A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 220 journals)
The end of the list has been reached or no journals were found for your choice.
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Macedonian Veterinary Review
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.195
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1409-7621 - ISSN (Online) 1857-7415
Published by Sciendo Homepage  [371 journals]
  • Toxic Effects of Sodium Lauryl Sulfate on Antioxidant Defense System and
           DNA Damage in Fish Primary Hepatocyte Cultures

    • Abstract: Synthetic detergents which have a major role in environmental pollution accumulate over time and reach levels that harm nature. The surfactants which are abundantly used as cleaning components are discharged into the Van Lake with the sewage water. These chemicals accumulating in the lake may reach a level that could affect the only fish species of the lake, the Van fish. This study aimed to determine the antioxidant levels of Van fish hepatocyte cell culture medium treated with sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) and to assess the DNA damage. The effect of SLS was assessed by its dose (1x10−5, 1x10-6, 1x10−7 M) and treatment time (24 h, 48 h). Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), malondialdehyde (MDA), and DNA damage (8-OHdG) were determined in the SLS hepatocyte culture. SOD and GSH-Px were higher on 24 h and 48 h compared to the control group. A significant increase was observed in CAT level in the first 24 h, especially in 1x10−6 and 1x10-5 M concentration. At 48 h, it was observed that the CAT level decreased significantly as the concentration increased. It was determined that MDA and 8-OHdG levels increased depending on concentration and time. In conclusion, different concentrations of SLS affected antioxidant levels in the primary hepatocyte culture of Van Fish and were found to cause an increase in the levels of MDA and 8-OHdG.
      PubDate: Wed, 23 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Changes in the Lactoferrin Concentration in the Bovine Colostrum During
           Postpartum Period

    • Abstract: The health condition of the mammary gland is highly crucial for obtaining good quality colostrum. The lactoferrin (LF), as an iron-binding protein, plays a key role in the defense mechanisms of the mammary gland due to its’ bacteriostatic properties. The study aimed to investigate the factors affecting the LF concentration in the bovine colostrum milk during the postpartum period, and the effect of somatic cell count (SCC) on the LF concentration and milk composition. The cows were randomly selected at a dairy farm in Pelagonia region. Colostrum samples from 12 cows were collected. Samples were taken at different time intervals after parturition, 1, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h after parturition. Cows in their second parity were found to have higher levels of LF compared to cows in the third and higher parity (p>0.05). Time had a significant effect on the LF concentration (p<0.01), with the highest value recorded 1 h after parturition remaining stable for one hour. LF concentration and SCC in the colostrum showed a weak positive correlation (r=0.40; p<0.01). The highest LF concentration was noticed when SCC was above 800,000 cells/mL. In conclusion, the colostrum LF concentration was significantly affected by the interactions of the two factors, i.e., time after parturition and SCC (p<0.05). Milk composition was affected by elevated SCC. Parity showed no association with LF. The SCC can be used as a reliable means of assessing colostrum quality.
      PubDate: Fri, 14 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Suppression Effects of Excessively Expressed Gene BCL-2 in Cell Lines of
           Prostate Cancer

    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to construct two plasmid-specific shRNA transcripts of the bcl-2 gene in order to prepare for reverse of cell apoptosis. The plasmid was designed according to a previously published sequence of interfering RNA following an appropriate reference, using appropriate software. By annulling complementary oligonucleotides, double-stranded inserts were formed. Recombinant shRNA-encoding plasmids were constructed by digestion of psiRNA-x7SKGFPzeo plasmid (psiRNA-x7SKGFPzeo, with restrictive endonuclease BbsI electrophoresis in ultra-pure agarose with low melting point (LMP-Agarose). For each of the constructs, a suitable double-stranded insert downstream of x7SK (strong RNA III promoter) with T4 DNA ligase was cloned. The control plasmid psiRNAScr was used directly for transformation. The PC-3 cell lines were transfected with 2 plasmids, psiRNA-Bcl-2 and psiRNAScr to suppress the bcl-2 gene construct. The results have shown that the lowest level of bcl-2 genes was 48 h, and even lower 72 h after the transfer, and the mRNA levels returned to normal in 120 h. An increase in the percentage of cells with spontaneous apoptosis has been observed with successful inhibition of the bcl-2 gene. The induction of apoptosis in transfected cells increased the percentage of necrotic cells proportionally. The percentage of apoptotic cells transfected with psiRNA-bcl-2 plasmid increased proportionally to the increase of hydrogen peroxide concentration. The transfection of the PC-3 cell line from prostate cancer with constructed shRNA plasmid has induced suppression of bcl-2 gene expression versus control Scr plasmid. Suppression of bcl-2 gene expression significantly increased cell sensitivity to apoptosis induction.
      PubDate: Fri, 14 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Use of Probiotic NCH 55 for Treatment of Subclinical Mastitis in Cows
           – Preliminary Study

    • Abstract: The development and implementation of new and safe means of treating subclinical mastitis (SM) in the production process remains a pressing problem. Our study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of the Bacillus megaterium NCH 55 strain on cow SM. All animals with signs of SM were fed with a basic diet with probiotic’s addition of 15 g/per day. The experiment was conveyed in 30 consecutive days. Milk and blood were collected on the 7th, 15th, and 30th day of the experiment. Daily milk yield was increased by 32.2% and somatic cell count was decreased from 290.00±32.12 to 96.80±39.03 ths/cm3. A decrease in inflammation was indicated by a decrease in POM370 (by 2.2 times) and POM430 (by 2.8 times). No significant changes in the blood serum indices of cows were observed. A probiotic’s positive effect has been established on the treatment of SM. The probiotic B. megaterium NСH 55 can be considered as an alternative to antibiotics and other chemotherapeutic drugs for treating SM in cows.
      PubDate: Thu, 15 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Morphometric and Histochemical Features of the Harderian Gland in Rabbits
           with Different Types of Autonomous Regulation

    • Abstract: The tonus of autonomous centers reflected in the morpho-functional features of the organs in mammals. The study aimed to establish the influence of the autonomous regulation and its’ typological peculiarities on the structural features of the rabbits’ Harderian gland. Clinically healthy male rabbits, four months old, weighing 3.6-3.9 kg, were selected for the research. Based on the study of heart rate variability, three types of autonomous regulation were outlined, according to which three groups of rabbits were formed: ST rabbits (sympathetic dominant regulation), PS rabbits (parasympathetic dominant regulation), and NT rabbits (combined sympathetic and parasympathetic regulation). After euthanasia, the Harderian gland was dissected in all animals. Histological specimens were prepared and a morphometric examination was performed. ST rabbits corresponded to the minimal indicators in the tubular alveoli in both parts of the gland, as well as the maximum indicators of capsule thickness. NT rabbits corresponded to the maximum values of the acini area in the pink lobe, and in the white lobe - the maximal values of the cross-sectional area of the tubular alveoli, its wall area, and the epithelium height. The maximum acini area corresponded to PS rabbits in the white lobe, and in the pink lobe - the maximum indicators of the tubular alveoli cross-sectional area, and epithelial height. The pink and white lobes’ structure of the rabbit’s Harderian gland was affected by the combined tonus of the sympathetic and parasympathetic centers. The findings elucidate the regulatory and trophic effects on the Harderian gland in rabbits.
      PubDate: Thu, 15 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Morphological, Morphometric and Radiographic Studies on the Skull of
           Lesser Mole-Rats ()

    • Abstract: Lesser mole-rats (Nannospalax leucodon) are members of the Rodentia order’s Spalacidae family, and they are found in Northeastern Africa, the Balkans, Southeastern Europe, Central Asia, the Middle East, and Caucasia. The shape of the skull has a significant impact on the phenotypic appearance of animal heads, and although many domestic species have been studied, there is a lack of evidence on the macro-anatomical characteristics of the skeletal system in mole-rats. The current research was focused on the morphological, morphometric, and radiographic properties of lesser mole-rats skull in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The research was conducted on five lesser mole-rats from Bjelasnica Mountain, Bosnia and Herzegovina. We compared the results of the previously published studies, and we found a lot of similarities between Nannospalax leucodon in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Nannospalax ehrenbergi in North Iraq, as well as the Nannospalax nehringi from Eastern Anatolia.
      PubDate: Thu, 15 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Assessment of Hematological and Serum Biochemistry Parameters in Dogs with
           Acute Diarrhea Due to Different Etiologies

    • Abstract: Acute diarrhea (AD) has a complex etiology and may lead to life-threatening conditions. Hematological and serum biochemistry analyses can be useful for a differential diagnosis and for determining the severity of diarrhoea. Dogs with AD (n=72) were divided into Isospora (n=18), Toxocara (n=18), Parvoviral Enteritis (n=18), and Dietary Diarrhea (n=18) subgroups following clinical and laboratory examinations. The study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic value of certain hematological and serum biochemistry parameters. Clinical examinations, rapid diagnostic tests, complete blood count (CBC), and biochemical analyses were performed. White blood cell count (WBC), granulocyte, and mean hemoglobin concentration (MCH) levels were lower in the Parvoviral Enteritis Group compared with the other groups (p<0.01). Isospora, Parvoviral Enteritis, and Toxocara groups had lower glucose and total protein, and higher creatinine levels than those of the Control and Dietary Diarrhea groups (p<0.0001). The albumin level of the Dietary Diarrhea Group was higher compared with the other groups (p<0.0001). Parvoviral Enteritis and Isospora groups had higher ALP levels than those of the other groups (p<0.0001). Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), C-reactive protein (CRP), and cholesterol levels were determined to be highest in the Parvoviral Enteritis Group (p<0.0001). The total bilirubin level was higher in Parvoviral Enteritis and Toxocara groups compared with the Control, Isospora, and Dietary Diarrhea groups (p<0.0001). As a result, it was concluded that in cases of AD due to parvoviral enteritis and Toxocara canis, serum biochemistry abnormalities may be more severe, can provide more clinical information than CBC, and can be useful in forming a differential diagnosis list, especially in triage.
      PubDate: Wed, 10 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Carbohydrate Metabolism in Diabetic Rat’s Heart – The Effects of
           Acetylsalicylic Acid and Heat Preconditioning as HSP70 Inducers

    • Abstract: The myocardium of diabetic subjects displays reduced HSP70 protein level and weak myocardial protection. However, the heart possesses an ability to produce heat shock proteins (HSPs) after exposure to sublethal heat stress. Acetylsalicylicacid (ASA) has the property of pharmacological induction of HSPs. We evaluated the common effects of single dose ASA-pretreatment, prior to heat preconditioning (HP), over carbohydrate metabolism-related enzymes and substrates in the heart of diabetic rats. Streptozotocin-diabetes caused significant decrease of HSP70 protein level, stimulation of the gluconeogenic processes and inhibition of glycolytic processes in the heart. HP-diabetic hearts have significantly higher HSP70 protein level, lower glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate content, glycogen phosphorylase and hexokinase activity, and higher glucose levels and PFK activity. ASA-pretreatment of HP-diabetic animals caused additional increase of HSP70, additional decrease of glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate, glycogen phosphorylase and hexokinase, and additional increase of glucose and PFK in the heart. In conclusion, HP is physiological inducer of HSP70 level in heart and tends to reverse carbohydrate - related disturbances in diabetic rats. ASA, given prior to HP, is a potent HSP70 co-inducer and causes additional increase of HSP70 protein level in heart. ASA, given in a combination to HP, have shown more evident protective effects against subsequent intense of stress.
      PubDate: Tue, 02 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Using Species-Specific Protocols for the Welfare Assessment of Elephants
           in the Skopje Zoo

    • Abstract: Providing good animal welfare standards is very important for wild animals in captivity, especially in zoos. Therefore, the aim of this study was to perform a welfare assessment of elephants in the Skopje Zoo using species-specific protocols. Two specific protocols were used for the welfare assessment and were combined for a more unified approach. These protocols focused on the assessment of the elephant’s day-time behaviour, including Qualitative Behaviour Assessment (QBA), as well as the following sections: nutrition, physical health, environment, behaviour and management. Data was collected from the Asian and African elephants that were housed together, in the Skopje Zoo. Both species were observed for three consecutive days, during which time QBA was performed and they were observed on their daytime behaviour. Feeding (42% African, 34% Asian elephant) and anticipatory (35% African, 22% Asian elephant) behaviour were predominantly observed daytime behaviours of both elephants, as well as stereotypic behaviour (30%) of the Asian elephant. Concerning the QBA, ‘uncomfortable’ (296 Asian, 234 African elephants) and ‘relaxed’ (271 Asian, 280 African elephants) were the most dominant descriptors for both elephants. The collected data indicated that the elephants were in good physical health. Regular feeding enrichment, as well as environmental enrichment was recommended. There is room for improvement concerning the management practices of the elephants.
      PubDate: Thu, 12 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Computer Tomography (CT) Scans as a Diagnostic Tool for Interpretation of
           S10 Plastinated Slides from Dog Cadaver

    • Abstract: Computed tomography (CT) is a routine method for the diagnosis of pathological structures in the body and has been widely used in veterinary medicine as an advanced diagnostic imagining tool in veterinary clinics. However, interpretation of CT scans requires detailed knowledge of topographical animal anatomy and usually has limited scan resolution due to the ambiguous relationship between signal intensity and tissue composition. The aim of the study was to assess the morphometric similarities between S10 plastinated slides and computer tomography (CT) scans and their usability as compatible paired diagnostic methods. A 3-year-old euthanized dog cadaver was scanned on SHIMADZU SCT/6800TXL scanner immediately post-mortem, then frozen at -80 °C to preserve the correct anatomical position, and plastinated with a standardized procedure. Semi-transparent transversal slices (5 mm) were obtained from the head, thoracic, and lumbar sections of the body. The S10 plastinated slides and CT scans contained fine and small anatomical structures with high similarity. The spatial relationships of all anatomical structures on the serial S10 platinates were in the correct anatomical position. In conclusion, S10 transversal slices showed high similarity with the CT scans and allowed identification of the corresponding morphological structures. The S10 thin plastinated transversal slices could be used for additional interpretation of CT transversal scans at veterinary clinics and as a didactical tool for veterinary students.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Novelties in Ovine Assisted Reproductive Technologies – A Review

    • Abstract: Artificial insemination (AI) as a part of assisted reproductive technologies represents the oldest and most widespread method used to accelerate genetic progress in all domestic animals. After its first implementation in ovine reproduction and almost 80 years afterward, AI is continuously used for improving the genetic merit, utilizing either fresh or short-time chilled semen. Nevertheless, regardless of the semen used for insemination, the conception rate (CR) is still lower in comparison to natural service. At least two factors are commonly thought to limit the success of the AI and reduce the CR: (1) failure of placing the semen directly into the uterus due to the specific anatomic structure of the ewe’s cervix; (2) lower viability of ram spermatozoa during cryopreservation (<30% progressively motile spermatozoa after thawing). This review elaborates on recent studies that aimed to achieve acceptable CR through the implementation of cervical or intrauterine insemination: deep intracervical, intrauterine trans-cervical, and intracornual. Several hormonal treatments (oxytocin, estrogen, or prostaglandin) were evaluated on inducing cervical dilation that facilitates insemination. A comprehensive analysis was given to the effects of several antioxidants (GSSG, GSH, and cysteine) supplemented in ram semen-freezing media. Sex-sorted ram semen fertility rate results were presented from our studies.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Study of Mutagenic and Antitoxic Properties of Gentabiferon-B

    • Abstract: The combination of immunomodulators and antibiotics in the treatment of animals with diseases of bacterial etiology is one of the effective strategies for animal therapy. The drug gentabiferon-B combines antibiotic gentamicin and species-specific (bovine) recombinant interferons -α and -γ. The study aimed to evaluate the effect of course application of gentabiferon-B on the cytogenetic stability of bone marrow cells of outbred mice after administering mitomycin C (MMC). The proportion of polychromatophilic erythrocytes in the bone marrow was assessed. There was no effect of gentabiferon-B on the frequency of polychromatophilic erythrocytes with micronuclei in both healthy animals and mice with MMC-induced cytogenetic instability. The course application of gentabiferon-B before the administration of MMC led to an increase in the proportion of polychromatophilic erythrocytes (46.03±2.61%) which was non-significantly different than the negative control group. The administration of MMC alone caused a decrease in the proportion of polychromatophilic erythrocytes to 33.33±1.83%. The antitoxic effect of gentabiferon-B led to an increase in the level of polychromatophilic erythrocytes by 38.1% compared to the group that received only MMC. Studies have shown that gentabiferon-B does not have mutagenic activity and anticlastogenic properties, however, it reduces the toxic effect of MMC. In conclusion, it is indicative that gentabiferon-B has antitoxic properties and can be safely used in animal therapy.
      PubDate: Sat, 12 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Bovine Whey Supplementation in a High-Fat Diet Fed Rats Alleviated
           Offspring’s Cardiac Injury

    • Abstract: The research study determined the effect of bovine whey supplementation in rats fed on high-fat diet on occurrence of myocardium damage and disfunction in its offspring. Eighty virgin female rats (Rattus norvegicus) (100-110 g body weight) were used for this study. Following mating, the pregnant rats were categorized into four groups: control, whey supplemented (W), high-fat diet (FD) and high-fat diet and whey supplemented group (FD+W). Whey supplementation alone or in combination with a high-fat diet was administered every other day during the gestation and lactation period. Offspring rats at the age of 1, 7, 14 and 21-day post-partum were sacrificed and their hearts were processed for histological, p53 immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy and biochemical markers for cell damage. Offspring from the FD+W group exhibited improvement of the myocardium histological picture. Moreover, there was a lower accumulation of lipid deposits and regular organization of cardiomyocyte bands and intercalated discs. A lower p53 immune reaction and lower single strand DNA damage was noticed. The levels of the antioxidant enzymes (SOD and catalase) in the myocardium were increased, whereas the contents of IL6, MDA and caspase-3 were decreased, resulting in a reduction in inflammation and cell death. In conclusion, supplementation of whey to mother rats fed with high-fat diet alleviated the markers of cardiomyocyte injury in its offspring due to its antioxidant effect.
      PubDate: Sat, 12 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Assessment of Standing and Recumbent Restraint Positions and the
           Significance of Rumenotomy Techniques Based on the Profiles of Serum
           Amyloid a in Kano Brown Goats

    • Abstract: Standing and lateral recumbency positions have been used as a standard approach for most surgical procedures for large and small ruminants, respectively, without appropriate attention to the associated surgical stress. The study aimed to assess the level of surgical stress in Kano Brown goats (KBGs) based on their serum amyloid A (SAA) profiles by undergoing rumenotomy in lateral recumbency (Rumen Skin Clamp Fixation-RSCF and Stay Suture Rumenotomy-SSR) and a standing position restraint. A total of 24 KBGs were equally allocated by number and sex in groups A, B, C, and D. Groups A and B underwent RSCF and SSR in lateral recumbency, respectively, while group D underwent a rumenotomy in a standing position performed in a custom made mobile small ruminant surgical chute. Animals in groups A, B, and D were diagnosed with rumen foreign bodies, whereas group C was used as a control with a negative diagnosis. At 48 h post-rumenotomy, the mean SAA concentration in group B (137.88±66.87 g/L) was significantly higher (P<0.05) than the value in group C (34.59±0.57 g/L). The females in group B had a significantly higher (P<0.05) mean concentration of SAA at 48 hours (210.15±123.73 g/L) than groups C (35.18±0.08 g/L) and D (48.35±12.15 g/L). In group A, at 24 hours, SAA concentration (115.61±20.96 µg/L) was significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of group B (31.51±2.59 µg/L) and group C (34.86±3.21 µg/L) in males. Rumenotomy in the standing restraint position was associated with minimal surgical stress, hence it’s recommended over the conventional lateral recumbent position techniques.
      PubDate: Wed, 09 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Hyperthyroidism in the Domestic Cat (): Informed Treatment Choice Based on
           Survival Analysis

    • Abstract: Hyperthyroidism is the most frequently diagnosed endocrine disorder in cats. Therapy may include pharmacological, surgical (thyroidectomy), radioactive (iodine), and dietary treatment. The choice of treatment is believed to be strongly influenced by the veterinarian’s experience, level of education, and knowledge of the current scientific literature. The history of survival rates can affect the decision for treatment by both the veterinarian and the owner. This study aimed to explore the longevity in cats diagnosed with hyperthyroidism and to identify significant variables which affect survival rates by using retrospective data from the practice. A multivariate Cox regression was applied with the following results: surgical thyroidectomy and methimazole medication produced similar longevity (median 23.5 months, P>0.05); Domestic Short Hair cats survived longer than pure breeds (median 27.2 vs 9.4 months, P<0.05); as do cats without chronic renal disease (median 28.1 vs 6.2 months, P<0.001); and those with low activities of alanine aminotransferase (median 27.1 vs 17.0 months, P<0.01). Hyperthyroidism is comorbid with renal diseases, but no cumulative effect was found on survivability. There was no difference in survival rates between surgical and pharmaceutical treatment, therefore the discussion of treatment options with owners can focus on other factors (e.g., cost, owners’ compliance, cats’ tolerance to medication, presence of comorbidities). We propose that surgery may be the preferred treatment when the survival rates are expected to be higher than one year. This would avoid high costs and potential side effects of medication.
      PubDate: Wed, 09 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • The Impact of Cattle Hide Cleanliness Scores on Microbial Contamination of
           Carcasses During Slaughtering

    • Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the effects of cleanliness scoring on the microbiological load of hide and the final contamination of cattle carcasses. Fifty cattle were classified from 1 (clean and dry) to 5 (filthy and wet). Aerobic colony count (ACC) and counts of Enterobacteriaceae (EC) and E. coli (ECC) were determined on the brisket, abdominal midline, rump, groin sites of the hides, and brisket, flank, groin, and hock of the carcasses. On hides, ACC ranged from 3.15±0.13 log cfu/cm2 in category 1 to 8.14±0.21 log cfu/cm2 in category 5. EC and ECC were ranging between 1.13±0.07 and 2.80±0.09 log cfu/cm2, and 1.21±0.05 and 2.15±0.07 log cfu/cm2, respectively. While the mean ACC on the carcasses ranged between 2.18±0.07 and 2.63±0.05 log cfu/cm2 irrespective of the categories, Enterobacteriaceae and E. coli could not be counted due to the detection limits. It was concluded that although the level of bacterial load increased significantly (P<0.001) with the increasing cleanliness category on the hide of the animals, the reflection of this increasing trend on carcasses and different parts of the carcasses were inconsistent and the hygiene provided in the slaughterhouse and processing line was the main factor to reduce cross-contamination during processing.
      PubDate: Sun, 20 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Biochemical and Pathomorphological Investigations on Rabbits with
           Experimentally Induced Hepatic Eimeriosis

    • Abstract: The present study aimed to evaluate the changes in concentrations of some biochemical parameters, as well as macro and microscopic alterations during Eimeria stiedae infection in rabbits. The experiment was performed using 12 three-month-old healthy rabbits, randomly allocated into 2 equal groups: G1 (controls, uninfected animals) and G2 (rabbits infected with E. stiedae). Blood samples were collected at time zero (prior to the infection), 6th, 24th, and 48th hours, and also 7th, 14th, 21st, 28th days after the infection. After sampling, the blood was centrifuged, plasma was separated and frozen at −20 ºC until analyzed. Thawed plasma was used for the quantitative determination of haptoglobin (Hp), total protein (TP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total cholesterol (TC), total bilirubin (TBIL), urea, and creatinine (CREA). The results in infected rabbits revealed a significant increase in Hp, AST, ALT, GGT, TBIL, and TC levels, as well as a significant decrease in ALP and urea. A weak hyperproteinemia was also observed. There were no changes in CREA concentration. At the end of the clinical investigation, all rabbits were humanely euthanized and necropsied. The post-mortem examination of the infected group revealed hepatomegaly, multifocal yellowish nodules diffusely spread over the liver surface and in the parenchyma, considerably dilated bile ducts, and biliary hyperplasia. Given the results obtained from this experiment, it can be affirmed that hepatic eimeriosis in rabbits is a severe parasitic disease leading to significant disturbances of liver histology and resulting changes in the biochemical profile of infected rabbits.
      PubDate: Sun, 20 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Cystic Echinococcosis in Slaughtered Cattle and Sheep from North Macedonia

    • Abstract: Cystic echinococcosis is a cosmopolitan zoonotic infection, commonly seen in areas where livestock and dogs are kept together. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of echinococcosis in slaughtered cattle and sheep in North Macedonia and to evaluate the location and fertility/sterility rates of the cysts. A total of 302 slaughtered animals were examined with visual inspection, palpation, and incision of the internal organs in order to detect cysts. Microscopic examination was carried out to determine the presence of protoscoleces. The overall prevalence of echinococcosis in slaughtered cattle and sheep was 60%. The presence of cysts increased with age in cattle. In both cattle and sheep, the most common affected organs were the liver and lungs infected with more than one cyst. The findings showed higher fertility rate in sheep which confirmed their role as the most important intermediate host. This study shows that North Macedonia is an endemic region, and serious control strategies should be implemented, with special emphasis on safety disposal of infected organs and anthelmintic treatment of the dogs.
      PubDate: Fri, 21 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Detection of Enterotoxigenic Potential of Isolates from Cheese Samples
           with Two Different Methods

    • Abstract: The primary objective of our study was to detect the occurrence of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus in diverse types of cheese (cow's milk cheese and mixed milk cheese) samples from R.N. Macedonia. Cheese samples were analyzed for enumeration and isolation of the S. aureus strains according to ISO 6888-1. We detected the toxigenic potential of the strains by the use of the Enzyme Link Fluorescent Assay VIDAS system, and we confirmed the presence of the SEs (sea, seb, sec, sed, see) genes by multiplex PCR. The results showed that out of 270 samples of cheese, coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS) were detected in 27 (10%), and coagulase-negative staphylococci in five samples (1.8%). Biochemically, all 27 CPS samples were confirmed to be Staphylococcus aureus. With VIDAS SET2 test we confirmed that 11 isolates are producers of one of the toxins limited by the test. With the conventional PCR we confirmed genes in only 7 isolates. Most common detected gene was seb n=3 (42.8%), followed by sea n=2 (28.6%), and sec n=2 (28.6%). Additionally, sed and see genes were not detected in any of the S. aureus isolates. Discrepancies between the two test methods for detection of enterotoxigenic potential are not uncommon. The presence of viable Staphylococcus aureus cells that have enterotoxin potency demonstrates the importance of appropriate hygiene practices in the diary process and also the maintenance of the products in order to obtain a safe final product for the consumers.
      PubDate: Fri, 21 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • The Microscopic Detection of Animal Proteins in Animal Feed Regarding
           Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    • Abstract: Due to the actuality of spongiform encephalopathies and their proven spreading by means of animal feed containing meat and bone meal, the description and measurement of osteocytic lacunae contributes to more easily distinguish bone fragments in meat and bone meal. Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) have attracted a lot of attention, especially after 1986, when the first case of BSE (bovine spongiform encephalopathy) was detected. Since the outbreak of spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), the use of animal protein including bone meal as an ingredient in animal feed has been controlled by several regulations including Regulation (EC) 999/2001, Regulation (EC) 1774/2002, and Regulation (EC) 1234/2003. The classical microscopic method is the only official method for detecting animal protein in animal feed in the European Union (Commission Regulation (EC) 152/2009). By applying the microscopic method to the animal feed samples, we performed detection in order to determine the presence of animal proteins that originate from mammals and fish. The microscopic analysis of all 421 samples, of which 115 were raw materials for the production of animal feed, 230 were concentrates for ruminant nutrition and 76 were concentrates for non-ruminant nutrition (32 concentrates for laying hens and 44 concentrates for pigs), did not provide positive results, that is, no remains of animal tissues of mammalian origin were found in any specimen. Whereas in 10 out of 32 (31.25%) concentrates intended for non-ruminant nutrition (laying hens), pieces of fish tissue were found. In these samples, we usually detected the presence of fish bones, gills and scales.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Oct 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
 


Your IP address: 3.225.221.130
 
Home (Search)
API
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-