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Macedonian Veterinary Review
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.195
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1409-7621 - ISSN (Online) 1857-7415
Published by Sciendo Homepage  [389 journals]
  • Immunohistochemical Diagnostic Characteristics of Parvovirus Infection in

    • Abstract: Thе current study goal was to compare the results from the histopathological and immunohistochemical findings in dogs that have previously been clinically diagnosed with parvovirus infection. The Canine parvovirus enteritis (PVE) is a highly contagious disease mostly affecting dogs below six months of age. The canine parvovirus (CPV) belongs to the parvoviridae family within the feline parvovirus sub group of the genus Parvovirus. This investigation was performed on twenty dogs 2 to 12 months old with previous clinical diagnosis for PVE, and it included necropsy, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry. The necropsy findings included severe hemorrhagic enteritis and enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes as most frequent and prominent changes. The histopathological changes were also most significant in these organs in the form of villus atrophy and lymphoid depletion, respectively. These areas revealed the highest expression of CPV antigen. The histopathological and immunohistochemical methods provide strong base for a reliable CPV diagnosis.
      PubDate: Fri, 28 Jul 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Radiographic Evaluation of Left Atrial Size in Cavalier King Charles
           Spaniel Dogs with Mitral Valve Disease

    • Abstract: Myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) is one of the most common heart diseases in Cavalier King Charles spaniel (CKCS) dogs. The American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM) uses clinical, echocardiographic, and radiographic criteria to diagnose the disease, but measurement of vertebral left atrial size (VLAS) provides a simpler assessment. The aim of this study was to determine VLAS values in MMVD cases of CKCS and to investigate their clinical significance at different MMVD stages. Eighteen CKCS dogs of both sexes, different ages and weights, and different MMVD stages (6 at B1 stage, 6 at B2 stage, and 6 at C stage) were included in the study, as well as 6 healthy CKCS as control group A. We performed clinical, radiological, and echocardiographic examinations. VHS and VLAS values were significantly higher in the MMVD group than in the control group (p<0.001). VLAS showed high diagnostic accuracy in the detection of LA enlargement (area under the curve [AUC]: 0.98, cutoff ≥ 2.25, sensitivity: 88%, specificity: 100%, p<0.001). We also found high positive correlations between the VLAS and other values (LA /Ao, LVIDDn, and VHS) (r=0.88, r=0.88, and r=0.86, respectively) (p<0.001). It has been concluded that a VLAS value ≥2.25 can provide a meaningful diagnosis of left atrial enlargement in dogs with MMVD CKCS.
      PubDate: Fri, 28 Jul 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • The Effects of Tacrolimus and Erythropoietin on Histopathologic and
           Functional Recovery of Sciatic Nerve Crush in Mice

    • Abstract: Currently, despite decades of trial and error, peripheral nerve injury is an impenetrable clinical dilemma. Any proven effective pharmacologic agent leads to a decisive leap forward to the clinical management of neuropathies. This study investigated the effects of tacrolimus and erythropoietin on sciatic nerve regeneration. Twenty-three mice were randomly assigned to tacrolimus, erythropoietin, tacrolimus + erythropoietin, control, and sham groups following sciatic nerve crush via hemostatic forceps. Medications were administered for 28 consecutive days. The sham group received neither crush injury nor medication. Histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and walking track analyses were performed. In the erythropoietin group, axonal swelling was significantly reduced and the average axonal number significantly recovered up to 75% of normal nerve compared to other groups. Marked immunoreactivity to GFAP and S-100 protein was present in the tacrolimus group. Nevertheless, at least moderate GFAP and S-100 expressions were observed in all of the groups. Functional recovery was superior in the tacrolimus group after 14 days, although a complete return to near-normal function was achieved in all groups after 28 days, regardless of the medication used. Our data supported the neurotrophic effects of tacrolimus and erythropoietin; however, not enough data was gathered to confirm their synergistic effects. Whether these results are extensible to clinical scenarios requires further detailed investigations.
      PubDate: Sat, 15 Jul 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • A Natural Feed Additive Phytobiotic, Pomegranate ( L.), and the Health
           Status of Poultry

    • Abstract: The addition of antibiotic growth promotors in poultry diets results in a development of resistant bacterial strains and accumulation of drug residues in the meat and eggs. The new trend in poultry industry is the dietary addition of natural feed additives including phytobiotics. Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is a natural cheap feed source that has been extensively used in the livestock production. In poultry production system, pomegranate by-products such as peel powder or extract, seed oil, or juice showed high nutritional values, several health benefits, and good economic profits. Pomegranate displays a growth promoting effect and an enhancement of carcass traits of broilers, along with an improvement of the egg production traits parameters. Moreover, dietary pomegranate by-products showed a potential antioxidant and antimicrobial effects on the treated birds. Modulation of both humeral and cell mediated immune response, hypo-lipidemia, as well as enhancement of liver functions have been proved following dietary treatment with different pomegranate by-products. Therefore, this review article was designed to present the different effects of dietary pomegranate by-products on the production indices of broilers and layers, the antioxidant, antimicrobial, and immune status, as well as the blood parameters.
      PubDate: Sat, 15 Jul 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Clinical Signs and Behavior in Dogs with Hypothyroidism

    • Abstract: This descriptive study aims to examine the behavior of dogs diagnosed with hypothyroidism and the potential effect of hormonal treatment. Eight client-owned dogs with clinical hypothyroidism were evaluated using an adapted C-BARQ questionnaire, clinical description, and hematological analysis. Six of the dogs’ behavior was monitored for four months after the treatment initiation. The study found that excitation, whining, and urinating when left alone were frequently observed. Attention-seeking was also a common behavior reported by the owners. The biochemical analysis before the treatment had revealed elevated cholesterol, triglycerides, and alkaline phosphatase levels in the majority of dogs. The study emphasizes the need for prospective studies using a larger sample size to gain further insight into the relationship between hypothyroidism and behavior in dogs. Monitoring changes in behavior over time can provide insight into how thyroid dysregulation may contribute to the onset of certain behavioral patterns. Functional brain imaging and pathohistological brain analysis in dogs with long-term hypothyroidism are also required to confirm the effects of hypothyroidism on canine brain function.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Brilliant Cresyl Blue Staining Enhances the Morphological Quality
           Evaluation of Porcine Oocytes-a Preliminary Study

    • Abstract: Brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) staining is a method used for selection of developmentally competent porcine oocytes, in addition to the standard morphological classification. The aim of the current study was to assess the relationship between BCB staining in porcine oocytes with high and low morphological characteristics and its maturation rate. In the first part of the study, cumulus-oocytes complexes (COCs) (n=434) were aspirated from 60 ovaries. According to the morphological classification and BCB staining, they were divided in 4 groups: COC+/BCB+, COC−/BCB+, COC+/BCB−, and COC−/BCB−. In the second experiment, COCs (n=445) were categorized into 3 groups: control, BCB+, and BCB−. Significant differences in the maturation rate were observed between COC+/BCB+ and COC−/BCB− (66% vs. 23%), and between COC+/BCB+ and COC−/BCB+ (66% vs. 38%) (p<0.0001). Significant differences were also registered between COC−/BCB+ and COC−/BCB-(38% vs. 23%) and between COC+/BCB− and COC−/BCB− (53% vs. 23%) (p<0.01). Results from the second experiment showed that only BCB− oocytes had a significantly lower maturation rate (28%) compared to the control (63%) and BCB+ oocytes (59%) (p<0.001). These findings showed that COCs with high morphological characteristics had higher developmental ability compared to COCs with low morphology. The BCB-staining in high-quality oocytes did not have a significant impact on their maturation ability compared to a control group, but it might be useful for selecting developmentally competent oocytes with low morphology characteristics.
      PubDate: Wed, 07 Jun 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Profiling Infection in Commercial Pig Farms Using Serology and Lung
           Lesions Assessment

    • Abstract: Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhyo) is primary pathogen involved in porcine respiratory diseases complex (PRDC). The objective of this study was to evaluate Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhyo) infection in five commercial pig farms by using serology and lung lesion scoring at slaughter. Five Macedonian pig herds with a history of respiratory diseases were included in the study. Blood samples were taken from pigs at 6, 10, 14, 18, and 22 weeks of age. Ten animals per age group from each farm were sampled and tested for antibodies to Mhyo. At abattoir, 50 lungs per farm were scored for lesions associated with enzootic pneumonia (EP). All farms were seropositive to Mhyo. Higher seroprevalence to Mhyo was observed in grower and finisher pigs, while significant difference (p<0.001) was detected among farms in 10-, 14-, and 22-week-old pigs. Enzootic pneumonia-like lesions were detected in 91.2% of all tested lungs with range of 82 to 98% on farm level. Mean lung lesion score (LLS) obtained for all farms was 11.5 (8.04–14.4). Significant difference for LLS and significantly higher percentage of severe LLS grade (>10) were found among some of the farms (p<0.001). In conclusion, high seroprevalence to Mhyo in finishing pigs in most of the farms was most likely due to vaccination. Farms with higher seroprevalence to Mhyo obtained lower LLS. Serology monitoring of different pig categories and lung assessment at slaughterhouse is a practical tool for assessing vaccine efficacy of Mhyo in pig farms.
      PubDate: Sat, 06 May 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Investigation of Vitamin a and 25(OH)D Levels in Cattle with Pneumonia

    • Abstract: This study investigated the presence of Mycoplasma bovis in nasal swabs taken from cattle with pneumonia, to reveal the clinical and biochemical findings of positive animals, and determine the levels of vitamin A and 25(OH)D3. In the study were included 103 infected cattle and 10 healthy cattle, all aged 1-4 years, as the control group. Quantitative clinical evaluations and clinical examinations were performed on each animal, and 5 ml blood samples and nasal swabs were taken. Serum biochemistry, vitamin A and 25(OH)D3 levels were determined in both positive and control samples. The clinical signs were identified by qualitative scoring in M. bovis positive animals. Regarding the clinical findings, respiratory frequency, heart rate, and rectal temperature were significantly higher in positive than control group animals (p<0.001). Regarding the biochemistry findings, albumin (ALB) and glucose (GLU) levels were lower in cattle infected with M. bovis (p<0.001) whereas total protein (TP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels were higher (p<0.001). While serum 25(OH)D3 levels were lower in infected animals (p<0.001), there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in serum vitamin A levels. In this study, clinical findings in cattle naturally infected with M. bovis were expressed qualitatively and quantitatively. In addition, it has been revealed that the disease does not only cause lung involvement, but also causes changes in biochemical and vitamin levels. Although these parameters cannot be used as a biomarker in the diagnosis of pneumonia, they are thought to provide benefits in terms of diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis in practice.
      PubDate: Wed, 08 Mar 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • β-Lactamase Genes (CTX-M, SHV, TEM, OXA1 and OXA2) and Phylogenetic
           Groups in ESBL Producing Commensal Isolated from Faecal Samples from Dairy
           Farm in the Municipality of Debar

    • Abstract: β-lactamases are a diverse class of enzymes produced by bacteria that present a major cause for resistance to β-lactams. In this study we analysed 159 fecal samples from dairy cows, for the presence of presumptive ESBL, AmpC, and carbapenemase-producing E. coli. Phylotyping was done using Clermont phylo-typing method, targeting arpA, ChuA, and YjaA genes, along with the DNA fragment TspE4.C2. Convetional PCR method was used to confirm the presence of bla genes among 39 phenotypically confirmed ESBL producing E. coli. The results showed presence of CTX-M, SHV, TEM and OXA1 bla genes in 28 (71.79%), 1 (2.56%), 29 (74.35%), 2 (5.12%) of isolates, respectively Twenty (51.28%) isolates showed presence of both blaCTX-M and TEM genes. The strain that carried the blaSHV gene was found to carry blaTEM gene as well, while one of the strains that carried blaOXA1 gene was also carrying blaCTX-M and TEM gene. The ration between isolates and phylo-groups was as follows: 9 (23.07%) strains were assigned to phyllo-group D; 14 (35.89%) to phyllo-group B; 16 (41.02%) to phyllo-group A. Out of the 39 strains where bla genes were identified, 29 (74.35%) were categorized as multi drug resistant.
      PubDate: Wed, 08 Mar 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Investigation of Potential Serum Biomarkers for the Diagnosis of Chronic
           Back Pain in Horses

    • Abstract: Back pain is one of the most common triggers of performance failure in athletic and riding horses. Diagnosis of equine back pain has been very challenging for equine practitioners, particularly in chronic cases. Therefore, the identification of blood biomarkers would facilitate the clinical differentiation of chronic back pain. This study aimed to investigate serum biomarkers of glial cell activation, axonal damage, and inflammation for the diagnosis of equine chronic back pain. Serum samples from forty horses comprising chronic back pain (CBP), back pain concurrent with lameness (BPL), lameness (LN), and healthy control (HC) (n=10 per group) were screened for ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), phosphorylated neurofilament-H (pNF-H) by ELISA, and proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α) by multiplex assay. Serum concentrations of GFAP (3.81±1.72 ng/mL) and pNF-H (0.76±0.18 ng/mL) were significantly (p<0.05) higher in horses with CBP when compared with other groups. Iba-1 was not significantly higher in CBP horses. There was no significant difference between the pro-inflammatory cytokines among the groups. The levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α were also increased in the CBP than the HC control horses but lower in relation to BPL and LN horses. In addition, serum Iba-1, GFAP, and pNF-H showed a high discriminatory capacity for horses with CBP with high sensitivity (50-100%) and specificity (70-100%). This study provides evidence that serum levels of the GFAP and pNF-H may be useful in the clinical differentiation of horses with chronic back pain.
      PubDate: Wed, 08 Mar 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Evaluation of the Corrected QT Interval with Bazett’s Method in Cavalier
           King Charles Spaniel Dogs with Myxomatous Mitral Valve Disease

    • Abstract: Myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) is one of the most common heart diseases in dogs. The disease progresses faster in Cavalier King Charles Spaniel (CKCS) dogs and occurs at an earlier age. QT interval length reflects abnormalities in ventricular repolarization which may predispose to the formation of fatal arrhythmias such as torsades de pointes. A fast and accurate assessment is therefore essential. The study aimed to examine the changes in QT duration in MMVD cases of CKCS and to calculate the corrected QT durations with Bazett’s formula in various stages of the disease. The study included 20 CKCS dogs of both genders, various ages and weights, and different stages of MMVD (n=6 in B1 stage, n=6 in B2 stage, and n=8 in C stage), and 5 healthy CKCS which were included in the control group. Clinical, radiological, hematological, biochemical, echocardiographic, and electrocardiographic examinations were performed. The corrected QT interval duration in the MMVD group was longer than the control (p<0.05). However, there was no significant difference between B1, B2, and C. It was concluded that the corrected QT interval can give a significant distinction between healthy and MMVD CKCS dogs.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Mar 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Effect of Modified-Hen-Egg-Yolk-Lipid-Composition Diet on Plasma Lipids in

    • Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with modified-hen-egg-yolk on plasma lipids and lipoprotein profiles in rats. During the four-week-experiment, 64 Wistar rats were divided into four groups of 16 (eight of both sexes), and fed commercial rat food (group C); food containing 70% commercial rat mixture and 30% freshly cooked egg yolk originating from laying hen eggs fed with 3% fish oil (group F); 3% palm olein (group P), or 3% lard (group L). The cooked egg yolk in the rat diet affected the concentrations of plasma total and LDL-cholesterol in males of the P and L groups. Cholesterol and total fat in the diet did not have a hypercholesterolemic effect on their own, but when in combination with fatty acid composition, they could contribute to an increase in plasma total and LDL cholesterol concentrations in rats. HDL-cholesterol was the most resilient plasma lipoprotein of rats to dietary treatments in our experiment. Compared to the control group, the addition of hen egg yolk to the rat diet regardless of its quality, adversely affected the values of HDL-C/TC and HDL-C/LDL-C in both males and females.
      PubDate: Mon, 27 Feb 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Otitis Externa in Dogs: Distribution and Antimicrobial Susceptibility
           Patterns of Spp. Isolates

    • Abstract: The study aimed to investigate the Staphylococcus species from dogs with chronic otitis externa in Istanbul and to determine their antibiotic susceptibility patterns. Ear swab samples were collected from 100 dogs suspected of otitis externa admitted at the clinics of Istanbul University - Cerrahpaşa, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. The dogs were of different age, gender, and breed. The bacterial isolation was performed by conventional methods. BD Phoenix Automated Microbiology System was used to confirm bacterial identification by conventional methods and to test antimicrobial susceptibility. Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from 36% of the samples collected from the dogs. S. pseudintermedius, S. aureus, S. epidermidis, S. hyicus and S. chromogenes were identified in 41.6%, 22.2%, 11.1%, 5.5%, and 5.5%. In Staphylococcus spp. isolates, enrofloxacin, penicillin, and ampicillin-sulbactam resistance was 8.3%, marbofloxacin resistance was 11.1%, doxycycline resistance was 16.6%, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, erythromycin, and gentamicin resistance was 19.4%, tetracycline, clindamycin, and sulphonamide resistance was 25%. Methicillin resistance was not observed in any of the isolates. However, multiple drug resistance (MDR) was detected in 11 (30.5%) of 36 isolates. In conclusion, the early detection and antimicrobial sensitivity testing of Staphylococcus spp in dog otitis externa cases that do not respond to empiric therapy could be beneficial for appropriate antibiotic selection and treatment thus preventing MDR.
      PubDate: Tue, 07 Feb 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • The Art and Science of Consultations in Bovine Medicine: Use of Modified
           Calgary – Cambridge Guides, Part 2

    • Abstract: This article, part 2 of a 2-part series, describes the next two steps in the application of the Modified Calgary-Cambridge Guides (MCCG) to consultations in bovine medicine, ‘explanation and planning’, and ‘closing the consultation’, and introduces concepts that are associated with all the components of the guide, ‘building the relationship with the client’ and ‘providing structure to the consultation’. Part 1 introduced the aim and framework of the MCCG which enables the practitioner to gain an insight into the client’s understanding of the problem, including understanding aetiology, epidemiology and pathophysiology. Part 2 introduces the framework that provides the opportunity to understand the client’s expectations regarding the outcome, their motivation and willingness to adhere to recommendations. It also describes how to engage and acknowledge the client as an important part of the decision-making process, how to establish responsibilities of both the client and practitioner, and how to reach out to the client at the conclusion of the consultation to make certain that the client’s expectations were met.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Jan 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Clinical Mastits Incidence In Small-Scale Dairy Cow Farms

    • Abstract: The incidence of clinical mastitis (CM) in small and large-scale dairy cow farms can be highly variable and can be affected by age, parity, post-calving status, and atmospheric conditions. The current study aimed to assess the CM-incidence and its association with the post-calving days, number of lactations, season, and number of affected udder quarters in dairy cows in small-scale dairy farms. The study was conducted within one calendar year in 177 small-scale farms with 864 dairy cows. Clinically confirmed CM cows (n=72) were sampled from each udder quarter and processed for bacteriology examination. The CM-positive samples were grouped according to the season (spring, summer, autumn, and winter), the number of days after calving (<90, 90-180, and >180), the number of lactations (1-st, 2-5-th, and >6-th), and the number of affected udder quarters (one, two, three, and four). The CM-positive samples (n=72, 8.3%) were confirmed on bacteriology examination in significantly lower count (n=56, 6.5%). The 2-5-th lactations cows (n=35, 68.6%) were significantly more compared to the first lactation (n=6, 11.8%), and >6-th lactation cows (n=10, 19.6%). CM cows with infection of one udder quarter (n=40, 78.4%) were significantly more than the cows with two (n=6, 11.8%), and four infected quarters (n=5, 9.8%). The CM-incidence in small-scale dairy cow farms in North Macedonia was 8.3% and 6.5% by clinical and bacteriology examination, respectively. The highest CM susceptibility was observed in the cows between the second and fifth lactations. One udder quarter was most frequently affected in CM-positive cases.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Jan 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Evaluation of Resistance and Susceptibility to Prion Diseases in Pelibuey
           Sheep from Mexico

    • Abstract: Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are a group of neurodegenerative diseases with a chronic and fatal course, which are caused by a misfolded form of the cellular prion protein that is encoded by the host. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the resistance and genetic susceptibility to prion diseases in Pelibuey sheep from Mexico. The sequences of 99 Pelibuey sheep from the central and southwestern regions of Mexico were analyzed to determine the polymorphisms related to resistance and genetic susceptibility to scrapie, the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium test and the D-Tajima test was used to identify the effect of evolutionary forces on the PRNP gene. Twelve non-synonymous polymorphisms Q101R, M112T, A116P, G127A, A136V, M137T, L141F, H143R, R154H, Q171R, Q171H, N176K were detected, in addition two synonymous substitutions 231R (agg/cgg) and 237L (ctc/ctg) were found. As a result of the sequence analysis, the ARR allele was not under the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, indicating that there is an evolutionary force at work, and the D-Tajima suggest the existence of purifying genetic selection. In conclusion, Pelibuey sheep exhibit genotypes for the PRNP gene that make them resistant to developing classic scrapie; at least 98% of the population is a carrier of an allele related to scrapie resistance; while for atypical scrapie there is a very high probability that an outbreak occurred in the herds, since the ARQ allele in combination with the L substitution at codon 141 confers susceptibility to carrier sheep.
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Pharmacokinetic Criteria of Ketoprofen and its Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibition
           in Mice: Influence of Xylazine Administration

    • Abstract: The objective of this study was to examine the effect of ketoprofen with or without combination with xylazine on the level of cyclooxygenase-2 in mice. The intraperitoneal (i.p.) dose of ketoprofen and xylazine that caused an analgesic response in half of the mouse population was 1.26 mg/kg and 6.63 mg/kg, respectively. Serum cyclooxygenase-2 concentration (activity) in the control mice was 16.94 ng/ml. The ketoprofen-treated group (2.52 mg/kg, i.p.) decreased the cyclooxygenase-2 concentration by 58% (7.16 ng/ml). The combined ketoprofen and xylazine treatment (13.26 mg/kg, i.p.) decreased the cyclooxygenase-2 by 94% (0.98 ng/ml). The ketoprofen plasma concentration in the combined treatment group was significantly higher compared to the ketoprofen treatment group. Ketoprofen plasma concentrations measured at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 24 hours were 19.07, 18.94, 14.66, 6.53, 5.44, and 5.54 µg/ml, respectively. Plasma concentrations of ketoprofen and xylazine were raised to 28.74, 29.74, 15.32, 13.04, 14.64, and 11.95 µg/ml or by 51%, 56%, 5%, 100%, 169%, and 116%, respectively. Ketoprofen pharmacokinetic variables were increased (AUC0-∞ (515%), AUMC0-∞ (2389%), MRT (305%), t1/2β (375%), Tmax (100%), and Cmax (55%)), while other values were decreased (Kel (79%), Vss (25%), and Cl (88%)). Our findings suggested a synergistic interaction between ketoprofen and xylazine on the level of cyclooxygenase-2 (pharmacodynamic interaction) which was exerted by modification of the ketoprofen pharmacokinetic properties in mice.
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Growth Dynamics on the Skin and the Coat in Normandian and Simmental
           Cattle During Adaptation to the Farming Technology in Southwestern Part of

    • Abstract: The aim of the present study was to identify the adaptability of Normandy cows raised in a loose system to the climatic and technological conditions and to compare their adaptability with already acclimatized Simmental cows in one farm in Southwestern Bulgaria. Total of 20 cows at same age (II – IV lactation) and same body weight (630-660 kg) from both breeds were classified into 2 groups (each having 10 cows) and subjected to skin thickness measurement, fibers total weight determination and fiber categorization during the winter and summer season. The results have shown that during the winter season, the Normandy breed had significantly higher skin thickness at the elbow compared to the Simmental breed, whereas no differences were observed in the skin thickness between both breeds either at the neck or at the middle of the last rib. During the summer season, the differences on the skin thickness compared to the Simmental breed were observed at the neck (p<0.05), whilst at the elbow and at the middle of the last rib no differences were recorded (p>0.05). During the winter seasons, the coat of Normandy cows contained more soft fibers in comparison to the Simmentals cows. Furthermore, the changes in the observed parameters, influenced by climatic conditions showed similar pattern in both breeds. It can be concluded that the two breeds have emphasized their genetic potential and have a good adaptability to the temperate continental climate of the region.
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Novelties in Ovine Assisted Reproductive Technologies – A Review

    • Abstract: Artificial insemination (AI) as a part of assisted reproductive technologies represents the oldest and most widespread method used to accelerate genetic progress in all domestic animals. After its first implementation in ovine reproduction and almost 80 years afterward, AI is continuously used for improving the genetic merit, utilizing either fresh or short-time chilled semen. Nevertheless, regardless of the semen used for insemination, the conception rate (CR) is still lower in comparison to natural service. At least two factors are commonly thought to limit the success of the AI and reduce the CR: (1) failure of placing the semen directly into the uterus due to the specific anatomic structure of the ewe’s cervix; (2) lower viability of ram spermatozoa during cryopreservation (<30% progressively motile spermatozoa after thawing). This review elaborates on recent studies that aimed to achieve acceptable CR through the implementation of cervical or intrauterine insemination: deep intracervical, intrauterine trans-cervical, and intracornual. Several hormonal treatments (oxytocin, estrogen, or prostaglandin) were evaluated on inducing cervical dilation that facilitates insemination. A comprehensive analysis was given to the effects of several antioxidants (GSSG, GSH, and cysteine) supplemented in ram semen-freezing media. Sex-sorted ram semen fertility rate results were presented from our studies.
      PubDate: Wed, 23 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Changes in the Lactoferrin Concentration in the Bovine Colostrum During
           Postpartum Period

    • Abstract: The health condition of the mammary gland is highly crucial for obtaining good quality colostrum. The lactoferrin (LF), as an iron-binding protein, plays a key role in the defense mechanisms of the mammary gland due to its’ bacteriostatic properties. The study aimed to investigate the factors affecting the LF concentration in the bovine colostrum milk during the postpartum period, and the effect of somatic cell count (SCC) on the LF concentration and milk composition. The cows were randomly selected at a dairy farm in Pelagonia region. Colostrum samples from 12 cows were collected. Samples were taken at different time intervals after parturition, 1, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h after parturition. Cows in their second parity were found to have higher levels of LF compared to cows in the third and higher parity (p>0.05). Time had a significant effect on the LF concentration (p<0.01), with the highest value recorded 1 h after parturition remaining stable for one hour. LF concentration and SCC in the colostrum showed a weak positive correlation (r=0.40; p<0.01). The highest LF concentration was noticed when SCC was above 800,000 cells/mL. In conclusion, the colostrum LF concentration was significantly affected by the interactions of the two factors, i.e., time after parturition and SCC (p<0.05). Milk composition was affected by elevated SCC. Parity showed no association with LF. The SCC can be used as a reliable means of assessing colostrum quality.
      PubDate: Fri, 14 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
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