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  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 220 journals)
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Journal of Veterinary Medicine
Number of Followers: 12  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2314-6966
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [339 journals]
  • Wound Photobiomodulation Treatment Outcomes in Animal Models

    • Abstract: The possibilities that photobiomodulation has brought on to the medical field are ever expanding and the scope it has reached is infinite. Determining how this relatively new treatment technique can be incorporated into the veterinary medical field is of interest to many medical professionals. In this review, we examine the treatment outcomes of low-level-laser therapy (LLLT) in different animal models to pinpoint any similarities between the studies. A search was conducted to identify LLLT studies using different animal models with an open or closed wound. The studies were compared to identify the laser parameters that resulted in positive treatment outcomes. The overall result of the studies examined indicated that daily laser exposure at a wavelength of a 600 or 800 nm range was the most beneficial across the rodent studies regardless of health status or wound type. More studies on rabbit, canine, and equine models are needed to explain the inconsistent results reviewed and find the correct treatment parameters for these species. Further research involving LLLT studies that focus on different factors including health status, treatment interval, wavelength, and energy density is needed to help validate our knowledge about the efficacy of using photobiomodulation in the veterinary medical field.
      PubDate: Sun, 28 Jul 2019 13:05:02 +000
  • Prevalence of Pneumonia in Sheep and Goats Slaughtered at Elfora Bishoftu
           Export Abattoir, Ethiopia: A Pathological Investigation

    • Abstract: Accurate clinical diagnosis of pneumonia, the leading cause of mortality in small ruminants, is difficult and usually requires postmortem examination of the lungs. An active abattoir survey was conducted between November 2017 and April 2018 to estimate the prevalence and characterize the gross and histopathological lesions of pneumonic lungs in 864 clinically healthy young small ruminants (490 sheep and 374 goats aged 1.5 to 3 years) raised for meat in different parts of the country and slaughtered at Elfora Bishoftu export abattoir, Ethiopia. Out of the total lungs examined grossly, pneumonic lesions were found in 158 (18.29%) lungs. On histopathological examination of the lungs with gross pneumonic lesion, however, typical pneumonic lesions were diagnosed in 148 (17.13%) lungs only. No significant (p>0.05) difference was noted in the prevalence of pneumonia between sheep (17.14%) and goats (17.11%) in histopathological examination. Based on the predominant histopathological findings, the pneumonic lesions were characterized as interstitial pneumonia (41.9%), acute suppurative bronchopneumonia (25.7%), acute fibrinous bronchopneumonia (24.3%), chronic bronchopneumonia (6.1%), aspiration pneumonia (4.7%), bronchointerstitial pneumonia (3.4%), and ovine pulmonary adenomatosis (3.4%). The study further showed the spread of ovine pulmonary adenomatosis and ovine progressive pneumonia (Maedi) from the central highlands to areas that were previously free from these diseases. Due to its better diagnostic capacity, histopathology should be employed routinely as an ancillary test in the major abattoirs and regional veterinary laboratories to generate additional epidemiological data for a better disease control and prevention measures. Further studies are also recommended to identify the etiological agents of pneumonia in sheep and goats and thereby to formulate feasible and cost-effective interventions.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Jul 2019 10:05:06 +000
  • Surveillance Opportunities and the Need for Intersectoral Collaboration on
           Rabies in Sri Lanka

    • Abstract: Sri Lanka is progressing towards its goal of eliminating human rabies. This goal rests on programs designed to limit canine rabies, which in turn requires a combination of targeted dog rabies control and a better understanding of the movement of the virus between domestic animals, people, and wildlife. Coordinated and integrated surveillance of the disease between human and animal health sectors underpins successful rabies elimination. Our objective was to review surveillance data from 2005 to 2014 to assemble the first multispecies synthesis of rabies information in Sri Lanka and, in doing so, assess needs and opportunities for a One Health approach to rabies surveillance in the country. Our descriptive epidemiological findings were consistent with other studies showing a decline in human cases, endemic and unchanging numbers of dog cases, a relationship between human density and the occurrence of human and animal cases, and significant gaps in understanding trends in rabies incidences in livestock and wildlife. Assessing the trends in the data from the three government organizations responsible for rabies surveillance was difficult due to lack of information on animal population sizes, unquantified sampling biases due to inequities in access to diagnostic capacities, regulatory and administrative barriers, and a continued reliance on clinical means to establish a diagnosis. The information required for a comprehensive rabies control programme was not standardized or consistent, was not in one place, showed significant gaps in completeness, and was not amenable to routine and rapid analysis. Achieving rabies elimination in Sri Lanka would benefit from harmonization of diagnostic and information management standards across animal and human health sectors as well as equitable access to diagnostic capacity for all regions and species.
      PubDate: Thu, 11 Jul 2019 13:05:03 +000
  • Characterization of Oestrus Cycles in Namibian Swakara and Damara Sheep
           through Determination of Circannual Plasma Progesterone Levels

    • Abstract: A year-long prospective study characterized the seasonality of oestrus cycles in primiparous, nonpregnant Swakara (n=8) and Damara (n=5) ewes through surveillance of plasma progesterone (P4) levels. During this period, Swakara and Damara groups evidently averaged 23 oestrus cycles with an average length of 17 days. Damara ewes showed greater mean peak plasma P4 levels (11.4±0.16ng/ml) than Swakara ewes (5.4±0.11ng/ml) (P
      PubDate: Thu, 11 Jul 2019 11:05:01 +000
  • Seroprevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Contagious Caprine
           Pleuropneumonia in Western Amhara, Northwest Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) has been identified as a significant problem in goat production, especially in the arid and semiarid lowland areas of Ethiopia. Even though CCPP was reported in most of the goat rearing areas of the country, there is no adequate information on the disease in the Amhara Region. Cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2016 to April 2017 in the districts of Western Amhara to estimate the seroprevalence and identify the associated risk factors for occurrence of the CCPP. The risk factors considered included age, sex, agroclimate, and districts. A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) was carried out on a total of 400 goat sera samples, out of which 34 samples were found seropositive for specific antibodies against CCPP, with the overall seroprevalence of 8.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) =5.8, 11.2). Among the epidemiological factors considered, age and sex of the goats were not significantly associated with CCPP seroprevalence (p>0.05). However, the seropositivity was slightly higher in adults (9.9%) and female goats (9.0%) compared to young (6.3%) and male (7.5%) goats, respectively. The analysis of seroprevalence by district shows that the seroprevalence of CCPP in Metema (OR=14.34; 95%CI= 1.80, 114.09; p=0.012) and Fogera (OR=9.99; 95%CI= 1.10, 91.16; p= 0.041) was significantly higher compared to other study districts. Multivariable logistic regression analysis also identified the district as a risk factor for the occurrence of a high seroprevalence of CCPP. The present study revealed the seroprevalence and the distribution of CCPP in Western Amhara districts, and hence appropriate control measures including regular investigation and vaccination should be implemented to alleviate the problem.
      PubDate: Wed, 03 Jul 2019 08:05:03 +000
  • Qualitative Case Study of Public Health Preparedness and Response to the
           Rabid Raccoon Discovered in Wise County, Virginia

    • Abstract: Rabies is a zoonotic lyssavirus of mammals that is a major public health threat due to the high mortality rate in humans who develop clinical symptoms. In the United States and other developed countries, the main reservoirs are wildlife species. In April 2017, a raccoon tested positive for rabies in Wise County, Virginia, with a second raccoon testing positive in May. Wise County, Virginia, is one of the few counties in western Virginia that is not endemic for raccoon rabies variant virus. Due to this fact, local, state, and federal agencies worked together to prevent and control the outbreak to stop the public health theat. The purpose of this study was to understand how professionals from these various agencies viewed the response efforts to the two rabid raccoons in 2017 and to determine what could be done to improve future responses. A list of responders from the different agencies involved in the outbreak in 2017 was created. Participants were recruited via email and those who agreed to be interviewed were contacted via telephone. Participants were asked a series of 13 questions pertaining to the 2017 outbreak to understand more about the strengths and weaknesses perceived during the outbreak. Of the 11 individuals contacted, six agreed to an interview. Data were analyzed utilizing a three-step qualitative analysis process which included the steps of open coding, audit trail, and axial coding. Staff and partnerships were identified as strengths of the response while funding, community, and region were identified as weaknesses of the response. It is hoped that by identifying different strengths and weaknesses through qualitative analysis this will aid in improving future responses.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Apr 2019 09:05:30 +000
  • Effects of Ginger (Zingiber officinale, Roscoe) Essential Oil on Growth
           and Laying Performances, Serum Metabolites, and Egg Yolk Antioxidant and
           Cholesterol Status in Laying Japanese Quail

    • Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale, Rosc.) essential oil on growth and laying performances, egg yolk antioxidant and cholesterol status, and serum metabolites in Japanese quail. Eighty 3-week-old Japanese quails weighing between 120 and 130 g were equally and randomly assigned to four groups receiving daily and orally, respectively, 100 µl/kg body weight (bw) distilled water and 50, 100, and 150 µl/kg bw of ginger rhizomes essential oil, respectively. The entire feeding trial for all groups lasted for 9 weeks and the Z. officinale essential oil effects were studied on growth and laying performances, serum metabolites, and egg yolk antioxidant and cholesterol status. Results revealed that feed intake, live and body weights gain, feed conversion ratio, egg production, and weekly mass of eggs were not significantly (P>0.05) influenced by oral administration of ginger rhizomes essential oil. Unlike the abdominal fat weight which decreased significantly (p 0.05) on liver, intestine, heart, and gizzard relative weights as compared to the control. Egg weight markedly (P
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Mar 2019 09:05:08 +000
  • Tuberculosis Caused by Mycobacterium bovis in a Sheep Flock Colocated with
           a Tuberculous Dairy Cattle Herd in Central Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) has an exceptionally wide host range including sheep. Information on tuberculosis (TB) in sheep is scarce, and there appears to be conflicting opinions about the relative susceptibility of sheep to infection. In Ethiopia, there was no single previous report on tuberculosis in sheep, though mixed farming of cattle and sheep is a common practice. In this study, following the observation of TB-like lesions on sheep died from sheep flock kept in contact with cattle herd, further investigation was conducted on the flock to assess the magnitude of the infection and identify and characterize the causative M. bovis strain. An outbreak investigation was carried out on 26 eligible sheep out of 33 sheep found on the farm. Comparative intradermal tuberculin (CIDT) test, postmortem examination, Mycobacterium culturing, and spoligotyping were the techniques used in the study. The prevalence of TB in the tested sheep was 15% (4/26). All the sheep that were positive to CIDT had gross lesions suggestive of TB. Three of the positive sheep had extensive and multiple lesions. M. bovis was isolated from all four sheep and the strain was identified as spoligotype SBO134. The in-contact dairy cows were screened for TB and 98% (45/46) of the cows tested positive to CIDT. Furthermore, the same strain, SB0134, was also isolated from the two in-contact cows. The isolation of a matching genotype (SB0134) of M. bovis from both species sharing a known epidemiologic link strongly suggests that the sheep flock might have acquired the pathogen from the dairy cows. This warrants strict physical separation of the sheep flock from the cattle herd to prevent such interspecies transmission of M. bovis.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Mar 2019 09:05:09 +000
  • Gastrointestinal Helminth Parasites of Chicken under Different Management
           System in Mekelle Town, Tigray Region, Ethiopia

    • Abstract: The poultry industry is an infant but fast growing sector in Ethiopia. However, it is largely dependent on local chicken managed under backyard production system. The sector is facing different challenges, mainly emanated from prevalence of infectious diseases such as helminth parasite species. Hence, this study came up with an aim to determine the infection rate and identify helminth parasite species in chickens managed under different production systems, in Mekelle, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study design was employed, from November 2015 to March 2016. Postmortem (N=138) and fecal (N=410) samples of chicken were considered for necropsy and coproscopic examination to see both adult and eggs of helminth parasites, respectively. Similar gastrointestinal helminth parasites infection rate of chicken was obtained from both examination approaches (necropsy, 90.60%; and coproscopy, 90.97%). The study attested high prevalence (87.7%) of mixed infection with helminth parasites of chicken. Heterakis gallinarum (72.5%) and Ascaridia galli (68.8%) were found as the most dominant species (necropsy). During coproscopic examination cestode (89%) infections showed a relatively higher prevalence than nematodes (84.4%), although no difference was observed during that of necropsy examination results. Chickens of local breed from backyard production system had shown more likelihood of getting helminth infection when compared with their corresponding relatives (coproscopy). However, the variation was not statistically significant during that of necropsy finding. Therefore, the higher prevalence of parasitism and mixed infection observed in the study area would warrant for an urgent intervention with regular deworming scheme, and strict attention should be given towards hygienic measures and other health related management activities.
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Feb 2019 10:05:09 +000
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