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Macedonian Veterinary Review
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.195
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1409-7621 - ISSN (Online) 1857-7415
Published by Sciendo Homepage  [389 journals]
  • Distribution and Genotyping of Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus in
           Farmed Rainbow Trout and Autochthonous Salmonids in North Macedonia

    • Abstract: Infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) is a common disease in the intensive production of salmonids. The IHN virus (IHNV) was isolated for the first time in North Macedonia in 2018. This study aimed to investigate the distribution and genotype of IHN in farmed rainbow trout and autochthonous salmonid fish in North Macedonia following the first detection. The samples were collected from 47 trout farms. Trout fry with or without clinical signs of IHN were selected as individual samples. Kidney, spleen, and heart were taken from each fish during the dissection. Three pooled samples were collected from each farm. A total of 141 pooled samples were collected: Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) n=127, Macedonian trout (Salmo macedonicus) n=11, and Ohrid trout (Salmo letnica) n=3. The virus was detected in 43 samples (30.50%): rainbow trout (n=40), Macedonian trout (n=2), and Ohrid trout (n=1). There were 18 (38.30%) positive fish farms. The MAKIHNV1 isolate from 2018 (MN641902) and the newly isolated virus shared a similarity of >99 and were placed in clade E-1 of European genogroup E. The IHN has spread throughout the country and is also present in the autochthonous salmonids.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Feb 2024 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Serotonin Immunoreactive Cells in Extrahepatic Bile Ducts, Major Duodenal
           Papilla and Gallbladder in the Domestic Pig

    • Abstract: The main part of serotonin in the body is synthesized and released by a certain type of enteroendocrine cells in the intestinal mucosa called enterochromaffin cells. The scarce qualitative and quantitative data on enterochromaffin and serotonin-positive mast cells in porcine extrahepatic bile ducts and gallbladder, motivated us to undertake the present study. The aim of this study was to determine the localization and density of serotonin-positive cells in the wall of the extrahepatic bile ducts and gallbladder in pigs. An immunohistochemical method was used to identify enterochromaffin cells and determine their percentage relative to the total number of endocrine cells labeled with chromogranin A. Serotonin-positive mast cells were identified after tryptase staining of serial sections. The endocrine function of mast cells was demonstrated by chromogranin A immunolabeling. The highest number of enterochromaffin cells were found in the intramural part of the ductus choledochus, followed by the papilla duodeni major, extramural part of the ductus choledochus, ductus hepaticus comunis, ductus cysticus, and gallbladder. In all parts of the extrahepatic bile ducts, the highest number of mast cells was found in the muscle layer, followed by the serosal layer and the propria. The expression of serotonin in the enterochromaffin cells of the biliary glands and in the mast cells of the analyzed organs suggests a possible synthesis of serotonin, which probably regulates physiological and pathological processes.
      PubDate: Fri, 09 Feb 2024 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • First Report of Bovine Coenurosis in North Macedonia

    • Abstract: Coenurosis is a cystic parasitic disease affecting ruminants and other mammals worldwide. The disease is caused by Coenurus cerebralis, the larval stage of the tapeworm Taenia multiceps. Sheep and goats are frequently infected, while cases in cattle are rare. Here we describe the first recorded case of bovine coenurosis in North Macedonia. The diagnosis was based on the neurological clinical signs and the postmortem findings of a 1-year-old bull with symptoms typical for coenurosis, i.e. ataxia, circling movements, mild depression and impaired vision. Postmortem, a cyst was found in the left cerebral hemisphere and was confirmed as fertile Coenurus cerebralis by parasitological analysis. These findings suggest that coenurosis should be considered part of the differential diagnosis in cattle with neurological symptoms. This highlights the need for routine surveillance of this disease in livestock and proactive tracking of the parasite in the final hosts to enhance disease management.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Jan 2024 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Protective Efficacy of a Locally Prepared Bivalent Duck Viral Hepatitis
           “Serotypes 1 and 3” Inactivated Vaccine

    • Abstract: The spread of duck hepatitis virus (DHV) in Egypt with its’ most prevalent genotypes (1 and 3) causes vast economic losses in the duck industry despite the regular vaccination with live attenuated vaccines. However, the use of live-vaccines is considered a potential risk for the non-vaccinated birds due to the viral shedding from vaccinated populations. The current study aimed to evaluate the protective efficacy and safety of two inactivated monovalent and one bivalent vaccines against DHV 1 and 3 genotypes. The inactivated monovalent (DHAV-1, DHAV-3) and bivalent (DHAV-1+3) vaccines were produced by using Montanide ISA 70 oil as an adjuvant. Three groups of 4-week-old ducklings (n=50) were vaccinated with one of the three vaccines, respectively. One group of ducklings was used as negative control (n=25). The immune-response of the vaccinated groups was measured by Virus Neutralization Test and expressed with Neutralizing Indices (NIs). The NIs for the bivalent vaccine group (5.6 and 5.4) were higher compared to the monovalent vaccine groups (5.0 and 4.7). In conclusion, the use of inactivated bivalent DHV vaccine could produce higher protective efficacy compared to the monovalent DHAV-1 and DHAV-3 vaccines.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Jan 2024 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • First Report of Infection in a Cat in North Macedonia

    • Abstract: The genus Bartonella are fastidious, Gram-negative intracellular vector-borne bacteria with zoonotic potential. Cats have a crucial epidemiological role in the transmission of Bartonella henselae, the primary causal agent of cat-scratch disease in humans. Here we describe the first report of B. henselae infection in a cat in North Macedonia after a suspected Bartonella infection in a 7-year-old boy. A combination of cultural and molecular methods for detecting B. henselae in the asymptomatic cat was used. A blood sample was cultured on a blood agar plate, where colonies became visible after nine days of incubation. The DNA of a single colony was extracted, and the isolate was confirmed as B. henselae by sequencing the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene and performing a Bartonella - specific PCR. The phylogenetic analysis demonstrated 100% similarity with B. henselae sequences, clustering on a single branch and establishing a distinct group. This finding indicates that B. henselae infection in cats circulates in North Macedonia and may affect feline and human health.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Sep 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Determination of the Expression of Bone Morphogen Protein 15 and its
           Receptors in Laying Hens’ Ovary

    • Abstract: The objective of the current research was to determine expression, function and regulation of bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) during follicular development in laying hens. A trial was conducted with 40 layers from Lohman Klassik Brown breed (40 weeks old). At the end of the study fifteen layers were humanely killed and their ovaries were then dissected. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) expression of BMP15 was analyzed in the ooplasm and in granulosa cells. It was significantly higher in the ooplasm (p<0.01). BPM15 expression was not found in the granulosa cells from 6-8 mm and >9 mm follicles. The expression for bone morphogenetic protein 15 receptors (BMPR1B and BMPR2) in the granulosa cells was in significant positive correlation with the follicle size (p<0.05). The results obtained in this study demonstrate the possible role of BMP15 in developing oocytes. BMP15 expression is important for the growth regulation and signaling in the follicular cells in the preovulatory phase.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Sep 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • The Effects of Subsp. and Vitamin D on Immunological Response Following
           Vaccination in Puppies

    • Abstract: This study aimed to determine the effects of oral application of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis and vitamin D on the immune response after vaccination in puppies. Crossbred dogs at the age of 55–65 days (n=21) of both sexes were grouped according to the application as follows: Group 1 - commercial polyvalent vaccine only (Vanguard 5L4, Zoetis); Group 2 -polyvalent vaccine and vitamin D; and Group 3 - polyvalent vaccine, B. animalis subsp. lactis, and vitamin D. The antibody titers, measured 3 weeks after the vaccination and after the 1st booster, demonstrated sufficient protective levels against the canine distemper virus but without significant difference between the groups when compare both values. No significant differences either, were observed in antibody titers against canine parvovirus after the initial vaccination. However, after the 1st booster, Group 2 samples showed significantly higher antibody titer value compared to the other groups (p<0.05). In conclusion, the dogs included in this study had an adequate antibody response to canine parvovirus and distemper viruses following the vaccination and 1st booster in all three groups of animals, and significant increasing of protective antibody titers against canine parvovirus virus the after the 1st booster in the group where B. animalis subsp. lactis was included.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Sep 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Effect of Seminal Plasma Protein Fractions on Cooled Dog Semen Kinetics

    • Abstract: Semen cooling and cryopreservation have revolutionized the field of reproductive biotechnologies. However, challenges persist in maintaining sperm quality and viability during these processes. The unsatisfactory results and the main problems are associated with low quality, viability, morphological, structural, and DNA integrity, changes in plasma membrane, ability to interact with female tract and decrease in sperm fertilization potential. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of seminal plasma proteins with different molecular weights on the kinetic parameters of dog spermatozoa during cold storage at 4 °C. The proteins were isolated from the dogs’ seminal plasma ranging between 6-200 kDa, separated in four fractions. The ejaculates (n=15) were collected from 6 heathy dogs which were pooled. Spermatozoa were extended with Tris medium alone (control) or with addition of one of the isolated protein fractions, and were then incubated at 4 °C for 2 hours. Sperm incubated with seminal plasma proteins ranging between 10-15 kDa had significantly higher total motility (37.01±2.98%), sperm progressiveness (15.97±1.91%), curvilinear line velocity (37.46±3.75 μm/s), linearity (26.18±1.00%), and straightness (45.94±2.03%) compared to the other groups incubated with higher molecular weight proteins and the control group. The findings of this study indicated that the use of certain proteins in seminal plasma can be beneficial for reducing the detrimental effect of cooling at 4 °C and preserving the viability of dog spermatozoa. It seemed that the presence of 10-15 kDa proteins from canine seminal plasma rendered the spermatozoa less amenable to the negative influence during cooling.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Sep 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Immunohistochemical Diagnostic Characteristics of Parvovirus Infection in
           Dogs

    • Abstract: Thе current study goal was to compare the results from the histopathological and immunohistochemical findings in dogs that have previously been clinically diagnosed with parvovirus infection. The Canine parvovirus enteritis (PVE) is a highly contagious disease mostly affecting dogs below six months of age. The canine parvovirus (CPV) belongs to the parvoviridae family within the feline parvovirus sub group of the genus Parvovirus. This investigation was performed on twenty dogs 2 to 12 months old with previous clinical diagnosis for PVE, and it included necropsy, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry. The necropsy findings included severe hemorrhagic enteritis and enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes as most frequent and prominent changes. The histopathological changes were also most significant in these organs in the form of villus atrophy and lymphoid depletion, respectively. These areas revealed the highest expression of CPV antigen. The histopathological and immunohistochemical methods provide strong base for a reliable CPV diagnosis.
      PubDate: Fri, 28 Jul 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Radiographic Evaluation of Left Atrial Size in Cavalier King Charles
           Spaniel Dogs with Mitral Valve Disease

    • Abstract: Myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) is one of the most common heart diseases in Cavalier King Charles spaniel (CKCS) dogs. The American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM) uses clinical, echocardiographic, and radiographic criteria to diagnose the disease, but measurement of vertebral left atrial size (VLAS) provides a simpler assessment. The aim of this study was to determine VLAS values in MMVD cases of CKCS and to investigate their clinical significance at different MMVD stages. Eighteen CKCS dogs of both sexes, different ages and weights, and different MMVD stages (6 at B1 stage, 6 at B2 stage, and 6 at C stage) were included in the study, as well as 6 healthy CKCS as control group A. We performed clinical, radiological, and echocardiographic examinations. VHS and VLAS values were significantly higher in the MMVD group than in the control group (p<0.001). VLAS showed high diagnostic accuracy in the detection of LA enlargement (area under the curve [AUC]: 0.98, cutoff ≥ 2.25, sensitivity: 88%, specificity: 100%, p<0.001). We also found high positive correlations between the VLAS and other values (LA /Ao, LVIDDn, and VHS) (r=0.88, r=0.88, and r=0.86, respectively) (p<0.001). It has been concluded that a VLAS value ≥2.25 can provide a meaningful diagnosis of left atrial enlargement in dogs with MMVD CKCS.
      PubDate: Fri, 28 Jul 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • The Effects of Tacrolimus and Erythropoietin on Histopathologic and
           Functional Recovery of Sciatic Nerve Crush in Mice

    • Abstract: Currently, despite decades of trial and error, peripheral nerve injury is an impenetrable clinical dilemma. Any proven effective pharmacologic agent leads to a decisive leap forward to the clinical management of neuropathies. This study investigated the effects of tacrolimus and erythropoietin on sciatic nerve regeneration. Twenty-three mice were randomly assigned to tacrolimus, erythropoietin, tacrolimus + erythropoietin, control, and sham groups following sciatic nerve crush via hemostatic forceps. Medications were administered for 28 consecutive days. The sham group received neither crush injury nor medication. Histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and walking track analyses were performed. In the erythropoietin group, axonal swelling was significantly reduced and the average axonal number significantly recovered up to 75% of normal nerve compared to other groups. Marked immunoreactivity to GFAP and S-100 protein was present in the tacrolimus group. Nevertheless, at least moderate GFAP and S-100 expressions were observed in all of the groups. Functional recovery was superior in the tacrolimus group after 14 days, although a complete return to near-normal function was achieved in all groups after 28 days, regardless of the medication used. Our data supported the neurotrophic effects of tacrolimus and erythropoietin; however, not enough data was gathered to confirm their synergistic effects. Whether these results are extensible to clinical scenarios requires further detailed investigations.
      PubDate: Sat, 15 Jul 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • A Natural Feed Additive Phytobiotic, Pomegranate ( L.), and the Health
           Status of Poultry

    • Abstract: The addition of antibiotic growth promotors in poultry diets results in a development of resistant bacterial strains and accumulation of drug residues in the meat and eggs. The new trend in poultry industry is the dietary addition of natural feed additives including phytobiotics. Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is a natural cheap feed source that has been extensively used in the livestock production. In poultry production system, pomegranate by-products such as peel powder or extract, seed oil, or juice showed high nutritional values, several health benefits, and good economic profits. Pomegranate displays a growth promoting effect and an enhancement of carcass traits of broilers, along with an improvement of the egg production traits parameters. Moreover, dietary pomegranate by-products showed a potential antioxidant and antimicrobial effects on the treated birds. Modulation of both humeral and cell mediated immune response, hypo-lipidemia, as well as enhancement of liver functions have been proved following dietary treatment with different pomegranate by-products. Therefore, this review article was designed to present the different effects of dietary pomegranate by-products on the production indices of broilers and layers, the antioxidant, antimicrobial, and immune status, as well as the blood parameters.
      PubDate: Sat, 15 Jul 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Clinical Signs and Behavior in Dogs with Hypothyroidism

    • Abstract: This descriptive study aims to examine the behavior of dogs diagnosed with hypothyroidism and the potential effect of hormonal treatment. Eight client-owned dogs with clinical hypothyroidism were evaluated using an adapted C-BARQ questionnaire, clinical description, and hematological analysis. Six of the dogs’ behavior was monitored for four months after the treatment initiation. The study found that excitation, whining, and urinating when left alone were frequently observed. Attention-seeking was also a common behavior reported by the owners. The biochemical analysis before the treatment had revealed elevated cholesterol, triglycerides, and alkaline phosphatase levels in the majority of dogs. The study emphasizes the need for prospective studies using a larger sample size to gain further insight into the relationship between hypothyroidism and behavior in dogs. Monitoring changes in behavior over time can provide insight into how thyroid dysregulation may contribute to the onset of certain behavioral patterns. Functional brain imaging and pathohistological brain analysis in dogs with long-term hypothyroidism are also required to confirm the effects of hypothyroidism on canine brain function.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Brilliant Cresyl Blue Staining Enhances the Morphological Quality
           Evaluation of Porcine Oocytes-a Preliminary Study

    • Abstract: Brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) staining is a method used for selection of developmentally competent porcine oocytes, in addition to the standard morphological classification. The aim of the current study was to assess the relationship between BCB staining in porcine oocytes with high and low morphological characteristics and its maturation rate. In the first part of the study, cumulus-oocytes complexes (COCs) (n=434) were aspirated from 60 ovaries. According to the morphological classification and BCB staining, they were divided in 4 groups: COC+/BCB+, COC−/BCB+, COC+/BCB−, and COC−/BCB−. In the second experiment, COCs (n=445) were categorized into 3 groups: control, BCB+, and BCB−. Significant differences in the maturation rate were observed between COC+/BCB+ and COC−/BCB− (66% vs. 23%), and between COC+/BCB+ and COC−/BCB+ (66% vs. 38%) (p<0.0001). Significant differences were also registered between COC−/BCB+ and COC−/BCB-(38% vs. 23%) and between COC+/BCB− and COC−/BCB− (53% vs. 23%) (p<0.01). Results from the second experiment showed that only BCB− oocytes had a significantly lower maturation rate (28%) compared to the control (63%) and BCB+ oocytes (59%) (p<0.001). These findings showed that COCs with high morphological characteristics had higher developmental ability compared to COCs with low morphology. The BCB-staining in high-quality oocytes did not have a significant impact on their maturation ability compared to a control group, but it might be useful for selecting developmentally competent oocytes with low morphology characteristics.
      PubDate: Wed, 07 Jun 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Profiling Infection in Commercial Pig Farms Using Serology and Lung
           Lesions Assessment

    • Abstract: Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhyo) is primary pathogen involved in porcine respiratory diseases complex (PRDC). The objective of this study was to evaluate Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhyo) infection in five commercial pig farms by using serology and lung lesion scoring at slaughter. Five Macedonian pig herds with a history of respiratory diseases were included in the study. Blood samples were taken from pigs at 6, 10, 14, 18, and 22 weeks of age. Ten animals per age group from each farm were sampled and tested for antibodies to Mhyo. At abattoir, 50 lungs per farm were scored for lesions associated with enzootic pneumonia (EP). All farms were seropositive to Mhyo. Higher seroprevalence to Mhyo was observed in grower and finisher pigs, while significant difference (p<0.001) was detected among farms in 10-, 14-, and 22-week-old pigs. Enzootic pneumonia-like lesions were detected in 91.2% of all tested lungs with range of 82 to 98% on farm level. Mean lung lesion score (LLS) obtained for all farms was 11.5 (8.04–14.4). Significant difference for LLS and significantly higher percentage of severe LLS grade (>10) were found among some of the farms (p<0.001). In conclusion, high seroprevalence to Mhyo in finishing pigs in most of the farms was most likely due to vaccination. Farms with higher seroprevalence to Mhyo obtained lower LLS. Serology monitoring of different pig categories and lung assessment at slaughterhouse is a practical tool for assessing vaccine efficacy of Mhyo in pig farms.
      PubDate: Sat, 06 May 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Investigation of Vitamin a and 25(OH)D Levels in Cattle with Pneumonia
           Detected

    • Abstract: This study investigated the presence of Mycoplasma bovis in nasal swabs taken from cattle with pneumonia, to reveal the clinical and biochemical findings of positive animals, and determine the levels of vitamin A and 25(OH)D3. In the study were included 103 infected cattle and 10 healthy cattle, all aged 1-4 years, as the control group. Quantitative clinical evaluations and clinical examinations were performed on each animal, and 5 ml blood samples and nasal swabs were taken. Serum biochemistry, vitamin A and 25(OH)D3 levels were determined in both positive and control samples. The clinical signs were identified by qualitative scoring in M. bovis positive animals. Regarding the clinical findings, respiratory frequency, heart rate, and rectal temperature were significantly higher in positive than control group animals (p<0.001). Regarding the biochemistry findings, albumin (ALB) and glucose (GLU) levels were lower in cattle infected with M. bovis (p<0.001) whereas total protein (TP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels were higher (p<0.001). While serum 25(OH)D3 levels were lower in infected animals (p<0.001), there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in serum vitamin A levels. In this study, clinical findings in cattle naturally infected with M. bovis were expressed qualitatively and quantitatively. In addition, it has been revealed that the disease does not only cause lung involvement, but also causes changes in biochemical and vitamin levels. Although these parameters cannot be used as a biomarker in the diagnosis of pneumonia, they are thought to provide benefits in terms of diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis in practice.
      PubDate: Wed, 08 Mar 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Evaluation of the Corrected QT Interval with Bazett’s Method in Cavalier
           King Charles Spaniel Dogs with Myxomatous Mitral Valve Disease

    • Abstract: Myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) is one of the most common heart diseases in dogs. The disease progresses faster in Cavalier King Charles Spaniel (CKCS) dogs and occurs at an earlier age. QT interval length reflects abnormalities in ventricular repolarization which may predispose to the formation of fatal arrhythmias such as torsades de pointes. A fast and accurate assessment is therefore essential. The study aimed to examine the changes in QT duration in MMVD cases of CKCS and to calculate the corrected QT durations with Bazett’s formula in various stages of the disease. The study included 20 CKCS dogs of both genders, various ages and weights, and different stages of MMVD (n=6 in B1 stage, n=6 in B2 stage, and n=8 in C stage), and 5 healthy CKCS which were included in the control group. Clinical, radiological, hematological, biochemical, echocardiographic, and electrocardiographic examinations were performed. The corrected QT interval duration in the MMVD group was longer than the control (p<0.05). However, there was no significant difference between B1, B2, and C. It was concluded that the corrected QT interval can give a significant distinction between healthy and MMVD CKCS dogs.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Mar 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Clinical Mastits Incidence In Small-Scale Dairy Cow Farms

    • Abstract: The incidence of clinical mastitis (CM) in small and large-scale dairy cow farms can be highly variable and can be affected by age, parity, post-calving status, and atmospheric conditions. The current study aimed to assess the CM-incidence and its association with the post-calving days, number of lactations, season, and number of affected udder quarters in dairy cows in small-scale dairy farms. The study was conducted within one calendar year in 177 small-scale farms with 864 dairy cows. Clinically confirmed CM cows (n=72) were sampled from each udder quarter and processed for bacteriology examination. The CM-positive samples were grouped according to the season (spring, summer, autumn, and winter), the number of days after calving (<90, 90-180, and >180), the number of lactations (1-st, 2-5-th, and >6-th), and the number of affected udder quarters (one, two, three, and four). The CM-positive samples (n=72, 8.3%) were confirmed on bacteriology examination in significantly lower count (n=56, 6.5%). The 2-5-th lactations cows (n=35, 68.6%) were significantly more compared to the first lactation (n=6, 11.8%), and >6-th lactation cows (n=10, 19.6%). CM cows with infection of one udder quarter (n=40, 78.4%) were significantly more than the cows with two (n=6, 11.8%), and four infected quarters (n=5, 9.8%). The CM-incidence in small-scale dairy cow farms in North Macedonia was 8.3% and 6.5% by clinical and bacteriology examination, respectively. The highest CM susceptibility was observed in the cows between the second and fifth lactations. One udder quarter was most frequently affected in CM-positive cases.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Jan 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Pharmacokinetic Criteria of Ketoprofen and its Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibition
           in Mice: Influence of Xylazine Administration

    • Abstract: The objective of this study was to examine the effect of ketoprofen with or without combination with xylazine on the level of cyclooxygenase-2 in mice. The intraperitoneal (i.p.) dose of ketoprofen and xylazine that caused an analgesic response in half of the mouse population was 1.26 mg/kg and 6.63 mg/kg, respectively. Serum cyclooxygenase-2 concentration (activity) in the control mice was 16.94 ng/ml. The ketoprofen-treated group (2.52 mg/kg, i.p.) decreased the cyclooxygenase-2 concentration by 58% (7.16 ng/ml). The combined ketoprofen and xylazine treatment (13.26 mg/kg, i.p.) decreased the cyclooxygenase-2 by 94% (0.98 ng/ml). The ketoprofen plasma concentration in the combined treatment group was significantly higher compared to the ketoprofen treatment group. Ketoprofen plasma concentrations measured at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 24 hours were 19.07, 18.94, 14.66, 6.53, 5.44, and 5.54 µg/ml, respectively. Plasma concentrations of ketoprofen and xylazine were raised to 28.74, 29.74, 15.32, 13.04, 14.64, and 11.95 µg/ml or by 51%, 56%, 5%, 100%, 169%, and 116%, respectively. Ketoprofen pharmacokinetic variables were increased (AUC0-∞ (515%), AUMC0-∞ (2389%), MRT (305%), t1/2β (375%), Tmax (100%), and Cmax (55%)), while other values were decreased (Kel (79%), Vss (25%), and Cl (88%)). Our findings suggested a synergistic interaction between ketoprofen and xylazine on the level of cyclooxygenase-2 (pharmacodynamic interaction) which was exerted by modification of the ketoprofen pharmacokinetic properties in mice.
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Growth Dynamics on the Skin and the Coat in Normandian and Simmental
           Cattle During Adaptation to the Farming Technology in Southwestern Part of
           Bulgaria

    • Abstract: The aim of the present study was to identify the adaptability of Normandy cows raised in a loose system to the climatic and technological conditions and to compare their adaptability with already acclimatized Simmental cows in one farm in Southwestern Bulgaria. Total of 20 cows at same age (II – IV lactation) and same body weight (630-660 kg) from both breeds were classified into 2 groups (each having 10 cows) and subjected to skin thickness measurement, fibers total weight determination and fiber categorization during the winter and summer season. The results have shown that during the winter season, the Normandy breed had significantly higher skin thickness at the elbow compared to the Simmental breed, whereas no differences were observed in the skin thickness between both breeds either at the neck or at the middle of the last rib. During the summer season, the differences on the skin thickness compared to the Simmental breed were observed at the neck (p<0.05), whilst at the elbow and at the middle of the last rib no differences were recorded (p>0.05). During the winter seasons, the coat of Normandy cows contained more soft fibers in comparison to the Simmentals cows. Furthermore, the changes in the observed parameters, influenced by climatic conditions showed similar pattern in both breeds. It can be concluded that the two breeds have emphasized their genetic potential and have a good adaptability to the temperate continental climate of the region.
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
 
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