
      Abstract: Background: The peafowl is an ornamental bird that has the habit of eating directly from the earthy soil, which makes this bird more susceptible to endoparasites. One important endoparasite is Eucoleus contortus, which leads to inflammatory processes that alter the local microbiota, potentializing disease. By the other way, a member of the bird’s microbiota there is the genus Lactobacillus, but when occurs some imbalance, these bacteria can overgrowth and even cause some infection. This report describes the pathological and microbiological findings of chronic necrotizing pneumonia and aerossacolitis caused by Lactobacillus agilis in a peafowl, associated with parasitism by E. contortus. Case: A peafowl (Pavo cristatus), adult, male, who lived on a farm with contact with other species of animal, was submitted to post-mortem examination due to sudden death. This animal lived in an extensive system on the property and was the only one of its species. During the gross evaluation, the air sacs were filled with solid yellowish crumbly material. The same material was observed forming well-defined nodules that occupied > 50% of the lung parenchyma. Histological analysis showed multiple parabronchi dilated and filled with caseous necrosis, characterized by abundant cellular debris and fibrin deposition. These areas were surrounded by the proliferation of fibrous connective tissue and inflammatory infiltrate of macrophages, giant cells, lymphocytes, and plasma cells. The air sacs parenchyma showed fibrin deposition and mixed inflammatory infiltrate. Multiple gram-positive bacilli were observed within the caseous foci in Gram-stained slides. In the crop and esophageal mucosa, cross-sections of filiform nematodes morphologically compatible with E. contortus were associated with chronic inflammatory infiltrate and epidermal hyperkeratosis. A lung section was submitted to Gram-Brown-Hopps and Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) stains for bacterial investigation, and Grocott's methenamine silver (GMS) stain for fungal investigation. Short gram-positive bacilli bacteria are observed within the caseous foci in Gram-stained slides. By the other way, no agents were identified on the ZN and GMS stains. Following the analysis, lung fragments were cultivated at aerobic and microaerophilic conditions on sheep blood agar and McConkey agar. All the microbial cultures were incubated at 37°C to 48 h. Pure culture, in microaerophilic condition, of Gram-positive bacilli, was observed. The isolated bacterium was identified by MALDI-TOF MS as L. agilis.Discussion: Although uncommon, L. agilis was the single bacterium identified and therefore, associated as a primary cause of necrotic pneumonia and aerossacolitis in the studied peafowl. The presence of E. contortus could induce the aspiration of regurgitated of little amount of material from the gastrointestinal tract with sufficient bacterial load to initiate an infection, but not enough to smother the animal. The gradual aspiration can induce a chronic inflammatory condition. Infections by bacteria from the host microbiota have been observed in animals and humans with immunodeficiency. In summary, both the parasitosis and the inflammation could be resulted by the parasite and the aspiration of gastric product, which probably interfered in the immune response and allowed the overgrowth of L. agilis. In the current case report, based on macroscopic, microscopic and bacteriological results, we have provided insights to understand how the parasitosis made possible a pneumonia from a bacterium from the host's microbiota. Finally, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of L. agilis as causal agent of fatal necrotic pneumonia and aerossacolitis in peafowl.Keywords: respiratory infection, ornamental birds, secondary infection, parasitosis.
      PubDate: 2022-02-10
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.120499
      Issue No: Vol. 50 (2022)
       
  • Cystitis in a Bitch with Chronic Kidney Disease Caused by
           Multidrug-Resistant Escherichia coli

    • Authors: Jongchul Yun, Taesik Yun, Yoonhoi Koo, Yeon Chae, Dohee Lee, Byeong-Teck Kang, Mhan-Pyo Yang, Hakhyun Kim
      Abstract: Background: In dogs with bacterial cystitis that is resistant to multiple antibiotics, resulting from repeated infections and antimicrobial administration, especially if the dog has impaired renal function and the induction of systemic side effects by intravenous or oral administration is a concern, intravesical instillation of antibiotics might represent an alternative treatment option. In human and veterinary medicine, a number of studies showed intravesical instillation of antibiotics is effective for the therapy multidrug-resistant bacterial urinary tract infection (UTI). This report firstly illustrates successful intravesical meropenem treatment of a UTI caused by multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli with no systemic side effects in dog with chronic kidney disease (CKD).Case: A 15-year-old spayed female Maltese was presented with recurrent bacterial cystitis. The risk factors for the recurrent UTI were spinal cord injury and CKD which had been managed for 1 year. Ultrasound-guided cystocentesis was performed to obtain a urine sample for urinalysis, bacteriologic culture, and antibiotic susceptibility testing. Bacterial cystitis caused by multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli was diagnosed on the basis of bacterial culture, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Because the dog had CKD, reducing the clearance of meropenem, intravesical instillation of antibiotics was initiated. The intravesical instillation process consisted of the emptying of the urinary bladder, infusion of a diluted meropenem solution (8.5 mg/kg diluted in 20 mL of saline solution) into the bladder through a urethral catheter, and retention of the meropenem solution in the bladder for 1 h, and its removal. The procedure was repeated every 8 h. On day 8 of the intravesical instillation therapy, Bactereologic culture yielded a growth of E. coli (50,000 CFUs/mL), which was less than previously obtained. the concentration of the meropenem solution being administered was increased to 17 mg/kg diluted in 20 mL of saline solution, to improve the effectiveness of the therapy. After 21 days of the intravesical meropenem instillation, the bacterial cystitis was resolved. One year after completion of the treatment, the dog is still alive without any recurrence of bacterial cystitis. Discussion: Because resistant uropathogens can cause zoonotic infections, effective therapy is important with increasing incidence not only for patients, but also for public health. Intravesical instillation of antibiotics can be an effective treatment method for dogs with urinary tract infection in which oral antibiotics are likely to be ineffective and injectable antibiotics cannot be a treatment option. The antibiotics can be administered directly to the affected location, and systemic side effects can be minimized by the impermeabtility of the bladder wall via intravesical instillation procedure. Meropenem is likely to accumulate in dogs with impaired renal function, leading to systemic side effects and the aggravation of CKD in old dogs. This report describes the successful treatment of multidrug-resistant E. coli infection by intravesical instillation of meropenem without any side effects in dogs with CKD. Therefore, clinician should consider the use of intravesical instillation of antibiotics which predominately excreted in the urine for the control of urinary tract infection caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria in dogs showing reduced renal function. Keywords: canine, intravesical instillation, meropenem, multidrug-resistant organism, urinary tract infection.
      PubDate: 2022-02-08
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.119347
      Issue No: Vol. 50 (2022)
       
  • Granulomatous Lymphadenitis in a Dog Caused by Mycobacterium
           intracellulare

    • Authors: Cristiane Trevisan Viana de Souza, Daniela Souza Prass, Roberto Lopes Souza, Fernando Henrique Furlan, Edson Moleta Colodel, Alessandra Tammy Hayakawa Ito de Sousa, Valeria Dutra, Valeria Regia Franco Sousa
      Abstract: Background: Mycobacteriosis is caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Mycobacterium, with considerable zoonotic potential and risk to public health. Infection in dogs is rare and is usually associated with immunosuppression, resulting from eating meat or contact with contaminated soil or fomites. Dogs are also known as potential sources for the spread of atypical tuberculosis in humans and other animals. This paper aims to describe the clinical, cytological, histopathological, and molecular findings of a male canine seen at University Veterinary Hospital of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, with generalized lymphadenomegaly associated Mycobacterium intracellulare infection.Case: A 2-year-old male Lhasa Apso dog was referred to the University Veterinary Hospital in Cuiabá city, located in the Midwest region of Brazil. The patient had a history of intermittent claudication of the left pelvic limb for approximately 6 months and lymphadenomegaly with progression for approximately 2 months. The dog had wheezing and generalized lymphadenopathy (submandibular, axillary, and popliteal lymph nodes); cryptorchidism was also observed. A complete blood count revealed nonspecific results, and in the serum biochemical profile, the values of urea, creatinine, albumin, and alanine aminotransferase were within the reference range. No changes were observed on the radiography of the femurotibiopatellar joints. Considering the generalised lymphadenopathy, fine needle aspiration cytology and histopathological examination through biopsy of the lymph nodes was performed. On the cytology and histopathology, numerous negative images of moderately refringent bacillary structures distending the cytoplasm from the macrophages was found. The samples were also subjected to special Ziehl-Neelsen staining, which confirmed an accentuated and diffuse granulomatous lymphadenitis associated with alcohol acid-resistant bacilli. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify the DNA of the lymph node fragment for the hsp65 gene, which was subjected to genetic sequencing and construction of a phylogenetic tree, with 99.77% genetic similarity for the species M. intracellulare. As treatment, doxycycline (10 mg/kg twice a day for 60 days) and enrofloxacin (5 mg/kg once a day for 10 days) were prescribed. However, the canine suffered car trauma leading to a fractured pelvis, which motivated the owner to opt for euthanasia at another veterinary establishment.Discussion: In the reported case, it was not possible to determine the source of infection, as the owners reported that the animal lived inside the house with only sporadic access to the street. The clinical signs manifested by this dog were nonspecific, and only the signs of generalised lymphadenopathy could be correlated with the signs expected in the infection with this mycobacterium. The hematological and biochemical laboratory findings were nonspecific, and it did not demonstrate the involvement of other organs. Considering the findings in cytology and histology, mycobacterial infection can be suspected. The diagnosis was confirmed through pathological and molecular findings. In this case, the PCR technique was used with partial amplification of the hsp65 gene and subsequent genetic sequencing, making it possible to identify a species like M. intracellulare (99.77% similarity). Due to euthanasia for another reason, it was impossible to monitor the dog's treatment and investigate other changes in the post mortem examination, especially the pulmonary lesions frequently described in M. intracellulare infection in humans.Keywords: Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), canine, infection, non-tuberculous mycobacteriosis.
      PubDate: 2022-02-03
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.118107
      Issue No: Vol. 50 (2022)
       
  • Primary Perianal Malignant Melanoma in a Dog - Combination Therapy

    • Authors: Ygor Amaral Rossi, Leticia Ribeiro, Regina Mendes Medeiros, Enrico Pierluigi Spugnini, Carlos Eduardo Fonseca-Alves, Denner Santos Dos Anjos
      Abstract: Background: Melanocytic neoplasm can arise from melanocytes in any location of the body. Malignant melanoma (MM) has a poor prognosis in dogs and presence of lymphvascular invasion, distant metastasis, or mitotic activity present prognostic value. Primary melanoma affecting the gastrointestinal tract has been rarely reported in veterinary literature, thus the prognosis affecting gastrointestinal tract is unknown. Electrochemotherapy (ECT) is an effective local treatment which combines chemotherapeutic drugs mainly bleomycin or cisplatin followed by the delivery of permeabilizing electrical pulses However, other hydrophilic drugs seem to present an increase cytotoxic effect such as carboplatin.Case: A 9-year-old mixed-breed neutered dog was referred to a private clinic with a mass in the perianal region diagnosed as perianal melanoma. No metastasis was observed on abdominal ultrasound nor chest x-ray (3 views). Clinical signs noted were tenesmus, hemorrhagic discharge, weight loss and hyporexia. Considering the tumor volume (16.0 x 10.0 cm), a neoadjuvant ECT session was proposed. The authors opted for carboplatin (300 mg/m², intravenously), administered over 20 min and cisplatin intratumorally (1 mg/cm³, equivalent to 1 mL/1cm³; total volume 20 mL) administered in the upper parts of the mass that could be reached while avoiding drug leakage. After administration, sequences of eight biphasic pulses, (100 microseconds), with a voltage ranging from 650-1,000V/cm (pulse generator Onkodisruptor®) using a hexagonal/single pair and plate electrode were delivered. At day 30th, a partial response was observed accordingly to RECIST system, with tumor size of 5.0 x 5.0 cm (65.4 cm³). A second ECT session was performed with the same previous protocol, but with a decreased dosage of carboplatin (240 mg/m² consistent with 20% reduction) due to adverse effects in the first session, resulting in stable disease at day 60th (30 days after second ECT). Then, we proposed a surgical excision of the mass including partial resection of ventral rectum with intraoperative ECT. Afterwards, it was observed fecal incontinence that did not resolved after time but did not significant cause a morbidity in the patient. Patient achieved a disease-free interval (DFI) of 700 days and survival time of 730 days. Unfortunately, patient died due to distant metastasis.Discussion: Surgery is still the cornerstone treatment for MM in dogs, regardless anatomic site. However, in perianal region, wide or radical local surgical excision is a challenge due to anatomic region which precluded most of the time to achieve complete margins. In this report, the origin of the tumors was not defined since no normal tissue was found surrounding tumors cells probably due to tumor invasion and destruction of surrounding tissue. Thus, based on the previous literature, this tumor could have been arisen from rectum wall or anal sac. The longer DFI and survival time from this patient is superior from the most veterinary cases in literature which combined different types of treatment such as surgery, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, palliative care or ECT. Neoadjuvant ECT leaded to a reliable approach for partial remission in order to perform a better surgical approach in this case report. To conclude, ECT may be an option for partial remission and local control in regions which anatomic limitation is a challenge for wide excision.Keywords: bleomycin, carboplatin, cisplatin, electroporation, melanocytic tumor.
      PubDate: 2022-02-02
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.117948
      Issue No: Vol. 50 (2022)
       
  • Omphalocele in Neonate Calf

    • Authors: Rodrigo Dalmina Rech, Isadora Comparsi Coelho, Patrícia Soares Deponti, Andrey Berlesi Agnes, Luís Felipe Dutra Corrêa, Ricardo Pozzobon, Renata Farinelli de Siqueira, Marta Lizandra do Rêgo Leal
      Abstract: Background: An omphalocele is a rare congenital malformation characterized by the protrusion of the abdominal contents through the base of the umbilical cord. A defect in the midline of the abdomen results in the abdominal contents being covered by a membranous sac near the umbilical cord, which ultimately results in the failure of the abdominal organs to return to the abdominal cavity in the early gestational stages and the development of an omphalocele. This study aimed to address the diagnosis, medical-surgical management, and treatment for an omphalocele in a newborn calf.Case:A 2-day-old male Red Angus calf, weighing 35 kg, was referred to the HVU-UFSM. According to the owner, the animal was born via normal delivery, had ingested milk, was alert, and had an enlarged pendulous abdomen at the umbilicus. Physical examination did not show any changes in vital functions; however, intestinal stasis was observed. An in-depth examination revealed the presence of a round mass of tissue approximately 15 cm in diameter that was filling the remnant of the umbilical cord. This structure was covered by a thin, slightly dried membrane that isolated the contents from the external environment. On palpation, the mass was firm and non-reducible, and an omphalocele was suspected. Given the severity of the condition, the animal immediately underwent an emergency surgical procedure to correct the congenital defect. The surgery involved placing the intestinal loops that were present inside the sac in the abdominal cavity. At the end of the procedure, the animal was placed in a quadrupedal position to better assess omphalocele reduction. Postoperatively, the following medications were administered: a single dose of an analgesic along with a dipyrone and hyoscine-based antispasmodic (25 mg/kg, IM), an enrofloxacin-based antibiotic (2.5 mg/kg, IM) once a day for 7 days, and a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, meloxicam (0.5 mg/kg, IM), for 3 days; in addition, the surgical wound was cleaned with a 2% povidone-iodine solution. The animal defecated shortly after the surgery. It received the first postoperative treatment and subsequently recommended therapy on the farm. Wound healing was observed after 10 days, and the stitches were removed by a local veterinarian.Discussion: Birth defects, which are not uncommon in the offspring of a herd, are anomalies in the structure and/or function of a certain system of the organism or part of it. An omphalocele is one of these anomalies and has been reported in foals, cats, dogs, pigs, buffalos, calves, goats, dolphins, and sheep. However, its cause is remains unknown. Although it is speculated that the condition is caused by a recessive genetic trait, it has not been confirmed as a hereditary anomaly. In humans, omphalocele is often associated with other anomalies and, in addition to the intestine, other organs of the abdomen may be involved, which significantly increases mortality. The animal in this study presented with intestinal stasis solely due to the entrapment of portions of the small intestine, and no other organic alteration was found to be associated with the omphalocele. Other abnormalities associated with this congenital defect have not been reported in literature either. The case described herein demonstrates how the clinical approach, early diagnosis, surgical intervention, and therapeutic management achieved the objective of correcting an omphalocele in a neonate calf. Keywords: congenital defect, omphalocele, malformation.Título: Onfalocele em bezerro neonatoDescritores: defeito congênito, onfalopatia, malformação.
      PubDate: 2022-01-29
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.118656
      Issue No: Vol. 50 (2022)
       
  • Feline Sporotrichosis in the periocular region - Successful Treatment with
           Itraconazole

    • Authors: Ana Beatriz da Silva Marques, Crisan Smaniotto, Deborah Caroline Sepúlveda Dias, Ana Bianca Ferreira Gusso, Raquel Jordana de Mello Pires de Carvalho, Mauro Henrique Bueno de Camargo, Paulo Fernandes Marcusso, Natalie Bertelis Merlini
      Abstract: Background: Sporotrichosis is a zoonotic disease caused by a dimorphic fungi of the Sporothrix schenckii complex. It is an emerging zoonosis with worldwide distribution, thus of great importance to public health. The infection occurs from traumatic inoculation of the fungus in the human skin from contaminated plants and soils and through bites or scratches of infected animals. The occurrence of sporotrichosis has been related to zoonotic transmission, especially by domestic felines. This work aims to report the successful use of itraconazole as monotherapy in a case of localized feline sporotrichosis and highlight the effectiveness of cytology in its diagnosis.Case: A 1-year-and-4-month-old spayed female cat undefined breed, weighing 3.1 kg, was referred to the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital of the Universidade Estadual de Maringá (UEM), city of Umuarama, presenting a serosanguinous ulcerative lesion located in the left periocular region The clinical picture of the patient progressed over 3 months. Treatments with antibiotic therapy, corticosteroids, and surgical procedures were conducted, without clinical improvement. A new lesion in the distal portion of the thoracic limb emerged, proving that the disease remained in progression. Hematological exams were performed, among them hemogram, renal and hepatic biochemical analyses, SNAPS to identify the feline immunodeficiency virus feline leukemia virus (FIV/FeLV), and cytology of the lesion through imprints. The hematological results were all within the normal standards for the species. Cytology showed a large amount of oval and fusiform structures phagocyted by polymorphonuclear cells, free at the bottom of the slide, compatible with Sporothrix spp. The treatment administered was itraconazole (100 mg/cat), orally administered every 24 h, cefovecin sodium 8 mg/kg, subcutaneous, single dose, topical use of antifungal ointment based on ketoconazole, twice a day. The animal underwent periodic physical and hematological evaluations throughout the treatment period, without significant changes. Complete remission of the lesion was observed after 25 weeks of treatment.Discussion: Cutaneous lesions caused by Sporothrix spp. are mainly located in the head, specifically in the nasal plane, pinna, and periocular regions, presenting ulcerative characteristics and exudate. The dissemination of the fungus through the animal's body may occur through autoinoculation while the feline scratches or licks itself. The cytology presents high sensitivity for diagnosing feline sporotrichosis due to the high fungal load found in the cutaneous lesions. In addition, it is a technique easy to perfom and presents immediate results, favoring an early beginning of the therapy. Itraconazole is considered the drug of choice for the treatment of sporotrichosis because of its efficacy and safety compared to that of other antifungal drugs. The average time of treatment is 4 to 9 months in cats, and it must be maintained for another month after complete remission of the clinical signs to prevent the reactivation of the lesions. FIV and FeLV are not predominant factors for the development of the disease. The use of itraconazole as monotherapy proved to be effective, with no side effects throughout the treatment. Cytology was satisfactory as a diagnostic method and allowed immediate initiation of therapy. Awareness regarding the forms of transmission and prevention of this zoonosis is instrumental.Keywords: Sporothrix spp., zoonosis, monotherapy, itraconazole, cytology.Título: Esporotricose felina na região periocular - eficácia do tratamento com itraconazol.Descritores: Sporothrix spp., zoonose, monoterapia, itraconazol, citologia.
      PubDate: 2022-01-27
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.118057
      Issue No: Vol. 50 (2022)
       
  • Corneal Stromal Abscess in a Dog

    • Authors: Karoline Alves de Oliveira Marinho, Karen Medina Teixeira Tavernezi, Breno Henrique Alves, Bruna Carioca de Souza, Carolina Ferreira Silva, Gabriele Flaviane Pereira, Lígia Maria de Carvalho, Sávio Tadeu Almeida Júnior
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackground: The eye is an important sense organ responsible for sight. The cornea is the outermost of many eye layers, being predisposed to several lesions, some of them being frequent in small animal clinics meanwhile others are unusual and seldom reported in specialized literature. The stroma abscess is a common condition in horses, but atypical in dogs, it's a condition in which a microperforation in the corneal epithelium allows microorganisms or a foreign body to penetrate the corneal stroma, and those become inside the cornea after a re-epithelialization, producing an intense inflammatory response. Therefore, this case reports a case of deep stromal abscess in a Shih Tzu dog.Case: A 4-year-old female Shih Tzu, weighing 4.6 kg, was submitted to ophthalmic examination in which the left eye presented an opaque yellowish-white protruding structure located on the right side, in the center of the cornea (3 o´clock position), bulbar and palpebral conjunctival hyperemia and congestion, chemosis, blepharospasm, and a moderate amount of mucous discharge. The clinical diagnosis was stromal abscess with reflex uveitis. A differential diagnosis should include conditions affecting the anterior part of the cornea, such as an epithelial inclusion cyst and a corneal ulcer. The inclusion cyst, contrarily to the corneal abscess, doesn't cause pain, meanwhile, the corneal ulcer was ruled out by the Fluorescein Staining Test. The recommended treatment was surgical, through lamellar keratectomy, followed by overlapping pedicled conjunctival graft and third eyelid flap. In association with the surgical treatment, oral antibiotics, anti-inflammatory, and opioids, plus topical antibiotics and autologous serum eye drop. Seventy days post-surgery, the previously observed inflammatory signs were no longer present. In the conjunctival graft insertion site perpetuated a scar leucoma with few blood vessels. The therapy was proven effective in solving the stromal abscess and in visual maintenance. Despite the located opacity due to leucoma, it barely causes any impairment, once its lateral position won't impact the central vision, which is more important to predator species than the peripheral vision.Discussion: Stromal abscess is a pathological condition in which an initial perforating corneal injury leads to a rupture of the epithelial barrier, allowing the access of bacterial, fungus, or foreign bodies of organic nature. The morbidity is more frequent in horses, but this report shows that although uncommon, stromal abscesses can occur in dogs. The diagnosis was achieved by an analysis of the clinical history and findings. Conditions that affect the anterior cornea must be among differential diagnoses. Treatment aims for the removal of infectious material with debridement and curetting of the stroma, by performing the lamellar keratoplasty technique, which produces a corneal wound. The implementation of a pedicled conjunctival graft allows, the influx of growth factors, active replication of stromal collagen by fibroblasts, and direct arrival of antibiotics through the blood supply to the exposed portion of the cornea.  The third eyelid flap is questioned by some authors, once it complicates the post-op follow up, and hinder the topical therapy from directly reaching the eye surface. Autologous serum: A blood-derived product often used to control corneal melting. The Federal Medicine Board determined that autologous serum eyedrops therapy has been scientifically proven effective, being used worldwide in the treatment of severe eye surface conditions. In Veterinary, studies also demonstrated that autologous serum can improve improve the corneal re-epithelialization in dogs.   Keywords: autologous serum, keratectomy, ophthalmology, veterinary.Título: Abscesso estromal em córnea de cãoDescritores: soro autólogo, ceratectomia, oftalmologia, veterinária.
      PubDate: 2022-01-25
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.117612
      Issue No: Vol. 50 (2022)
       
  • Bezold-Jarisch Reflex Induced by Dopamine during Isoflurane Anesthesia in
           Small Dogs

    • Authors: Sang Yub Oh, Soonpil Hwang, Hyuk Soo Seo, Seungju Lee, Hwi-Yool Kim
      Abstract: Background: Unlike other major reflexes contributing to hemodynamic homeostasis, the Bezold-Jarisch reflex (BJR) paradoxically decreases heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) despite hypotension. In the veterinary field, there are few reported cases of BJR induced by dopamine, which is often used to manage hypotension. Herein, 2 cases involving small dogs exhibiting BJR due to dopamine infusion during general anesthesia are described.Cases: Case 1: A 7-year-old, 7 kg, mongrel was referred for external skeletal fixator removal. The patient was premedicated with 0.3 mg/kg midazolam and 0.2 mg/kg butorphanol intravenously (IV). General anesthesia was induced with 6 mg/kg propofol and maintained with 1.6% isoflurane in oxygen. The patient was given 5 mL/kg/h of Hartmann’s solution IV. The respiratory rate (RR) was set to 9 breaths/min with a ventilator. The HR and MAP values were initially 120 bpm and 76 mmHg and gradually decreased to 70 bpm and 40 mmHg, respectively. The end-tidal CO2 partial pressure (ETCO2) was 39 mmHg, and the patient was administered 2.5 μg/kg glycopyrrolate IV. Then, 5 μg/kg/min dopamine was administered IV since the MAP did not improve. The HR, MAP, and ETCO2 increased to 113 bpm, 72 mmHg, and 47 mmHg, respectively. Subsequently, HR and MAP dramatically decreased to 50 bpm and 43 mmHg, respectively. A second-degree atrioventricular block was detected, prompting dopamine infusion discontinuation, and 2.5 μg/kg glycopyrrolate was again administered IV. Within 5 min, HR and MAP values normalized, and postoperative patient recovery was typical. Case 2: A 2-year-old, 8.6 kg, mongrel underwent surgery to correct a medial luxating patella of the right leg. The patient was premedicated with 0.3 mg/kg midazolam and 0.2 mg/kg butorphanol IV. Anesthesia was induced with 4 mg/kg propofol IV and maintained with 3% isoflurane in oxygen; 10 mL/kg/h of Hartmann’s solution was administered IV. Within 15 min, the patient’s HR and MAP values decreased from 120 to 107 bpm and 73 to 50 mmHg, respectively. The ETCO2remained approximately 39 mmHg, and RR decreased from 20 to 17 breaths/min. Dopamine was infused at a rate of 5 µg/kg/min. After 10 min, the MAP slightly increased from 50 to 57 mmHg, but the HR dramatically decreased from 107 to 62 bpm and the RR also dropped to 12 breaths/min. Further, a second-degree atrioventricular block was observed. Dopamine infusion was immediately discontinued, and 2.5 μg/kg glycopyrrolate was injected IV. As the HR returned to 94 bpm, the atrioventricular block disappeared, and the RR increased to 15 breaths/min. After general anesthesia was terminated, the patient recovered well.Discussion: Among drugs used for anesthesia, propofol and isoflurane may lower the MAP and HR. Therefore, HR or MAP decreases at the beginning of anesthesia are likely due to the drugs. Considering half-life, it is unlikely that propofol provoked sudden HR or MAP decreases at about 25 min post-induction. Isoflurane may also be ruled out since the hemodynamic disorder depended on dopamine injection. Sudden decreases in the HR, MAP, or RR after dopamine injection are not generally expected dopaminergic or adrenergic responses, which likely occur due to the vagal cardiopulmonary reflex suggesting the BJR resulting from activation of cardiac mechano- or chemoreceptors. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no reports of dopamine-mediated BJR in young or middle-aged, small dogs. The BJR has been observed in older, larger dogs and humans. In the patients described, body condition score may be considered when estimating the cause of the BJR. Since they scored 8/9, it is possible that obesity increased the risk of the BJR. This report described the clinical features and treatment outcomes in young or middle-aged, obese, small-sized dogs, whose hypotension or bradycardia was exacerbated by dopamine.Keywords: Bezold-Jarisch reflex, dopamine, hypotension, bradycardia, canine. 
      PubDate: 2022-01-25
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.117344
      Issue No: Vol. 50 (2022)
       
  • Lateral Patellar Luxation and Ehlers Danlos Syndrome (EDS) in a Dog

    • Authors: Luiz Paulo Nogueira Aires, Gislane Vasconcelos de Souza, Luis Guilherme Faria, Bruno Watanabe Minto, Ana Paula Prudente Jacintho, Victor José Vieira Rossetto
      Abstract: Background: Ehlers Danlos Syndrome (EDS) is a rare genetic disease characterized by a deficiency in collagen synthesis, which can result in joint laxity. Patellar luxation is one of the main orthopedic conditions that affect the canine knee joint, with limited descriptions of its association with EDS in dogs. The purpose of this report is to describe the surgical management and postoperative evolution of a 1-year-old Chow Chow dog with grade II patellar luxation, tibial valgus and EDS.Case: A 1-year-old Chow Chow dog was referred to the University Veterinary Hospital due to lameness of the left pelvic for 3 months. At the orthopedic examination were verified severe lameness and lateral deviation of the left stifle joint during the ambulation of the animal. Additionally, it was verified bilateral hyperextension of the tibiotarsal joint and grade II patellar luxation of both pelvic limbs with painful hyperextension of the left stifle joint. Radiographic evaluation showed lateral displacement of the patella from both femoral trochlear groove, and a valgus deviation of the proximal left tibial shaft. In addition, it was verified cutaneous hyperextensibility and an extensibility index suggestive of EDS. The animal was submitted to trochlear block resection technique and medial imbrication, followed by corrective tibial osteotomy. Furthermore, skin biopsies of the scapular and lumbar folds were performed during the corrective tibial osteotomy. The samples were sent for histopathological examination, which revealed fragmented and unorganized collagen fibers in the dermis. Histopathological findings were compatible with EDS. The absence of lameness and correct positioning of the patella in the trochlear sulcus were verified in the post-surgical follow-up. Complete bone consolidation of the closing wedge osteotomy to correct the tibial valgus was verified at 90 days postoperatively.Discussion: The clinical signs, cutaneous extensibility index, and histopathological abnormalities in the present case were consistent with EDS. In the present study, this congenital collagen abnormality syndrome may have been a contributing factor of patellar luxation as EDS can result in hypermobility of ligaments and joints, due to metabolic and structural abnormalities of the collagen in connective tissues, and consequently may promote patellar luxation and other orthopedic abnormalities. A variant of EDS in humans has been implicated in the development of skeletal abnormalities such as short stature and bone deformities. This corroborates the possibility that EDS is correlated with valgus angulation of the proximal portion of the tibia in the present case. However, in-depth genetic studies are required to confirm this correlation. Corrective osteotomy in conjunction with block recession sulcoplasty and medial imbrication seem to have enabled patellofemoral stability and alignment of the quadriceps mechanism, ensuring that the patella remained in the trochlear sulcus, even in the presence of EDS. In addition, this syndrome does not seem to affect the surgical outcome of the treatment of patellar luxation associated with closed wedge osteotomy for tibial valgus correction. Medium-term follow-up can be considered excellent in this case report since there was a rapid resolution of lameness and adequate corrective osteotomy healing despite persistent hyperextension of the tibiotarsal joint. Ehlers Danlos Syndrome did not contraindicate the surgical treatment of patellar luxation. However, further studies are needed to assess the influence of the syndrome on long-term patellar luxation. The findings of this case report can help in the diagnosis and treatment of other animals affected by this rare syndrome and associated orthopedic diseases.Keywords: patellar luxation, bone, collagen diseases.
      PubDate: 2022-01-21
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.118166
      Issue No: Vol. 50 (2022)
       
  • Intrascleral Prosthesis in a Dog - Evisceration and Implantation

    • Authors: Tarcísio Guerra Guimarães, Fabricio Villela Mamede, Emilio Fernandes Rodrigues Junior, Paulo Pimenta, Karla Menezes Cardoso
      Abstract: Background: There is no hope of preserving vision at the terminal stage of glaucoma, and surgical treatment is indicated in these cases. Among the various surgical techniques used, eye evisceration with implantation of an intrascleral prosthesis provide the best cosmetic results. Even though eye evisceration with prosthesis implantation represents an excellent treatment option for terminal glaucoma, reports on the use of this technique in dogs are scarce in the current literature. The aim of this work is to report a case of a dog with end-stage glaucoma subjected to eye evisceration surgery and implantation of an intrascleral prosthesis.  Case: A 7-year-old bitch mixed breed with a history of glaucoma secondary to uveitis with no response to medical therapy was referred to the Ophthalmology service of the University Veterinary Hospital of Coimbra (HVUC), Portugal At the ophthalmic examination, the glaucomatous left eye was buphthalmic, with congested episcleral blood vessels, mydriasis, and posterior luxation of the lens; there was no response to threat or obfuscation, no direct and consensual pupillary reflex, nor pupillary reflexes to chromatic light. The intraocular pressure (IOP) was 55 mmHg, and the Schirmer’s tear test (STT-1) result was 19 mm/min. Ophthalmoscopy revealed attenuated retinal blood vessels and a pale optic papilla with mild excavation. The right eye was functional, with all parameters assessed on examination and by tests within the normal ranges for the species. An ultrasound examination of the left eye confirmed the presence of posterior luxation of the lens and buphthalmia in the absence of intraocular neoplasm. In view of the patient’s history and results of the clinical examinations, a surgical approach was indicated to treat the glaucomatous eye. The patient’s tutor requested a surgical procedure that produced a more natural aspect; therefore, the procedure chosen was evisceration, with implantation of an intrascleral prosthesis. The prosthesis diameter chosen was 2 mm greater than the horizontal diameter of the cornea of the functional eye. After evisceration, a black spherical silicone prosthesis of 20 mm in diameter was implanted through a scleral incision. The eye surface was protected with a nictitating membrane flap. In the postoperative period, the cornea exhibited areas with neovascularization, pigmentation, and fibrosis, with a final aspect of gray to black in color. A reduction in tear production was also observed, with no other lesions on the eye surface or major complications. Discussion: Causes of secondary glaucoma include uveitis, disor...
      PubDate: 2022-01-02
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.119512
      Issue No: Vol. 50 (2022)
       
  • Nasal Transmissible Venereal Tumor (TVT) in Dogs

    • Authors: Fernanda Conte, Adriane Strack, Amanda Leite Bastos-Pereira, Marcy Lancia Pereira
      Abstract: Background: Transmissible venereal tumors (TVT) are naturally occurring neoplasms that can be transmitted through copulation or cell transplantation. It is a disease that affects canines, has no preference for sex or breed, and generally noticed in the external genital apparatus. Extragenital occurrence may eventually be seen; however, nasal involvement has been described in only a few reports of studies conducted in Brazil. Therefore, the objective of this study is to report 3 cases of nasal TVT in dogs who were treated in 2 municipalities in the mountainous region of Santa Catarina, Brazil.Cases: This case report includes 3 male mixed-breed canines of age 3-13. Only 1 of the animals was castrated. As per the medical history, some points, such as an enlarged nasal region, sneezing, nasal discharge, and hoarseness, reported by the dogs’ respective owners were similar among all the dogs. Likewise, nosebleed was observed on physical examination in all the cases. The result of cytological examination was inconclusive only in 1 case. Rhinoscopy, incisional biopsy, and histopathological examination were then performed for achieving a definitive diagnosis. In the 2 cases wherein cytology gave conclusive results, the cytological smears showed changes suggestive of TVT, such as cells with eccentric nuclei and little cytoplasm, which had vacuoles inside them. In 2 cases, radiographic examinations of the skull were also performed. The images showed changes in bone radiopacity, conformation of trabeculae with areas of bone lysis and cell proliferation, and irregularity in the contour of the nasal bone. After TVT diagnosis was confirmed, chemotherapy was initiated using vincristine at a dose of 0.75 mg/m2 for 2 cases and 0.025 mg/kg for the remaining case. The number of chemotherapy sessions and duration of treatment until the resolution of lesions and clinical signs varied as per the differences in the patients’ blood counts performed prior to each session.Discussion: TVT occurs between 1 and 7 years of life. It occurs more frequently in sexually active animals and has no preference for breed. Of the 3 cases reported herein, only one of the patients was elderly. All the patients were male mixed-breed dogs, and only 1 of them was castrated. The implantation of neoplastic cells through natural mounts, licks, scratches, or bites of affected areas are the most widely accepted reasons for the transmission of this neoplasm. With regard to the nasal presentation described in the present report, it is hypothesized that the smelling or licking of the neoplastic areas by the animal may favor cell implantation, leading to the subsequent development of a tumor. Nasal TVT should be considered as a differential diagnosis for dogs with chronic symptoms of the upper respiratory tract, such as increased local volume, nasal discharge, nosebleed, and sneezing. These signs are consistent with those described in this report. Radiographic evaluation was performed in 2 cases and both showed changes in bone radiopacity and trabeculae conformation, in addition to areas of bone lysis and cell proliferation, which are common in neoplastic processes. A presumptive diagnosis can be achieved from the medical history, clinical signs, and physical examination. Cytological and histopathological examination are the confirmatory methods; however, it is used less frequently and especially when cytological evaluation does not provide a definitive diagnosis. Antineoplastic chemotherapy with vincristine is the first-choice treatment protocol, which also proved to be effective for the patients in this report. Although TVT commonly affects the external genitalia of dogs, in the cases reported herein, it was located exclusively in the nasal region. Keywords: TVT, dog, nasal, vincristine.Título: Tumor venéreo transmissível (TVT) nasal em cãesDescritores: TVT, cão, nasal, vincristine.
      PubDate: 2022-01-01
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.117791
      Issue No: Vol. 50 (2022)
       
  • Nephrectomy in a Dog infected with Dioctophyma renale - Mato Grosso do
           Sul, Brazil

    • Authors: Mariana Ramos Santos, Camila Baloque do Nascimento, Júlia de Mendonça Favacho, Camila Maria dos Santos, Miwa Fabiane Suzukawa, Alexsandra Rodrigues de Mendonça Favacho
      Abstract: Background: Dioctophymosis is caused by Dioctophyma renale, a parasite known as the giant kidney worm, that can parasitize the kidneys of domestic and wild animals. There are also reports of its occurrence in humans, thus revealing its zoonotic potential. In most cases, parasitized animals are asymptomatic. This parasite can cause atrophy or destroy the renal parenchyma, although ectopic locations may occur. The diagnosis is made through ultrasonography, based on the presence of eggs in the urine, visualization of the parasite, or during necropsy. Therefore, the aim of this work was to report the case of a young dog infected with D. renale and subjected to nephrectomy in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.Case: A 6-month-old bitch with a clinical suspicion of hydronephrosis in the right kidney was referred to the Veterinary Hospital of Anhanguera-Uniderp University in the city of Campo Grande, MS. A physical examination of the patient revealed an alteration in the urinary system.  An abdominal ultrasound, urinalysis, complete blood count (CBC) tests and biochemical profile were ordered. The erythrogram indicated erythrocytosis resulting from dehydration and loss of body fluids, while enzyme levels (creatinine, urea, alanine aminotransferase [ALT] and albumin) were within normal limits. The abdominal ultrasound showed the presence of a cylindrical and rounded structure characteristic of a nematode and in the right kidney, and loss of renal parenchyma typical of D. renale infection. A urinalysis then revealed the presence of helminth eggs, confirming the diagnosis. The owner was informed about the need for nephrectomy of the affected right kidney, which showed destruction of the renal parenchyma. One adult female and one adult male parasite were removed from inside the kidney, measuring approximately 50 cm and 35 cm in length. The patient was successfully treated, kept in hospital for observation, and returned two weeks later for reassessment of her renal function and removal of stitches. Discussion: Dioctophymosis is often diagnosed based on ultrasound and urine tests. These tests proved sufficient to diagnose parasitism by D. renale. However, the infection is usually discovered during necropsy.  D. renale is popularly known as the giant kidney worm, as it can reach up to 100 cm in length. In the present case, the female parasite was 50 cm long and the male was 35 cm. The patient presented parasitism very young, at just 6 months of age. The parasitic infection of the animal was attributed to the ingestion of water or food contaminated with an intermediate host, the aquatic annelid Lumbriculus variegatus. It is suggested that the ingestion of food or water contaminated with the infective stage of the parasite may have occurred at 2 months of age or younger, since the prepatent period is approximately 6 months. The parasite was found only in the patient’s right kidney. Hydronephrosis was reported in the patient and was caused by obstruction of the internal urethral ostium by the adult nematode. In this case, the recommended surgical treatment was nephrectomy, to which the patient was subjected, leading to successful recovery. This case occurred in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, where there are no records of parasitism by D. renale in domestic dogs, unlike other states in Brazil. We therefore emphasize the importance of new studies on D. renale, given the lack of clear records describing the parasite’s epidemiological data, biological cycle and diagnosis, which may hinder the prevention and control of this zoonotic disease.Keywords: canine dioctophymosis, helminth, nematoid, giant kidney worm, hydronephrosis.Descritores: dioctofimose canina, helminto, nematoide, verme gigante renal, hidronefrose. 
      PubDate: 2022-01-01
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.117799
      Issue No: Vol. 50 (2022)
       
  • Pseudopterygium in a Rabbit - Treatment with Tracolinus

    • Authors: Fernanda Iensen Farencena, Carlos Otávio Eggres Krebs, Giulia Brambila Girondi, Guilherme Rech Cassanego, Luís Felipe Dutra Corrêa
      Abstract: Background: Pseudopterygium, also known as aberrant conjunctival growth, is poorly described in the literature, although it is known that this abnormality is uncommon and affects dwarf rabbits and their crossbreeds. The etiology of this disease is unknown, but there are hypotheses that the conjunctival growth cause may have its origins in immunological factors, inflammation, traumatic conditions, or cartilage dysplasias. Thus, this study reports the treatment efficacy applied in a rabbit, through the continuous use of tracolimus eye drops, after surgical procedure of conjunctival fold resection, as a way of controlling the pseudopterygium in rabbits.Case: This case report discusses the positive results from the surgical and therapeutic conduct of a clinical case attended by the Ophthalmology and Microsurgical Veterinary Service at the Hospital Veterinário Universitário (HVU) of the UFSM. The patient was a male rabbit, sterilized cunicle, approximately 2-year-old, crossed with a dwarf rabbit. The owner's main complaint was the change in the aspect of the left eye, with progressive worsening in the previous four weeks. In the ophthalmological examination, the animal did not present impaired vision or discomfort, however, a vascularized pink membrane was noted, which consisted of a fold of the bulbar conjunctiva, that grew centripetally and covered 90% of the cornea in 360 degrees. The diagnosis was confirmed through visual inspection and the patient's history. The eye alteration had a characteristic aspect, described as proliferation of the bulbar conjunctiva over the cornea, in a centripetal manner and without signs of inflammation. In addition, other ophthalmological alterations were ruled out during the patient's physical and specific examination. The patient was referred for anesthetic evaluation and, in addition, pre-surgical blood tests were performed, which were normal, according to the expected ranges for the species. Subsequently, the animal was submitted to surgical treatment, which consisted of dividing the exuberant conjunctiva, followed by three radial incisions in equal portions. Next, the conjunctival fold was completely incised to the edge of the limbus, without the need of sutures. Anterior lamellar keratectomy was performed on the portion where the membrane was attached to the cornea. For home care, tobramycin-based eye drops (QID, for 7 days) and 0.02% aqueous tacrolimus eye drops (BID - continuous use) were prescribed. The animal was reevaluated 7, 14, 30, 60, 120 and 180 days after surgical correction, and no recurrence of pseudopterygium was observed during the follow-up period. The prognosis of patients with pseudopterygium is reserved, as it is known that the disease may recur after surgical treatment. Therefore, the continuous use of the chosen immunomodulating eye drops was recommended as well as periodic follow-up of the patient.
      Discussion: In the current study, it was not possible to increase knowledge regarding about the pseudopterygium etiology. Although the condition is not serious, it can cause partial impairment of vision and chronic discomfort. However, the vision field described in the rabbit in this current case remained unchanged, in accordance with other cases described in the literature. Furthermore, no signs of patient discomfort were detected. Some surgical techniques described in the literature for correction of pseudopterygium, shows membrane’s growth recurrence. The use of immunomodulatory drugs is suggested for relapses controlling. In this study, the tracolimus eye drops efficacy was tested, and presented good results in the patient's evaluations for a long period after surgery. The use of immunomodulators is an option for adjuvant topical treatment for controlling pseudopterygium growth, which, associated with corrective surgical treatment, has shown positive results.Keywords: conjunctiva, aberrant, immunomodulator, treatment, bunny.Título: Pseudopterígio em coelho - tratamento com tracolimusDescritores: conjuntiva, aberrante, imunomodulador, tratamento, coelho.

      PubDate: 2022-01-01
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.116675
      Issue No: Vol. 50 (2022)
       
  • West Nile Fever Virus Infection in Horses in São Paulo State, Brazil

    • Authors: Renata Farinelli de Siqueira, Viviane Soares Hansen, Maria de Fátima Monteiro Martins, Marta Lizandra do Rego Leal, Eduardo Fernandes Bondan
      Abstract: Background: The West Nile virus (WNV) antibodies were reported in Brazil in the serum samples taken from horses and birds in the Midwest region and Paraíba state in 2008 and 2013, respectively. In 2014, the first human case was confirmed in a rural worker in the state of Piauí and, in 2018, the virus was isolated from the central nervous system of a horse with nervous symptoms in the state of Espírito Santo. The virus is a member of the Flaviviridae family of the genus Flavivirus (neurotropic), infecting several mammalian species, with humans and horses being the most susceptible. Approximately 35% of horses develop clinical signs, thus they are considered the best sentinels for this disease. The aim of this case report is to describe the first confirmed cases of West Nile Fever (WNF) in two horses in the state of São Paulo.Cases: Two horses with neurological symptoms were treated at the Veterinary Hospital of Cruzeiro do Sul University (São Paulo, SP), in 2019. Both horses came from neighboring regions that have a large Atlantic Forest preservation area and are also routes for migratory birds, known to be competent hosts for transmitting the West Nile Fever virus, such as the swallow, the falcon and the hawk. The first one had symptoms, such as weakness and sporadic seizures; however, after recovering, it was hospitalized a few days later due to kidney failure and laminitis. The second one showed incoordination, pelvic limb weakness, and was walking in circles, evolving to seizures. Both animals were euthanized, and their central nervous system samples and total blood samples were tested for rabies, herpes virus, and WNV; the first 2 tests showed negative results. Ribonucleic acids (RNA) were extracted from erythrocytes using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique in-house. The WNV-specific reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction amplification products were obtained using the nested PCR-multiplex PCR combination.Discussion: Since the 1940s, several WNF outbreaks have been reported around the world (Africa, Europe, Asia and Middle East). In the 2000s, the USA had the most amount of WNF cases reported; cases started being reported in Central and South America in the following years. The virus was identified for the first time in Brazil in 2014. Since then, our country is a route for migratory birds, with many states still having forests, several arboviruses are found such as WNF, which could become a public health problem. Both horses in the present study showed neurological signs and the horse that recovered had renal failure. Such signs are inconclusive, however, similar to those that occur in humans infected by the virus in its neurotropic form. The emergence of new diseases is an important aspect of public health. The literature is vast regarding the description of the pathogenesis, clinical signs, diagnosis, viral persistence and sequelae of WNF in humans, however, it is scarce regarding the viral persistence and sequelae of the disease in horses. Future studies are needed to understand the post-infection period in horses, as they are the most sensitive animals along with humans to this virus. Here, we report the first confirmed cases of WNF in the city of São Paulo to bring awareness about considering this disease while diagnosing horses with nervous system disorders.Keywords: encephalitis, horses, flavivirus, mosquito.Título: Infecção pelo vírus da Febre do Nilo Ocidental em equinos no Estado de São PauloDescritores: encefalite, equinos, flavivírus, mosquito.
      PubDate: 2022-01-01
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.117796
      Issue No: Vol. 50 (2022)
       
  • Listeriosis Outbreak in Sheep Raised in Feedlots in the Southern Region of
           Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    • Authors: Luiza Soares Ribeiro, Haide Valeska Scheid, Lucas dos Santos Marques, Fabiano da Rosa Venancio, Elisa Rocha da Silva, Silvia Regina Ladeira, Ana Lucia Schild
      Abstract: Background: A listeriosis outbreak in a sheep fattening feedlot in the Southern Region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil is described. This disease is caused by Listeria monocytogenes and represents a risk to public health since it affects not only ruminants but also humans. This agent is widely spread in the environment, such as in the soil and water. It is also found in decaying vegetable matter and the feces and fluids of domestic animals. The aim of this study was to describe a listeriosis outbreak in sheep raised in feedlots, its epidemiology, and to establish the importance of this disease in this type of sheep management system, evaluate the possible sources of infection, and suggest ways to control it.Cases: Sheep were kept in a 2-sector shed, one with east solar orientation and the other with west solar orientation, the latter with free access to domestic birds. Sheep were fed silage and concentrate. Seven sheep were affected, 5 died and 2 recovered. Clinically, the sheep displayed loss of balance, excessive drooling, and tremors; one exhibited circling, head deviation, apathy, nystagmus, lateral recumbency, paddling, and labored breathing. At necropsy, macroscopic lesions were not found, and histologically several micro-abscesses and perivascular cuffs with lymphocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils were present in the brain stem. Listeria monocytogenes suspected colonies were observed in the microbiological culture, and the bacteria was identified by biochemical analysis. The immunohistochemistry test in brain stem sections was positive for the antibody BD DifcoTM Listeria O Antiserum Poly Serotypes 1 and 4.Discussion: A listeriosis outbreak in a feedlot sheep was confirmed through epidemiological findings, histological lesions, bacterial culture, and immunohistochemistry analysis. This infection is frequent in sheep fed silage of poor quality or other food with improper storage and lack of hygiene. In the present outbreak, the bacteria were isolated from silage. However, it is likely that domestic birds, which were raised in the same place and had free access to the west sector of the feedlot, were the initial source of infection, because the sheep from the opposite sector (east) did not get ill. The disease caused by environmental contamination or through contact with fluids and feces of ducks, chickens, cattle, and pigs has already been described in outbreaks that occurred in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul. Sheep aggregation in feedlot systems is also a favorable factor for the development of the bacteria and the occurrence of outbreaks because the accumulation of feces and urine cause humidity on the stalls. This allows outbreaks to occur in other seasons of the year, such as in the outbreak reported herein. The exchange of silage that served as food for sheep was another control measure, and new cases were not reported 8 months after these procedures were taken. In the outbreak studied, 2 sheep that exhibited clinical signs were treated with oxytetracycline and recovered. Some authors report that treatment for listeriosis is inefficient because neurological lesions are irreversible. Nonetheless, other studies have reported the recovery of some animals when they were treated with oxytetracycline or a combination of oxytetracycline and dexamethasone or ampicillin and gentamicin like in the outbreak described in this paper.Keywords: Listeria monocytogenes, central nervous system, silage, feedlot, ovine.
      PubDate: 2022-01-01
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.119176
      Issue No: Vol. 50 (2022)
       
  • Necrotic Wound Caused by Jararaca (Bothrops jararaca) in a Dog -
           Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (HBTO)

    • Authors: Stella Helena Sakata, Marina Frazatti Gallina, Thamires Mizobe, Guilherme Cirino Coelho Pereira, Karina Calixto Almeida, Vivian Ferreira Zadra, Claudia Tozato Cramer, Ivan Felismino Charas Santos
      Abstract: Background: Snakebites are the main responsible for envenoming in dogs and the bothropic venom remains the most common in Brazil, which can induce a necrotic skin wound. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) use 100% oxygen under high pressure and used to treat different wounds in human patients. To the authors’ knowledge, no reports regarding to use the HBOT in skin wound caused by snakebite (Bothrops jararaca) are present in the literature. The present clinical case aimed to describe the use of HBOT for the treatment of an extensive necrotic wound caused by jararaca snakebite in a dog.Case: A neutered 8-year-old mixed-breed dog, weighing 12 kg, was admitted with a 7-day history of extensive necrotic wound was identified in the face and neck causing by a snakebite, and no sign of pain. The procedure of HBOT (single sessions of 1.5 ATM, 45 min, repeated every 48 h, up to 12 sessions) was decided, and the complete blood cells, alanine aminotransferase, creatinine, creatine kinase, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, wound clinical evaluation were measured at the following time-points: 2nd, 5th, 10th, and 12th sessions. At the 5th session was identified leukopenia, neutropenia and lymphopenia. Wound re-epithelialization was initiated after the 5th session, and the complete epithelialization was identified at the 12th session of HBOT. During the HBOT no side effects were identified. Three months after the HBOT finished, the animal returned to the clinic and the clinical status evolved positively, and the wound was completed healed.Discussion: This report described the treatment of an extensive necrotic skin wound caused by snakebite (Bothrops jararaca) in an 8-year-old, neutered, mixed-breed dog using the HBOT. The wound healing was achieved after 12 sessions, similar to the literature, which reported a ranging from 1 to 12 sessions. The HBOT protocol used in this case was similar as reported for human patients with chronic wounds due to the lack of HBOT protocols for animals. No reports regarding the use of HBOT for treat necrotic wound caused by snakebite was described in the literature, and to the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report in Brazil describing the use of HBOT in dogs. On the other hand, dogs with surgically induced skin wounds and treated with daily session of HBOT using the treatment protocol of 1.7 ATM (30 min) and 2.0 ATM (40 min) up to 7th day of treatment did not show significant results on healing [9]. This fact was associated with the HBOT achievement in the proliferative and remodeling phases of the healing process. The high intensity of HBOT was between the 5th and 10th session since the wound showed a higher area decrease rate and consequently increase of wound contraction. This period was corresponding to the 10th and 20th day of the healing process, which can be identified angiogenic activity, re-epithelialization, and collagen maturation. The decrease in PVC has been associated with the anticoagulant and/or hemorrhagic activity caused by the venom, and leukopenia, neutropenia and lymphopenia was related with possible bone marrow exhaustion. Single sessions of HBOT (1.5 ATM, 45 min, and repeat each 48 h, up to 12 session) induces healing of necrotic wound caused by snakebite (Bothrops jararaca) in an 8-year-old, neutered, mixed-breed dog without any side effects.Keywords: dog, healing, hyperbaric chamber, skin wound, snake.
      PubDate: 2022-01-01
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.118135
      Issue No: Vol. 50 (2022)
       
  • Nasal Transmissible Venereal Tumor (TVT) with Bone Metastasis in a Dog

    • Authors: Iury de Azevedo Rodrigues Silva, Amanda Freitas Santiago Marinho, Thaisa de Oliveira Paes da Fonseca, Lolaide Alves Garcia Tôrres, Eliane do Socorro Pompeu de Carvalho, Larissa Coelho Marques, Laura Jamille Argolo Paredes
      Abstract: Background: Transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) is a highly contagious round cell neoplasm that affects dogs, and it is usually transmitted through coitus. The tumor is mainly located in the genital area; however, the neoplasm can also be extragenital, affecting the nose, mouth, and eyes, as well as the skin and superficial lymph nodes. Cytological examination is the most commonly used method for definitive diagnosis due to its low cost and fast execution. Chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgical resection, and other procedures such as cryosurgery are the possible treatment options. The objective of this report was to describe a case of extragenital TVT with nasal primary site and metastasis in the bone tissue in a dog treated at a private veterinary hospital in the city of Belém, Pará, Brazil.Case: A 6-year-old male domiciliary Labrador Retriever dog, weighing 24.2 kg, received oncologic treatment in a private veterinary hospital in the city of Belém, Pará, Brazil. The animal had a history of neoplastic disease, and he had undergone TVT resection associated with chemotherapy treatment more than 3 years ago. The clinical examination revealed a volume increase in the periorbital region, left lateral ocular displacement, left nostril excessive epistaxis, recurrent sneezing, cough, and pain signs, and tumor metastasis was suspected. Complementary exams of oncological cytology, computed tomography (CT), hemogram, and serum biochemistry were requested for diagnosis and staging of the condition, and supportive therapy was prescribed. The cytological report showed a dense population of neoplastic round cells with characteristics of TVT. CT indicated the presence of a heterogeneous hypodense mass with irregular contours and partially defined limits, with slight uptake of the intravenously injected contrast medium that obliterated the nasal cavity, maxillary recess, nasopharyngeal meatus, frontal sinus, and sphenoid sinus on the left side. The hematological analysis revealed mild anemia, neutrophilia, and lymphopenia, while the biochemical analysis only showed hypocalcemia. The prescribed therapy was amoxicillin + potassium clavulanate, omega-3, firocoxib, tranexamic acid, and finally chemotherapy with lomustine. Since the patient did not return for follow-up, the outcome could not be determined.Discussion: The patient described in this report was a domiciliary dog who did not live with other pets, but had access to the community environment and contact with other animals. The animal’s history, clinical signs, and cytological and imaging findings were consistent with those of TVT. In extragenital presentations of TVT, the inguinal and sublumbar lymph nodes, lungs, and abdominal organs are most commonly affected. Furthermore, bone involvement is rare, as this has not been commonly described in the literature as compared to the other sites of metastases. An abrasive brush was used for the cytological sample collection, because it provides slides with richer cells as compared to the imprint samples. CT is an important tool for the diagnosis of neoformations in the skeleton, and this method demonstrated high efficiency in identifying the bone involvement and the degree of the invasion and lesion in this case. The therapeutic agents used in this case were different from the usual, since the patient was given lomustine (40 mg/capsule, orally) in the metronomic chemotherapy. This drug has been previously used as an alternative in a canine TVT case resistant to vincristine.Keywords: neoplasm, extragenital, computed tomography, TVT.Título: Tumor Venéreo Transmissível (TVT) nasal com metástase óssea em um cãoDescritores: neoplasia, extragenital, tomografia computadorizada, TVT.
      PubDate: 2022-01-01
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.118039
      Issue No: Vol. 50 (2022)
       
 
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